TriterpenesPentacyclic Triterpenes: Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Maytenus: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.Alstonia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain echitovenidine, echitamine, venenatine (an indole alkaloid), and anti-inflammatory triterpenoidsResins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Celastraceae: A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Ziziphus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Members contain nummularogenin (a spirostane) and is the source of an edible fruit.Commiphora: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE which is a source of gugulipid and guggulu extract. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to ABIES.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mimusops: A plant genus of the family SAPOTACEAE. Members contain triterpenoid saponins. Latex from bark incisions is processed into gutta balata.Alisma: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE. The flowers have 3 green sepals, 3 yellow and white petals, 6 stamens, and several pistils. Members contain TRITERPENES and SESQUITERPENES. Alisma is a component of tokishakuyakusan. Some species in this genus are called water plantain which is also a common name for other ALISMATACEAE plants.Actaea: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Cycloartanes have been found in the rhizomes.Barringtonia: A plant genus of the family Lecythidaceae. Members contain nasimalun A and B (neo-clerodane diterpenoids).Bryonia: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE that is the source of bryodin 1 (a ribosome-inactivating protein).Poria: A genus of basiodiomycetous fungi in the family Coriolaceae. Members are known for infesting wood.Lecythidaceae: A plant family of the order Lecythidales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Ceanothus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Root nodules host the Frankia (ACTINOMYCETES) nitrogen-fixing bacteria.Gardenia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.Reishi: A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.Lycopus: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains rosmarinic acid and isopimarane diterpenoids and has been used in folk medicine for HYPERTHYROIDISM.Hippocrateaceae: A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The Hippocratea genus contains friedelanes, triterpenoid quinone, and hippocrateine I.Loranthaceae: The showy mistletoe plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. This includes parasitic tropical plants with haustoria connecting to the hosts. The leaves are opposite and thick. The flowers (4-7) have both calyx and corolla. The fruit is a berry with one seed.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.Aster Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Oenothera: A plant genus of the family ONAGRACEAE. Members contain oenotheins.Momordica charantia: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE. It is a source of ribosome-inactivating proteins and triterpene glycosides.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Combretum: A plant genus of the family COMBRETACEAE. Triterpenes and combretastatin have been identified in members of this genus.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Dryopteris: A plant genus of the family DRYOPTERIDACEAE. Members contain aspidin and filicic acid.Rehmannia: A plant genus of the family Rehmanniaceae. Members contain catapol, rehmannin and ALKALOIDS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.SqualeneInhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
  • Sterols and triterpenes are complex molecules that are synthesized from the isoprenoid pathway. (pnas.org)
  • The functions of sterols in plants have been studied extensively, but the role of triterpenes is less well understood. (pnas.org)
  • Sterols and triterpenes are isoprenoids that are synthesized via the mevalonate pathway ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Phytochemical studies indicate that there are compounds of cardiac glycoside، triterpene، and sterols. (magiran.com)
  • The aim of this study was to characterize monovarietal olive oils obtained from two less known autochthonous cultivars (Bova and Buža puntoža) on the basis of sterols, triterpene dialcohols and fatty acids profile for the first time, and three monovarietal olive oils obtained from the most widespread autochthonous cultivars (Buža, Istarska bjelica and Rosinjola) grown in Istria, Croatia. (srce.hr)
  • Tested oils obtained from the most abundant cultivars fulfilled all the demands of the current EU regulation required for virgin olive oil regarding sterols, triterpene dialcohols and fatty acids, but Bova and Buža puntoža oil slightly exceeded the upper limit for linolenic acid. (srce.hr)
  • Since cultivar is the source of natural variation of sterols, triterpene dialcohols and fatty acids in virgin olive oils, the knowledge about the content of these particular compounds in different monovarietal oils from autochthonous cultivars is important to determine possible disagreements with the demands of the current legislation required for virgin olive oils, in order to anticipate possible false results indicating adulteration. (srce.hr)
  • β-Glucan and triterpenes are two important derivative compounds from traditional medicinal mushroom, such as Ganoderma lucidum and Antrodia cinnamomea. (intechopen.com)
  • The quantitative determination of G. lucidum and its related species using 14 triterpene constituents, including nine ganoderma acids (compounds 4 - 12 ), four alcohols (compounds 13 - 16 ), and one sterol (ergosterol, 17 ) were reported. (mdpi.com)
  • Acute effects of triterpene compounds on locomotor performance and Morris water maze tasks in Spraque-Dawley rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The present study investigated the acute effects of administration of triterpene compounds isolated from C. asiatica on memory and learning in male Spraque-Dawley rats via Morris water maze and their influences on motor activity in locomotor performance. (alliedacademies.org)
  • For spontaneous locomotor activity, the three triterpene compounds showed no effect on locomotor activity as compared to saline group. (alliedacademies.org)
  • C. asiatica contains triterpenes, essential oils, amino acids and other compounds, such as vellarin. (alliedacademies.org)
  • All extracts and the isolated and synthesized compounds were subjected to screening of bioactivity for medical, cosmetic, and plant protection purposes, for industrial applications, and the use of the total or remaining biomass in production of growth substrates, organic fertilizers, and bioremediation materials was investigated. (europa.eu)
  • In the quantitative analysis of the compounds of the two plant extracts، the total amount of phenols were measured 0.053 and 0.037 (mg Gallic acid/g extract) in aerial parts and root extracts، respectively. (magiran.com)
  • Bioassay guided phytochemical investigation of petroleum ether, chloroform and butanol fractions obtained from biologically active total alcoholic extract of Carduus pycnocephalus led to isolation of two new compounds, 3-O-acetyl-ursolic acid-28-ethyl ester (compound 1) and diosmetin-7-O-α-L-arabinopyransyl (1```→4``)-β-D- glucopyranoside (compound 5) along with three known. (academicjournals.org)
  • GC-MS study for essential oil of aerial parts yielded 44 compounds, with 31 major compounds (over 0.2%) comprising over 97% of total compounds. (stuartxchange.com)
  • A total of 235 compounds with various activities were isolated and identified from the flowers, leaves, roots and rhizomes part of Curcuma longa which is the most phytochemically investigated plant in the world. (scirp.org)
  • As a result, a total of 46 compounds were isolated and identified, half of which represented novel structures. (ku.edu)
  • Each volume reviews the total synthesis of a set of compounds looking at syntheses reported historically and at the practice current at the time of publication. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
  • Volumes revisit the total synthesis of key compounds such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids and pyrrole pigments several times during the series building a picture of the historic development of total synthesis techniques for these major groups. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
  • In our previous bulk transcriptomic analysis, comparing fully russeted, and waxy apple varieties, showed, in apple fruit skin, a massive decreased expression of cutin, wax and some pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis genes in the russeted varieties, with an expected concomitant enhanced expression of the suberin biosynthetic genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anti-lung cancer activity through enhancement of immunomodulation and induction of cell apoptosis of total triterpenes extracted from Ganoderma luncidum (Leyss. (nih.gov)
  • Results also showed that extracts and esters did not produce any haemolysis, and were devoid of any acute toxicity at a total cumulative dose of 800 and 150 mg/kg respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using this method, we screened a total of 64 kinds of organisms (including plants, animals and fungi), and 6 extracts with a gelation ability were tracked and isolated to yield six new NPGs. (rsc.org)
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retua(Vahl. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The samples such as ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were tested using six in vitromodels such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical, iron chelating, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of C. retusa by spectrophotometrically. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The total antioxidant potential of plant extracts cannot be assessed by using a single method, due to the complex constitution of phytochemicals as well as oxidative processes. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Before I introduce this new product to you, I feel it's key to understand that the ' triterpenes ' are the most powerful, important active constituents of the Reishi Mushroom. (therawfoodworld.com)
  • The highest concentration of triterpenes are in the spore of the Reishi Mushroom. (therawfoodworld.com)
  • These Reishi Triterpene Crystals are so effective at boosting our immune systems that they have the potential to kill tumors, plus even to have inhibitory effects on herpes and HIV, as shown in these clinical studies just below! (therawfoodworld.com)
  • In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. (hindawi.com)
  • To conform to the multiple regulations of triterpene biosynthesis, the gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) was transformed into Panax notoginseng ( P. notoginseng ) cells in which RNA interference (RNAi) of the cycloartenol synthase (CAS) gene had been accomplished. (mdpi.com)
  • The conversion of OS to cycloartenol by the cycloartenol cyclase (CAS, EC 5.4.99.8) is the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, but OS can be also cyclized by distinct OS cyclases (OSCs), also known as triterpene synthases, into a variety of triterpene skeletons including those of α - and β -amyrins, the most commonly occurring plant triterpenes. (hindawi.com)
  • We identified a total of 64 constituents in S. baicalensis flowers. (usda.gov)
  • Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 - 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. (usda.gov)
  • The results are clearly presented, with the immunomodulatory effects from mushroom β-glucan and triterpenes that involved in modulating the cell-mediated immune system to cause cellular proliferation and further to introduce healing performance of the chronic inflammation wounds. (intechopen.com)
  • HERBAL FRESH FRUIT MUSHROOM 1KG Uses: Functional food of Korean agamemnon fungus Helps stabilize blood pressure, improve immunity, nourish the body, increase liver function, reduce total cholesterol in blood. (getcheaphealthinsurance.net)
  • We further show that mutants in which the metabolism of the most common plant triterpene, β-amyrin, is blocked undergo a change early in the development of the root epidermis that leads to a "superhairy" root phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, OS cyclization by the various triterpene synthases is a major branch point in the regulation of the carbon flux toward either the sterol pathway (primary metabolism) or the nonsterol triterpenoid pathway (secondary metabolism). (hindawi.com)
  • 2) E. japonica leaves contain triterpenes such as corosolic acid, ursolic acid, maslinic acid, and oleanolic acid. (omicsonline.org)
  • Our investigation of triterpenes from E. japonica , corosolic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid suppressed octanoylated ghrelin levels in AGS-GHRL8 cell line, which produces octanoylated ghrelin in the presence of octanoic acid, without decreasing transcript expression of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) or furin. (omicsonline.org)
  • Together these findings suggest that simple triterpenes may have widespread and as yet largely unrecognized functions in plant growth and development. (pnas.org)
  • The present study could open up opportunities not only to carry out functional analysis of a higher-plant-derived oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) gene in E. coli but also to produce functional triterpenes that originate from medicinal or herbal plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • These natural terpenoid products of triterpene aglycones are catalyzed by squalene synthase (SQS), a highly conserved enzyme present in eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • A549 cells and Lewis tumor-bearing mice were used to evaluate the inhibition effects of triterpenes on cell proliferation and tumor growth. (nih.gov)
  • The total triterpenes of E. japonica leaves reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines from alveolar macrophages through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in a rat model of chronic bronchitis [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • At this concentration, the triterpene caused no cytotoxic effects against mouse peritoneal macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of the ethanol extract was found to be 596 μg/ml for DPPH, 597 μg/ml for nitric oxide radical, 554 μg/ml for iron chelating, 580 μg/ml for hydroxyl radical, 562 μg/ml for superoxide radical and 566 μg/ml for total antioxidant capacity. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The co-expression of a bacterial NADPH-regenerating gene (zwf or gdh) as well as bacterial redox partner protein genes (camA and camB, or NsRED and NsFER) was found to increase the amounts of these triterpenes several fold. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, the in vivo lipid-lowering activity of the triterpene (Methyl-3β-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate), isolated from the stem bark of Protorhus longifolia, in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats was investigated. (biomedcentral.com)