Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Leviviridae: A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Inoviridae: A family of rod-shaped or filamentous bacteriophages consisting of single-stranded DNA. There are two genera: INOVIRUS and PLECTROVIRUS.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.GeeseFeces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The whole particle consists of 12-14 different proteins with more than 1000 protein molecules total and one DNA molecule ... Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species ...
In the US, the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk, which ... "Intra-laboratory validation of a concentration method adapted for the enumeration of infectious F-specific RNA coliphage, ... "20th Australian Total Diet Survey - Part B". Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Retrieved August 13, 2007. "Worldwide ... Two key estimates were the total number of gastroenteritis episodes each year, and the proportion considered foodborne. In ...
Another significant commercial bacteriophage application is ELICOSALI, a wide range of anti-Salmonella and "E. coli" phage ... by a factor of ten representing the most abundant self-replicating entities on earth with an estimated 1031 phages in total. ...
Article Simultaneous concentration of enterococci and coliphage from marine waters using a dual layer filtration system. ... Total coliphages removal by activated sludge process and their morphological diversity by .... Apr. 8, 2016. This study was ... Simultaneous concentration of enterococci and coliphage from .... Simultaneous concentration of enterococci and coliphage from ... Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with ...
Coliphages infect coliform bacteria. Coliphages do not infect humans or cause illness. A positive test for coliphages indicates ... Total coliforms is another term for the full group of coliforms; they are indicators of possible water contamination. ... Coliphage: A virus that infects bacteria is called a phage. Phages infect specific species of bacteria. ... Fecal coliform indicators: Groups of microbes, such as E. coli, enterococci, and coliphage, used under the Groundwater Rule to ...
Enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, total coliform, faecal coliform, enterococci and coliphages considered in this study were ... Detection of Coliphages. Coliphages were detected from concentrated water samples using Escherichia coli K12 Hfr (ATCC) as the ... Faecal ColiformTotal ColiformDiarrheal DiseaseEnteric VirusIndicator Bacterium. Background. At present, public health concerns ... Counts of total coliforms (TC), faecal coliforms (FC) and enterococci (FE) in water used for irrigation over two seasons each ...
... and coliphages (such as virus indicators). Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses of 2, 3, and 4 mg/L of PAA and ... total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater), ... Besides that, total coliforms, E. coli, and coliphages were ... For total coliforms, inactivation of up to 4,25 log with the 4(187,74) dose was obtained, and, for coliphages, 3,1 log ... 1 log coliphages, also for both UV doses, and 3,35 log total coliforms for the 164,84 mWs/cm² dose. ...
Total coliforms. N/A. Indicator used in tiered monitoring protocol in the Revised Total Coliform Rule [12]. ... Fecal Indicator (E. coli, enterococci, coliphage). N/A. Indicator used in tiered monitoring protocol in the Ground Water Rule [ ... total-coliform-rule-revised-total-coliform-rule.. [13] For additional information on the Ground Water Rule, go to 310 CMR 22.26 ... Xylenes (total). 1330207. 10. [1] Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent)[1] No numerical MCL is provided for these ...
F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and ... Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., ... Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, ...
MS2 Coliphage - Fr Coliphage (exceeds purification standards). Pathogenic Bacteria Surrogate: >99.9999%. Raoultella terrigena ( ... Including: Chlorine Residual (Total Residual Chlorine). Heavy Metals: Greater than 95% reduction for most metals. Including: ... MS2 Coliphage - Fr Coliphage (exceeds purification standards),/p, ,p,,span style=font-weight:bold;,Pathogenic Bacteria ... Including: Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, e.Coli. Pharmaceuticals: 99.5% reduction. Including: Erythromycin USP, Progestrone, ...
A total of 800 young adults (mean = 25.3, s.d. = 0.62 years), born 1985-1986, participated in a follow-up of the Arvo Ylppö ... Although NoVs were not detected in water samples, coliphages were identified as a marker of viral contamination. About 2400 (18 ... A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were randomized to a ... Urine (n=46), blood (n=12), liver (n=25) and adipose tissue (n=46) were sampled from a total of 46 entire male pigs. Skatole ...
Coliphage and C. perfringens counts suggested that the total removal and inactivation was more than 7 log10 viable ... Three of nine finished water samples of 20,000 liters each revealed residual levels of somatic coliphages at 0.03, 0.10, and ... By using multiple regression, the somatic coliphage counts were the only explanatory variable for the human enteric virus ... Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking water treatment for viruses and ...
The ICR might also require monthly monitoring for Clostridium perfringens and coliphage. + One organism per liter of water. & ... the water utility can discontinue virus monitoring if total coliforms are ,100/100 mL or fecal coliforms or E. coli are ,20/100 ...
A total of 115 Watt electric power is available continuously for the Plant-Module (60 W lighting, 40 Watt cooling, 15 W ... In this research, the male specific RNA coliphage MS-2 is used as a model of enteric viruses due to their similar size and ... In this paper, iodine inactivation of the model coliphage MS-2 in buffered water is compared with earlier bench-scale ... PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for commercial space biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 50 plants (6 ...
Distribution of coliphages in the general environment: general considerations, p.87 -124. In S. M. Goyal, C. P. Gerba, and G. ... Axenic mice.A total of six 8-week-old C3H axenic male mice from our own animal house breeding colony were allotted to three ... Four T4-like coliphages with broad host ranges for diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli serotypes were isolated from stool ... The total count of lactose-positive fecal colonies on the Drigalski plates decreased only slightly during phage treatment. No ...
Two relatives of coliphage P4 are found as prophages in different strains of Salmonella enterica; although they are nearly ... In total, these examples show that genetic mosaicism is a common feature among bacteriophage genomes. The apparent degree of ... Nucleotide sequence of coliphage HK620 and the evolution of lambdoid phages. J. Mol. Biol. 311:657-679. ... As a result, the impact of any one horizontal exchange is minimized since it involves such a small fraction of the total genome ...
Coliphages were present in GWRS after MF treatment. The geometric mean of male-specific coliphage was 134 plaque-forming units ... Total coliforms were rarely detected in riverbank-filtered waters, with 5.5-and 6.1-log reductions in average concentrations in ... Male-specific coliphage dropped from a geometric mean of 1,800 pfu/100 mL in the previous year to 28 pfu/100 mL in the MF feed ... 1995) reported removal in excess of 5 logs for total coliform during transport of river water over a 30-m distance from the ...
Escherichia coli (E. coli) and somatic coliphage are 7-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive ... Wells were divided into three subsets based on (1) presence of total coliform bacteria, (2) multiple indicators, or (3) ... coli and somatic coliphage, although single indicators may underestimate virus occurrence. Repeat sampling for indicators ... samples when the indicator is present versus when it is absent, while F-specific and somatic coliphages are 8-9 times more ...
The total organic carbon (TOC) was measured using an Analytik Jena multi N/C 2100 S Total Organic Carbon Analyser. ... The virus titer was determined as pfu by using the f-RNA phage DA-f-RNA Coliphage Double Agar Layer assay (ALS laboratories). ... A total of 50 mL of demineralized water was filtered side-by-side by both filters. A total of 5 mL of 6 month-old hydrate gel ... A total of 50 mL of fresh gel was used for repeated filtration of 1 L portions of dirty turbid river water (OD450 nm = 0.175) ...
The analyses for E. coli, total coliforms, and intestinal enterococci were done with respect to the standard reference method. ... We demonstrated that human adenovirus had the highest detection rate (96.3%), followed by somatic coliphages (73.5%), human ... Additionally, prevalence of different possible indicators such as somatic coliphages, E. coli, intestinal enterococci, and ... PCR and double agar layer test were used for the quantification of human enteric viruses and somatic coliphages, respectively. ...
A total of 53 ORFs are predicted from the sequence (Table 1 and Fig. 1), and protein-coding regions occupy 92.2% of the genome ... The amount of SfV DNA that is significantly homologous to these E. coli phages is quite substantial (Table 3): ca. 6 kb from ... The sequence of the SfV O-antigen modification genes gtrAV, gtrBV, and gtrV and flanking regions (5.9 kb in total) has been ... In total, approximately 30% of the SfV genome is significantly homologous to e14 and KpEL1, suggesting that these phages have ...
... total suspended solids (TSS), SO4-2, Cl-, total and free chlorine (Cl2), turbidity, pHnative coliphages (NC) and total (TC) and ... was chosen for total and free chlorine (Cl2) determination. Coliforms and coliphages: Total and fecal coliforms were analyzed ... Indicator microorganisms: Geometric mean concentrations for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and coliphage observed at ... However, when secondary effluent entered te system, coliphage removal averaged 65%. After vegetation removal, pH and coliphage ...
Order total must be at least $250 before tax; total may include live and hazardous materials, however these materials will ... A collection of some of the more popular forms of coliphage. The successful culture of coliphage requires growing in the ... Coliphage: PhiX174 Tryptic Soy Broth. Refrigerator. Vial. 37°C. Each. Retrieving. This Item is temperature sensitive and has ... Coliphage: T2R+ Tryptic Soy Broth. Refrigerator. Vial. 37°C. Each. Retrieving. This Item is temperature sensitive and has ...
Somatic coliphages were enumerated seasonally in addition to the traditional bacterial indicators total coliforms, faecal ... There was a highly significant correlation between counts of somatic coliphages, total coliforms and faecal coliforms but not ... Biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium, total nitrogen, reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus showed highly significant direct ... Recovery of somatic coliphages in wastewater and seawater samples in relation to bacterial indicator organisms and water ...
Total coliforms are a group of bacteria that are mostly harmless and found in soil and water, as well as the intestines of warm ... Quarterly for coliphage (both somatic and male specific presence/absence) and Cryptosporidium/Giardia. If two subsequent ... Monthly for total coliform/E.coli MPN until at least two consecutive samples are free from bacteria - then once each year. ... The presence of total coliforms in drinking water that comes from a water supply well can indicate that more dangerous bacteria ...
... ftotal coliforms (log10); gE. coli (log10); henterococci (log10); isomatic coliphages; jRNA F-specific coliphages. ... F-specific coliphage counts were lower than those of somatic coliphages. The highest average counts of F-specific coliphages ... Overall, the average concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were much higher than those of coliphages. In ... The lack of correlation between the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and coliphages ...
The ICR might also require monthly monitoring for Clostridium perfringens and coliphage. + One organism per liter of water. & ... the water utility can discontinue virus monitoring if total coliforms are ,100/100 mL or fecal coliforms or E. coli are ,20/100 ...
Science of the Total Environment (2009) 407, pp. 4220-4230] (Corrigendum). », Science of the Total Environment, 408(9), p. 2180 ... Jones, T.H., Brassard, J., Topp, E., Wilkes, G., Lapen, D.R. (2017). Waterborne viruses and F-specific coliphages in mixed-use ... Science of the Total Environment 407 (2009) 4596-4604] (Erratum). », Science of the Total Environment, 407(22), p. 5928-5930. ... Science of the Total Environment, 439(15 November 2012), p. 136-140. doi : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.033 ...
  • Its closest relatives are all extremely large myoviruses, namely coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2, with whom it shares approximately 44% homologous proteins. (osti.gov)
  • It is peripherally related to coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2. (osti.gov)
  • Although there is evidence in some reports of coliphage replication in the gut, the phage infections are consistently transient, becoming undetectable in 3-10 days [ 2 - 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To further analyze the correct taxonomic position of this virus we have completed the sequence of its genome noting its very close similarity to Yersinia phage Berlin and coliphage T3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pyrosequencing (454 technology) has been used to determine the sequence of the genomes of Bacillus thuringiensis phage 0305φ8-36 [ 7 ] and coliphage JK98 [ 8 ], and, in this incidence, the genome of Kvp1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The whole particle consists of 12-14 different proteins with more than 1000 protein molecules total and one DNA molecule located in the phage head. (wikipedia.org)
  • F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. (mdpi.com)
  • Durante noviembre y diciembre de 2001 se muestrearon 10 sitios, cinco efluentes y cinco canales, para la cuantificación de coliformes fecales y enterococos (filtración en membrana de nitrocelulosa), colifagos somáticos (técnica de doble capa de agar), ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp . (scielosp.org)
  • En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l) y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium , lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. (scielosp.org)
  • Secondary treatment processes are employed to remove total suspended solids, dissolved organic matter (measured as biochemical oxygen demand), and, with increasing frequency, nutrients. (nap.edu)
  • Host strains (for example CB390) counting total coliphages have been developed (Guzman et al. (coliphages.com)
  • Incubation period was significantly shorter for emetic strains compared with diarrhoeal strains A sub-panel of 149 strains strictly associated to 74 FBOs and selected on Coliphage M13-PCR pattern, was studied for detection of the genes encoding cereulide, diarrhoeic toxins (Nhe, Hbl, CytK1 and CytK2) and haemolysin (HlyII), as well as panC phylogenetic classification. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Selected samples presenting positive nested-PCR results for human adenoviruses were analyzed using quantitative PCR and 80 samples from a total of 132 produced quantitative results with mean values of 3.2x102 10 per 100 ml of water, human adenovirus 41 being the most prevalent serotype. (ub.edu)
  • A total of 177 treated reclaimed water samples were grouped into five pools, as were 177 treated raw sewage samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using automated microbiology systems.RESULTS: A total of 2,114 non-duplicated clinical isolates were collected from 1,571 patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several independent mathematical models based on the observed number of contigs predicted that the most abundant viral genome comprised 2-3% of the total population in both communities, which was estimated to contain between 374 and 7,114 viral types. (pnas.org)
  • Whole-genome sequencing yielded a total of 1,097,039 reads, with a length between 36 and 251 bp. (asm.org)
  • At 39,472 bp, the annotated genome revealed a closer relationship to coliphage T3 than T7 with Kvp1 containing homologs to T3 early proteins S-adenosyl-L-methionine hydrolase (0.3) and protein kinase (0.7). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The total genome is 39,472 bp with 194 bp terminal direct repeats, and a base composition of 48.6 mol%G+C - characteristics remarkably consistent with other T7-like phages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Click here to link to the approved procedures for Total Residual Chlorine, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Specific Conductance, Termperature and Settleable Residue. (nc.gov)
  • Bench-scale microcosm studies were performed to determine the effect of total dissolved solids (TDS) as sodium chloride and temperature on survival of several organisms. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The effluent COD, gallic acid, chroma, total nitrogen, total phosphorus levels and pH of both the expanded granular sludge bed and bio-contact oxidation reactors were monitored. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. (osti.gov)
  • At the same time the EM technology can also make a significant contribution towards the reduction and eventual total elimination of pesticides in previously cultivated soils (Parr et al. (teraganix.com)