Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Deoxy SugarsMonosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsHexosesCarbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Sugar AcidsMannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)XyloseCarbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Sugar PhosphatesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsAcetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.MethylglucosidesFucoseLectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.GlucosamineGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ArabinosePolysaccharidesRhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.TrehaloseMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).PhlorhizinPharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
  • Because high fructose corn syrup is cheaper than table sugar, it is used as a sweetener in more than just soda, finding its way into bread, yogurt, salad dressing, breakfast cereal, ketchup, and numerous brands of ice cream, jam, and commercial baked goods. (healthcastle.com)
  • Despite the increase in blood sugar levels, their insulin sensitivity, a risk factor for diabetes, did not increase. (choosecherries.com)
  • The extruder temperature and the screws speeds also affected the yield of individual sugars specially those belonging to the C5 group (Sections 3.2.2 and 3.2.3). (nih.gov)
  • Although establishing the role of TS or individual sugars as nutrients in the etiology of these 2 outcomes poses a challenge (7, 8, 18-20), the adverse evidence for sugar-sweetened beverages, a liquid form of added sugars (21), in relation to CVD (9) and T2D (10) is more consistent. (deepdyve.com)
  • hence, they are generally cognitively easier to report on any self-reporting instrument, whereas estimates of individual sugars are generated through food and nutrient databases from reported intake occasions of multiple food items associated with various levels of ME (24-26). (deepdyve.com)
  • Manufacturers often use three or four different types of sugars so that it splits the total quantity of sugar and means these individual sugars are able to be listed as separate ingredients and so appear further down the list. (foodwatch.com.au)
  • The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp. (nih.gov)
  • as top sources of added sugars for all race/ethnicities and focusing on substitution of whole grains may reduce obesity, diabetes, and Abstract related cardiometabolic risk more equitably. (cdc.gov)
  • Added sugars and high glycemic index (GI) foods might play a Childhood obesity remains a challenge, despite numerous policies role in cardiometabolic pathogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Faced with skyrocketing rates of obesity, the sugar tax is just one tool Chile's government has employed in its war on unhealthy foods and drink. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A high-sugar diet is often linked with obesity, and too many sugary foods can lead to tooth decay . (kidshealth.org)
  • Plausible mechanisms include hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress promoted by the glycemic effect of diets high in refined sugars (14). (deepdyve.com)
  • Our study aimed to describe the top sources of added sugars and types of high GI foods in diets of children by race/ethnicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Sources of added sugars and types of high GI foods in children's diets vary across racial/ethnic groups. (cdc.gov)
  • It's still early days so we're doing some learning by doing and trying to socialise people and governments about the risks of sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages and unhealthy diets. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Sweetened drinks are the largest source of added sugar in the daily diets of U.S. children. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols , may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nor the sugar alcohols that pop up in sugar-free chewing gums such as xylitol or mannitol. (foodwatch.com.au)
  • sorbitol, galactitol, or mannitol (and other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols) from other sugars and sugar alcohols may be achieved by chromatography over hydroxyl-form anion exchange surfaces prepared from anion. (google.com.au)
  • When a strong base anion exchange resin, such as a chloride-form strong base anion exchange resin, is conditioned with a low concentration of hydroxyl (for example, an NaOH solution with a concentration between 0.1 and 1000 mM, most preferably between 1 and 10 mM), the conditioned resin separates a number of sugars and sugar alcohols from one another, while still allowing ready desorption from the resin. (google.com.au)
  • In early 2009, PepsiCo announced plans to release versions of Pepsi and Mountain Dew with pure cane sugar as its main sweetener, and without the citric acid found in regular Pepsi, on a limited basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our coconut sugar is 100% pure and is never mixed with cane sugar or additives. (wegmans.com)
  • Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • With these conditions it was possible to release the maximum amounts of sugar after the subsequent enzyme treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, WHO implemented a global action plan for prevention of NCDs in 2004 and reduction of salt, sugar and saturated fatty acid levels, and elimination of trans fatty acids in commercial food products are emphasized. (who.int)
  • On the contrary, fatty acids made from sugars interfere with essential fatty acid functions, and increase the likelihood of diseases of fatty degeneration. (udoerasmus.com)
  • However, by the late 2000s, many soft drink fans wanted a return of sugar in the drinks, citing a slightly sweeter taste, controversies over negative health effects of HFCS , increases in the cost of corn syrup due to increased use of the product for ethanol production, as well as the cost of sugar having since dropped at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levy increases existing taxes on drinks containing 6.25 grams or more of added sugar per 100ml from 13 to 18 per cent, while the tax on drinks containing less than this amount of sugar was cut from 13 to 10 per cent. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Mexico's sugar tax, also introduced in 2014, led to 17 per cent fewer purchases of sweet drinks among lower-income people, while consumer purchasing changed little among the more well-off. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Added sugar is processed sugar added to foods and drinks to enhance flavor. (lovetoknow.com)
  • The amount of sugar in soft drinks sold in the UK has fallen by nearly a third, research suggests. (yahoo.com)
  • They found the total amount of sugar in soft drinks went down by 29% between 2015 and 2018. (yahoo.com)
  • The "standard rate" of 18p ($0.24) per litre applies to drinks with a sugar content of between 5g and 7.9g per 100ml, according to HM Revenues & Customs . (yahoo.com)
  • Higher rates" lead to charges of 24p ($0.31) per litre for drinks with 8g or more sugar per 100ml. (yahoo.com)
  • This study is not designed to evaluate the specific effects of the SDIL, but nonetheless shows sustained pressure on business, including using fiscal measures, has led to a striking reduction in the sugar content of soft drinks in the UK," lead author Lauren Bandy said. (yahoo.com)
  • It is encouraging to see such a large reduction in sugars sold in soft drinks," Ms Bandy said. (yahoo.com)
  • The two biggest companies - Coca Cola and Britvic - reduced the total quantity of sugars across all their drinks by 17% and 26%, respectively. (yahoo.com)
  • The sugar content of Innocent smoothies and Red Bull energy drinks had "little change", with sales going up. (yahoo.com)
  • Thus, the extruded feedstock processed under the conditions mentioned above was further converted into fermentable sugars and ethanol. (nih.gov)
  • After slowing down to a mere 2.5 per cent last year, sugar mills are hoping for a recovery in ethanol blending with petrol this year, due to a significant increase in cane output and thereby proportionate improvement in the availability of extra-neutral of alcohol (ENA). (business-standard.com)
  • ENA is a derivative of sugar manufacturing and a pre-form of ethanol. (business-standard.com)
  • The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These tender sugar cookies owe their richness and shelf life to a blend of butter and coconut oil, which also helps amplify the vanilla taste. (seriouseats.com)
  • 1 Using an electric whisk, beat the butter, sugar and salt in a large bowl until pale and thick. (waitrose.com)
  • Extra pie trimmings, or leftover biscuit dough, might do double duty as a cobbler top, while a nub of butter with some brown sugar and oats made a quick crisp topping. (twincities.com)
  • What these toppings had in common was that they were all pantry-friendly: sugar, butter, milk or buttermilk, flour or oatmeal, and a touch of cinnamon or spice. (twincities.com)
  • Crisps, crumbles and betties all feature a crisp and clumpy topping of butter, sugar, flour and/or oatmeal. (twincities.com)
  • To compare the levels of fat, salt and sugar in mayonnaise and salad dressings commercialized in the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2017 and 2019, and to monitor compliance with standard limits. (who.int)
  • The levels of fat, salt and sugar in 12 mayonnaise and 47 salad dressing samples collected from an Iranian market were evaluated according to the Iranian Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI) and compared between 2017 and 2019. (who.int)
  • Reformulation of these products for reduction of salt and sugar content is necessary. (who.int)
  • After the squid has chilled, toss the squid, sugar snap peas, and celery and season to taste with the salt and lemon vinaigrette. (foodandwine.com)
  • Carefully season the sugar snap juice with yuzu kosho, salt, and lemon juice to taste. (foodandwine.com)
  • But most layered yogurt cups found at cafes or fast-casual restaurants tend to be teeming with added sugar, thanks to added-sugar fruit compotes and granola. (greatist.com)
  • The natural sugars in fruit can add a sweet punch to any dish without messing with the texture too much. (menshealth.com)
  • Hy-Vee Bakery sugar cookies make the perfect crust for a teeny tiny fruit tart. (hy-vee.com)
  • In giving these recipes a contemporary, less-sugary reboot, it was a cinch to go back to their roots and not only reduce the sugar but also find little hacks to bring out the natural sweetness of the fruit. (twincities.com)
  • Sugar helps fruit thicken, which you can compensate for by adding a touch of thickener, such as cornstarch or arrowroot, which is a bit more neutral in taste. (twincities.com)
  • This natural sugar alternative can be used as a replacement for white sugar in tea and coffee, or sprinkled over cereal and oats to add a sweet kick to your breakfast. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • This means that if 2,000 calories a day is about your average, you shouldn't have more than 200 calories from added sugar. (livestrong.com)