Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Tooth Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Tin Fluorides: Inorganic fluorides of tin. They include both stannic fluoride (tin tetrafluoride) and stannous fluoride (tin difluoride). The latter is used in the prevention of dental caries.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Tooth Abrasion: The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Dentin SensitivityDentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.Dental Fissures: Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.Tooth DiseasesDental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Pterocarpus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Stevia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).BrazilRadiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Mouth DiseasesDental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesTooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)IndiaTelepathy: The knowledge or communication by one person with the mental processes of another through channels other than known physical or perceptual processes.Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Salvia officinalis: A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
  • A 2-year double-blind randomized three-treatment controlled parallel-group clinical study compared the anti-caries efficacy of two dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound (di-calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate) and 1,450 ppm fluoride (F), as sodium monofluorophosphate, to a control dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F, as sodium fluoride, in a silica base. (researchgate.net)
  • Those findings showed a marked reduction in caries experience, around 50%, in children and adolescents in the fluoridated cities compared to non-fluoridated control cities or the levels of caries in cities before fluoridation. (iadr.org)
  • The review, titled "Xylitol-Containing Products for Preventing Dental Caries in Children and Adults" can be read online at www.cochranelibrary.com. (ada.org)
  • Between September and December 2018 our most popular blogs considered guidelines for non-restorative options for caries management , orthodontic management of the developing dentition and aligners for orthodontic treatment. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • The new review, which examined results from 75 controlled clinical studies, found that the benefits of fluoride are reduced for toothpastes that contain less than 1,000 parts per million of fluoride. (cfah.org)
  • I'm not convinced that the possible benefits of fluoride in toothpaste outweigh its far more serious potential health effects, especially since it can accumulate in tissues and bones. (mercola.com)
  • 3 years and 3-6 years should use a smear the size of a rice grain and a pea-sized amount of toothpaste, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Parents and caregivers can play a role in ensuring that children are brushing often enough and using the recommended amount of toothpaste. (cdc.gov)
  • To estimate the amount of toothpaste used, parents were asked, "On average, how much toothpaste (do you/does SP) use when brushing (his/her) teeth? (cdc.gov)
  • A lentil-size smear of fluoridated toothpaste twice a day is safe and appropriate for children 6 months to age 3 years old. (ndnr.com)
  • When choosing toothpaste samples for the testing, try to choose five very different samples (in terms of cost, color, consistency like paste vs. gel and special formulations, such as baking soda, tartar control, sensitive and denture formulas). (flinnsci.com)
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy patients often times need fluoride supplements or a salivary substitute to reduce caries risk. (avroarrow.org)
  • 7 small observational studies were included in this review of oral health status in people with autism spectrum disorders higher levels of caries and periodontal disease are suggested in this population. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • While the global epidemic of dental caries that began about 140 years ago was very largely caused by the rise in sugar consumption, the more recent decline in caries during the last 50 years has been due largely to the use of fluoride. (iadr.org)
  • A thin probe, sometimes special dyes, and transillumination by fiberoptic lights are used, frequently supplemented by new devices that detect caries by changes in electrical conductivity or laser reflectivity. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Unfortunately, statistics show that only ten out of a hundred patients can independently detect caries. (ohiodentalclinics.com)
  • The addition of two chemicals to standard fluoride toothpaste can go a surprisingly long way towards tackling dental caries, according to new research conducted by Colgate-Palmolive. (designerdental.co.uk)
  • The antimicrobial activity of seven different toothpastes Emoform, Colgate, Signal , Crest , Sanino, Close up & Sensodyne were evaluated on some pathogenic oral microorganisms : Streptococcus mutans, Micrococcus spp. (iasj.net)
  • Colgate has developed a quick-reference Dental Translator tool to help you communicate with your Tagalog speaking patients. (colgateprofessional.com)
  • Common phrases used in all facets of your appointment, including medical history interview, oral health assessment, and dental procedures, are now available to all registered Colgate Oral Health Advisors via the link below. (colgateprofessional.com)
  • Colgate are developing several other Dental Translators for other languages, check out the COHA news section to see what else is available. (colgateprofessional.com)
  • Dr Tariq Drabu in Manchester said "Colgate recently announced their new innovation at the 2014 British Dental Conference and Exhibition on the 11 April 2014. (prweb.com)
  • It is exciting to know that there are companies such as Colgate that are dedicated to dental health through research and development. (prweb.com)
  • The proposition that cities with water supplies deficient in fluoride might have their level brought up to inhibit caries emerged in 1943 and 1944. (iadr.org)
  • Crest® PRO-HEALTH™ Clean Mint Toothpaste has an improved usage experience that you and your patients are sure to love! (dentalcare.com)