A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
Compounds with two peroxide groups, that is, two pairs of adjacent OXYGEN atoms. They may have activity against PLASMODIUM similar to the ARTEMISININS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The property of dental enamel to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the dental enamel by microorganisms.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of humans and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
... such as benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide/adapalene, respectively. Topical benzoyl peroxide is effective at ... Recommended therapies for first-line use in acne vulgaris treatment include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and topical or ... or topical retinoid and benzoyl peroxide. Dermatologists generally prefer combining benzoyl peroxide with a retinoid over the ... The use of topical benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics together is more effective than antibiotics alone. Similarly, using a ...
The most common product is a topical treatment of benzoyl peroxide, which has minimal risk apart from minor skin irritation ... While they were more effective than topical applications of benzoyl peroxide, the bacteria eventually grew resistant to the ... These topical medications, which can be found in many creams and gels used to treat acne (acne vulgaris), induce skin to slough ... Before application, the face should be washed with warm water or a topical cleanser and then dried. A regimen of keeping the ...
In addition, hydrogen peroxide reduces to the hydroxyl radical, the most reactive radical and the one with the greatest ... Topical Studies in Oceanography. 48 (13): 2947-2970. Bibcode:2001DSRII..48.2947Y. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(01)00026-1. Klebanoff ... Hydrogen peroxide is then formed from the disproportionation of the superoxide anion. This reaction occurs very quickly in ... In marine systems, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exists at concentrations of 10−8-10−9 M in the photic zone, but has been found in ...
Clindamycin mixed with pimecrolimus cream and benzoyl peroxide was also effective. Clindamycin is used to inhibit bacterial ... First line treatment includes topical and intralesional glucocorticoids. Specific therapies include estrogen hormones and ...
Topical clindamycin plus topical benzoyl peroxide is more effective than topical clindamycin alone. It is most effective ... For treatment of acne, in the long term the combined use of topical clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide was similar to salicylic ... Seidler EM, Kimball AB (July 2010). "Meta-analysis comparing efficacy of benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide with ... It is also available for topical administration in gel form, as a lotion, and in a foam delivery system (each containing ...
... is a topical gel containing of 5% benzoyl peroxide and 3% erythromycin. Developed and manufactured by Dermik ... ATRX) Receives FDA Approval For Erythromycin/Benzoyl Peroxide", Biospace.com, 10/19/2005. ...
Fluhr J. W., Degitz K. (2010). "Antibiotics, azelaic acid and benzoyl peroxide in topical acne therapy". Journal der Deutschen ... John Kraft, Anatoli Freiman (Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2011): "Benzoyl peroxide is available in various topical ... benzoyl peroxide) and OXY Maximum (10% benzoyl peroxide). At the time a two-month supply of Proactiv cost around $40 in the US ... Benzoyl peroxide can have a drying effect on the skin, can cause erythema (redness) and fine scaling, though these effects are ...
Cook-Bolden FE, Barba A, Halder R, Taylor S (2004). "Twice-daily applications of benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% gel versus ... Prophylactic treatments include twice daily topical application of diluted glycolic acid. Twice a day application of benzoyl ... Perricone NV (October 1993). "Treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae with topical glycolic acid: a report of two studies". ... peroxide for several days or weeks is effective in treating ingrown hairs. Applying salicylic acid solution is also a common ...
The treatment for this condition is topical tretinoin or benzoyl peroxide applied to the skin. The use of topical steroids ... It is also speculated that cosmetics and sun care products containing hydroxyl peroxides may trigger this condition through ...
Benzoyl peroxide is an effective alternative over-the-counter option and is thought to be as effective as topical clindamycin. ... Topical clindamycin is generally preferred as the first-line choice due to lower cost and better availability. Fusidic acid is ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. Hsu, AR; Hsu, JW (July 2012). "Topical review: skin infections in the foot and ankle patient". Foot & ... Treatment of pitted keratolysis requires the application of antibiotics to the skin such as benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, ...
benzoyl peroxide ((C 6H 5COO) 2). It is used in topical medications for acne and to bleach flour. Ozone (O 3). While not ... Louis Jacques Thénard first produced hydrogen peroxide in 1818 by reacting barium peroxide with nitric acid. Hydrogen peroxide ... Peroxide-based bleaches, whose active agent is oxygen, almost always from the decomposition of a peroxide compound like ... Oxidizing bleaching agents that do not contain chlorine are usually based on peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide, sodium ...
This could be a possible explanation for the elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide in their lungs. Topical compositions of ... "Topical compositions and methods of detection and treatment", published 2013-01-24, assigned to The Johns Hopkins University. " ... A study in Nature suggested that asthma sufferers have higher levels of hydrogen peroxide in their lungs than healthy people, ... Other illustrative uses that employ the capacity of malate oxidase to yield hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a suitable ...
Other topical ointments can be used once consulted with a dermatologist. Long term effects of acne mechanica include potential ... Using skin care products specifically with salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide help exfoliate the skin in a gentle manner and ... "Which Is Better for Acne, Salicylic Acid or Benzoyl Peroxide?". Healthline. Retrieved 2020-06-18. "Skin Experts". asds.net. ...
Common cerumenolytics such as hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen peroxide - urea are topical preparations used to facilitate the ... Using carbamide peroxide as an example, the pharmacokinetics of cerumenolytics are not well studied. Cerumenolytics are used to ... Cerumenolytics with peroxides release oxygen upon contact with the skin, inducing effervescence (bubbling) that mechanically ... "Hydrogen Peroxide". www.poison.org. Retrieved 24 March 2018. "Treatment of ear problems". Independent Community Pharmacist. ...
... benzoyl peroxide, and tretinoin. Steroid-induced rosacea is caused by the use of topical steroids. These steroids are often ... Medications and topical irritants have also been known to trigger rosacea flares. Some acne and wrinkle treatments reported to ... Lesser evidence supports topical metronidazole cream and tetracycline by mouth. Metronidazole is thought to act through anti- ... Husein-ElAhmed H, Steinhoff M (January 2020). "Efficacy of topical ivermectin and impact on quality of life in patients with ...
Similar poor results with the topical route have disappointingly been found for other antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate ... this is notably far less than that achieved with other agents such as benzoyl peroxide or antibiotics, which produce 50-75% ... The effect of a topical antiandrogen: results of a multicenter clinical trial". Archives of Dermatology. 128 (9): 1197-1200. ... that was developed for topical administration to treat acne but was never marketed. It is the acetate ester of inocoterone, ...
... topical AR antagonists have been found much less effective compared to established treatments like benzoyl peroxide and ... Clascoterone, a topical antiandrogen, is effective for acne in males and may become approved for this indication in the future ... However, one topical AR antagonist, topilutamide (fluridil), has been introduced in a few European countries for the treatment ... In addition, a topical 5α-reductase inhibitor and weak estrogen, alfatradiol, has also been introduced in some European ...
Other topical antifungal agents such as clotrimazole, miconazole, terbinafine, or zinc pyrithione can lessen symptoms in some ... Additionally, hydrogen peroxide has been known to lessen symptoms and, on certain occasions, remove the problem, although ... "Tioconazole (Topical Route) - MayoClinic.com". Retrieved 2008-12-10. Vary JC Jr (November 2015). "Selected Disorders of Skin ... Topical antifungal medications containing selenium sulfide are often recommended. Ketoconazole (Nizoral ointment and shampoo) ...
Hyper-oxygenated fatty acids are produced by a specific industrial processes for topical skin creams. The process is based on ... the introduction or saturation of peroxides into fatty acid esters via the presence of ultraviolet light and gaseous oxygen ... "Topical Olive Oil is Not Inferior to Hyperoxygenated Fatty Aids to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Immobilised Patients in ...
... can resolve by itself by age 1 or 2 however treatment options include topical benzyl peroxide, topical retinoids ... As a topical product, it has similar side effects to topical BPO of burning, stinging, drying and scaling which can be managed ... Topical antibiotics are often used in cases of inflammatory infantile acne in combination with another topical treatment to ... Topical retinoids both alone and in combination are also first line for treating mild to moderate cases of acne. Safety and ...
It has been suggested that the more aggressively one applies the topical methods of treatment, the less aggressively one needs ... Antiseptic and antibiotic shampoos (chlorhexidine or benzoyl peroxide) are used to manage further secondary bacterial infection ... Once new hair growth is observed, topical treatment can be decreased to every 2 to 4 weeks. Immunosuppressant and anti- ... when not aggressively treated with topical therapy, increases and contributes to further sebaceous gland inflammation. This ...
... benzoyl peroxide, occlusive sunscreens, and various acne products. This is called zero treatment. Topical corticosteroids ... The use of topical steroids and cosmetics have the most important role. Although light exposure has been discounted as a causal ... Topical corticosteroids may lead to increase micro-organism density in the hair follicle. The role of infectious agents such as ... a tendency to occur on the drier parts of the face and can be aggravated by drying agents including topical benzoyl peroxide, ...
Like other topical retinoids, such as tretinoin and adapalene, tazarotene can be combined with benzoyl peroxide or an oral ... Kolli SS, Pecone D, Pona A, Cline A, Feldman SR (June 2019). "Topical Retinoids in Acne Vulgaris: A Systematic Review". Am J ... Han G, Wu JJ, Del Rosso JQ (September 2020). "Use of Topical Tazarotene for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris in Pregnancy: A ... Stratigos AJ, Katsambas AD (2005). "The role of topical retinoids in the treatment of photoaging". Drugs. 65 (8): 1061-72. doi: ...
... of the efficacy and safety of a combination topical gel formulation of benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide, ... Topical administration of clindamycin may induce contact dermatitis, dryness, burning, itching, scaliness and peeling of the ...
Typical recommendations are: Application of antiseptics Soak in astringents Antibiotics Benzoyl peroxide Topical diclofenac ... Topical corticosteroids If symptoms are severe, oral retinoids be prescribed and have been proven to be 90% effective. However ... In these cases, topical and/or oral antibiotic/antiviral medications may need to be prescribed. ... Common oral retinoids are: Acitretin Isotretinoin Cyclosporine Some patients are able to prevent flares with use of topical ...
It has been advocated that topical antiseptics are inferior to topical antibiotics, and therefore should not be used as a ... However, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as of February 2020 recommends a hydrogen peroxide 1% ... cream antiseptic rather than topical antibiotics for localised non-bullous impetigo in otherwise well individuals. This ...
Furthermore, of the three topical retinoids, adapalene is often regarded as the most tolerable. Use of topical adapalene in ... It is also available combined with benzoyl peroxide under the brand names Epiduo and Tactupump. In Europe, only the 0.1% cream ... increases the efficacy and penetration of other topical acne medications that are used in conjunction with topical retinoids as ... Among topical retinoids used to treat acne vulgaris, adapalene is considered to be the least effective, but best tolerated. It ...
Atopiclair topical emollient Benziq topical acne agent benzoyl peroxide Benziq Wash topical acne agent benzoyl peroxide Calcium ... Products include: Aldara & Zyclara topical immune response modifier imiquimod Alu-Cap and Alu-Tab antacid aluminum hydroxide ... Disodium Versenate antidote edetate calcium disodium Disalcid salicylates salsalate Durable Barr topical emollient Estrasorb ...
... oral antibiotics should be generally combined with topical acne creams such as benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid (tretinoin, ... A topical foam for treatment of acne was approved in 2019. Many forms of minocycline are no longer covered by patent, so it is ... "Minocycline topical foam" (PDF). FDA. Retrieved 23 February 2020. "Minocycline Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 3 ...
In April 2010, the FDA sent Buttar a warning letter for illegally marketing unapproved topical creams as drugs via his websites ... and for his use of intravenous hydrogen peroxide and EDTA to treat cancer. He came to public attention in 2009 when he alleged ... Buttar has been criticized for his use of chelation therapies, such as topical cream containing chelators to treat children ...
... antibiotic and benzoyl peroxide, antibiotic and topical retinoid, or topical retinoid and benzoyl peroxide.[47] Dermatologists ... such as benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide/adapalene, respectively.[36] Topical benzoyl peroxide is effective at ... Recommended therapies for first-line use in acne vulgaris treatment include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and topical or ... Brandstetter AJ, Maibach HI (August 2013). "Topical dose justification: benzoyl peroxide concentrations". The Journal of ...
... topical AR antagonists have been found much less effective compared to established treatments like benzoyl peroxide and ... Topical administrationEdit. There has been much interest and effort in the development of topical AR antagonists to treat ... Oral, topical. 1977. 3,650,000. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, SC. 1958. ... However, one topical AR antagonist, topilutamide (fluridil), has been introduced in a few European countries for the treatment ...
"A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment Regimens for Acute Pain for Topical Oleoresin Capsaicin (Pepper Spray) ... Hydrogen peroxide. *Icilin. *Isothiocyanate. *Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba). *Linalool (Sichuan pepper, thyme) ...
Shalita A (2001). "The integral role of topical and oral retinoids in the early treatment of acne". Journal of the European ... Adapalene/benzoyl peroxide. *Benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin. *Clindamycin/tretinoin. *Erythromycin/isotretinoin. *Sulfacetamide/ ... As of 2017 it was marketed as a topical combination drug with erythromycin under the brand names Isotrex Eritromicina, ...
The superoxide anion radical (O2−) spontaneously dismutes to O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) quite rapidly (~105 M−1s−1 at pH 7 ... Clinical trial number NCT01324141 for "Topical MTS-01 for Dermatitis During Radiation and Chemotherapy for Anal Cancer" at ... Campana F, Zervoudis S, Perdereau B, Gez E, Fourquet A, Badiu C, Tsakiris G, Koulaloglou S (2004). "Topical superoxide ... or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many ...
Hydrogen peroxide is often included in home first aid kits, but is a poor choice for disinfecting wounds- it kills cells and ... Topical medications *Antiseptics / disinfectants *Antiseptic fluid, moist wipe or spray- For cleaning and disinfecting a wound ...
Peroxide value. 20 (virgin). 10 (refined and pomace). This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering ... Moore J, Kelsberg G, Safranek S (December 2012). "Clinical Inquiry: Do any topical agents help prevent or reduce stretch marks ... Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the peroxide value,[67] which measures the degree to which the oil is ... because consumers there believe both the ingestion and topical application of olive oil to be good for skin and health.[49] ...
... is used as a topical application in skin whitening to reduce the color of skin. It does not have the same ... Hydroquinones are one of the two primary reagents in the defensive glands of bombardier beetles, along with hydrogen peroxide ( ... The conversion uses hydrogen peroxide and affords a mixture of hydroquinone and catechol (benzene-1,2-diol): ... In the United States, topical treatments usually contain up to 2% in hydroquinone. Otherwise, higher concentrations (up to 4%) ...
Topical aspirin may be effective for treating some types of neuropathic pain.[29] ... Adapalene/benzoyl peroxide. *Benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin. *Clindamycin/tretinoin. *Erythromycin/isotretinoin. *Sulfacetamide/ ...
Brandstetter AJ, Maibach HI (August 2013)։ «Topical dose justification: benzoyl peroxide concentrations»։ The Journal of ... 77,0 77,1 77,2 77,3 Sagransky M, Yentzer BA, Feldman SR (October 2009)։ «Benzoyl peroxide: A review of its current use in the ... Azelaic Acid Topical»։ National Institutes Of Health։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից 13 September 2013-ին։ Վերցված է 9 September 2013 , ... 75,0 75,1 75,2 Gamble R, Dunn J, Dawson A, Petersen B, McLaughlin L, Small A, Kindle S, Dellavalle RP (June 2012)։ «Topical ...
In the presence of air, and especially in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, silver dissolves readily in aqueous solutions of ... Topical Studies in Oceanography. 48 (13): 2933-2945. Bibcode:2001DSRII..48.2933N. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(01)00025-X. ISSN 0967- ... is a topical medicament (drug) used to treat and prevent dental caries (cavities) and relieve dentinal hypersensitivity.[111] ...
Worret WI, Fluhr JW (April 2006). "[Acne therapy with topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics and azelaic acid]". Journal der ... Benzoyl peroxide is a chemical compound (specifically, an organic peroxide) with structural formula (C. 5H. 5−C(=O)O−). 2, ... Benzoyl peroxide was first prepared and described by Liebig in 1858.[11] It was the first organic peroxide prepared ... Benzoyl peroxide is one of the most important organic peroxides in terms of applications and the scale of its production. It is ...
... 's best-known use is as a topical antiseptic to treat minor wounds, burns, and scratches.[4] It is also used in the ... is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes. Merbromin is an organomercuric disodium salt compound and a ...
Carbamide peroxide with a shelf life of one to two years, as opposed to hydrogen peroxide with a shelf life one to two months, ... Certain topical medications: Chlorhexidine (antiseptic mouthwash) binds to tannins, meaning that prolonged use in persons who ... Hydrogen peroxide is an irritant and cytotoxic. Hydrogen peroxide with concentrations of 10% or higher can cause tissue damage ... The bleaching agent is either carbamide peroxide, which breaks down in the mouth to form hydrogen peroxide, or hydrogen ...
Topical, oral. ATC code. *A01AB08 (WHO) A07AA01 (WHO), B05CA09 (WHO), D06AX04 (WHO), J01GB05 (WHO), R02AB01 (WHO), S01AA03 (WHO ... Neomycin is typically used as a topical preparation, such as Neosporin (neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin). It can also be given ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments, and eyedrops. Neomycin ...
13 Dermatological medicines (topical) *13.1 Antifungal medicines. *13.2 Anti-infective medicines. *13.3 Anti-inflammatory and ...
Kitt, D.Q. (2012), Topical Dehydroascorbic Acid (Oxidized Vitamin C) Permeates Stratum Corneum More Rapidly Than Ascorbic Acid ... Solutions in water containing ascorbic acid and copper ions and/or peroxide, resulting in rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid to ... "Anti Infectant Topical Preparations." U.S. Patent 3,065,139, filed Nov. 9, 1954 and issued Nov. 20, 1962 ... Hovi T, Hirvimies A, Stenvik M, Vuola E, Pippuri R (1995). "Topical treatment of recurrent mucocutaneous herpes with ascorbic ...
Guaguere, E. (1996). "Topical treatment of canine and feline pyoderma". Veterinary Dermatology. 7 (3): 145-151. doi:10.1111/j. ... They commonly contain benzoyl peroxide, chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, triclosan, ethyl lactate, or sulfur. ... and benzoyl peroxide. All these are meant to treat or prevent seborrhea oleosa, which is a condition characterized by excess ...
Liquid paraffin is considered to have a limited usefulness as an occasional laxative, but is unsuitable for regular use as it can seep from the anus and cause irritation.[citation needed] Efficacy of liquid paraffin is suggested by 2016 Cochrane review.[1] It might interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, though evidences seem low.[2] It can be absorbed into the intestinal wall[citation needed], and may cause foreign-body granulomatous reactions in some rat species but not in others and that reaction might not occur with human.[3] There are evidences suggesting the lack of carcinogenicity.[4] If it enters the lungs, it can cause lipoid pneumonia.[5] Liquid paraffin is also used in combination with magnesium as an osmotic laxative, sold under the trade name Mil-Par (among others).[6] ...
Topical skin product that helps protect against sunburn. For suntan lotion that intensifies sun exposure, see Indoor tanning ... Sánchez-Quiles D.; Tovar-Sánchez A. (2014). "Sunscreens as a source of hydrogen peroxide production in coastal waters". Environ ... Certain sunscreens in water under ultraviolet light can increase the production of hydrogen peroxide, which damages ... stick or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect ...
A topical analgesic (e.g. benzydamine mouthwash) may reduce pain. Topical (gels, creams or inhalers) or systemic steroids may ... Hydrogen peroxide, used to treat gum disease, is also capable of causing epithelial necrosis at concentrations of 1-3%. Silver ... Treatment is aimed at reducing the pain and swelling and speeding healing, and may involve systemic or topical steroids, ...
By mouth, topical, rectal, intravenous (IV), vaginal. ATC code. *A01AB17 (WHO) D06BX01 (WHO), G01AF01 (WHO), J01XD01 (WHO), ... topical), fungating wounds (topical), intra-abdominal infections, lung abscess, periodontitis, amoebiasis, oral infections, ... Common adverse drug reaction associated with topical metronidazole therapy include local redness, dryness and skin irritation; ...
... as well as through topical administration in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant dermatological conditions, including ... including reactive peroxides.[5] ...
Elemental chlorine has since served a continuous function in topical antisepsis (wound irrigation solutions and the like) and ...
Bleach can react violently with hydrogen peroxide and produce oxygen gas: H2O2 (aq) + NaOCl (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H2O (aq) + O2 (g ... "Topical hypochlorite ameliorates NF-κB-mediated skin diseases in mice". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 123 (12): 5361- ...
Hyper-oxygenated fatty acids are produced by a specific industrial processes for topical skin creams. The process is based on ... the introduction or saturation of peroxides into fatty acid esters via the presence of ultraviolet light and gaseous oxygen ... "Topical Olive Oil is Not Inferior to Hyperoxygenated Fatty Aids to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Immobilised Patients ...
By mouth, intravenous, topical (ear drops, eye drops). Drug class. Fluoroquinolone. ATC code. *J01MA02 (WHO) S01AE03 (WHO) ...
... lipid peroxides and heavy metals.[3]. Notes[edit]. *^ Based on available research, the American College of Sports Medicine, the ... Results: Patients with psoriasis were found to have a beneficial clinical improvement, whether they were on existing topical ... Serum . concentrations of lipid peroxides significantly decreased 8 weeks after Immunocal food. Serum IL-2 levels began to ...
Topical useEdit. Further information: Zinc oxide § Medicine. Topical preparations of zinc include those used on the skin, often ... 2),[46][47] the peroxide (ZnO. 2), the hydride (ZnH. 2), and the carbide (ZnC. 2) are also known.[48] Of the four halides, ZnF ... Oxford, J. S.; Öberg, Bo (1985). Conquest of viral diseases: a topical review of drugs and vaccines. Elsevier. p. 142. ISBN 0- ... Recent research suggests that the topical antimicrobial zinc pyrithione is a potent heat shock response inducer that may impair ...
Learn about the potential side effects of adapalene/benzoyl peroxide topical. Includes common and rare side effects information ... Applies to adapalene / benzoyl peroxide topical: topical gel. General. The most commonly reported side effects include ... Acne Tazorac, doxycycline, clindamycin topical, erythromycin topical, minocycline, tetracycline, tretinoin topical, ... Commonly reported side effects of adapalene/benzoyl peroxide topical include: burning sensation of skin, desquamation, stinging ...
Benzoyl Peroxide Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Benzoyl peroxide is for external use only. Do not let benzoyl peroxide get into your eyes, nose, or mouth, and do not swallow ... Benzoyl peroxide comes in cleansing liquid or bar, lotion, cream, and gel for use on the skin. Benzoyl peroxide usually is used ... Before using benzoyl peroxide,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to benzoyl peroxide, any other medications ...
Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical. pronounced as (klin da mye sin) (ben zoe ill) (per ox ide) ... Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of clindamycin and ... Avoid getting clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide gel on your hair or clothing. Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide may bleach hair ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for benzoyl peroxide/hydrocortisone topical. Includes Topical Corticosteroids - ... hydrocortisone topical:. Moderate Topical Corticosteroids (Includes Benzoyl peroxide/hydrocortisone topical) ↔ Diabetes. ... benzoyl peroxide / hydrocortisone topical drug Interactions. There are 76 drug interactions with benzoyl peroxide / ... Topical Corticosteroids (Includes Benzoyl peroxide/hydrocortisone topical) ↔ Diaper Rash. Moderate Potential Hazard, High ...
Hydrogen Peroxide, Topical Solution USP TopCare Hydrogen Peroxide, Topical Solution USP 00036800248359 ... Active Ingredient: Hydrogen Peroxide (Stabilized) (3%). Inactive Ingredients: Purified Water.. Warnings. For external use only ...
Hydrogen Peroxide, Topical Solution USP TopCare Hydrogen Peroxide, Topical Solution USP 00036800267114A ... Active Ingredient: Hydrogen Peroxide (Stabilized) (3%). Inactive Ingredient: Purified Water.. Warnings. Do not use if printed ...
Benzoyl Peroxide Topical gel drug summary. Find medication information including related drug classes, side effects, patient ... Topical gel (10%) , Benzoyl Peroxide: Topical gel (6%) , Benzoyl Peroxide: Topical gel (2.5%) , Benzoyl Peroxide: Topical gel ( ... Topical gel , Benzac AC: Topical gel , Soluclenz Rx: Topical gel , Benzac: Topical gel , Seba: Topical gel , Seba-Gel: Topical ... Topical gel , PanOxyl: Topical emulsion , PanOxyl: Topical gel , Riax: Topical foam , Seba-Gel: Topical gel , Seba: Topical gel ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Benzoyl Peroxide topical at PatientsLikeMe. 23 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Benzoyl Peroxide topical. ... Stopped taking Benzoyl Peroxide topical Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: Less than 1 month 5 * 5 ... Currently taking Benzoyl Peroxide topical Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: 1 - 2 years 1 * 1 ...
Learn about clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide side effects, how to take clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide and more. ... Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical. (klin da mye sin) (ben zoe ill per ox ide). ... Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of clindamycin and ... Avoid getting clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide gel on your hair or clothing. Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide may bleach hair ...
This medicine may make your skin more sensitive to sunlight, wind, and cold weather. Use a sunscreen when you are outdoors. Avoid sunlamps and tanning beds. You may need to wear protective clothing, such as a hat. Skin reactions such as dryness, redness, scaling, burning, or stinging can occur when you use this medicine. Use a moisturizer as needed to lessen these skin problems. Do not use any other medicines on the treated skin areas without asking your doctor. Avoid using any skin care products that can dry or irritate your skin. These include rough skin cleansers, hair removal products, soaps or cosmetics that cause dryness, or products that contain alcohol, astringents, spices, or lime. Do not use "waxing" as a hair removal method on skin areas treated with this medicine. Allow this medicine to dry completely before getting dressed. This medicine may cause bleaching of clothes or hair. I. ...
Erythromycin topical prevents bacteria from growing on the skin. Benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical (for the skin) is a ... Benzoyl peroxide has an antibacterial effect. It also has a mild drying effect that allows excess oils and dirt to be easily ... What other drugs will affect benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical?. Do not use benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical ... What are the possible side effects of benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical?. Benzoyl peroxide can cause a rare but serious ...
For topical dosage form (gel): * For acne: * Epiduo®: * Adults and children 9 years of age and older-Apply a thin layer to the ...
Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, ... hydrogen peroxide) Topical Solution. DESCRIPTION. ESKATA (hydrogen peroxide) topical solution, 40% (w/w) is a clear, colorless ... ESKATA (hydrogen peroxide) topical solution, 40% (w/w) is a clear, colorless solution and is supplied in a unit dose package. ... Hydrogen peroxide is not absorbed systemically following topical administration, and maternal use is not expected to result in ...
Find user ratings and reviews for benzoyl peroxide-urea topical on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions, ... User Reviews for benzoyl peroxide-urea topical Comments & ratings on the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of benzoyl ...
Benzoyl peroxide versus topical erythromycin in the treatment of acne vulgaris.. Burke B, Eady EA, Cunliffe WJ. ... However, benzoyl peroxide also significantly reduced the number of non-inflamed lesions whereas erythromycin had no effect on ... This study supports the view that, although topical erythromycin is of value in the treatment of mild or moderate acne vulgaris ... benzoyl peroxide gel in significantly reducing the number of small inflamed lesions and the overall acne severity. ...
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  • 9. The solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation of claims 7 wherein the solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation further comprises an antibiotic/bactericidal/antibacterial agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This medication is a combination of adapalene (a retinoid) and benzoyl peroxide (an antibiotic and skin-peeling agent). (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • In acne management, one strategy involves concomitant use of topical retinoids with benzoyl peroxide or a fixed combination of topical antibiotic/benzoyl peroxide. (jddonline.com)
  • ACANYA Gel is a lincosamide antibiotic and benzoyl peroxide indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. (nih.gov)
  • Erythromycin belongs to the category of drugs known as macrolide antibiotics, Prednisone Birth Control Pills while Benzoyl Peroxide is a keratolytic agent with antibiotic properties. (odroid.com)
  • Treatment of acne vulgaris: combination of 3% erythromycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide in a gel compared to clindamycin phosphate lotion Erythromycin belongs to the category of drugs known as macrolide antibiotics, while Benzoyl Peroxide is a keratolytic agent with antibiotic properties. (sheffield.sch.uk)
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  • All tend to dry out acne , but BP acts more like a topical antibiotic . (healthtap.com)
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  • 1 Benzoyl peroxide releases oxygen free radicals to oxidize bacterial proteins and decrease anaerobic bacteria in the sebaceous follicles, and produces a keratolytic effect. (aafp.org)
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  • These topical medications, which can be found in many creams and gels used to treat acne (acne vulgaris), induce skin to slough off more easily, helping to remove bacteria faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • While they were more effective than topical applications of benzoyl peroxide, the bacteria eventually grew resistant to the antibiotics and the treatments became less and less effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 1.2%/5% has not been demonstrated to have any additional benefit when compared with benzoyl peroxide alone in the same vehicle when used for the treatment of non-inflammatory acne. (nih.gov)
  • 2 , 4 The addition of adapalene has not been shown to increase the risk of adverse effects compared with benzoyl peroxide alone. (aafp.org)
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  • This study supports the view that, although topical erythromycin is of value in the treatment of mild or moderate acne vulgaris, long established, safe and effective remedies should not be replaced by topical antibiotics until more comparative studies and investigations on bacterial resistance have been completed. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Unlike many other antibiotics for acne, erythromycin can come in either an oral (pill) form, or a topical (gel or Cialis Buy Europe cream) form. (odroid.com)
  • My usual sequence is to try benzoyl peroxide , then topical antibiotics ( erythromycin is a good one), then topical tretinoin (they can be used in combination or separately). (healthtap.com)
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  • 7 Nonprescription benzoyl peroxide products cost $10 to $15 per month. (aafp.org)
  • The invention relates to a novel solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation for the treatment of acne comprising: benzoyl peroxide, one or more skin penetration enhancers, a surfactant, and one or more solvents, wherein the benzoyl peroxide is solubilized in the solvent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention further relates to the use of the topical formulation as well as a process for making the topical formulation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation of claim 2 wherein the one or more solvents is selected from ethylene glycol-400 (low molecular weight solvent), propylene or butylene glycol, isopropyl or ethyl alcohol, short chain alkyl esters, or combinations thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation of claim 3 wherein the skin penetration enhancer is dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation of claim 4 wherein the surfactant is sodium lauryl sulfate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation of claim 5 wherein the benzoyl peroxide is in a concentration of from 1 to 10% by weight. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation of claim 7 wherein the solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation further comprises a topical anesthetic agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. The use of the solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation of claim 7 for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of acne. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. A process for the preparation of a solubilized benzoyl peroxide topical formulation, said process comprising: a. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of a combination benzoyl peroxide plus clindamycin in a gel formulation compared with each of its 2 active constituents in gel vehicle, and gel vehicle given alone in the treatment of acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • Efficacy of the fixed 1.2 % clindamycin phosphate, 0.025% tretinoin gel formulation (Velac) and a proprietary 0.0 25% tretinoin gel formulation (Aberela) in the topical control of facial acne. (springer.com)
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  • EPIDUO™ (adapalene and benzoyl peroxide) Gel 0.1%/2.5%, marketed by GALDERMA LABORATORIES, L.P., is a safe and effective topical therapy used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to benzoyl peroxide or erythromycin (Akne-Mycin, Eryderm, Erythrocin, Pediazole, and others). (cigna.com)
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  • Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a chemical which can act as both a bleach and a disinfectant. (wikihow.com)
  • Comparing 2.5 %, 5%, and 10% benzoyl peroxide on inflammatory acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 1.2%/5% is a combination of clindamycin phosphate (a lincosamide antibacterial) and benzoyl peroxide indicated for the topical treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. (nih.gov)
  • [10] Benzoyl peroxide is available as a generic medication and over the counter . (wikipedia.org)
  • Overordnet coreg generic cost barefoot er der ingen tegn på, at enkeltdosis på 150 mg medfører en klinisk betydende øget risiko for uønsket fosterpåvirkning! (savannagrayless.com)
  • FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical will harm an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • Topical corticosteroids, especially the potent agents (e.g., augmented betamethasone, clobetasol, diflorasone, and halobetasol), are generally not recommended for use in the treatment of diaper rash. (drugs.com)
  • Benzoyl peroxide is a topical acne product that is used as adjunctive treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris and acne rosacea. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Benzoyl peroxide versus topical erythromycin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. (nih.gov)
  • Benzoyl Peroxide Topical Gel, 2.5% (Benzoyl Peroxide Monad) and Topical Gel Vehicle (Gel Vehicle) in the treatment of acne vulgaris for up to 12 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Topical clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide have each demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • In this 10-week, multicenter, double-blind trial, 480 patients with moderate to moderately severe acne were randomized to receive twice-daily treatment with 5% benzoyl peroxide plus 1% clindamycin, 5% benzoyl peroxide, 1% clindamycin, or vehicle. (springer.com)
  • The most frequent adverse effect, dry skin, occurred to a similar extent in the combination and benzoyl peroxide treatment groups. (springer.com)
  • Chu A., Huber F.J., Plott R.T. The comparative efficacy of benzoyl peroxide 5%/erythromycin 3% gel and erythromycin 4%/zinc 1.2 % solution in the treatment of acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • Weiss J.S. Current options for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • Tucker S., Tausend R., Cochran R. Comparison of topical clindamycin phosphate, benzoyl peroxide, and a combination of the two for the treatment of acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of acne with a combination clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel compared with clindamycin gel, benzoyl peroxide gel and vehicle gel: combined results of two double-blind investigations. (springer.com)
  • A double-blind study of the effectiveness of a 3% erythromycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide combination in the treatment of acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • Jain VK, Chopra KL, Dayal S. Comparative evaluation of topical benzoyl peroxide, metronidazole and benzoyl peroxide - clindamycin combination in treatment of acne vulgaris. (acne.org)
  • Efficacy of topical combination of benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1% for the treatment of progressive macular hypomelanosis: a randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. (curehunter.com)
  • To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical combination of benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1% associated with sun exposure for the treatment of progressive macular hypomelanosis . (curehunter.com)
  • To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 40% hydrogen peroxide topical solution (HP40) versus vehicle for the treatment of SKs (A-101-SEBK). (ovid.com)
  • Before using benzoyl peroxide topical, tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. (drugster.info)
  • In the U.S., the typical concentration for benzoyl peroxide is 2.5% to 10% for both prescription and over-the-counter drug preparations that are used in treatment for acne. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACANYA ® Gel is indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients 12 years or older. (nih.gov)
  • This study characterizes the changes to polysaccharides in terms of their abundance, accessibility, and affinity for binding by a range of cellulolytic enzymes and CBMs in the cell walls of grasses and dicots that were alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreated at varied severities or hydrothermally pretreated followed by AHP post-treatment. (aiche.org)
  • IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION Contraindications: AKTIPAK ™ is contraindicated in those individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its components DUAC Gel applied once daily for 11 weeks was significantly more effective than vehicle, benzoyl peroxide, and clindamycin in the treatment of inflammatory lesions of moderate to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris in three of the five trials (Trials 1, 2, and 5). (odroid.com)
  • Comparison of the combination of erythromycin/benzoyl peroxide topical gel to clindamycin phosphate solution in treatment of acne vulgaris. (sheffield.sch.uk)
  • Adapalene/benzoyl peroxide is as effective as other combination products for the treatment of acne. (aafp.org)
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  • Bears some rare but scarring and replace the treatment can take the need of the hypothesis, clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide topical gel cost to spit. (savannagrayless.com)
  • As a first step of treatment, doctors always start with benzyl peroxide to help remove the clogging of sweat glands. (healthtap.com)
  • ESKATA is the first and only FDA-approved topical treatment that is indicated for raised seborrheic keratoses. (eskatahcp.com)
  • ESKATA ™ (hydrogen peroxide) topical solution, 40% (w/w) is indicated for the treatment of seborrheic keratoses that are raised. (eskatahcp.com)
  • The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy profiles of Taro Pharmaceutical Inc.'s Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel 1.2%/2.5% to Acanya® (Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide) Gel, 1.2%/2.5% and to demonstrate the superior efficacy of the two active formulations over that of the vehicle in the treatment of acne vulgaris. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Treatment with benzoyl peroxide was proposed for wounds by Lyon and Reynolds in 1929, and for sycosis vulgaris and acne varioliformis by Peck and Chagrin in 1934. (wikipedia.org)
  • What's better differin (adapalene) or benzoyle peroxide? (healthtap.com)
  • Benzoyl peroxide has an antibacterial effect. (cigna.com)
  • When used in combination, they promise greater efficacy than either individual agent used alone and the combined use of benzoyl peroxide with topical antibacterials has been shown to decrease the emergence of antibacterial resistant species. (springer.com)
  • Avoid getting clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide gel on your hair or clothing. (lifescript.com)
  • What should I avoid while taking benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical? (cigna.com)
  • Also avoid using benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical on wounds or on areas of eczema. (cigna.com)
  • Avoid abrasive, harsh, or drying soaps and cleansers while using benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical. (drugster.info)
  • Avoid combining PABA-containing sunscreens and benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical. (drugster.info)
  • Avoid using other topical products on the same area at the same time unless directed to do so by your doctor. (drugster.info)
  • Various strengths of benzoyl peroxide are available over-the-counter w/o prescription. (healthtap.com)
  • This strategy requires application of one product in the morning and one in the evening due to concerns of benzoyl peroxide-induced degradation of retinoid activity. (jddonline.com)
  • Presented are two cases in which a topical retinoid and a topical fixed combination of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide were used concomitantly in patients with mild-to-moderate acne. (jddonline.com)
  • Some side effects of adapalene / benzoyl peroxide topical may occur that usually do not need medical attention. (drugs.com)
  • Benzoyl peroxide may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Comments & ratings on the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of benzoyl peroxide-urea topical . (webmd.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of benzoyl peroxide topical? (drdoleary.com)
  • What won brinkley snug really from the testicular pharmacopoeias was his actually continued alpha side that entered of oxide inches, levels, and effective erythromycin side effects topical blood issues. (yilmazreklam.com.tr)
  • It also has less side-effects that benzoyl peroxide. (healthtap.com)
  • Benzoyl peroxide comes in cleansing liquid or bar, lotion, cream, and gel for use on the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide comes as a gel to apply to the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide may make your skin sensitive to sunlight. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids may occur depending on the vehicle and concentration of the preparation, the size of the application area, the integrity of the skin, and the duration of administration. (drugs.com)
  • BENZOYL PEROXIDE (BEN zoe ill per OX ide) is used on the skin to treat mild to moderate acne. (cvs.com)
  • Benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical (for the skin) is a combination medicine used to treat acne. (cigna.com)
  • Do not cover the treated skin area after applying benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical. (cigna.com)
  • Finally, acute topical effect of the disinfection system on rat oral mucosa and wounded skin was evaluated by histological examination. (nii.ac.jp)
  • An overdose of benzoyl peroxide applied to the skin is not likely to cause life-threatening symptoms. (drugster.info)
  • What is the most important information I should know about benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical?Do not use benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical on sunburned, windburned, dry, chapped, or irritated skin or on an open wound. (drugster.info)
  • Clean and dry the area of skin where you will apply benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical. (drugster.info)
  • Do not use benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical on sunburned, windburned, dry, chapped, or irritated skin or on open wounds. (drugster.info)
  • Although there is no standard for establishing a gluten-free designation for topical skin care products, independent laboratory testing confirms that this formula surpasses the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) ingestible standards and can therefore be considered gluten-free. (dermalogica.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide can come in concentrations higher than 3%, but those higher concentrations should never be used on your skin. (wikihow.com)
  • Dry skin will absorb the hydrogen peroxide better than wet skin. (wikihow.com)
  • Apply the hydrogen peroxide to your clean skin. (wikihow.com)
  • Use a cotton pad, cotton ball or even a Q-Tip, soak it in the hydrogen peroxide, and move it over the affected areas of your skin. (wikihow.com)
  • Do not apply hydrogen peroxide to the skin more than once a day. (wikihow.com)
  • After the hydrogen peroxide has soaked into your skin, gently apply a high-quality, oil-free facial moisturizer. (wikihow.com)
  • One of the reasons that hydrogen peroxide works on acne is because it helps dry up the excess oil on your skin. (wikihow.com)
  • At most, how often should you apply hydrogen peroxide to your skin? (wikihow.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide does dry out your skin, but you don't need to take breaks in between days of use. (wikihow.com)
  • It's totally fine to use hydrogen peroxide on your skin every day. (wikihow.com)
  • You can apply hydrogen peroxide to your skin every day until your acne clears up. (wikihow.com)
  • Adapalene and benzoyl peroxide topical (for the skin) is a combination medicine used to treat acne in adults and children who are at least 9 years old. (nashunchealthcare.org)
  • Exactly when joined with the skin, benzoyl peroxide satisfies desires by lessening the measure of pimple inflamation making microorganisms and by achieving the skin to dry and peel. (medicinesmexico.com)
  • Last Update November 15, combined with pharmaceutical grade benzoyl peroxide with clindamycin, my skin improved. (odroid.com)
  • To own one of the most recognized online brands by doctors in India with millions of visitors - click here Benzoyl peroxide comes in cleansing liquid or bar, lotion, cream, and gel for use on the skin. (odroid.com)
  • Erythromycin/benzoyl peroxide comes as a gel that is applied to the skin For gangrene phosphate topical gel lotion clindamycin hcl photo price bei Erythromycin Prescription Acne Medication can i buy erythromycin over the counter buy erythromycin benzoyl peroxide topical gel usp erythromycin stearate can you get erythromycin over the counter 1 / 4. (sheffield.sch.uk)
  • A hydrogen peroxide containing composition, which sufficiently decreases the stimulation to the scalp, skin, and the like when used as a hair dye. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The improved efficacy obtained with the combination therapy was accompanied by a tolerability profile similar to that of benzoyl peroxide alone, making this new combination product an alternative antimicrobial therapy for acne vulgaris. (springer.com)
  • What I understood is benzoyl peroxide, metronidazole and benzoyl peroxide - clindamycin combination is superior to just benzoyl peroxide alone. (acne.org)
  • Group A used the topical combination of benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1% and Group B used gel cream as a placebo. (curehunter.com)
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide combination in the elderly. (allinahealth.org)
  • Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 1.2%/5% should not be used in combination with erythromycin-containing products because of its clindamycin component. (nih.gov)
  • Benzoyl Peroxide Gel 5% may be useful for treating localized superficial and deep pyodermas, chin acne, fold pyodermas, and localized demodex lesions in dogs Benzamycin® (3% erythromycin, 5% benzoyl peroxide) was the first topical combination of benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin. (odroid.com)
  • As a medication, benzoyl peroxide is mostly used to treat acne , either alone or in combination with other treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • An overdose of benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical is not expected to be dangerous. (cigna.com)
  • An overdose of benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical is unlikely to occur. (drugster.info)
  • If you do suspect an overdose, or if benzoyl peroxide and sulfur topical has been ingested, call a poison control center or an emergency room for advice. (drugster.info)
  • Concomitant topical acne therapy should be used with caution because a possible cumulative irritancy effect may occur, especially with the use of peeling, desquamating, or abrasive agents. (nih.gov)