Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
The property of TEETH to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the teeth by microorganisms.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A ubiquitously-expressed claudin subtype that acts as a general barrier-forming protein in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Elevated expression of claudin-3 is found in a variety of tumor cell types, suggesting its role as a therapeutic target for specific ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
As the total length of the vessel increases, the total resistance as a result of friction will increase. Vessel radius also ... Permeability of the endothelium is pivotal in the release of nutrients to the tissue. It is also increased in inflammation in ... Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to hemorrhage due to ... The greater amount of contact with the wall will increase the total resistance against the blood flow. Blood vessels play a ...
Efficient decompression will minimize the total ascent time while limiting the total accumulation of bubbles to an acceptable ... The Varying Permeability Model (VPM) is a decompression algorithm developed by D.E. Yount and others for use in professional ... It is related to the Varying Permeability Model. but is conceptually different in that it rejects the gel-bubble model of the ... The VPM aims to minimize the total volume of these growing bubbles by keeping the external pressure relatively large, and the ...
... drainage density is defined as the total length of channel in a drainage basin divided by the total area, represented by the ... Soil permeability (infiltration difficulty) and underlying rock type affect the runoff in a watershed; impermeable ground or ... When determining the total length of streams in a basin, both perennial and ephemeral streams should be considered. If a ... Drainage density is indicative of infiltration and permeability of a drainage basin, as well as relating to the shape of the ...
In 2020, total production was 300 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (1,800,000 GJ) per day, of which 58% was petroleum and 42 ... It primarily used hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling to produce from low permeability formations. The company's ...
A total of 0.6 miles (0.97 km) of one of the unnamed tributaries is impaired, with the cause being flow alterations and the ... However, the lower reaches are either on impervious land or mining lands with quick permeability. The watershed of Aylesworth ... A total of 90 percent of the watershed of Aylesworth Creek is on interbedded sedimentary rock. The remaining 10 percent is on ... None of these need reduction to meet the total maximum daily load. However, a 92 percent reduction in acidity is needed to meet ...
... of the total oncotic pressure exerted by blood plasma on interstitial fluid[citation needed]. The total oncotic pressure of an ... It is necessary to understand the oncotic pressure as a balance; because the blood proteins reduce interior permeability, less ... These interacting factors determine the partition balancing of total body extracellular water between the blood plasma and the ...
In June 2016 France's Total won a tender to replace Maersk Oil as operator of Al Shaheen Oil Field and commenced operating the ... The field is characterized by low permeability, limited thickness, and geological complexity. The field consists of 131 ... As of June 2016, Qatar Petroleum and the French major Total S.A. established a new company known as "North Oil Company (Qatar ... The Odoptu OP-11 well reached a measured total length of 12,345 m (40,502 ft) and a horizontal displacement of 11,475 m (37,648 ...
... from a total of 21 independent constants in the case of a fully anisotropic solid). The (second-rank) tensors of electrical ... resistivity, permeability, etc. have two independent constants. An example of a transversely isotropic material is the so- ...
... as opposed to the concentration of total HDL particles. This ratio of large HDL to total HDL particles varies widely and is ... It is an essential structural component of cell membrane, where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and ... "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and ... The lowest incidence of atherosclerotic events over time occurs within those with both the highest concentrations of total HDL ...
A closely related parameter is the permeability, which expresses the total magnetization of material and volume. The volume ... is the relative permeability of the material. Thus the volume magnetic susceptibility χv and the magnetic permeability μ are ... AC susceptibility (and the closely related "AC permeability") are complex number quantities, and various phenomena, such as ... Currently, this effect is called the microwave permeability or network ferromagnetic resonance in the literature. These results ...
The reduced permeability may decrease the passive diffusion of protons across the membrane that would dissipate the ... Mascitti, Vincent; E. J. Corey (11 November 1994). "Total Synthesis of (±)-Pentacycloanammoxic Acid". Journal of the American ... The decreased permeability has also been hypothesized to sequester the highly toxic and mutagenic intermediates, hydrazine and ... The high abundance of ladderane lipids in the anammoxosome results in an exceptionally dense membrane with reduced permeability ...
There are a total of 158 combined sewer overflows on the river. Several reaches of the Lackawanna River have been designated as ... The rocky floor contains mostly developed, impervious surfaces, but some abandoned mine lands have rapid permeability. The ... A total of 67 percent of the rock in the watershed is interbedded sedimentary rock, while the remaining 33 percent is sandstone ...
Variations in light intensity affect the total number of open TRP/TRPL channels, and, therefore, the degree of membrane ... These ion channels have a relatively non-selective permeability to cations, including sodium, calcium and magnesium. TRP ... Apart from structural differences, the TRP and TRPL channels differ in cation permeability and pharmacological properties. TRP/ ...
The 75 m column was predominantly unconsolidated sandstone, with a permeability as high as two darcies. The discovery also ... Marlim reservoir had an oil-in-place volume of about 9 billion barrels and an expectated 1.7 billion barrels of oil in total ...
Over 90% of the total area is overlain by early Cretaceous basalts of the Serra Geral Formation. The basalt's low permeability ... with a total recharge rate of about 166 km³/year from precipitation. It is said that this vast underground reservoir could ...
A permeability estimate is made using a transform such as the Timur-Coates or SDR permeability transforms. By running the log ... of total spin zero for the neutron-spin pair), plus a proton of spin 1/2. Therefore, the tritium total nuclear spin value is ... The T2 decay is further processed to give the total pore volume (the total porosity) and pore volumes within different ranges ... Hence for any given nucleus, there are a total of 2S + 1 angular momentum states. The z-component of the angular momentum ...
The hydraulic gradient is the rate of change of total head with distance. The total head, h {\displaystyle h} at a point is ... The constant of proportionality includes the viscosity of the fluid and the intrinsic permeability of the soil. For the simple ... the total mass of air, water, solids divided by the total volume of air water and solids (the mass of air is assumed to be zero ... The total head is related to the excess water pressure by: u e = ρ w g h + C o n s t a n t {\displaystyle u_{e}=\rho _{w}gh+ ...
For comparison, the total undeveloped US domestic oil resources still in the ground total more than 1 trillion barrels (160 km3 ... The increased heat reduces the surface tension and increases the permeability of the oil. The heated oil may also vaporize and ... This allows for total displacement efficiency. Gases used include CO2, natural gas or nitrogen. The fluid most commonly used ... As a result, the oil expands, the viscosity drops, and the permeability increases. To ensure success the process has to be ...
Air permeability is a measure of the ability of air to pass through a fabric. Air permeability is defined as "the volume of air ... Courses: are the total number of horizontal rows measured in per inch or per centimetre. The course is a horizontal row of ... Stitch or loop density is the total number of loops in a unit area such as per square centimetre or per square inch. Stitch/ ... Such a thread count (which for the typical worsted woollen cloth used for a kilt must in total be divisible by 4) is typically ...
A total of 216 induced earthquakes occurred between 2009 and 2011 at the Etsho and Kiwigana fields in Horn River, Canada. Of ... Dolomitization of Devonian strata increased the formation permeability and generated greater fluid diffusivity, thus more ... By changing the total stress (e.g., increasing τ {\displaystyle \tau } and/or reducing σ n {\displaystyle \sigma _{n}} ), ... 2): pore pressure perturbation via direct hydrologic connections and/or a change in total stress on pre-existing fault through ...
... but more total pore space than sands, despite of a much lower permeability. Soil structure has a strong influence on the larger ... "Permeability of different soils". Chennai, India: NPTEL, Government of India. Archived from the original on 2 ... In a productive, medium-textured soil the total pore space is typically about 50% of the soil volume. Pore size varies ... Soil texture determines total volume of the smallest pores; clay soils have smaller pores, ...
Ohren, Mary (2011). "Permeability Recovery and Enhancements in the Soda Lake Geothermal Field, Fallon, Nevada" (PDF). GRC ... Funding for this effort totaled $1.5 million. The effort was continued in 2003 with an additional $3.5 million. In 2009, The US ... As long as the injection pressure is maintained, a high matrix permeability is not required, nor are hydraulic fracturing ... The report found that total geothermal resources, including hydrothermal and geo-pressured resources, to equal 14,000 ZJ - or ...
... covering a total of 26,047 hectares. The State of Mexico has a total of 88 NPAs, covering a total of 983,984 hectares. Despite ... Both elements reduce the permeability of the soil in groundwater recharge areas and increases the risk of flooding. To prevent ... A total of 668 floods have been recorded throughout the 1980-2000 period, for which a total of 2,771,284 people have needed ... A total of four concession covering 11 of the District's 16 delegaciones would be bid out. The concessions would replace the ...
... permeability coefficient × conversion factors. b. The second scenario is total body immersion, such as swimming in a pool or ... The permeability coefficient of the chemical (how easy it is for the chemical to get through the skin). This may be estimated ... The permeability properties of the stratum corneum are, for the most part, unchanged after its removal from the body. Skin that ... DMSO increases the permeability of the stratum corneum. Surfactants like sodium lauryl-sulfate increase the skin penetration of ...
Currently, defect control in the semiconductor industry is non-selective and takes 20-25% of the total manufacturing time. ... Reinforcing concrete with metal oxide nanoparticle reduces permeability and increase strength. Property of high tensile ...
Because the total currents N n i n {\displaystyle N_{n}\ i_{n}} contribute to Φ m {\displaystyle \Phi _{m}} it also follows ... μ 0 {\displaystyle \mu _{0}} is the permeability of free space (4π × 10−7 H/m) d x m {\displaystyle \mathrm {d} \mathbf {x} _{m ... The total magnetic flux through a circuit Φ {\displaystyle \Phi } is equal to the product of the perpendicular component of the ... The inductance of a circuit depends on the geometry of the current path, and on the magnetic permeability of nearby materials; ...
The total area of this field is 26.9 km2 and is composed of 10 mappable units. During the late Jurassic, a rift complex forms ... The porosity of the sandstones are 20-25%, and the permeability is 5000-7000 md. The seals in this region are mainly marl, ... The shales of the Latrobe Group display Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values of 1-3% wt. The reservoir rocks in this field are ... Sandstone from this group makes up the reservoir rocks, and exhibits a porosity of 20-25%, and a permeability of 5000-7000 ...
The total organic content of these beds is generally within the range of 1 - 3%, but some samples go as high as 21%. To date, ... and permeabilities in the hundreds of millidarcies. Thin, organic rich beds are present within much of Supersequence 1, with ...
The record-holder for women is Lee Redmond of the U.S., who set the record in 2001 and as of 2008 had nails with a total length ... This permeability has implications for penetration by harmful and medicinal substances; in particular cosmetics applied to the ... The longest female nails known ever to have existed measured a total of 8.65 m (28 ft 4.5 in). Contrary to popular belief, ... K. A. Walters and G. L. Flynn, Permeability characteristics of the human nail plate, International Journal of Cosmetic Science ...
2006). "Diagenesis, not biogenesis: Two late Roman skeletal examples". Science of the Total Environment. 369: 357-368. Bibcode: ... Hydrothermal solutions, meteoric groundwater, porosity, permeability, solubility, and time are all influential factors. ...
This is because these tumors disrupt the normal functioning of the BBB and lead to an increase in its permeability. However, it ... This process is repeated for a total of 10 to 30 treatments, depending on the type of tumor. This additional treatment provides ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ...
where εr is the material's relative permittivity, and μr is its relative permeability.[39]:229 The refractive index is used for ... To get total internal reflection the angles of incidence θ1 must be larger than the critical angle[35] ... is the vacuum wave impedance, μ and ϵ are the absolute permeability and permittivity of the medium, εr is the material's ... the light cannot be transmitted and will instead undergo total internal reflection.[34]:49-50 This occurs only when going to a ...
Magnetic permeability of the insulator, μ. {\displaystyle \mu }. . Permeability is often quoted as the relative permeability μ ... and will provide total coverage as well as high effectiveness against high-frequency interference. Foil shielding is ordinarily ... referred to the permeability of free space μ. 0. {\displaystyle \mu _{0}}. : μ. =. μ. r. μ. 0. {\displaystyle \mu =\mu _{r}\mu ... The relative permeability will almost always be 1.. Fundamental electrical parameters[edit]. *Shunt capacitance per unit length ...
The basis of this is that Total cholesterol is defined as the sum of HDL, LDL, and VLDL. Ordinarily just the total, HDL, and ... It also reduces the permeability of the plasma membrane to protons (positive hydrogen ions) and sodium ions.[6] ... For cost reasons, LDL values have long been estimated using the Friedewald formula: [total cholesterol] − [total HDL] − 20% of ... rather than the total cholesterol level, correlate with the extent and progress of atherosclerosis. Conversely, the total ...
Tight gas is gas in low-permeability rock. Reservoirs require artificial fracturing to enable the gas to flow. Canadian Hunter ... According to a report commissioned by Alberta's Energy Resources Conservation Board, these and other direct costs totalled ... The rock can have extremely low permeability but production is not hampered by the presence of water. Horizontal drilling and ... This is also a highly challenging, low-permeability resource. Large volumes of gas molecules are trapped in shales which ...
In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... and was involved in the Bhopal disaster-which killed nearly 8,000 people initially and approximately 17,000 people in total. ... The direct toxicity to the cells leads to an increase in capillary permeability. Furthermore, when phosgene hydrolyzes it forms ...
Neutrophils are the most abundant type of phagocyte, normally representing 50-60% of the total circulating leukocytes, and are ... of the coagulation system can contribute to the non-specific defenses by their ability to increase vascular permeability and ...
... and increased vascular permeability, it is presumed, to allow other immune cells to gain access to tissues, but which can lead ... "Total and functional parasite specific IgE responses in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients exhibiting different clinical ...
... s may be in the shape of a circle, a square or any other closed geometric shape that allows the total perimeter to ... The ferrite increases the magnetic permeability and acts as a low loss magnetic conductor - much better than air. This greater ...
The total complement of proteins present at a time in a cell or cell type is known as its proteome, and the study of such large ... Transmembrane proteins can also serve as ligand transport proteins that alter the permeability of the cell membrane to small ... The size of a synthesized protein can be measured by the number of amino acids it contains and by its total molecular mass, ... Kent SB (February 2009). "Total chemical synthesis of proteins". Chemical Society Reviews. 38 (2): 338-51. doi:10.1039/b700141j ...
Each hemoglobin molecule carries four heme groups; hemoglobin constitutes about a third of the total cell volume. Hemoglobin is ... The lipid composition is important as it defines many physical properties such as membrane permeability and fluidity. ... balancing the total circulating red blood cell count. Eryptosis is increased in a wide variety of diseases including sepsis, ... of the total iron contained in the body.[21][22] ...
Measured total organic content of the Marcellus Formation ranges from less than 1% in eastern New York, to over 11% in the ... The Marcellus is an example of shale gas, natural gas trapped in low-permeability shale, and requires the well completion ... "Pyrite Laminae In Black Shale-An Additional Source of Permeability In Unconventional Reservoirs". 2008 Joint Meeting of the ... "Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System" (PDF) ...
Histamine causes dilation and increased permeability of capillaries close to the basophil. Injured basophils and other ... of the total circulating white blood cells.[4] One litre of human blood contains about five billion (5x109) neutrophils,[5] ... Increased permeability of the inflamed tissue also allows for more phagocyte migration to the site of infection so that they ...
Manipulating permittivity and permeability[edit]. Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different ... The total array consists of 3 by 20×20 unit cells with overall dimensions of 10×100×100 millimeters.[4][5] The height of 10 ... When permeability μ has values other than 1 this affects Snell's law, the Doppler effect, the Cherenkov radiation, Fresnel's ... However, the direction of energy flow formed by E × H is right-handed only when permeability is greater than zero. This means ...
In 2011, a total of 3,941 samples were included in the first continent-wide DNA study of wild dogs. The study found that 46% ... "Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis ... These examined a total of 13,000 stomach contents and fecal samples.[23] For the fecal samples, determining the matching tracks ...
Concrete pipes with a total length 60 feet (~18¼m), inner diameter 9 inches, (~23 cm) outer diameter 11 inches (~28cm) were ... be controlled simply by passive drainage if the water table is sufficiently deep and the soil has relatively high permeability ...
vacuum magnetic permeability μ. 0. {\displaystyle \mu _{0}}. 1.25663706212(19)×10−6 N⋅A−2[29] 1.5×10−10 ... Between them, these theories account for a total of 19 independent fundamental constants. There is, however, no single "correct ... "2018 CODATA Value: vacuum magnetic permeability". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. ...
BSA-dosed patients were treated for a total of 680 months while dose-adjusted patients were treated for a total of 791 months.[ ... Gerstner ER, Fine RL (Jun 2007). "Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier to chemotherapy in metastatic brain tumors ... Cyclophosphamide is a common cytotoxic drug used in this manner, and is often used in conjunction with total body irradiation. ... the total amount consumed and whether the patient already has peripheral neuropathy. Though the symptoms are mainly sensory, in ...
Increased permeability of the lung vessels causes leaking of fluids into alveoli, which results in pulmonary edema and acute ... Frequent infusions of beta-lactam antibiotics without exceeding total daily dose would help to keep the antibiotics level above ... In the gastrointestinal tract, increased permeability of the mucosa alters the microflora, causing mucosal bleeding and ... those with a lower threshold of transfusion received fewer transfusions in total.[62] Erythropoietin is not recommended in the ...
The infection may last from a few to ten days.[1] The cough may persist for several weeks afterwards, with the total duration ...
... according to the Second Law the entropy Stot of the isolated total system must not decrease:. d. S. t. o. t. =. d. S. +. d. S. ... Maxwell's demon repeatedly alters the permeability of the wall between A and B. It is therefore performing thermodynamic ... These macroscopic variables can, e.g., refer to the total volume, the positions of pistons in the system, etc. Then Ω. {\ ... The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy can never decrease over time for an isolated system, that is, a ...
Pulmonary surfactant is produced in lungs in order to facilitate breathing by increasing total lung capacity, TLC, and lung ... Varying Permeability Model. *Equivalent air depth. *Equivalent narcotic depth. *Oxygen window in diving decompression ...
Newborns are especially vulnerable to this due to increased permeability of the blood brain barrier. Hepatocellular (hepatic) ... total protein and albumin. Other primary lab tests for liver function include gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and ...
One on-line site sells 1200 wafers weighing a total of 523 g Archived 16 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. (31 ... an endogenous signalling protein linked to increased permeability of the bowel wall and hence increased presentation of gliadin ... Guidelines recommend that a total serum IgA level is checked in parallel, as people with coeliac with IgA deficiency may be ... However, serologic tests have high sensitivity only in people with total villous atrophy and have very low ability to detect ...
in economics, the total wealth of an agent in general equilibrium theory ... magnetic permeability in electromagnetics. *a muon. *reduced mass. *chemical potential in condensed matter physics ...
California had the highest number of total deaths from those crashes; New Mexico had a best chance for an individual to die ... Such a principle of organization is referred to as "Filtered Permeability" implying a preferential treatment of active modes of ... According to Eurostat, there is almost a linear proportion between the total number of passenger-km driven by car and road ...
As the total length of the vessel increases, the total resistance as a result of friction will increase.[2] ... Permeability of the endothelium is pivotal in the release of nutrients to the tissue. It is also increased in inflammation in ... Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to hemorrhage due to ... Vessel radius also affects the total resistance as a result of contact with the vessel wall. As the radius of the wall gets ...
... preserving the total number of AMPA receptors in the synapse.[46][47] This pathway is responsible for the maintenance of new ... The AMPAR's permeability to calcium and other cations, such as sodium and potassium, is governed by the GluA2 subunit. If an ...
is the permeability of a vacuum (4. π. {\displaystyle \pi }. x 10−7 (H/m)), and ε. 0. {\displaystyle \varepsilon _{0}}. is the ... so that the total radiation energy that crosses through an imaginary spherical surface is the same, no matter how far away from ... the vacuum permeability μ. 0. {\displaystyle \mu _{0}}. , and the speed of light, c0, via the above equation. This relationship ...
... relative water content and total phenolics of spring maize in relation to exogenous application of growth promoting substances. ... Membrane permeability, relative water content and total phenolics of spring maize in relation to exogenous application of ...
... one or more permeability control devices disposed in the string; and the plurality of permeability control devices being ... A borehole system having a permeability controlled flow profile including a tubular string; ... Because the total length of mobile tubing string is reduced by the interposition of open hole anchor(s) 42, excess extension ... The devices 32 nearest the heel 18 or 28 will have the least permeability while permeability will increase in each device 32 ...
This study reveals that netrin-1 degradation products are capable of modulating vascular permeability, suggesting that these ... Nonspecific inhibition of collagenases or selective inhibition of MMP-9 decreased pathological vascular permeability in a ... the VI-V fragment promoted vascular permeability through the uncoordinated 5B (UNC5B) receptor. The collagenase matrix ...
... capillary permeability, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like ... Free total rhubarb anthraquinones (FTRAs) isolated and extracted from rhubarb display the beneficial effects of antibacteria, ... capillary permeability, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like ... Free total rhubarb anthraquinones (FTRAs) isolated and extracted from rhubarb display the beneficial effects of antibacteria, ...
Membrane permeability protein SanA Total proteins: 29. Total genera: 0. Conserved in: Leptospira ... MULTISPECIES: membrane permeability protein SanA [Leptospira] MULTISPECIES: membrane permeability protein SanA [Leptospira]. gi ... MULTISPECIES: membrane permeability protein SanA [Leptospira]. NCBI Reference Sequence: WP_002624854.1. Identical Proteins ...
Duran B (2005) The effects of long-term total parenteral nutrition on gut mucosal immunity in children with short bowel ... Al-Sadi R, Ye D, Said HM, Ma TY (2010) IL-1beta-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability is ... Camilleri M, Gorman H (2007) Intestinal permeability and irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil 19:545-552PubMed ... Andre C, Andre F, Colin L, Cavagna S (1987) Measurement of intestinal permeability to mannitol and lactulose as a means of ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capability of fabric Total Heat Loss (THL) values on thermal stress ... total heat loss; thermal resistance; vapor permeability; core temperature; evaporative heat loss ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capability of fabric Total Heat Loss (THL) values on thermal stress ...
Application of Thermal Depletion Model to Geothermal Reservoirs with Fracture and Pore Permeability ... Application of Thermal Depletion Model to Geothermal Reservoirs with Fracture and Pore Permeability, article, December 1, 1976 ...
Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is ... Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. ... algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and ... Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is ...
Endothelial permeability assessment was based on interaction of biotinylated fibronectin used as a matrix for HUVECs and FITC- ... Endothelial permeability assessment was based on interaction of biotinylated fibronectin used as a matrix for HUVECs and FITC- ... Aim: to validate a microfluidic device to study endothelial permeability in flow conditions. Materials and Methods: we designed ... Therefore, it can be a promising tool to better understand the mechanisms underlying disorders of endothelial permeability. ...
Inhibition of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Evaluated by Calcium Retention Capacity Assay. ... Using CLARIOstar Microplate Reader to Determine Total Number of Individualized Viable Moss Cells. ... Inhibition of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Evaluated by Calcium Retention Capacity Assay ... Using CLARIOstar Microplate Reader to Determine Total Number of Individualized Viable Moss Cells ...
The values of the induced permeability are between 0.05 × 10-8 and 3.4 × 10-7 m/s. The permeability induced by satellite ... Thus, within each circle, the total number of lineaments, their length and their orientation relative to the North were ... The average induced permeability of the base (Kmoy) is determined by the following relation:. K m o y = 1 / 2 ⋅ ( K max + K min ... the more the induced permeabilities are close to the true permeabilities. Indeed, the induced permeabilities are even greater ...
... displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. The increased BBB permeability was ... Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression ... The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice. Braniste, Viorica ...
Estimation of relative permeability of these highly heterogeneous reservoirs is challenging due to the... ... The total derivative is considered as:. $$\frac{{{\text{D}}(*)}}{{{\text{D}}t}} = \frac{\partial (*)}{\partial t} + u\frac{\ ... Matrix permeability is set to 3.4D, whereas fracture permeability is set to 1 × 104 D (from Fahad 2013). Oil viscosity is 1.4 ... where \(k_{\text{rw}}\) is the water relative permeability, \(k_{\text{ro}}\) is the oil relative permeability, \(s_{\text{wr ...
The effect of pile fiber type and pile height on the air permeability properties of fabrics was compared using analysis of ... The paper presents an investigation of the air permeability ability of towel fabrics with respect to pile height and pile fiber ... It was found that air permeability of bamboo/cotton towel fabrics was higher than 100% cotton towel fabrics and the air ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the air permeability of bamboo / cotton and cotton towels produced with different ...
During the krmeasurements of low-permeability rocks, high capillary... ... Relative permeability ( kr) data are the key factors for describing the behaviour of the multi-phase flow in porous media. ... and the injected total flow rate (\( q_{t } ). \) ... Relative permeability (kr) data are the key factors for ... In this paper, a novel method is proposed to correct the CEE during the steady-state relative permeability (SS-kr) measurements ...
Total Porosity BVI FFI CBW Permeability , NMR , GeoSepec2Basic petrophysical parameters (porosity, BVI, FFI, CBW and T2 cutoff ... These distributions can be interpreted to give information on: pore size distributions; permeability; total and effective ... The integrated area under the saturated pore size distribution is a measure of the total porosity and is quantified by ...
550,000 (37% of total). Contact Information. NETL - Chandra Nautiyal ([email protected] or 918-699-2021). MIT - M. ... and permeability. This project addresses these problems by developing a method to image fractures from seismic data. ...
4.9.1 Filtering Permeability Data 263. 4.9.2 Total Volume Estimate 267 ... 7.6.3 Double Permeability Behavior when the two Layers are Producing 508 ... 7.6.5 Double Permeability Behavior when only One Layer is Producing 511 ...
... and total gut permeability (24h). This was also found to be true in a Parkinsons disease model. ... lactulose and sucralose to assess regional and total gut permeability; (2) analyze the kinetics of these sugars in the urine to ... Our data do not support the use of the widely used L/M ratio as an accurate estimate of intestinal permeability. Our data ... Percent of total urinary excretion for each sugar probe expressed as urinary recovery for each collection time segment ...
Magnetic permeability measurements The transducer used in this work measures changes in the magnetic permeability of materials ... The total volume of the suspension was 1 ml. After over-night incubation the tubes were centrifuged at 3500 g for 5 minutes and ... The relationship between magnetic permeability (μ) and relative magnetic permeability (μr) can be described according to the ... where its magnetic permeability is compared to that of the control sample similarly treated. A lower magnetic permeability for ...
Geochemical analysis (total organic carbon, rock-eval, permeability to air, porosity, mercury injection capillary pressure, and ... ConocoPhillips, and Weatherford Laboratories, 2011, Geochemical analysis (total organic carbon, rock-eval, permeability to air ...
Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: , PMC Statistics: ) Metrics: Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: ... The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) ... Curculigoside attenuates myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion injury by inhibiting the opening of the mitochondrial permeability ... reperfusion injury by inhibiting the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. International Journal of ...
C) Total pathology scores (jejunum, liver, and skin) 35 days after BMT. Each point represents an individual mouse. **P , 0.01, ... C and D) Intestinal permeability to 4-kDa dextran on d14 (C) or d35 (D) after BMT, normalized to the mean of WT mice without ... B) Intestinal permeability to fluorescein was evaluated on d14 after syngeneic (B6→WT) or allogeneic (129→WT or MLCK-/-) BMT. ... F) Total pathology scores (sum of jejunum, liver, and skin scores) 35 days after BMT. Each point represents an individual mouse ...
Thus the total magnetization will drop to zero when the applied field is removed. Even in the presence of the field, there is ... is the ratio of the permeability of a specific medium to the permeability of free space μ0: μ. r. =. μ. μ. 0. ,. {\displaystyle ... Its relation to permeability is B. =. μ. H. {\displaystyle \mathbf {B} =\mu \mathbf {H} }. where the permeability, μ, is a ... Relative permeability and magnetic susceptibility [edit]. Relative permeability, denoted by the symbol μ. r. {\displaystyle \mu ...
Interestingly, PI3KαH1047R ducts also elicit increased permeability and structural disorganization of the endothelium, and we ... Using MATLAB, the total area under each intensity profile was calculated, as was the area contained within the 10% of the total ... Permeability analysis. Devices were imaged on a spinning disk confocal microscope in a live cell imaging chamber. Each of the ... All permeability analysis imaging was collect using a Yokogawa CSU021/Zeiss Axiovert 200 M inverted spinning disk microscope ...
Zerumbone displayed similar characteristics to fenofibric acid in reducing retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in ... Retinal vascular permeability was measured with EB dye as a tracer. EB was normalized by total protein concentration in the ... Retinal vascular permeability was measured with EB dye as a tracer. EB was normalized by total protein concentration in the ... Cytosolic (70 μg total protein) and nuclear (50 μg total protein) extracts were separated on a 7.5%-15% polyacrilamide gel and ...
Total: 1477 downloads. The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions ... Results: Mucosal permeability to HRP was increased by CRH (2.8±0.5pmol/cm2/h) compared to vehicle exposure (1.5±0.4 pmol/cm2/h ... Steady-state permeability with low variability was seen for both markers during the 30-90 min period. Exposure to capric acid ... Regulation of epithelial permeability to antigens is crucial for the balance between inflammation and immuno-surveillance, and ...
  • For instance, insulin increases vascular permeability ( 13 ) and induces vasodilatation in resistance arteries ( 14 ), venules ( 15 ), and precapillary arteriolae ( 16 ), thereby inducing capillary recruitment ( 17 ) and resulting in a decrease in capillary resistance. (
  • Colchicine induces enhanced intestinal permeability in the rat. (
  • Results indicate that downregulation of Cx43 expression alone induces vascular cell death and promotes vascular permeability in the retina. (
  • Regulation of epithelial permeability to antigens is crucial for the balance between inflammation and immuno-surveillance, and increased intestinal permeability has been shown in patients with ulcerative colitis. (
  • Estimation of relative permeability of these highly heterogeneous reservoirs is challenging due to the existence of discontinuity in the fluid flow fractured porous media. (
  • Relative permeability plays a critical role in evaluating the production potential and recovery factor for conventional and unconventional reservoirs, and yet, it is considered to be one of the most uncertain parameters in the governing equations of multiphase fluid flow. (
  • The linear relative permeability model (analytical) proposed by Romm ( 1966 ) has been used in fluid flow simulation in fractured reservoirs. (
  • Recent studies have shown that the relative permeability in fractured reservoirs is not a linear function of saturation (Chima et al. (
  • Fractured reservoirs historically have been difficult to produce because of the inability to predict fracture location, orientation, and permeability. (
  • Understanding permeability and porosity hysteresis plays a significant role in production strategies of hydrocarbon reservoirs. (
  • Hysteresis effect on production strategies can be even more important in very low permeability reservoirs such as tight sandstone, tight carbonate, and shale formations. (
  • The reason is that the stress change associated with permeability and porosity hysteresis can affect adsorption/desorption and diffusion transport mechanisms which are among the main driving mechanisms in low or ultra-low permeability reservoirs. (
  • The integrated area under the saturated pore size distribution is a measure of the total porosity and is quantified by comparing to a measurement on a porosity standard supplied with the GeoSpec. (
  • The Exploring Porosity and Permeability Lab Activity make observing and calculating drainage rates and pore spacing simple. (
  • Permeability and porosity decrease with increasing net stress in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media is a well-known phenomenon to petroleum and geomechanics engineers. (
  • Conversely, permeability and porosity are observed to increase when net stress decreases, however typically follow a different path, this discrepancy is known as hysteresis. (
  • The trend of permeability and porosity hysteresis is a signature of porous medium that depends on several physical and mechanical properties. (
  • In this study, permeability and porosity hysteresis of nano, micro, and milli-Darcy core samples are measured for a wide range of net stress and the results are correlated with pore structures observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) images. (
  • Measurement consists of packing the powder into a cylindrical "bed" having a known porosity (i.e. volume of air-space between particles divided by total bed volume). (
  • Conditional deletion of VEGF in Müller cells significantly reduces leukostasis and vascular permeability in diabetic mice ( 7 ), suggesting that Müller cell-derived VEGF is important for retinal inflammation and vascular leakage in DR. (
  • Simultaneous gas-chromatographic urinary measurement of sugar probes to assess intestinal permeability: use of time course analysis to optimize its. (
  • Measurement of intestinal permeability is important in several diseases but currently several methods are employed. (
  • Water loss rate (WLR), and thus other parameters such as cuticular permeability that depend on the accurate measurement of WLR, are usually measured gravimetrically or via radioactive isotopes. (
  • The present invention relates to the core parameters laboratory technical field of measurement and test in oil-gas field development basic research field, particularly relate to the device and method of a kind of unstable state High Temperature High Pressure test flow in low permeability core free-boundary problem. (
  • 7.4 Measurement of Permeability. (
  • The air permeability specific surface of a powder material is a single-parameter measurement of the fineness of the powder. (
  • Measurement of air permeability can be performed very rapidly, and does not require the powder to be exposed to vacuum or to gases or vapours, as is necessary for the BET method for determination of specific surface area. (
  • Finally, we conducted a double-blind clinical trial in patients with malignant glial tumors, using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively assess blood-brain barrier permeability. (
  • We demonstrate the safety of stimulation that efficiently increased blood-brain barrier permeability in 10 of 15 patients with malignant glial tumors. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we reveal a new mechanism that governs blood-brain barrier (BBB) function in the rat cerebral cortex, and, by using the discovered mechanism, we demonstrate bidirectional control over brain endothelial permeability. (
  • NMDA receptor antagonists reduce barrier permeability in the peri-ischemic brain, whereas neuronal activation using high-intensity magnetic stimulation increases barrier permeability and facilitates drug delivery. (
  • In this study, we tested the hypotheses that VEGF-C increases tumor angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and further that these effects can be reversed by VEGFR-2 blockade. (
  • Gliadin interaction with the intestinal epithelium increases intestinal permeability through the MyD88-dependent release of zonulin that, in turn, enables paracellular translocation of gliadin and its subsequent interaction with macrophages within the intestinal submucosa. (
  • The aim of the current study was to test the hypotheses that ET-1 increases albumin permeability of glomeruli isolated from normal rats and that chronic ET-1 infusion will increase glomerular permeability and inflammation independent of blood pressure. (
  • These data support the hypothesis that ET-1 directly increases glomerular permeability to albumin and renal inflammation via ET A receptor activation independent of changes in arterial pressure. (
  • It has been demonstrated in several animal models (7, 8) that dynamic, contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a macromolecular contrast agent can be used to quantify microvascular permeability in tumors and that permeability increases with increasing tumor malignancy (9, 10) . (
  • Circulating inflammatory mediators lead to further increases in gut permeability and the release of gut-derived mediators in a vicious cycle that can culminate in multiple organ failure and death. (
  • The known biophysical properties of membranes containing water channels are a high osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf), an osmotic -to-diffusional water permeability coefficient ratio (Pf/Pd) greater than unity, a low activation energy (Ea), and inhibition by mercurial compounds. (
  • In one section of the kidney called the tubule both diffusional and osmotic water permeability take place. (
  • We conducted studies in isolated perfused terminal inner medullary collecting ducts ( IMCD ) from rats to investigate the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin in the regulation of osmotic water permeability . (
  • Vasopressin and oxytocin were found to have both stimulatory effects (at 0.1 nM) and inhibitory effects (at 10 nM) on osmotic water permeability . (
  • Both the selective oxytocin - receptor agonist [Thr4,Gly7]oxytocin (10 nM) and the selective V1b agonist [deamino1,D-3-(pyridyl)Ala2,Arg8]vasopressin (10 nM) inhibited vasopressin -stimulated osmotic water permeability . (
  • In contrast, the selective V1a vasopressin - receptor agonist [Phe2,Ile3,Orn8]vasopressin (10 nM) had no effect on vasopressin -stimulated osmotic water permeability . (
  • The oxytocin/vasopressin- receptor antagonist [des-glycinamide9,d(CH2)5(1),O-Me-Tyr2,Thr4,Orn8]vasot ocin, which almost completely blocks vasopressin -induced calcium mobilization , also blocked the ability of 10 nM vasopressin to inhibit osmotic water permeability relative to that found with 0.1 nM vasopressin . (
  • 1) Oxytocin , like vasopressin , has dual effects on osmotic water permeability , increasing it at subnanomolar concentrations and inhibiting it at suprananomolar concentrations . (
  • Although relative permeability is an essential data for simulation of flow in fractured media, few attempts have so far been made to estimate the relative permeability curves. (
  • In this algorithm, Corey-type power law is used to create relative permeability curves during the optimization procedures. (
  • Numerical results of fluid flow profiles and the optimized relative permeability curves for single fracture with different orientations and experimental validation with oil drainage tests are presented. (
  • Capillary pressure curves obtained simultaneouslywith the relative permeability curves are shown to be equivalent to thoseobtained in conventional displacement cells. (
  • Regulation of vascular endothelial (VE) growth factor (VEGF)-induced permeability is critical in physiological and pathological processes. (
  • We conclude that TSAd is required for VEGF-induced, c-Src-mediated regulation of endothelial cell junctions and for vascular permeability. (
  • The gliadin-induced release of zonulin, a recently described intestinal protein involved in tj regulation ( 7 ), seems to be responsible, in part, for the increased gut permeability that is characteristic of the early phase of CD ( 8 ). (
  • Neutrophil extravasation and the regulation of vascular permeability require dynamic actin rearrangements in the endothelium. (
  • A total of nine elevated fracture activity periods that resulted in The microseismic records related to roof falls are rock fracture seven major roof falls were examined. (
  • In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. (
  • Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. (
  • This paper presents an integrated approach to history matching the oil drainage tests, which were carried out by unsteady state, on glass bed models with a single fracture at different orientations and to estimate the relative permeability curve. (
  • Lu Y, Li L, Zhang JW, Zhong XQ, Wei JA, Han L. Total polysaccharides of the Sijunzi decoction attenuate tumor necrosis factor-α-induced damage to the barrier function of a Caco-2 cell monolayer via the nuclear factor-κB-myosin light chain kinase-myosin light chain pathway. (
  • Unlike vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, the effect of VEGF-C on tumor angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and leukocyte recruitment is not known. (
  • These data suggest that VEGFR-2 signaling is critical for tumor angiogenesis and vascular permeability and that VEGFR-3 signaling does not compensate for VEGFR-2 blockade. (
  • Permeability values ranged from −0.4 to 18.8, with a strong correlation (r = 0.83) to tumor grade. (
  • It has also been shown, in a model of human breast tumor, that permeability reduction in response to antiangiogenic pharmaceutical therapy, as determined from MR studies, correlates with decreased tumor growth rate (11) . (
  • Recently, it has been further shown, in a model of human brain tumor in athymic rats, that dynamic contrast-enhanced MR studies can be analyzed similarly to quantify blood volume and microvascular permeability and to quantitatively monitor antiangiogenic therapy (12) . (
  • Importantly, loss of TAp73 results in highly vascularized tumors, as well as an increase in vessel permeability resulting from disruption of vascular endothelial-cadherin junctions between endothelial cells. (
  • Furthermore, VEGF-C overexpression elevated vascular permeability in T241 tumors, but not in VEGF-A −/− tumors. (
  • Administration of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 neutralizing antibody DC101 reduced vascular density and permeability of both VC + and mock-transduced T241 tumors. (
  • Despite some overlap between the permeability values of specific tumors from different grades, differences in the mean were statistically significant. (
  • This relatively simple method of analysis provides quantitative estimates of fBV and microvascular permeability in human brain tumors, with the permeability being predictive of pathologic grade. (
  • The sieving properties and permeability of the endothelium depend on the function of specialized selective junctional regions which link ECs one to another. (
  • Interestingly, PI3Kα H1047R ducts also elicit increased permeability and structural disorganization of the endothelium, and we identify the distinct secretion of IL-6 as the paracrine cause of PI3Kα H1047R -associated vascular dysfunction. (
  • Permeability of the endothelium is pivotal in the release of nutrients to the tissue. (
  • This low-halogen, flexible, high-permeability magnetic sheet is a broadband absorber for near-field applications in the 50 MHz-10 GHz range. (
  • Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. (
  • During the k r measurements of low-permeability rocks, high capillary pressure can cause a significant liquid hold-up at the core outlet. (
  • This liquid hold-up, which is known as capillary end effect (CEE), is the main difficulty for laboratory measurements of relative permeability ( k r ) for tight and shale rocks. (
  • In this paper, a novel method is proposed to correct the CEE during the steady-state relative permeability (SS- k r ) measurements. (
  • Gupta and Maloney ( 2016 ) proposed the intercept technique to correct CEE during relative permeability measurements. (
  • Magnetic Permeability Measurements in Bioanalysis and Biosensors," Analytical Chemistry 68(11):1966-1970 (1996). (
  • Nonspecific inhibition of collagenases or selective inhibition of MMP-9 decreased pathological vascular permeability in a murine model of diabetic retinal edema. (
  • Paroxysmal Permeability Disorders (PPDs) are pathological conditions caused by periodic short lasting increase of endothelial permeability, in the absence of inflammatory, degenerative, ischemic vascular injury. (
  • Leaky gut syndrome describes a pathological increase in permeability of the intestinal mucosa that causes increased absorption of intestinally derived endotoxin, antigens, inflammatory mediators, and, in some cases, intact bacteria. (
  • In addition, the analyses indicate that the total hydrocarbon saturation of the rock is approaching 70%, which is positive for shale productivity. (
  • These exceptional shale permeabilities, combined with the relatively high hydrocarbon saturation and TOC results, are positive factors toward the goal of attaining economic production from the Macasty shale formation. (
  • This selective permeable barrier is achieved by intercellular tight junction (TJ) structures, which regulate paracellular permeability. (
  • Vascular permeability is mainly regulated by two mechanisms: transcellular and paracellular permeability. (
  • Paracellular permeability is mediated by the dynamic opening of interendothelial cell junctions that allow large proteins and cells to enter the surrounding tissue. (
  • Alterations of cell-cell adhesion, mainly mediated by tight (TJs) and adherens (AJs) junctions, is a hallmark of paracellular permeability ( Goddard and Iruela-Arispe, 2013 ). (
  • The paracellular marker mannitol showed no evidence of asymmetric permeability or sensitivity to P-gp inhibitors. (
  • In this model, ranitidine permeability in the mucosal-to-serosal direction decreased by ≈95% as monolayer resistance increased from 150 to 500 Ω/cm 2 , indicating a primarily paracellular route of transport. (
  • There are two methods usually used in determining relative permeability in the laboratory by fluid displacement experiments on core samples: (a) in steady-state and (b) unsteady-state conditions. (
  • The laboratory-derived relative permeability by steady or unsteady state is upscaled to reservoir scale by history matching of the blocked-based simulated pressure and production data with that recorded during production. (
  • In contrast to the protective effects of full-length netrin-1 on retinal microvasculature, the VI-V fragment promoted vascular permeability through the uncoordinated 5B (UNC5B) receptor. (
  • Zerumbone displayed similar characteristics to fenofibric acid in reducing retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. (
  • To determine whether downregulation of Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression promotes development of acellular capillaries (ACs), pericyte loss (PL), excess permeability, and retinal thickening in rat retinas. (
  • Control rats, diabetic rats, and rats intravitreally injected with Cx43 siRNA or scrambled siRNA were used in this study to determine if acute downregulation of Cx43 expression contributes to retinal vascular cell death and excess permeability. (
  • Concurrently, retinal networks were subjected to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5′-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and counter-stained to assess the number of apoptotic cells, ACs, and PL. Assessment of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dex) extravasation from retinal capillaries and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed to determine retinal vascular permeability and retinal thickness, respectively. (
  • The work on the upscaling of the estimated relative permeability curve of fractured porous media is under preparation and will be published soon. (
  • In a fractured reservoir, the evaluation of relative permeability is challenging due to the existence of discontinuity in the fluid flow through fractured porous media. (
  • Relative permeability ( k r ) data are the key factors for describing the behaviour of the multi-phase flow in porous media. (
  • A detailed description is given of an experimental method for determiningrelative permeability of porous media to gas. (
  • These are used to compute the restriction coefficient (RC), which represents the intrinsic permeability of the peritoneal membrane. (
  • To this end, intestinal permeability and the release of zonulin (an endogenous mediator of gut permeability) in vitro, as well as proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine release by primary murine macrophage cultures, were measured. (
  • Here we demonstrate the role of the neurotransmitter glutamate in modulating early barrier permeability in vivo . (
  • Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and vascular permeability (K trans ) permit in vivo assessment of glioma microvasculature. (
  • Membrane permeability, relative water content and total phenolics of spring maize in relation to exogenous application of growth promoting substances. (
  • The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were assessed. (
  • In mutSOD1-G93A cells and mice, the newly exposed BH3 domain in Bcl-2 alters the normal interaction between Bcl-2 and VDAC1 thus reducing permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane. (
  • Influences of time intervals between meals and total food intake on resting metabolic rate in rats. (
  • Resting metabolic rate was measured in rats receiving single or double food portions every day or every other day, adding up to the same total food intakes. (
  • At two different total food intakes, there were no differences between the rats that were fed a meal every day and those fed a double meal every other day. (
  • The results of this study thus indicate that metabolic depression during starvation and severe caloric restriction in rats is an initially uniform response that modulates itself late in the starvation or restriction period in accordance with the total food intake. (
  • Incubation of glomeruli taken from normal rats with ET-1 at a concentration that did not produce direct glomerular contraction (1 nmol/L) significantly increased glomerular permeability to albumin, reaching a maximum after 4 hours. (
  • Chronic ET-1 infusion for 2 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats significantly increased glomerular permeability to albumin and nephrin excretion rate, effects that were attenuated in rats given an ET A receptor antagonist (ABT-627, 5 mg/kg per day). (
  • Acute incubation of glomeruli isolated from ET-1-infused rats with the selective ET A antagonist significantly reduced glomerular permeability to albumin, an effect not observed with acute treatment with a selective ET B antagonist. (
  • Therefore, it can be a promising tool to better understand the mechanisms underlying disorders of endothelial permeability. (
  • This paper aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the geroprotective activity of fucoxanthin by total RNA sequencing. (
  • The great difference in magnetic permeability between the ferromagnetic marker and the background allows detection of very small quantities of analyte, based on the marker's induction of a changed magnetic permeability for the sample being measured. (
  • 25. The system of claim 1, wherein said transducer comprises a coil adapted to accept inductance proportional to said magnetic permeability of said sample. (
  • In electromagnetism , permeability is the measure of the resistance of a material against the formation of a magnetic field , otherwise known as distributed inductance in transmission line theory . (
  • Magnetic permeability is typically represented by the (italicized) Greek letter μ . (
  • The reciprocal of magnetic permeability is magnetic reluctivity. (
  • The permeability constant μ 0 , also known as the magnetic constant or the permeability of free space, is a measure of the amount of resistance encountered when forming a magnetic field in a classical vacuum . (
  • In general, permeability is not a constant, as it can vary with the position in the medium, the frequency of the applied magnetic field, humidity , temperature, and other parameters. (
  • In a nonlinear medium , the permeability can depend on the strength of the magnetic field. (
  • Romm ( 1966 ) presented an analytical equation to calculate oil-water relative permeability in fractures based on experimental results using parallel glass plates with smooth surfaces. (
  • Boje K. M. (1995) Cerebrovascular permeability changes during experimental meningitis in the rat. (
  • We show that tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) at Y951 facilitates binding of VEGFR2 to the Rous sarcoma (Src) homology 2-domain of T cell-specific adaptor (TSAd), which in turn regulates VEGF-induced activation of the c-Src tyrosine kinase and vascular permeability. (
  • Vessels in tsad(-/-) mice showed undisturbed flow and pressure, but impaired VEGF-induced permeability, as measured by extravasation of Evans blue, dextran, and microspheres in the skin and the trachea. (
  • The present investigation summarizes the effect of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil against different phases of acute inflammatory reaction, namely, protein exudation, peritoneal capillary permeability, and leukocyte migration. (
  • Thirty-one standard peritoneal permeability analyses (SPA) were performed in 18 PD children with a median (range) age of 9.8 yr (2 to 19) and a median duration of PD of 2.6 yr (0.19 to 6.8). (
  • More recently, the standard peritoneal permeability analysis (SPA) has been described by our group in adult patients ( 3 ). (
  • Excess accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity occurs due to a combination of impaired fluid drainage and increased net filtration, mostly due to increasing intraperitoneal vascular permeability. (
  • Our data do not support the use of the widely used L/M ratio as an accurate estimate of intestinal permeability. (
  • Thus the required pressure/flow ratio can be obtained from the ratio of the two manometer readings, and when fed into the Carman equation, yields an "absolute" value of the air permeability surface area. (
  • Here we now show that formation of this toxic complex with Bcl-2 is the primary event in mutSOD1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibiting mitochondrial permeability to ADP and inducing mitochondrial hyperpolarization. (
  • Small SOD1-like therapeutic peptides that specifically block formation of the mutSOD1/Bcl-2 complex, recover both aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction: they prevent mitochondrial hyperpolarization and cell loss as well as restore ADP permeability in mitochondria of symptomatic mutSOD1-G93A mice. (
  • Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in cardiomyocytes was induced by photoexcitation-generated oxidative stress and detected by rapid dissipation of tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester fluorescence using a confocal microscope. (
  • A hydrophilic polymer suitable for use as an extended wear soft contact lens must have high oxygen permeability and good mechanical strength. (
  • Instruments for determination of the oxygen air permeability (SYSTESTER China) is based on the coulometric sensor method and available for the Oxygen Permeability test of flexible films, sheeting and packages. (
  • Although rCBV and vascular permeability have already been correlated with glioma grade, determining which parameter has a stronger correlation and whether rCBV and vascular permeability correlate with each other has not yet been fully investigated by using the same perfusion dataset. (
  • Anattempt is made to correlate total permeability and rock textural factors withrelative permeability to gas. (
  • In conclusion, we have demonstrated a chain of events leading to increased permeability to the protein antigen HRP in biopsies from healthy volunteers and patients with UC. (
  • The colonic mucosa was exposed to E. coli HB101 incorporated with green fluorescent protein and permeability was assessed in Ussing chambers. (
  • The fixed oil exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of protein exudation vascular permeability, comparable to standard aspirin. (
  • The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). (
  • In contrast, probenicid, an inhibitor of the multidrug-related protein, had no effect on ranitidine permeability. (
  • Our results provide first insights into the molecular mechanism of BMP-induced vascular permeability, a hallmark of various vascular diseases, and provide the basis for further investigations of BMPs as regulators of vascular integrity, both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. (
  • Basal vascular permeability for high molecular weight substances was enhanced in cortactin-deficient mice. (
  • These results prove that the presented approach can be used to upscale the relative permeability curve from laboratory scale to reservoir grid scale. (
  • Formation damage, as defined by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, is the reduction in reservoir permeability resulting from infiltration of drilling or treating fluids into the area adjacent to the wellbore (SPE, 2011 ). (
  • Typically, stimulation operations aim to improve productivity from a damaged formation or a naturally low permeability reservoir. (
  • The advances in petroleum reservoir technology during the past decade havemade increasingly apparent the desirability of a simple, rapid, reliable methodfor obtaining relative permeability data on small cores. (
  • Background: Intestinal exposure to gliadin leads to zonulin upregulation and consequent disassembly of intercellular tight junctions and increased intestinal permeability. (
  • Glomerular permeability to albumin was determined from the change in glomerular volume induced by exposing isolated glomeruli to oncotic gradients. (
  • However, serosal-to-mucosal permeability was insensitive to resistance changes, consistent with a primarily transcellular route in this direction. (
  • In some cases, atrophic changes in the mucosal epithelium can lead to the seemingly paradoxical condition of decreased permeability and malabsorption of essential nutrients concurrent with increased permeability and absorption of pathogenic macromolecules. (
  • and the plurality of permeability control devices being selected to produce particular pressure drops for fluid entering or exiting various discrete. (
  • controlling pressure drop for fluid flowing through a wall of the completion by permeability selection. (
  • The characteristic functions relating relative permeabilities and capillary pressures to fluid saturations ( k r - S - P c models) are of great importance for the modelling of sub-surface multi-phase flow and transport. (
  • We hypothesize that improvement of the action of insulin on vascular tone or permeability is the key mechanism of TZD-related fluid retention. (
  • In the context of conformance control, the absolute permeability of the formation may be reduced by infiltration of treating fluid, yet the productivity can be improved. (
  • Endoscopic biopsies of human colon were viable in Ussing chambers, and the technique was shown to be a reliable tool for studies of mucosal permeability to HRP. (
  • Both drugs exhibited vectorial transport across rat ileum with significantly greater (2-4-fold) permeability in the serosal-to-mucosal than the mucosal-to-serosal direction, indicative of net mucosal secretion. (
  • Research indicates that certain nutritional factors may help to support mucosal health and promote normal intestinal permeability (IP). (
  • Biopsies from the sigmoid colon were assessed for macromolecular permeability (Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and 51Cr-EDTA), and electrophysiology during challenge with sodium caprate (C10), CRH or carbachol. (
  • The increased BBB permeability was maintained in germ-free mice after birth and during adulthood and was associated with reduced expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, which are known to regulate barrier function in endothelial tissues. (
  • Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. (
  • We report that germ-free mice, beginning with intrauterine life, displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. (
  • After infection with D2S10, mice lacking interferon receptors died early without manifesting signs of paralysis, carried infectious virus in both non-neuronal and neuronal tissues, and exhibited signs of increased vascular permeability. (
  • In contrast, mice infected with the parental DEN strain developed paralysis at late times after infection, contained detectable levels of virus only in the central nervous system, and displayed normal vascular permeability. (
  • The lactulose-mannitol permeability test is one of the methods most widely used to diagnose IP defects. (
  • Gliadin and its peptide derivatives, 33-mer and p31-43, were found to be potent inducers of both a zonulin-dependent increase in intestinal permeability and macrophage proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine secretion. (
  • No change in permeability to the small sugar probes is anticipated with the probiotic. (
  • The rate of increase in relaxation rate is proportional to the permeability of the capillary wall to the contrast agent. (
  • The highlight of the analyses is the permeability, which ranges between 197 and 739 nanoDarcies and averages 479 nD. (
  • The increase in endothelial permeability was identified as changes in fluorescence intensity detected by confocal fluorescent microscopy. (
  • These effects on water permeability correlated with the ability of the agents to transiently increase intracellular free calcium . (
  • 2) Oxytocin , like vasopressin , can increase cAMP production, perhaps accounting for the increase in water permeability . (
  • Results: Intestinal explants from all groups (ACD ( n = 6), RCD ( n = 6), GS ( n = 6), and NC ( n = 5)) demonstrated a greater increase in permeability when exposed to gliadin vs. media alone. (
  • The increase in permeability in the ACD group was greater than in the RCD and NC groups. (
  • There was a greater increase in permeability in the GS group compared to the RCD group. (
  • Following gliadin exposure, both patients with gluten sensitivity and those with active celiac disease demonstrate a greater increase in intestinal permeability than celiacs in disease remission. (
  • and (f) an increase in permeability with temperature (and decrease in permeability with hysteresis during temperature unloading) is observed in organic rich mudrocks. (
  • In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that gliadin initiates this response by stimulating the innate immune response to increase intestinal permeability and by up-regulating macrophage proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine production. (
  • So how does formula increase the risk of infection and why doesn't breastfeeding provide total protection from illness? (
  • We suggest a novel mechanism for the bidirectional modulation of brain vascular permeability toward increased drug delivery and prevention of delayed complications in brain disorders. (