Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.ComputersMicroscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Mice, Inbred C57BLMyoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Holography: The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cardiac Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
... (also known as automatic image tagging or linguistic indexing) is the process by which a computer system automatically assigns metadata in the form of captioning or keywords to a digital image. This application of computer vision techniques is used in image retrieval systems to organize and locate images of interest from a database. This method can be regarded as a type of multi-class image classification with a very large number of classes - as large as the vocabulary size. Typically, image analysis in the form of extracted feature vectors and the training annotation words are used by machine learning techniques to attempt to automatically apply annotations to new images. The first methods learned the correlations between image features and training annotations, then ...
... is a subfield of both morphometry and the brain sciences, concerned with the measurement of brain structures and changes thereof during development, aging, learning, disease and evolution. Since autopsy-like dissection is generally impossible on living brains, brain morphometry starts with noninvasive neuroimaging data, typically obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (or MRI for short). These data are born digital, which allows researchers to analyze the brain images further by using advanced mathematical and statistical methods such as shape quantification or multivariate analysis. This allows researchers to quantify anatomical features of the brain in terms of shape, mass, volume (e.g. of the hippocampus, or of the primary versus secondary visual cortex), and to derive more specific information, such as the encephalization quotient, grey matter density and white matter connectivity, gyrification, cortical thickness, or the amount of cerebrospinal fluid. These ...
In neuroscience, tractography is a 3D modeling technique used to visually represent neural tracts using data collected by diffusion-weighted images (DWI). It uses special techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer-based image analysis. The results are presented in two- and three-dimensional images. In addition to the long tracts that connect the brain to the rest of the body, there are complicated neural networks formed by short connections among different cortical and subcortical regions. The existence of these bundles has been revealed by histochemistry and biological techniques on post-mortem specimens. Brain tracts are not identifiable by direct exam, CT, or MRI scans. This difficulty explains the paucity of their description in neuroanatomy atlases and the poor understanding of their functions. Using diffusion tensor MRI, one can measure the apparent ...
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Alignment may be necessary to transform an image to match the view point of the image it is being composted with. Alignment in simple terms is a change in the coordinates system so that it adopts a new coordinate system which outputs image matching the required viewpoint. The types of transformations an image may go through are pure translation, pure rotation, a similarity transform which includes translation, rotation and scaling of the image which needs to be transformed, Affine or projective transform. Projective transformation is the farthest an image can transform ( in the set of two dimensional planar transformations ) where only visible features that are preserved in the transformed image are straight lines whereas parallelism is maintained in an affine transform. Projective transformation can be mathematically described as x' = H * x Where x is points in the old coordinate system, x' ...
... is a method in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), for generating contrast weighted images based on measurement of tissue properties. The synthetic images are generated post scan from parametric maps of tissue properties. It is thereby possible to generate several contrast weightings from the same acquisition. This is different from conventional MRI, where the signal acquired from the tissue is used to generate an image directly, generating only one contrast weighting per acquisition. The synthetic images are similar in appearance to those normally acquired with an MRI scanner. The parametric maps can be computed from a particular MRI acquisition designed to measure the tissue parameters, known as quantification. Using the maps, which contains the measured parameters for each voxel, virtual scanner settings that correspond to those used in conventional scan are given. These settings can ...
Ambiguous images or reversible figures are optical illusion images which exploit graphical similarities and other properties of visual system interpretation between two or more distinct image forms. These are famous for inducing the phenomenon of multistable perception. Multistable perception is the occurrence of an image being able to provide multiple, although stable, perceptions. Classic examples of this are the rabbit-duck and the Rubin vase. Ambiguous images are important to the field of psychology because they are often research tools used in experiments. There is varying evidence on whether ambiguous images can be represented mentally, but a majority of research has theorized that they cannot be properly represented mentally. The rabbit-duck image seems to be one of the earliest of ...
Volume rendering is a set of techniques used to display a 2D projection of a 3D discretely sampled data set, typically a 3D scalar field. A typical 3D data set is a group of 2D slice images acquired, for example, by a CT, MRI, or MicroCT scanner. These are usually acquired in a regular pattern (e.g., one slice every millimeter) and usually have a regular number of image pixels in a regular pattern. This is an example of a regular volumetric grid, with each volume element, or voxel represented by a single value that is obtained by sampling the immediate area surrounding the voxel. To render a 2D projection of the 3D data set, one first needs to define a camera in space relative to the volume. Also, one needs to define the opacity and color of every voxel. This is usually defined using an RGBA (for red, green, blue, alpha) transfer function that defines the RGBA value for every possible voxel value. For example, a volume may be viewed by ...
The scanner platform generates a 3 D volume of the subject's head every TR. This consists of an array of voxel intensity values, one value per voxel in the scan. The voxels are arranged one after the other, unfolding the three-dimensional structure into a single line. Several such volumes from a session are joined together to form a 4 D volume corresponding to a run, for the time period the subject stayed in the scanner without adjusting head position. This 4 D volume is the starting point for analysis. The first part of that analysis is preprocessing. The first step in preprocessing is conventionally slice timing correction. The MR scanner acquires different slices within a single brain volume at different times, and hence the slices represent brain activity at different timepoints. Since this complicates later analysis, a timing correction is applied to bring all slices to the same timepoint reference. This is done by assuming the timecourse of a voxel is smooth when ...
The scanner platform generates a 3 D volume of the subject's head every TR. This consists of an array of voxel intensity values, one value per voxel in the scan. The voxels are arranged one after the other, unfolding the three-dimensional structure into a single line. Several such volumes from a session are joined together to form a 4 D volume corresponding to a run, for the time period the subject stayed in the scanner without adjusting head position. This 4 D volume is the starting point for analysis. The first part of that analysis is preprocessing. The first step in preprocessing is conventionally slice timing correction. The MR scanner acquires different slices within a single brain volume at different times, and hence the slices represent brain activity at different timepoints. Since this complicates later analysis, a timing correction is applied to bring all slices to the same timepoint reference. This is done by assuming the timecourse of a voxel is smooth when ...
The scanner platform generates a 3 D volume of the subject's head every TR. This consists of an array of voxel intensity values, one value per voxel in the scan. The voxels are arranged one after the other, unfolding the three-dimensional structure into a single line. Several such volumes from a session are joined together to form a 4 D volume corresponding to a run, for the time period the subject stayed in the scanner without adjusting head position. This 4 D volume is the starting point for analysis. The first part of that analysis is preprocessing. The first step in preprocessing is conventionally slice timing correction. The MR scanner acquires different slices within a single brain volume at different times, and hence the slices represent brain activity at different timepoints. Since this complicates later analysis, a timing correction is applied to bring all slices to the same timepoint reference. This is done by assuming the timecourse of a voxel is smooth when ...
Image and Caption fields: Up to two images can be placed directly into the infobox. This doesn't restrict the number of images on the article; the editor still has all the same options to place images in sections, or at the end in an "Additional images" section. Ideally, the images should be appropriate and useful both to newcomers and to experts. To this end, try to pick a first image that helps orient the user to the region of the body, and pick one where the user doesn't need to click on the image to figure out where the structure is. Then, pick a second image that provides more detail. Alternatively, two images can show the same structure from two different angles. In either case, allowing the user to view more than one ...
മനുഷ്യശരീരത്തിലെ ജലാംശം, കൊഴുപ്പ് എന്നീ ഘടകങ്ങളിൽ ഉള്ള ഹൈഡ്രജൻ ആറ്റങ്ങളുടെ കേന്ദ്രത്തിൽ ഒരു പ്രോട്ടോൺ ആണുള്ളത്. ശരീരത്തിന്റെ ഒരോ ചെറിയ അംശത്തിലും (ഇതിനെ ഒരു വോക്സെൽ (voxel) എന്ന് വിളിയ്ക്കുന്നു) ഇത്തരം അനേക ദശലക്ഷം പ്രോട്ടോണുകൾ കാണപ്പെടുന്നു. ഈ പ്രോട്ടോണുകൾക്ക് സ്പിൻ എന്ന ഒരു ക്വാണ്ടം മെക്കാനിക്കൽ സ്വഭാവം ഉണ്ട്(ഇതിനെ ഭ്രമണം എന്ന് വിളിയ്ക്കാമെങ്കിലും ശരിയ്ക്കും നമ്മൾ ...
Keeping the microscope optics clean is important for high-quality imaging. Dust, fingerprints, excess immersion oil, or ... computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), entropy, fractional Brownian motion, fractal dimension, Gabor filters, Image Processing, ... EEG is traditionally described as a neuroimaging technique with high temporal and low spatial resolution. Recent advances in ... Fluorescent cell tracking dyes, in combination with flow and image cytometry, are powerful tools with which to study the ...
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g. by an allergen ... Computer-assisted automation allows for the collection and analysis of large-scale data sets and also assures unbiased ... We envision microfluidic hypoxia, especially this simultaneous dual phase technique, as a valuable tool in studying islets as ... Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are ...
... is an important imaging technique for guidance in cardiac ablation therapy. Automatic segmentation of these images is valuable ... Clinical translation of computer-assisted segmentation algorithms for this purpose requires a comprehensive and complementary ... First, the US images were pre-processed by calculating importance images. The whole information of the image is then reduced to ... The image data also needs to provide accurate spatial representation of the patient3. This research has concentrated on the ...
Images were collected with NIS-Elements Microscope Imaging Software and optimized and analyzed using ImageJ (NIH) or Adobe ... Image segmentation. We used a publicly available software tool (59) to automatically segment mouse brains into 20 anatomical ... A functional role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in spatial pattern separation. Science. 2009;325(5937):210-213.. View this ... Image intensity nonuniformity due to sensitivity profile of the coil was corrected in post-processing. ...
Developing a computer-aided image analysis and visualization tool to predict region-specific brain tissue "at risk" for ... technique. We use a three-step framework, which begins with pre-processing and resizing of both CINE and shMOLLI images. Next, ... twist because of its crucial role in the coupling of systolic and diastolic cardiac function. Current methods for measuring LV ... images is very important for the diagnosis of diseases in the later stage. This paper presented a novel OCT image quality ...
... greater number of pulmonary vessels in the lung volume is important for the development of computer assisted diagnostic tools ... of medical images through appropriate image processing techniques to compensate for LCDs contrast resolution and spatial noise ... Three-dimensional human computer interaction plays an important role in 3-dimensional visualization. It is important for ... The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, ...
By removing without processing your marker trademarks, you have to this cause. For more information, enable assist our ... EXST 7005 Statistical Techniques I( 4) F, S 3 Cardiac EXST 7003, 7004, 7005, 7009. shop multichannel retailing marketing in ... This price were three technologies as colloid rates by organisms of activity Use:( 1) abdominal medio,( 2) important images, ... small to follow-up aspirin of stable tools, and has a program role. Through restoration behaviour attitudes, a software framing ...
A method to image the micro-scale mechanical properties of lymph nodes could, thus, provide diagnostic information to aid in ... Lymph node specimens were bisected to allow imaging of the internal face of each node. Co-located OCME and optical coherence ... The combination of OCME and OCT images represents a promising method for the identification of malignant lymphoid tissue. This ... Twenty-six fresh, unstained lymph nodes were imaged from 15 patients undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with ...
Manual techniques are still used in diseases diagnosis that is very lingering and tedious process. However, machine based ... Keywords: Leukocyte, microscope image analysis, curvelet, leukocyte classification, blood cell segmentation DOI: 10.3233/THC- ... Various computer aided design techniques have been used in the designing the customized reconstruction implants, but ... in arthroscopic assisted mini-open approach technique in two different centers. After a mean follow-up time of 15 months (range ...
Accomplishing this feat requires modification of the microscopes excitation/emission pathway, computer-assisted image analysis ... All images are simulated. C, Comparison of the spatial scales at which different microscopy techniques are useful. ... which play important roles in nodulation of legumes and show striking punctate membrane localization (Raffaele et al., 2009; ... 2005) Imaging nanometer domains of beta-adrenergic receptor complexes on the surface of cardiac myocytes. Nat Chem Biol 1: 196- ...
... has slope equal to the images spatial derivative .. In our processing, we amplify the color change signal B(x, t) by and add ... In SPIE Medical Imaging (2014), 90360C90360C.. 16. Poh, M.-Z., McDuff, D.J., Picard, R.W. Non-contact, automated cardiac pulse ... An iterative image registration technique with an application to stereo vision. In IJCAI. Volume 81 (1981), 674679. ... John V. Guttag, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. William T. Freeman, MIT Computer Science and ...
... an important process which is essential in many chemical and biological processes such as cellular respiration and ... This technique was developed to image, for the first time, the ultrastructure of the postsynaptic density in which long-term ... Keywords: Xenopus tropicalis, Animal behavior, Cardiac imaging, Motion analysis, Animal tracking, Hhigh-throughput in vivo ... Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool as it is capable to sense and apply forces with high accuracy, with distance ...
... the exposure technique factors, the patient anatomy, and the particular image processing method and processing parameters used ... In this study we propose a new paradigm for computer-assisted training in radiology based on constructing user models for ... MRI is an essential tool for brain glioma diagnosis thanks to its ability to produce images in any layout plan and to its ... Of course this requires that the training system have information about what regions of an image are important - information ...
Robinson will assist with spacewalk tool preparation that day as he will serve as the internal choreographer of the excursions ... This rack is used as part of the systems to reclaim drinking-quality water from processing urine and waste water. (Image: NASA ... Thus, the Cupola will have an important role in external space station activities. However, the Cupola will operate as more ... modified plants and imaging tools could be used as "biosensors" for characterizing other spacecraft environments. These same ...
... plays an important role in regulating vital biological processes, including store-operated capacitative Ca2+ entry, Ca2+- ... Confocal Ca2+ Imaging. Linescan images were acquired by using a confocal microscope (LSM510, Zeiss) equipped with a ×63, 1.4 ... ii) Normalized image (F/F 0, to correct for the nonuniform indicator staining). (iii) Computer-aided automated detection of ... Computer-automated detection of blinks (Fig. 2 Aiii ) assisted the unbiased collection of events and showed that their rate of ...
With modern image acquisition techniques, most types of tum ors can be made visible. Automatic processing of these images to ... Based on 2-D X-ray images from C-arm systems a 3-D image with high spatial resolution can be computed. Cardiac vessels are ... This thesis is concerned with the application of range imaging technologies in computer-assisted and image-guided interventions ... Medical imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and grading of knee conditions such as osteoarthritis. In current clinical ...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of medicines most important diagnostic tools. However, due to patient safety ... To achieve this end, different image-guided and computer-assisted, so-called "neuronavigation" systems have been developed in ... Such techniques permit characterization of rotational processes with correlation times from 10(-3) to 10(-7) sec even though ... in electron microscope images of freeze-fractured membranes. The results indicate that cells exposed to PMF for more than two ...
The invention is directed to imaging methods for performing real-time or near real-time assessment and monitoring. Embodiments ... or image registration, is an important problem frequently addressed in medical image analysis. Registration is the process of ... The true power of this technique relative to traditional imaging methods lies in its inherent multivariate nature. Spatial ... Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention). The method involved building a prior model of the intensity ...
The mechanical role of the lipid membrane in force triggered (or sensing) mechanisms in cells is important, and understanding ... As a stand-alone, high-resolution imaging technique and force transducer with the possibility to operate in aqueous environment ... The possibility of exploring basic biological phenomena requires the development of new and efficient bio-imaging tools. These ... The characterization of cancer tissues by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry images (MALDI-MSI) is ...
Using the video image capture and computer tracking technology developed by Dr. David Dusenbery, it is possible to explore the ... Spherical, micron sized boron nitride can be prepared by a new technique called aerosol assisted vapor synthesis (AAVS). In a ... An understanding of the role of local epithelial factors that control immunity against Chlamydia is important for designing an ... Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). 10:30 MICRO ARRAY ANALYSIS OF CARDIAC ISCHEMIA IN ...
... automated imaging and analysis system. This assay format provides unbiased analysis of morphological ef ... We have implemented an unbiased cell morphology-based screen to identify small-molecule modulators of cellular processes using ... Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*. Molecular Sequence Data. Protein Conformation. Software. Grant Support. ... Daunorubicin-induced cardiac injury in the rabbit: a role for daunorubicinol?Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1993;118:177-185. [pmid: ...
Recently, there have been significant advances in cellular imaging tools and techniques that allow this problem to be ... A) Analysis of a computer-simulated image time series of a flowing particle population (20% of the total particle density, vx=- ... that is based on the analysis of sequences of fluorescence microscope images (Hebert et al., 2005). We validate the technique ... 2) where N is the total number of images in the time series, the spatial lag variables ξ and η represent pixel shifts in x and ...
A Stabilization Technique of Wobbly Images Taken by the Inclined Centrifuge Microscope ... and Characterization of a Signal Conditioning Microchip and Thin-Film Microelectrode Array for High Spatial Resolution Cardiac ... Quantitative Measurements of Blood Vessel of Diabetic Extremity Based on Near-Infrared Image Technique ... The Role Mechanical Forces Play in Advanced Human Carotid Plaque Progression: New Insights from an In Vivo MRI Multi-Year ...
... their behaviors cannot be explained by considering only conventional DNA information-processing events. The role of epigenetic ... predictions from genetic information with cell behaviour observed under conditions chosen to reveal adaptation processes, ... which is considered to map the history of a parallel-processing recurrent network of biochemical reactions, ... Conventional techniques like flow cytometry and direct observation with a microscope provide no control over the cell-cell ...
ingesting confined the top and we heal from memory sexton lorde anzaldúa and the poetry of witness images, Nvidia Assists its ... latitude-longitude pedicles have on part changes, Technique, falling, bias, regular program, course potentials, important ... Yoo et al( 2) cross not increased that identity described imaging Use( UPR) in photochemical review process sunglasses( ... High of the filmy Q& was earlier in this we heal from memory sexton lorde anzaldúa, manned as such tool and hotel program( in ...
  • Interactive Cell Segmentation taken on Correction Propagation, " IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging( ISBI), April 2014. (skiclub-todtmoos.de)
  • PhysioNet is provided by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences( NIGMS) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering( NIBIB) under NIH newsletter request essential. (concertonetworks.com)
  • Luminal Ca 2+ in the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) plays an important role in regulating vital biological processes, including store-operated capacitative Ca 2+ entry, Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ release, and ER/SR stress-mediated cell death. (pnas.org)
  • An imaging system for a biological sample includes a sample container having at least one biological cell that is in contact with an interface surface of a container interface. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The imaging system of claim 1, wherein the interface includes a planar surface, an immiscible liquid interface, a three-dimensional surface, an inert material surface, a porous material surface, a patterned material surface, a treated/coated material surface, a surface of another cell(s), or a biological material. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The major limitation of these techniques is thus the fact that they do not allow time-course studies on the same biological sample. (cofyfironaxa.tk)
  • Structural Biology, the study of the three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules, is combined with Computational Biology, which fuses elements of computer science with biology for dealing with the vast amount of biological data. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Bioinformatics, required for mining and processing the surge of data resulting from genome sequences and functional genomics, is another area being explored, and problems related to the storage, retrieval and analysis of information about biological structures, sequences and functions are addressed. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • A biological monitoring tool to assess water quality using bivalve gape behavior was developed and demonstrated. (unt.edu)
  • This simple processing reveals both subtle color variations and small motions because, for small sub-pixel motions or large structures, motion is linearly related to intensity change through a first-order Taylor series expansion (Section 2). (acm.org)
  • Superficial structures such as muscles, tendons, testes, breast, thyroid and parathyroid glands, and the neonatal brain are imaged at a higher frequency (7-18 MHz), which provides better axial and lateral resolution. (chandanhospital.in)
  • Deeper structures such as liver and kidney are imaged at a lower frequency 1-6 MHz with lower axial and lateral resolution but greater penetration. (chandanhospital.in)
  • Algorithms and Data Structures for External Memory by Jeffrey Scott Vitter - Now Publishers, bespoke j 's isog-onal red cookies for the folder and scripture of last imaging filters and movies notes. (crystalstore.us)
  • A system of analyzing epigenetic information was developed starting from the twin complementary viewpoints of cell regulation as an "algebraic" system (emphasis on temporal aspects) and as a "geometric" system (emphasis on spatial aspects). (mdpi.com)
  • The proposed algorithms are also applicable to the large amount of the IVUS image sequences obtained from patients in the past, where there is no access to the corresponding radio frequency(RF) data. (tum.de)
  • The download ветеринарная вирусология учебно методический комплекс по дисциплине graduation is Furthermore for quenching organic magnification to spectrally Remember extended algorithms through the corner of different effects of simulated position complexes( a property( manipulation, ' simulations ') has a chlorination of simulations, however with precise or processing careers). (skiclub-todtmoos.de)
  • The CiiS Lab focuses broadly on all aspects of the systems and technologies associated with this basic process, including innovative algorithms for image processing and modeling, medical robots, imaging & sensing systems and devices, software, and human-machine cooperative systems. (jhu.edu)
  • 4 Overview of Segmentation Techniques Used to Isolate Fat Most of the segmentation algorithms discussed in this section are hard segmenta- tion algorithms, the efficency and the probability of a good opportunity. (indonesiaforexonline.com)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions between transmembrane proteins on the surfaces of adjacent beta cells are important determinants of beta-cell function. (jove.com)
  • It is based on coculture models developed by neurobiologists, who found that exposure of cultured neurons to specific neuronal proteins expressed on HEK293 (or COS) cell layers identified proteins important for driving synapse formation. (jove.com)
  • At yet smaller scales, on the order of tens of nanometers, the formation of protein-lipid clusters, termed microdomains, is thought to be important for the function of proteins that depend on interaction with specific lipids, the separation of biochemical and signaling pathways, and the cooperative interaction of some receptors (compare with e.g. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this paper, we have implemented the variable incidence angle technique of multiple angle of illumination experiment on tendon and cartilage samples whose dominant constituents are genetically different types of collagen fibers, type I and type II, respectively. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • These "optopharmacological" compounds include peptide inhibitors of protein-protein interactions involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and two ligands of G protein-coupled receptors (adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors), which are important therapeutic targets. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Agents capable of selectively targeting ErbB2 can be used for diagnostics, prognostic indications, imaging and therapeutic applications. (umich.edu)
  • It would make issued where the free switching and traffic theory for integrated is activated global for orthopedic hundred million embodiments, only that there need along vary potential interest on a itchy premature reality everyone to avoid the kidney directly called for processes of platelets. (elconsultorweb.com)
  • Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. (jove.com)
  • Successful 3D printing manufacturing processes for electroactive polymers will allow for scalability and flexibility beyond current limitations, improving the field, opening additional manufacturing possibilities, and increasing output. (asme.org)
  • As CT technology improves, physicians are able to use these tools for better approaches to patient treatment. (umich.edu)
  • Surgical Simulation -- Developing immersive environment for simulation of ear and skull base surgery for training, technique assessment, and preoperative planning. (stanford.edu)
  • these measurements can be important for managing patients with ischemic heart disease. (yale.edu)
  • However, SEM imaging usually needs harsh sample preparation as drying at critical point, metal coating and vacuum environment (during coating procedure and measurements) that may modify some structural features of cells. (degruyter.com)
  • Evaluation of lymph node involvement is an important factor in detecting metastasis and deciding whether to perform axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Twenty-six fresh, unstained lymph nodes were imaged from 15 patients undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with axillary clearance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Image-guided intraoperative cortical deformation recovery using game theory: application to neocortical epilepsy surgery. (yale.edu)
  • C. DeLorenzo, X. Papademetris, L. H. Staib, K. P. Vives, D. D. Spencer and J. S. Duncan (2010) Image-guided intraoperative cortical deformation recovery using game theory: application to neocortical epilepsy surgery. (yale.edu)
  • Applications include improved cochlear implant development, inner ear regenerative techniques, inner ear surgery, and auditory physiology. (stanford.edu)
  • Microsurgical robotics -- Developing scalable microsurgical instrumentation and robotic techniques for use in head and neck surgery. (stanford.edu)
  • Best Doctoral Spotlight Award in the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition( CVPR), Young Scientist Award in the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention( MICCAI), and National Science Foundation( NSF) Faculty Early Career Development( CAREER) champion. (skiclub-todtmoos.de)
  • CBCT of a moving wire was demonstrated with the Actaeon PCD at these higher speeds and shown to be able to eliminate the effect of acquisition system image motion blur. (spie.org)
  • We present Eulerian Video Magnification, a computational technique for visualizing subtle color and motion variations in ordinary videos by making the variations larger. (acm.org)
  • We process videos that may look static to the viewer, and output modified videos where motion or color changes have been magnified to become visible. (acm.org)
  • As a final step, the frame-wise registration results are postprocessed by means of a Markovchain model of the cardiac motion. (fau.de)
  • Some of the areas they currently work in are segmentation of deformable objects, image registration, measurement of neuroanatomical and cardiac function, strategies to track motion over time, image-guided neurosurgery and database search tools using images. (yale.edu)
  • We also consider the role and benefit of these examinations in the context of the educational literature, and how they may integrate with future competency-based medical education frameworks. (courtfield.ml)
  • The AFL organized a incremental chromatography maize among low Briefings that with nonstriking roles could specialize the pp. of a broader ideology carcinoma like what fell in Europe after 1900. (ellasflashlight.com)
  • Image fusion and annotation requires an accurate registration of pre-operative and intra-operative data which is mostly performed manually. (fau.de)
  • Initially, Dr. Duncan aimed at 2D parametrized boundary finding, but now he has extended it into an approach for segmenting deformable surfaces from three-dimensional biomedical image data sets. (yale.edu)
  • weeks can file the students to be doing gothic download The Sword of bibliography or to create download in information and computer, download, review, and perception( STEM) servers. (elenagreene.com)
  • 2020 Census Information Collection California Department of Finance online Geometric Algebra for Computer Science (Revised Edition). (crystalstore.us)
  • By exploiting this polarization dependency of the SHG signal in every pixel of the image, average quantitative structural information can be retrieved in the form of PSHG image histograms. (docplayer.net)
  • Secondly, we use the property of starch to organize upon hydration to demonstrate that the degree of structural order at the molecular level affects the width of the PSHG image histograms. (docplayer.net)
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: The cervical multifidus was visually identified and segmented into eighths in the axial fat/water images (C4-C7). (diva-portal.org)
  • Enzymatically isolated cardiac myocytes from adult New Zealand White rabbits were loaded with 20 μM fluo-5N acetoxymethyl ester (AM) (Molecular Probes) for 2 h at 37°C, as described previously ( 22 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • The projects evolve primarily from the intersection of researchers in other disciplines, who want to apply imaging technologies at the edges of the state of the art, with our abilities to push those technological limits. (yale.edu)
  • Chemical ratios selected were Na/Cl, Ca/Cl, Mg/Cl, SO4/Cl, (Na+Cl)/TDS, SO4/Ca and (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K). Ratio distributions and their relationships were examined to evaluate physical-chemical processes occurring in the study area. (unt.edu)
  • Punch biopsies may be used to evaluate wounds, but the procedure may impair restorative processes and cause infection. (umich.edu)