Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Dental Enamel Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride: A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Erbium: Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Dental Fissures: Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.

The effect of triclosan toothpaste on enamel demineralization in a bacterial demineralization model. (1/173)

Triclosan has been incorporated into toothpaste to enhance inhibitory effects on bacterial metabolism in dental plaque. Many studies have confirmed these effects by showing a reduction of accumulation of dental plaque, gingivitis and calculus. However, there is no evidence for triclosan having an inhibitory effect on the dental plaque-induced demineralization of the dental hard tissues. Therefore, the effect of 0.3% triclosan added to non-fluoride and fluoride toothpaste was tested in an in vitro model, in which bovine enamel specimens were to be demineralized by acids produced in overlaying Streptococcus mutans suspensions. In a first set of experiments the toothpastes were added to the S. mutans suspensions at 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10,000 (w/v) dilutions. After 22 h incubation at 37 degrees C the suspensions were removed and assessed for calcium and lactate content, and pH. In this set of experiments, triclosan had no additive protective effect to the non-fluoride or fluoride toothpaste. In a second set of experiments, the enamel specimens were immersed daily for 3 min in 30% (w/v) slurries of the toothpastes before the 22 h incubation with the S. mutans suspensions. Under these conditions, triclosan showed an additional protective effect compared with non-fluoride toothpaste at a low concentration of S. mutans cells (0.07 mg cells dry weight per 600 microL suspension). It is concluded that the enamel surface may act as a reservoir for triclosan, which may protect the enamel surface against a mild acid attack. In combination with fluoride, however, as in toothpaste, triclosan has no additional protective effect against demineralization.  (+info)

Fluoride-releasing elastomerics--a prospective controlled clinical trial. (2/173)

A prospective controlled clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of stannous fluoride-releasing elastomeric modules (Fluor-I-Ties) and chain (Fluor-I-Chain) in the prevention of enamel decalcification during fixed appliance therapy. Forty-nine patients (782 teeth) were included in the experimental group, where the fluoride-releasing elastomerics were used. Forty-five patients (740 teeth) who received non fluoride-releasing elastomerics formed the control group. All patients had their elastomerics replaced at each visit. Enamel decalcification incidence and distribution were recorded using an index by direct clinical observation. In the control group enamel decalcification occurred in 73 per cent of patients and in 26 per cent of all teeth. In the experimental group the corresponding incidence was 63 and 16 per cent, respectively. The overall reduction in score per tooth produced by the fluoride-releasing elastomerics was 49 per cent, a highly significant difference (P < 0.001). A significant difference was seen in all but the occlusal enamel zones. The majority (over 50 per cent) of lesions occurred gingivally. The teeth most severely affected were the maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular second premolars. There was no difference in treatment duration between groups.  (+info)

Study of the fluoridated adhesive resin cement--fluoride release, fluoride uptake and acid resistance of tooth structures. (3/173)

The objectives of this study, were to evaluate the fluoride release from fluoridate adhesive resin cement, fluoride uptake into surrounding tooth structures and the effect of their acid resistance. Several specimens were prepared using a plastic ring mould, from extracted human premolars, and prepared from enamel and dentin of the central area of the buccal surface of bovine teeth. The fluoride release rate of fluoridate adhesive resin cement (PN 200) per day was higher than other materials during the 7-day study period. Fluoride released and fluoride uptake by tooth structures was higher in the fluoridate adhesive resin cement. WDX analysis showed the fluoride concentration on dentin contact area was higher than that of enamel after 60 days of immersion in deionized water. The calcium release values were similar for enamel and dentin plates in the various test materials. The present findings indicated the important enhancement of tooth structure acid resistance by fluoridate material.  (+info)

Fluoride-releasing elastomeric modules reduce decalcification: a randomized controlled trial. (4/173)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fluoride releasing elastomeric modules reduced the incidence of decalcification around orthodontic brackets during a complete course of orthodontic treatment. DESIGN: A randomised controlled, split mouth design. SETTING: The study was carried out in the orthodontic department of Newcastle-upon-Tyne Dental Hospital, UK. SUBJECT AND METHODS: 21 consecutive patients (126 teeth) undergoing fixed appliance therapy were studied. A split mouth technique was adopted to examine the upper labial segment, where one side (left or right) was randomly assigned to the experimental group, and the opposite side served as a control throughout their course of orthodontic treatment. INTERVENTIONS: The control teeth were ligated to the archwire using conventional modules. The experimental teeth were ligated to the archwire using Fluoride releasing elastomeric modules. OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised photographs were taken of the upper labial segment before and after completion of orthodontic treatment, and the degree of decalcification assessed in each tooth quadrant, using a modification of the Enamel Defect Score. RESULTS: Decalcification was found to occur in both treatment groups, though to a significantly greater degree on the control side (p = 0.002). The fluoride module side showed significantly fewer serious decalcified lesions than the control (p = 0.013). No patients withdrew from the study. CONCLUSIONS: It would appear that the use of fluoride releasing elastomeric modules reduces the degree of decalcification experienced during orthodontic treatment.  (+info)

Dental enamel formation and its impact on clinical dentistry. (5/173)

The nature of tooth enamel is of inherent interest to dental professionals. The current-day clinical practice of dentistry involves the prevention of enamel demineralization, the promotion of enamel remineralization, the restoration of cavitated enamel where demineralization has become irreversible, the vital bleaching of dental enamel that has become discolored, and the diagnosis and treatment of developmental enamel malformations, which can be caused by environmental or genetic factors. On a daily basis, dental health providers make diagnostic and treatment decisions that are influenced by their understanding of tooth formation. A systemic condition during tooth development, such as high fever, can produce a pattern of enamel defects in the dentition. Knowing the timing of tooth development permits estimates about the timing of the disturbance. The process of enamel maturation continues following tooth eruption, so that erupted teeth can become less susceptible to decay over time. Mutations in the genes encoding enamel proteins lead to amelogenesis imperfecta, a collection of inherited diseases having enamel malformations as the predominant phenotype. Defects in the amelogenin gene cause X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta, and genes encoding other enamel proteins are candidates for autosomal forms. Here we review our current understanding of dental enamel formation, and relate this information to clinical circumstances where this understanding may be particularly relevant.  (+info)

Varnish or polymeric coating for the prevention of demineralization? An ex vivo study. (6/173)

OBJECTIVE: The ability of an experimental coating, Odyssey, to prevent demineralisation ex vivo was compared with that of a fluoride varnish, Duraphat and a chlorhexidine-containing varnish, Cervitec. DESIGN: an ex vivo single-blind study. SETTING: Hard tissue research laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: thirty bovine enamel blocks 0.5 cm x 1.5 cm were divided into 6 groups of 5 specimens. The enamel blocks were then allocated to one of 6 surface treatments. INTERVENTIONS: (1) surface left unprepared (control), (2) Duraphat application, (3) Cervitec application, (4) experimental polymer coating, (5) enamel conditioned with 10% citric acid and coated with the experimental polymer coating Odyssey (O + C), (6) enamel etched for 30 sec with 37% phosphoric acid and coated with the experimental coating (O + E). All specimens were cycled for 7 days through a daily procedure of demineralisation for 4 hours and remineralisation for 20 hours, and exposed to an equivalent of 2 months toothbrushing. A single operator blinded to the treatment allocation of each specimen carried artificial lesion depth assessment out using computer-assisted transverse microradiography. RESULTS: The control group had the greatest mean lesion depth (97.16 + 29.8 microm) with the Duraphat group exhibiting the lowest mean lesion depth (24.53 + 15.44 microm). The Duraphat, Odyssey, O + C and O + E groups all had significantly less lesion depth when compared with no surface preparation (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). There were no significant differences between any of the Odyssey groups. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of Duraphat application in preventing demineralisation ex vivo has been demonstrated in the present study, but clinical trials are required to assess its usefulness in orthodontic practice.  (+info)

A resin veneer for enamel protection during orthodontic treatment. (7/173)

The aims of this study were to test the tensile bond strength of a recently developed veneer. Sound premolar teeth (120) extracted for orthodontic purposes were divided into two experimental and two control groups. In one experimental group (V1) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (4META) was used on the surface veneer prepared with micro particle filled resin (MFR) as an adhesive for bracketing and in the second group (V2) 4META was applied on the surface veneer with the trial resin. For the controls, in group R 4META was used on the enamel surface without veneer and in group G light-cured glass ionomer cement was applied. The 30 samples in each group were divided into three groups of 10 samples and thermal cycled (TC) at 3000, 10,000 or left uncycled. Tensile testing was carried out using an Instron machine. After tensile testing the bond failures in the experimental groups were recorded using a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. In group V2 the resin veneer was able to maintain sufficient bond force to enamel during clinical use. The bond strength of group V1 was significantly higher than that of groups R (P < 0.05) and G (P < 0.01) at TC 0, but for both TC 3000 and 10,000, the bond strength of group V1 was lower than groups R and G, respectively. There were significant differences between groups V1 and R (P < 0.01) for TC 3000, and between groups V1 and R and G (P < 0.01) at TC 10,000. The bond strength of group V2 was almost equal to that of group R at TC 0. At TC 3000, group V2 showed significantly lower bond strength than group R (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found compared with group G. At TC 10,000, there were no significant differences between groups V2, R or G. When comparing groups V1 and V2, the bond strength of group V1 was significantly higher than that of group V2 (P < 0.01) at TC 0, but the bond strength of group V1 was significantly lower than that of group V2 for both TC 3000 (P < 0.05) and TC 10,000 (P < 0.01). Comparison between groups R and G, showed that the bond strength of group R was significantly higher than that of group G for both TC 0 (P < 0.01) and TC 3000 (P < 0.01), but no significant difference was found for TC 10,000. In group V2, nine samples showed adhesive failure between the veneer surface and bracket adhesive before thermal cycling. There were significant differences between the MFR and both trial resin and glass ionomer cement (P < 0.01) when examining thermal expansion. No significant difference was found between the trial resin and glass ionomer cement. It is suggested that application of a resin veneer prior to bracket bonding is suitable for clinical application to protect the teeth and to prevent decalcification and caries.  (+info)

Effect of experimental fluoride-releasing tooth separator on acid resistance of human enamel in vitro. (8/173)

This study aimed to investigate the fluoride-releasing ability of an experimental tooth separator consisting of polyurethane elastomer with tin fluoride and its effect on the acid resistance of human enamel. The tooth separator was set around an enamel slab and stored in de-ionized water for 10 days. The daily concentration of fluoride in the de-ionized water was measured. Then the enamel surface was artificially decalcified by a lactic acid buffer solution (pH 4.5) for 96 hours. The mineral density at the surface layer of the enamel was measured to evaluate the acid resistance. The fluoride release increased with the amount of fluoride in the separator, but decreased with the immersion time. Both the enamel area contacting with the separator and its surrounding area showed lower mineral loss and lesion depth compared with the controls (P < 0.05). It is suggested that the experimental tooth separator would release enough fluoride and improve the acid resistance of the enamel surface layer.  (+info)

  • Each of the factors listed below will influence how intense the attack will be (how quickly and how much acid is produced), and therefore how long the pH of the mouth will remain below 5.5 (the level where demineralization will occur). (
  • The subjects were required to drink 500 mL of a 120-gm/L sugar solution either once, 3, 5, 7, or 10 times/day for 30 sec on each occasion, for a period of 5 days while brushing their teeth twice daily with either a F (1450 ppm NaF) or a F-free toothpaste. (
  • Lumineers by Cerinate is a terrific cosmetic solution for permanently stained, chipped, discolored, misaligned teeth, or even to revitalize old crown and bridgework. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the demineralization and hydrogen peroxide (HP) penetration in teeth with incipient lesions submitted to bleaching treatment. (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS Incipient subsurface caries lesions were created in 94 bovine enamel specimens using Carbopol C907 using three demineralization times. (
  • The aim of this study was to study variations of depths of artificial lesions of demineralization and to analyze the depth in relation to variations in the chemical and mineral composition of the enamel. (
  • Surface lesions can then be calculated according to the type of the teeth (molars, premolars, incisors and canines) or according to the surfaces (proximal, occlusal and free smooth surfaces) (Burt. (
  • Samples were cut vertically across the demineralization to obtain two symmetrical lesions, (n=16). (
  • Common causes of enamel demineralization are erosion and abrasion. (
  • The increasing prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children and adults, and of "silent refluxers" in particular, increases the responsibility of dentists to be alert to this potentially severe condition when observing unexplained instances of tooth erosion. (
  • Though increasing evidence of associations between GERD and tooth erosion has been shown in both animal and human studies, relatively few clinical studies have been carried out under controlled trial conditions. (
  • A recent systematic review found a median prevalence of 24% for tooth erosion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and a median prevalence of 32.5% for GERD in adult patients who had tooth erosion [ 7 ]. (
  • Therefore, from their observations of tooth erosion, dentists may be the first persons to diagnose the possibility of GERD, particularly in the case of "silent refluxers. (
  • Or brush your teeth afterward to correct your oral pH and neutralize residual sugars. (
  • Your first defense is to brush and floss to remove erosive plaque and the sugars that feed it, but there are several more ways to help remineralize teeth. (
  • Commercial dental-care pastes usually contain one or more of these teeth/gum damaging ingredients - triclosan, fluoride, polyethylene glycols, surfactants (a.k.a. foaming agents such as sodium lauryl sulfate), toxic metals, artificial sugars, glycerin, hydrated silica and sodium hydroxide. (
  • Researchers have discovered that Streptococcus mutans , a major bacterial species responsible for tooth decay, is encased in a protective multilayered community of other bacteria and polymers forming a unique spatial organization associated with the location of the disease onset. (
  • c The glucan molecules provide avid binding sites on surfaces for S. mutans and other microorganisms mediating tight bacterial clustering and adherence to the tooth enamel (through glucan-glucan and glucan-Gbp interactions). (
  • The first set (called the "baby", "milk", "primary", or " deciduous " set) normally starts to appear at about six months of age, although some babies are born with one or more visible teeth, known as natal teeth . (
  • Humans usually have 20 primary (deciduous, "baby" or "milk") teeth and 32 permanent (adult) teeth. (
  • Among deciduous (primary) teeth , ten are found in the maxilla (upper jaw) and ten in the mandible (lower jaw), for a total of 20. (
  • Worldwide, approximately 2.3 billion people (32% of the population) have dental caries in their permanent teeth. (
  • They're then replaced by permanent teeth. (
  • Molars are usually the first permanent teeth to come in. (
  • Most people have all of their permanent teeth in place by age 21 . (
  • Among permanent teeth , 16 are found in the maxilla and 16 in the mandible, for a total of 32. (
  • The average number of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth in U.S. school age children has declined from an estimated seven to about three, according to a national survey released by the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) in June. (
  • The prevalence of dental caries is most often expressed as dmft (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent teeth (Barmes and Sardo-Infirri, 1977). (
  • You have 32 permanent teeth that begin erupting at age 6 and finish at around 21 years. (
  • Children require fluoride to protect their new, permanent teeth, while adults need it to ensure there are no cavities or decays taking form. (
  • teeth ) are allocated to the project which is carried out at the School of dentistry, University of Aarhus, Denmark. (
  • Matthew Messina, D.D.S., dental clinic director of Ohio State University Upper Arlington Dentistry, notes that he made more bite guards (which reduce teeth grinding) during two months of the pandemic than he made in all of 2019. (
  • Leila Jahangiri, D.D.S., a clinical professor and the chair of the Department of Prosthodontics at the New York University College of Dentistry, reports treating a 62-year-old patient with nine teeth fractures. (
  • For nearly a century, dentistry has aimed to prevent or reverse tooth decay, or dental caries, before a drill becomes necessary. (
  • The goal of minimally invasive dentistry, or microdentistry, is to conserve healthy tooth structure. (
  • Using scientific advances, minimally invasive dentistry allows dentists to perform the least amount of dentistry needed while never removing more of the tooth structure than is required to restore teeth to their normal condition. (
  • In addition, in minimally invasive dentistry, dentists use long-lasting dental materials that conserve the maximum tooth structure so the need for future repairs is reduced. (
  • Bistey et al, In vitro FT-IR study of the effects of hydrogen peroxide on superficial tooth enamel, Journal of Dentistry, 1048 (2006). (
  • However, if the pH falls to 5.5 or lower there will be a release of calcium and phosphorus ions from the enamel surface and the teeth will become weaker. (
  • BACKGROUND Several studies have reported that harder enamel with higher contents of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and fluorine (F) coupled with lower contents of carbonate (C), magnesium (Mg) and nitrate (N) was found to be more resistant to demineralization. (
  • Indeed, untreated tooth decay (dental caries) was the single most prevalent and severe periodontitis (periodontal disease) was the sixth most prevalent of 291 oral and general health conditions studied ( 1 ). (
  • The tooth is a non-shedding surface, so biofilms can accumulate in great quantities when oral hygiene is not properly conducted, or when too much sugar is introduced. (
  • Demineralization, or weakening, can be turned around through changes in diet and oral hygiene. (