A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
'Tongue diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that primarily affect the structure, function, or appearance of the tongue, including but not limited to infections, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, congenital abnormalities, and malignancies.
A 'Fissured Tongue' is a benign condition characterized by deep, linear grooves or fissures on the dorsal surface of the tongue, which can vary in number and depth, and may be associated with geographic tongue or Down syndrome, but is often asymptomatic.
Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Inflammation of the tongue.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE extending from floor of mouth to the under-surface of the tongue.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.

Expression of Mash1 in basal cells of rat circumvallate taste buds is dependent upon gustatory innervation. (1/1447)

Mash1, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila achaete-scute proneural gene complex, plays an essential role in differentiation of subsets of peripheral neurons. In this study, using RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR, we investigated if Mash1 gene expression occurs in rat taste buds. Further, we examined dynamics of Mash1 expression in the process of degeneration and regeneration in denervated rat taste buds. In rat tongue epithelium, Mash1 gene expression is confined to circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papilla epithelia that include taste buds. In taste buds, Mash1-expressing cells are round cells in the basal compartment. In contrast, the mature taste bud cells do not express the Mash1 gene. Denervation and regeneration experiments show that the expression of Mash1 requires gustatory innervation. We conclude that Mash1 is expressed in cells of the taste bud lineage, and that the expression of Mash1 in rat taste buds is dependent upon gustatory innervation.  (+info)

Cephalometric abnormalities in non-obese and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. (2/1447)

The aim of this work was to comprehensively evaluate the cephalometric features in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and severity of apnoea. Forty-eight cephalometric variables were measured in 37 healthy males and 114 male OSA patients, who were classed into 54 non-obese (body mass index (BMI) <27 kg x m(-2), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)=25.3+/-16.1 events x h(-1)) and 60 obese (BMI > or = 27 kg x m(-2), AHI=45.6+/-28.0 events h(-1)) groups. Diagnostic polysomnography was carried out in all of the OSA patients and in 19 of the normal controls. The non-obese OSA patients showed several cephalometric defects compared with their BMI-matched normal controls: 1) decreased facial A-P distance at cranial base, maxilla and mandible levels and decreased bony pharynx width; 2) enlarged tongue and inferior shift of the tongue volume; 3) enlarged soft palate; 4) inferiorly positioned hyoid bone; and 5) decreased upper airway width at four different levels. More extensive and severe soft tissue abnormalities with a few defects in craniofacial bony structures were found in the obese OSA group. For the non-obese OSA group, the stepwise regression model on AHI was significant with two bony structure variables as determinants: anterior cranial base length (S-N) and mandibular length (Me-Go). Although the regression model retained only linear distance between anterior vertebra and hyoid bone (H-VL) as an explainable determinant for AHI in the obese OSA group, H-VL was significantly correlated with soft tissue measurements such as overall tongue area (Ton), inferior tongue area (Ton2) and pharyngeal airway length (PNS-V). In conclusion, Japanese obstructive sleep apnoea patients have a series of cephalometric abnormalities similar to those described in Caucasian patients, and that the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese patients may be different from that in non-obese patients. In obese patients, upper airway soft tissue enlargement may play a more important role in the development of obstructive sleep apnoea, whereas in non-obese patients, bony structure discrepancies may be the dominant contributing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea.  (+info)

Morphology and mechanics of tongue movement in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum: a muscular hydrostatic model. (3/1447)

The goal of this study was to investigate morphological adaptations associated with hydrostatic elongation of the tongue during feeding in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum. Whereas previous studies had suggested that the tongue of H. marmoratum elongates hydraulically, the anatomical observations reported here favour a muscular hydrostatic mechanism of tongue elongation. H. marmoratum possesses a previously undescribed compartment of the m. genioglossus (m. genioglossus dorsoventralis), which is intrinsic to the tongue and whose muscle fibres are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the tongue. On the basis of the arrangement and orientation of muscle fibres in the m. genioglossus and m. hyoglossus, we propose a muscular hydrostatic model of tongue movement in which contraction of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, together with unfolding of the intrinsic musculature of the tongue, results in a doubling in tongue length. Electron micrographs of sarcomeres from resting and elongated tongues show that no special adaptations of the sarcomeres are necessary to accommodate the observed doubling in tongue length during feeding. Rather, the sarcomeres of the m. genioglossus longitudinalis are strikingly similar to those of anuran limb muscles. The ability to elongate the tongue hydrostatically, conferred by the presence of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, is associated with the appearance of several novel aspects of feeding behaviour in H. marmoratum. These include the ability to protract the tongue slowly, thereby increasing capture success, and the ability to aim the tongue in azimuth and elevation relative to the head. Compared with other frogs, the muscular hydrostatic system of H. marmoratum allows more precise, localized and diverse tongue movements. This may explain why the m. genioglossus of H. marmoratum is composed of a larger number of motor units than that of other frogs.  (+info)

Immunofluorescence detection of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins with their carboxyl-terminal threonine phosphorylated in cultured cells and tissues. (4/1447)

Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins are thought to play an important role in organizing cortical actin-based cytoskeletons through cross-linkage of actin filaments with integral membrane proteins. Recent in vitro biochemical studies have revealed that ERM proteins phosphorylated on their COOH-terminal threonine residue (CPERMs) are active in their cross-linking activity, but this has not yet been evaluated in vivo. To immunofluorescently visualize CPERMs in cultured cells as well as tissues using a mAb specific for CPERMs, we developed a new fixation protocol using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a fixative. Immunoblotting analyses in combination with immunofluorescence microscopy showed that TCA effectively inactivated soluble phosphatases, which maintained the phosphorylation level of CPERMs during sample processing for immunofluorescence staining. Immunofluorescence microscopy with TCA-fixed samples revealed that CPERMs were exclusively associated with plasma membranes in a variety of cells and tissues, whereas total ERM proteins were distributed in both the cytoplasm and plasma membranes. Furthermore, the amounts of CPERMs were shown to be regulated in a cell and tissue type-dependent manner. These findings favored the notion that phosphorylation of the COOH-terminal threonine plays a key role in the regulation of the cross-linking activity of ERM proteins in vivo.  (+info)

Interarticulator programming in VCV sequences: lip and tongue movements. (5/1447)

This study examined the temporal phasing of tongue and lip movements in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences where the consonant is a bilabial stop consonant /p, b/ and the vowels one of /i, a, u/; only asymmetrical vowel contexts were included in the analysis. Four subjects participated. Articulatory movements were recorded using a magnetometer system. The onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel almost always occurred before the oral closure. Most of the tongue movement trajectory from the first to the second vowel took place during the oral closure for the stop. For all subjects, the onset of the tongue movement occurred earlier with respect to the onset of the lip closing movement as the tongue movement trajectory increased. The influence of consonant voicing and vowel context on interarticulator timing and tongue movement kinematics varied across subjects. Overall, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that there is a temporal window before the oral closure for the stop during which the tongue movement can start. A very early onset of the tongue movement relative to the stop closure together with an extensive movement before the closure would most likely produce an extra vowel sound before the closure.  (+info)

Assessment of the effects of endothelin-1 and magnesium sulphate on regional blood flows in conscious rats, by the coloured microsphere reference technique. (6/1447)

There is evidence to suggest that magnesium (Mg2+) is beneficial in the treatment of a number of conditions, including pre-eclampsia and acute myocardial infarction. The mode of action of Mg2+ in these conditions is not clear, although the vasodilator properties of Mg2+ are well documented both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we demonstrated that i.v. infusion of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) alone, or in the presence of vasoconstrictors, caused increases in flow and conductance in the common carotid, internal carotid and hindquarters vascular beds, in conscious rats. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the regional and subregional changes in haemodynamics in response to the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) and MgSO4 in more detail, using the coloured microsphere reference technique. Infusion of ET-1 and MgSO4 had similar effects on heart rate and mean arterial pressure as in our previous study. Infusion of ET-1 caused a rise in mean arterial pressure and a fall in heart rate, and infusion of MgSO4 returned mean arterial pressure to control levels with no effect on heart rate. The responses to MgSO4 in the presence of ET-1 showed considerable regional heterogeneity with blood flow increasing (e.g. skeletal muscle), decreasing (e.g. stomach) or not changing (e.g. kidney). Of particular interest was the finding that MgSO4 caused increases in flow in the cerebral and coronary vascular beds. This, and our previous studies, have shown that MgSO4 can reverse vasoconstriction in a number of vascular beds, and indicate that this compound may have therapeutic benefit in conditions associated with vasospasm.  (+info)

Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine. (7/1447)

Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified.  (+info)

Glossopharyngeal nerve transection eliminates quinine-stimulated fos-like immunoreactivity in the nucleus of the solitary tract: implications for a functional topography of gustatory nerve input in rats. (8/1447)

The relationship between specific gustatory nerve activity and central patterns of taste-evoked neuronal activation is poorly understood. To address this issue within the first central synaptic relay in the gustatory system, we examined the distribution of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) activated by the intraoral infusion of quinine using Fos immunohistochemistry in rats with bilateral transection of the chorda tympani (CTX), bilateral transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GLX), or combined neurotomy (DBLX). Compared with nonstimulated and water-stimulated controls, quinine evoked significantly more Fos-like-immunoreactive (FLI) neurons across the rostrocaudal extent of the gustatory NST (gNST), especially within its dorsomedial portion (subfield 5). Although the somatosensory aspects of fluid stimulation contributed to the observed increase in FLI neurons, the elevated number and spatial distribution of FLI neurons in response to quinine were remarkably distinguishable from those in response to water. GLX and DBLX produced a dramatic attenuation of quinine-evoked FLI neurons and a shift in their spatial distribution such that their number and pattern were indiscernable from those observed in water-stimulated controls. Although CTX had no effect on the number of quinine-evoked FLI neurons within subfield 5 at intermediate levels of the gNST, it produced intermediate effects elsewhere; yet, the spatial distribution of the quinine-evoked FLI neurons was not altered by CTX. These findings suggest that the GL provides input to all FLI neurons responsive to quinine, however, some degree of convergence with CT input apparently occurs in this subpopulation of neurons. Although the role of these FLI neurons in taste-guided behavioral responses to quinine remains speculative, their possible function in oromotor reflex control is considered.  (+info)

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

Tongue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tongue tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign tongue neoplasms may include entities such as papillomas, fibromas, or granular cell tumors. They are typically slow growing and less likely to spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tongue neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant tongue neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the surface of the tongue.

Tongue neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening on the tongue, pain or burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and unexplained bleeding from the mouth. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Tongue diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or appearance of the tongue. These conditions can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can cause tongue inflammation (glossitis), pain, and ulcers. Common causes include streptococcus, herpes simplex, and candida albicans.
2. Traumatic injuries: These can result from accidental bites, burns, or irritation caused by sharp teeth, dental appliances, or habitual habits like tongue thrusting or chewing.
3. Neoplasms: Both benign and malignant growths can occur on the tongue, such as papillomas, fibromas, and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Congenital disorders: Some individuals may be born with abnormalities of the tongue, like ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) or macroglossia (enlarged tongue).
5. Neurological conditions: Certain neurological disorders can affect tongue movement and sensation, such as Bell's palsy, stroke, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Systemic diseases: Various systemic conditions can have symptoms that manifest on the tongue, like diabetes mellitus (which can cause dryness and furring), iron deficiency anemia (which may lead to atrophic glossitis), or Sjögren's syndrome (which can result in xerostomia).
7. Idiopathic: In some cases, the cause of tongue symptoms remains unknown, leading to a diagnosis of idiopathic glossitis or burning mouth syndrome.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of tongue diseases require a thorough examination by a healthcare professional, often involving a dental or medical specialist such as an oral pathologist, otolaryngologist, or dermatologist.

A fissured tongue is a benign condition characterized by deep grooves or furrows on the surface of the tongue. These grooves can vary in number and depth, and they may cover the entire surface of the tongue or only appear in certain areas. A fissured tongue is also sometimes referred to as a "scrotal tongue" due to its appearance.

While a fissured tongue is usually asymptomatic and does not require treatment, it can occasionally be associated with other conditions such as down syndrome, oral cancer, or certain vitamin deficiencies. It may also increase the risk of tooth decay and gum disease due to the accumulation of food particles and bacteria in the grooves. In some cases, a fissured tongue may cause discomfort or pain, especially if it becomes infected or inflamed. If you have concerns about a fissured tongue or are experiencing symptoms related to this condition, it is recommended that you consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment options.

Tongue habits refer to the specific and repetitive ways in which an individual's tongue moves or rests inside their mouth. These habits can include things like tongue thrusting, where the tongue presses against the front teeth during speech or swallowing; tongue sucking, where the tongue is placed against the roof of the mouth; or improper tongue positioning during rest, where the tongue may be positioned too far forward in the mouth or rest against the bottom teeth.

Tongue habits can have an impact on dental and oral health, as well as speech development and clarity. For example, persistent tongue thrusting can lead to an open bite, where the front teeth do not come together when the mouth is closed. Improper tongue positioning during rest can also contribute to the development of a deep overbite or an anterior open bite.

In some cases, tongue habits may be related to underlying conditions such as muscle weakness or sensory integration disorders. Speech-language pathologists and orthodontists may work together to assess and address tongue habits in order to improve oral function and overall health.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for innervating the muscles of the tongue, allowing for its movement and function. These muscles include the intrinsic muscles that alter the shape of the tongue and the extrinsic muscles that position it in the oral cavity. The hypoglossal nerve also has some minor contributions to the innervation of two muscles in the neck: the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius. These functions are related to head turning and maintaining head position. Any damage to this nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of the tongue, causing difficulty with speech, swallowing, and tongue movements.

Glossitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the tongue. This condition can cause symptoms such as swelling, redness, pain, and smoothness or discoloration of the tongue's surface. Glossitis can have various causes, including nutritional deficiencies (such as vitamin B12 or folate deficiency), allergic reactions, infections (bacterial, viral, or fungal), irritants (such as hot and spicy foods, alcohol, or tobacco), and autoimmune disorders (such as pemphigus vulgaris or lichen planus). Treatment for glossitis depends on the underlying cause.

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory research as a carcinogenic agent. Its molecular formula is C6H4N2O3, and it is known to cause DNA damage and mutations, which can lead to the development of cancer. It is primarily used in scientific research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and to test the effectiveness of potential cancer treatments.

It is important to note that 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide is not a medication or a treatment for any medical condition, and it should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting.

Glossectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the partial or total removal of the tongue. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as treating certain types of cancer (like oral or tongue cancer) that have not responded to other forms of treatment, or removing a portion of the tongue that's severely damaged or injured due to trauma.

The extent of the glossectomy depends on the size and location of the tumor or lesion. A partial glossectomy refers to the removal of a part of the tongue, while a total glossectomy involves the complete excision of the tongue. In some cases, reconstructive surgery may be performed to help restore speech and swallowing functions after the procedure.

It is essential to note that a glossectomy can significantly impact a patient's quality of life, as the tongue plays crucial roles in speaking, swallowing, and taste sensation. Therefore, multidisciplinary care involving speech therapists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals is often necessary to help patients adapt to their new conditions and optimize their recovery process.

A taste bud is a cluster of specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue, soft palate, and cheek that are responsible for the sense of taste. They contain receptor cells which detect specific tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (savory). Each taste bud contains supporting cells and 50-100 taste receptor cells. These cells have hair-like projections called microvilli that come into contact with food or drink, transmitting signals to the brain to interpret the taste.

The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone located in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid cartilage. It does not articulate with any other bones and serves as an attachment point for various muscles, including those involved in swallowing, breathing, and speaking. The unique structure of the hyoid bone allows it to support the tongue and contribute to the stability of the airway.

Halitosis is a medical term that refers to noticeably unpleasant breath. It's also commonly known as bad breath. This condition can result from several factors, including poor oral hygiene, certain foods, smoking, alcohol use, dry mouth, and various medical conditions (such as gastrointestinal issues, respiratory infections, or liver and kidney problems). Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, like brushing twice a day and flossing daily, can help prevent halitosis. In some cases, mouthwashes, sugar-free gums, or mints may provide temporary relief. However, if bad breath persists, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or dentist for further evaluation and appropriate treatment.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

The soft palate, also known as the velum, is the rear portion of the roof of the mouth that is made up of muscle and mucous membrane. It extends from the hard palate (the bony front part of the roof of the mouth) to the uvula, which is the small piece of tissue that hangs down at the back of the throat.

The soft palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing. During swallowing, it moves upward and backward to block off the nasal cavity, preventing food and liquids from entering the nose. In speech, it helps to direct the flow of air from the mouth into the nose, which is necessary for producing certain sounds.

Anatomically, the soft palate consists of several muscles that allow it to change shape and move. These muscles include the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and palatoglossus. The soft palate also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves that provide sensation and help regulate its function.

The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It provides general sensory innervation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, including taste sensation from the same region. It also supplies sensory innervation to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingiva (gum tissue). The lingual nerve is closely associated with the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and their ducts.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals, separating the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. It consists of two portions: the anterior hard palate, which is composed of bone, and the posterior soft palate, which is composed of muscle and connective tissue. The palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing, as it helps to direct food and air to their appropriate locations during these activities.

In medical terms, a "lip" refers to the thin edge or border of an organ or other biological structure. However, when people commonly refer to "the lip," they are usually talking about the lips on the face, which are part of the oral cavity. The lips are a pair of soft, fleshy tissues that surround the mouth and play a crucial role in various functions such as speaking, eating, drinking, and expressing emotions.

The lips are made up of several layers, including skin, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. The outer surface of the lips is covered by skin, while the inner surface is lined with a moist mucous membrane. The muscles that make up the lips allow for movements such as pursing, puckering, and smiling.

The lips also contain numerous sensory receptors that help detect touch, temperature, pain, and other stimuli. Additionally, they play a vital role in protecting the oral cavity from external irritants and pathogens, helping to keep the mouth clean and healthy.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (IX), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. It originates from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem and has several functions:

1. Sensory function: The glossopharyngeal nerve provides general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue, the tonsils, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the middle ear. It also carries taste sensations from the back one-third of the tongue.
2. Special visceral afferent function: The nerve transmits information about the stretch of the carotid artery and blood pressure to the brainstem.
3. Motor function: The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle, which helps elevate the pharynx during swallowing. It also provides parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland, stimulating saliva production.
4. Visceral afferent function: The glossopharyngeal nerve carries information about the condition of the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen to the brainstem.

Overall, the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a crucial role in swallowing, taste, saliva production, and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

The lingual frenum is a small fold of mucous membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth. It contains muscle fibers and can vary in length, thickness, and attachment level. In some individuals, the lingual frenum may be too short or tight, restricting tongue movement, which is known as being "tongue-tied" or having ankyloglossia. This condition can potentially impact speech, feeding, and oral hygiene, although in many cases, it does not cause any significant problems.

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

In medical terms, the jaw is referred to as the mandible (in humans and some other animals), which is the lower part of the face that holds the lower teeth in place. It's a large, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw and serves as a attachment point for several muscles that are involved in chewing and moving the lower jaw.

In addition to the mandible, the upper jaw is composed of two bones known as the maxillae, which fuse together at the midline of the face to form the upper jaw. The upper jaw holds the upper teeth in place and forms the roof of the mouth, as well as a portion of the eye sockets and nasal cavity.

Together, the mandible and maxillae allow for various functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Mastication is the medical term for the process of chewing food. It's the first step in digestion, where food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth, making it easier to swallow and further digest. The act of mastication involves not only the physical grinding and tearing of food by the teeth but also the mixing of the food with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin to break down carbohydrates. This process helps to enhance the efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption in the subsequent stages of the digestive process.

Speech articulation tests are diagnostic assessments used to determine the presence, nature, and severity of speech sound disorders in individuals. These tests typically involve the assessment of an individual's ability to produce specific speech sounds in words, sentences, and conversational speech. The tests may include measures of sound production, phonological processes, oral-motor function, and speech intelligibility.

The results of a speech articulation test can help identify areas of weakness or error in an individual's speech sound system and inform the development of appropriate intervention strategies to improve speech clarity and accuracy. Speech articulation tests are commonly used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate children and adults with speech sound disorders, including those related to developmental delays, hearing impairment, structural anomalies, neurological conditions, or other factors that may affect speech production.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

The pharyngeal muscles, also known as the musculature of the pharynx, are a group of skeletal muscles that make up the walls of the pharynx, which is the part of the throat located just above the esophagus and behind the nasal and oral cavities. These muscles play a crucial role in several vital functions, including:

1. Swallowing (deglutition): The pharyngeal muscles contract in a coordinated sequence to propel food or liquids from the mouth through the pharynx and into the esophagus during swallowing.
2. Speech: The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help shape the sounds produced by the vocal cords, contributing to the production of speech.
3. Respiration: The pharyngeal muscles assist in maintaining an open airway during breathing, especially during sleep and when the upper airways are obstructed.

The pharyngeal muscles consist of three layers: the outer circular muscle layer, the middle longitudinal muscle layer, and the inner inferior constrictor muscle layer. The specific muscles that make up these layers include:

1. Superior constrictor muscle (outer circular layer)
2. Middle constrictor muscle (middle longitudinal layer)
3. Inferior constrictor muscle (inner inferior constrictor layer)
4. Stylopharyngeus muscle
5. Salpingopharyngeus muscle
6. Palatopharyngeus muscle
7. Buccinator muscle (partially contributes to the middle longitudinal layer)

These muscles work together to perform their various functions, and any dysfunction in these muscles can lead to problems like swallowing difficulties (dysphagia), speech impairments, or respiratory issues.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

... tongue Spots on the tongue An okapi cleaning its muzzle with its tongue A yawning cat's tongue is comb-like Electronic tongue ... Tongue can also be prepared as birria. Pig and beef tongue are consumed in Chinese cuisine. Duck tongues are sometimes employed ... A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie. The tongue is tied to the floor of the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tongues. Wikiquote has quotations related to Tongue. Look up tongue in Wiktionary, the ...
... '". Variety. Retrieved 12 June 2014. Lee Marshall (September 27, 2000). "Holy Tongue (La Lingua Del Santo)". Screen ... Holy Tongue (Italian: La lingua del santo) is a 2000 Italian comedy film written and directed by Carlo Mazzacurati. It entered ... Holy Tongue at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 2000 films, Template ...
... is a small fell in the English Lake District, three miles (five kilometres) ENE of Ambleside. It is one of 214 ... Troutbeck Tongue branches off south-westward from the main Ill Bell ridge, just north of Froswick. It separates Trout Beck from ...
A modern variant involved the use of reindeer tongue instead of beef tongue. Tongue toast was also served as an hors d'oeuvre, ... Tongue toast is a traditional open sandwich prepared with sauteed beef tongue and scrambled eggs. It is seasoned to taste with ... The tongue is sometimes served on buttered toast with a poached egg instead of a scrambled one. While it was primarily prepared ... A variant served for breakfast involved the use of boiled, smoked beef tongue, cream, scrambled egg, and seasoned to taste with ...
... is a wash in Nye County, Nevada, in the United States. Tongue Wash was likely so named because it is shaped like a ... U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tongue Wash Carlson, Helen S. (1 January 1974). Nevada Place Names ...
Tongue spirit or vitality Body color Body shape Tongue coating Tongue moisture In addition, various features are also ... A normal, healthy tongue is pale red or pink with a thin white coating. The tongue should have spirit, but it should not ... Tongue diagnosis in Chinese Medicine is a method of diagnosing disease and disease patterns by visual inspection of the tongue ... The tip of the tongue corresponds with the Heart, the region at the front of the tongue between the tip and the center ...
... is a 1940 mystery detective novel by the British writer Gladys Mitchell. It is the eleventh in her long-running ...
... is a solo album by Irish folk singer Christy Moore, released in 1996. "Yellow Triangle" "God Woman" "Minds ... "Graffiti Tongue". The Christy Moore website v t e (Use dmy dates from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from ... " "Rory Is Gone" Christy Moore - guitar, bodhran, vocals "Christy Moore - Graffiti Tongue (1996, Digipak, CD)". " ...
Tongue was also named in the Prime Minister's XIII at the end of 2008. Tongue was selected in the City vs Country match on 8 ... Tongue was also voted the Raider's Player of the Year in 2006. At the end of the 2008 NRL regular season, Tongue was awarded ... While attending Farrer, Tongue was on a scholarship contract with the Brisbane Broncos from grades 10 to 12. Tongue is a 10- ... Tongue was named ACT Australian of the Year in 2017. Ferguson, Shawn Dollin and Andrew. "Alan Tongue - Career Stats & Summary ...
A tongue depressor or spatula is a tool used in medical practice to depress the tongue to allow for examination of the mouth ... A tongue depressor is a tool used in medical practice to depress the tongue to allow for examination of the mouth and throat. ... Tongue depressors made from wood and metal exist from the American Civil War. The most common modern tongue depressors are flat ... "Definition of TONGUE DEPRESSOR". www.merriam-webster.com. Cohen, J Solis. Diseases of the Throat and Nasal Passages: A Guide to ...
"Tongue Song" (Clean Version) - 3:28 "Tongue Song" - 3:26 U.K. Promo Vinyl 2000 "Tongue Song" "Tongue Song" (Clean) "Tongue Song ... CD Single 2000 "Tongue Song" (LP Version) - 3:30 "Tongue Song" (Clean Version) - 3:29 "Tongue Song" (Instrumental) - 3:32 "Hey ... "Tongue Song" (Clean Version) - 3:28 "Tongue Song" (Instrumental) - 3:26 "Raise It Up" (LP Version) - 4:36 "Raise It Up" ( ... "Tongue Song" is a song by American rapper Strings. Released as a single in July 2000, the song was supposed to be the lead ...
... is a mountain located in Adirondack Mountains of New York located in the Town of Indian Lake east-northeast of ... "Tongue Mountain". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the ...
... , or Zungenwurst (translation tongue sausage), is a variety of German head cheese with blood. It is a large head ... cheese that is made with pig's blood, suet, bread crumbs and oatmeal with chunks of pickled beef tongue added. It has a slight ...
"The Tongue - Joy ft Inês (Official Video)". YouTube. "Bloodwork: The Best of the Tongue by the Tongue". "The Tongue - Sadly". ... The Tongue Is Dead and "The Sextape). He also released "Bloodwork: The Best of The Tongue" in 2022. The Tongue represented ... Tongue has also released three free mixtapes in the years 2008, 2009 and 2011. The Tongue's third album entitled Surrender to ... Tongue's songs have been placed on rotation by national Australian youth broadcaster Triple J. Tongue was signed by independent ...
... may refer to: Tongue splitting, a type of body modification Forked tongue, a physical characteristic of ... certain animals All pages with titles beginning with Tongue bifurcation All pages with titles containing Tongue bifurcation ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Tongue bifurcation. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
The tongue tie is made with a nylon stocking, an elastic band or a piece of leather. First, the horse tongue is grasped to ... Tongue-tying causes injury to horses: more than half of users report a change in the color of the horse's tongue, 8.6 % have ... The horse's tongue is sensitive to pressure, pain and temperature. The tongue enables the horse to experience the sense of ... The horse may then let its tongue hang out to the side. This behavior is to be distinguished from tongue stereotypies, as its ...
... at IMDb Silent Tongue at Box Office Mojo Silent Tongue at AllMovie Silent Tongue at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles ... Silent Tongue is a 1994 American Western horror film written and directed by Sam Shepard. It was filmed in the spring of 1992, ... List of ghost films "Silent Tongue (1994) - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes.com. Flixer. Retrieved June 15, 2018. Travers, ... which was released before Silent Tongue. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 38% based on 16 reviews, with ...
... toured Europe in 2010, playing Gea Festival in Tarragona alongside Lydia Lunch. Teeth & Tongue has played at ... "Album of the Week: Teeth & Tongue Give Up On Your Health". www.rrr.org.au. "J Awards 2016: Teeth & Tongue". abc.net.au. 11 ... "Teeth & Tongue". The Beat. 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2019. Mahina, Kat (11 July 2011). "Aleks & The Ramps + Teeth & Tongue - The ... Rourke, Andy (22 October 2012). "Teeth & Tongue , Music , Interview". East Village Radio. "Teeth & Tongue , Music , Video". ...
... is a descriptive term for the appearance of the tongue when there are indentations along the lateral borders ( ... the side facing the tongue) of the dental arches, or from any cause of macroglossia (enlarged tongue), which in itself has many ... Crenated tongue is usually asymptomatic and harmless. It is not a disease as such, but usually results from habits where the ... Tongue disease Tyldesley WR, Field A, Longman L (2003). Tyldesley's Oral medicine (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p ...
... the name Tongue does not refer to the shape of the Kyle of Tongue (though the kyle can be described as "tongue-shaped"). Rather ... That tongue of land projecting into the Kyle is the terminal moraine of the Kyle of Tongue glacier, and forms the eastern part ... the Tongue Hotel and the Ben Loyal Hotel. It is connected to the west side of the Kyle by the Kyle of Tongue Bridge and ... It lies on the east shore above the base of the Kyle of Tongue and north of the mountains Ben Hope and Ben Loyal on the A836. ...
"Church Tongue "Acid Jesus" (Official Music Video)". YouTube. 2017-03-10. Retrieved 2020-04-04. "Song Premiere: Church Tongue ... Church Tongue is an American metalcore band that originated in 2015 in Indianapolis, Indiana. The band's name comes from the ... "Church Tongue Guitarist Set Himself On Fire". New Noise Magazine. March 22, 2015. Archived from the original on October 23, ... Church Tongue, originally Conquerors, started in 2015. The band is infamous for the band guitarist, Chris Sawicki, setting ...
... is a small village in the South Holland district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 4 miles (6 km) east from ... "Lost Pubs In Tongue End, Lincolnshire", Closedpubs.co.uk "We think the confusion over just where the Stamford Canal starts and ... Tongue End comprises Victorian red-brick farmworkers' cottages and early 20th-century former council houses. It once had a ... Track near Tongue End. Bridge over the Counter Drain Bourne Eau Counter Drain railway station "The villages around Bourne, ...
... is the ability to roll the lateral edges of the tongue upwards into a tube. The tongue's intrinsic muscles allow ... Other tongue ability is folding the tip of the tongue upwards, which has been proposed as a recessive trait in a 1948 study, ... Twisting the tongue has also been studied, which is to rotate the tongue approximately 90 degrees from the plane of the blade, ... Cloverleaf tongue is the ability to fold the tongue in a certain configuration with multiple bends. This trait has been ...
Treatment options for tongue thrust may include orthodontic spikes, prongs or other tongue reminders, which redirect the tongue ... Types of tongue thrusting include: Anterior thrust This is the most common type of tongue thrust. It is often associated with a ... A large tongue can also be noted. This is the most difficult thrust to correct. Factors that can contribute to tongue thrusting ... Tongue extrusion is normal in infants. Tongue thrusting can adversely affect the teeth and mouth. A person swallows from 1,200 ...
... to form geometric shapes that resemble tongues, in which case they are called Arnold tongues. Arnold tongues are observed in a ... Arnold tongues have been applied to the study of Cardiac rhythms - see Glass, L. et al. (1983) and McGuinness, M. et al. (2004 ... Arnold tongues appear most frequently when studying the interaction between oscillators, particularly in the case where one ... Section 12 in page 78 has a figure showing Arnold tongues. Translation to english of Arnold's paper: S. Adjan; V. I. Arnol'd; S ...
... is a technique used to encourage proper tongue motion. Tongue training is used to treat individuals suffering ... Studies show that passive and active tongue exercises are required to improve tongue motion. Tongue training is an ... of the tongue. In addition to the standard tongue training protocol for a diagnosed sub-functional tongue using methods and ... Tongue motion plays a fundamental role in the development of oral and facial structures, as insufficient tongue motion may ...
... at IMDb Wikiquote has quotations related to Sheridan Tongue. Sheridan Tongue - Official Website Manners McDade ... Artist Management - Sheridan's Agent Sheridan Tongue at IMDb Last.fm - Sheridan Tongue Soundcloud - Sheridan Tongue (Webarchive ... Sheridan Tongue says: "2068 is a very personal project, borne out of my desire as an artist to explore what the world would ... Sheridan Tongue is an EMMY-winning and BAFTA-nominated television and film music composer from Belfast, Northern Ireland. He ...
... is the act of creating an audible clicking noise for emphasis in conversation using one's tongue. Tongue popping ... Tongue pops] This is drag. In order to do drag, you have to learn how to do this ... And that's different from a tongue click, ... "Tongue Pop the Halls". Cheryl Hole of RuPaul's Drag Race UK also tongue pops. In 2017, Alaska Thunderfuck said, "And then also ... Jones, Charlie (November 15, 2019). "Cheryl Hole on tongue pops, backlash from the fandom and the *real* villain of Drag Race ...
... is a restaurant in Chicago, in the U.S. state of Illinois. The restaurant serves American / New American cuisine ... "Moody Tongue Review - South Loop - Chicago". The Infatuation. 2023-06-30. Archived from the original on 2023-04-15. Retrieved ... "Moody Tongue - Chicago - a MICHELIN Guide Restaurant". MICHELIN Guide. Archived from the original on 2023-06-02. Retrieved 2023 ... Mai, Jeffy (2020-01-31). "A Critic Feels Moody Tongue Could Become America's Second Michelin-Starred Brewpub". Eater Chicago. ...
US 7-inch, CD, and cassette single "Tongue" (album version) - 4:13 "Tongue" (live) - 4:34 Note: "Tongue" was recorded live at ... UK cassette and limited-edition 7-inch single "Tongue" (album version) - 4:08 "Tongue" (instrumental) - 4:10 Note: The cassette ... "Tongue" is a song by American rock band R.E.M., released on July 17, 1995, as the fifth and final single from their ninth ... Tongue (US 7-inch single vinyl disc). R.E.M. Warner Bros. Records. 1995. 7-17737.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in ...
... tongue Spots on the tongue An okapi cleaning its muzzle with its tongue A yawning cats tongue is comb-like Electronic tongue ... Tongue can also be prepared as birria. Pig and beef tongue are consumed in Chinese cuisine. Duck tongues are sometimes employed ... A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie. The tongue is tied to the floor of the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tongues. Wikiquote has quotations related to Tongue. Look up tongue in Wiktionary, the ...
Problems with the tongue can have many different causes. Learn more. ... Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. You also use it to speak. ... Fissured Tongue (American Academy of Oral Medicine) Also in Spanish * Yellow Tongue (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ... Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. You also use it to speak. Your tongue is made up of many muscles. The upper ...
The guarded tongue A workshop to explore the struggles of women writers brings to light the similar threads of censorship that ... Years of subjugation and reinforced stereotypes of womens roles in society paralyze most women writers tongues. Despite ... guarded tongue of women in writing, when set free, has begun to demand its fair share of acknowledgement, support and ...
Jessica Tar feared her tongue cancer diagnosis would be the end of her acting and singing career. Memorial Sloan Kettering head ...
Fissured tongue is a condition frequently seen in the general population that is characterized by grooves that vary in depth ... and are noted along the dorsal and lateral aspects of the tongue. Although a definitive etiology is unknown, a polygenic mode ... Fissured tongue is a totally benign condition and is considered by most to be a variant of normal tongue architecture. When ... Fissured tongue affects only the tongue and is a finding in Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, which consists of a triad of ...
Blue Tongue Garage Doors. Category: Doors. Key contact details for Blue Tongue Garage Doors Phone. 08 9192 5175 Email. Email ... Blue Tongue Garage Doors Unit 7/ 274 Port Drive, BROOME, 6725 Im Looking For. ... Is Blue Tongue Garage Doors in Australia your business?. Claim your listing and attract more leads by adding more content, ... Blue Tongue Garage Doorss Keywords. Garage Doors , Roller Doors , Residential Garage Doors ...
... and Discography - 13 song lyrics sorted by album, including Crawl, If I Could Make You Do Things, Dead ...
... authentic Female Tongue And Lips Covered In Sugar Sprinkles stock photos from Getty Images. Explore similar high-resolution ... Female tongue and lips covered in sugar sprinkles - stock photo. close up ...
In this work, the use of electronic tongues, also known as taste sensor devices, for honey authenticity and assessment is ... Also, the versatility of electronic tongues to qualitative (e.g., botanical and/or geographical origin assessment as well as ... Table 1. Honey evaluation using commercial potentiometric E-tongue based devices.. E-Tongue Sensors. Type of Application. ... Table 3. Honey evaluation using commercial voltammetric E-tongue based device.. E-Tongue Sensors. Technique. Type of ...
Tongue twisters in Spanish. Before we jump into all the fun tongue twisters, lets start by going over how to say tongue ... Latinas Try Spanish Tongue Twisters While Drinking Tequila. If you want to enjoy tongue twisters on a more casual level, then ... Tongue Twisters in Spanish. If youre serious about mastering the pronunciation of these tongue twisters, you need to watch the ... Whispering tongue twisters is one of the best tips for getting through a tongue twister for the first time. Although it may ...
I am trying to feed my baby but his tongue is protruding out and food is pushed out as well. Have you experienced anything like ... I am so worried - I am trying to feed my baby but his tongue is protruding out and food is pushed out as well. Have you ... Seems normal that they stick out their tongue from time to time… Theyre trying to figure out how to eat… eventually they will ... Soooo normal!! Took us a solid month with both boys of tongue pushing, spitting, gagging and arm flailing lol ...
Mother Tongues brings together the work of poets who are or were resident in the UK, writing in languages other than English, ...
Copyright © 2024 Beijing Language and Culture University Press Co.Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Spittal Tongues, Newcastle upon Tyne, near to Newcastle Upon Tyne, England by Bill Henderson ...
The DTD1000A may be used to convert one off-air ATSC 8VSB signal to a QAM output with rate adjustment.
tongue twister. and plays to pronounce it. The Pushpa actor failed to pronounce the tongue twister given by Arha, and both of ... Watch: Allu Arjun sets fans gushing over cute video of playing tongue twister with daughter Arha. etimes.in / Sep 20, 2022, 16: ... Watch: Allu Arjun sets fans gushing over cute video of playing tongue twister with daughter Arha ...
Melissa Rauch Tongue. Posted by Tina Belcher , Feb 2, 2018 , Celebrity Tongue Pictures , 0 , ...
Winona Ryder Tongue. Posted by Acadia Einstein , Mar 25, 2016 , Celebrity Tongue Pictures , 0 , ...
It has a slide attachment for inserting and removing wooden tongue depressors for a firm hold.. The Tongue Blade Holder Head is ... This Ri-scope L Tongue Blade Holder Head is designed for use with the Ri-former Diagnostic Wall System and features an anti- ... Sliding attachment fixes and detaches wooden tongue depressors with a firm hold. ...
To free a tongue or other body part thats frozen or stuck: Dont pull or tug. This can cause an injury. Have someone pour warm ... If you touch a frozen metal surface with a wet body part such as your tongue, lip, or wet hand, it could stick. ... If a piece of tongue rips or tears off when its removed from the metal, here are steps to follow: *Wrap the piece of tongue in ... Put the wrapped piece of tongue in a bag of ice to keep it cool. Do not put the piece directly on the ice. Do not cover it in ...
Found this on the Chappaquiddick thread, credit Lynne Foster, forum member. In an Aug 22nd 1972 press conference Tricky said, If ten more wiretaps could have found the conspiracy( to assassinate JFK)= Uh, if it was a conspiracy,=or the individual (you mean Oswald, right Dick) then it would have...
Tongue cancer....I had oral Tongue cancer....I had oral tongue cancer. It started with a non-healing sore on the side of my ... I had a biopsy of tongue done 3 weeks ago for a small sore I had on my tongue for about 4 mounths. Although straight after the ... I had a biopsy of tongue done 3 weeks ago for a small sore I had on my tongue for about 4 mounths. Although straight after the ... I had a biopsy of tongue done 3 weeks ago for a small sore I had on my tongue for about 4 mounths. Although straight after the ...
2 The tongue of the wise commends knowledge, but the mouths of fools pour out folly.... Read verse in English Standard Version ... The tongue of the wise useth knowledge aright. As the heart of a wise and good man is filled with useful knowledge, civil, ... 2 The tongue of the wise commends knowledge, but 1the mouths of fools pour out folly. ... 2 The tongue of the wise commends knowledge, but the mouths of fools pour out folly. ...
Ideal tongue and groove 10" insulated pliers provide a level of protection in areas in which live voltage is present. ... Ideal Insulated 10" Tongue And Groove Pliers. SKU: 35-9420 , Ordering Code: 35-9420 , UPC: 783250450992 ...
Read our blog to learn more about the benefits of regularly brushing your tongue. ... Dont let discolouration and buildup affect the appearance of your tongue. As you improve your smile by brushing your tongue, ... Plaque, the sticky film of bacteria responsible for cavities, can build up on your tongue just like it can on your teeth. When ... Did you know that buildup on your tongue can affect your ability to taste? When taste buds are buried under debris, they cant ...
Geographic tongue, or benign migratory glossitis, causes irregular smooth patches on the surface of the tongue. As these ... Tips to Minimize Sensitivity from Tongue Contact. If your teeth are only mildly bothered by tongue contact, there are some ... Why do my teeth feel weird when I touch them with my tongue? (Treatment Tips). ByCDHP Dental Health Project ... Those with "hairy tongue" from elongated papillae experience this even more.. *Saliva helps provide a protective fluid barrier ...
"And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth ... "Defileth" means to spot or stain (Youngs Analytical Concordance to the Bible). When one uses his tongue improperly it stains ... But the tongue can no man tame; it is an unruly evil, full of deadly poison" (James 3:7-8). There are two possible ideas ... James is certainly not suggesting that man should be excused for the misuse of the tongue. God never assigns us an impossible ...
After more than 35 years in obscurity the hugely influential TV series The Dragon Has Two Tongues, a history of Wales, has ... Tags: Channel 4, Dragon, Gwyn Williams, Tongues, Wales, Welsh Underground Network, Wynford Vaughan-Thomas. Posted: 24/09/2021. ... Wynford Vaughan-Thomas and Gwyn Alf Williams, presenters of The Dragon Has Two Tongues. ... The Dragon has Two Tongues, the classic series featuring Gwyn Alf Williams and Wynford Vaughan-Thomas debating Welsh history. ...
... tongues or a branch of the chorda tympani facial nerve, which carries signals from the tip of the tongue to the brain, may have ... Cancer survivors tongues less sensitive to tastes than those of healthy peers. by Sharita Forrest, University of Illinois at ... Cancer survivors tongues less sensitive to tastes than those of healthy peers. ... However, when participants sense of taste was assessed regionally at the tip of the tongue, the cancer survivors were more ...
Two months previously she had begun cleaning her tongue with a plastic tongue scraper purchased at her local pharmacy. She had ... Effect of tongue brushing on bacteria and plaque formed in vitro. J Periodontol. 1972;43:418-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Endocarditis due to Neisseria mucosa after tongue piercing. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001;7:275-6. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Oral hygiene: a history of tongue scraping and brushing. J Am Dent Assoc. 1978;96:215-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • [ 2 ] and Down syndrome and in frequent association with benign migratory glossitis ( geographic tongue ). (medscape.com)
  • Geographic tongue is also known as benign migratory glossitis. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Here are some interesting facts about this disorder (also referred to as migratory glossitis or wandering rash of the tongue) that you should know. (colgate.com)
  • The exact cause of migratory glossitis is not known, but according to the National Organization for Rare Diseases (NORD) , the map-like appearance of the tongue is the result of inflammation. (colgate.com)
  • Geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis) is a benign condition that occurs in up to 3% of the general population. (medscape.com)
  • Yarom N, Cantony U, Gorsky M. Prevalence of fissured tongue, geographic tongue and median rhomboid glossitis among Israeli adults of different ethnic origins. (medscape.com)
  • A diagnosis of benign migratory glossitis (geographic tongue) is made by the appearance. (medscape.com)
  • Fissured tongue and geographic tongue have been reported in association with chronic granulomatous disease. (medscape.com)
  • Eidelman E, Chosack A, Cohen T. Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits. (medscape.com)
  • Geographic tongue is an inflammatory but harmless condition affecting the surface of the tongue. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • With geographic tongue, patches on the surface of the tongue are missing papillae and appear as red, smooth "islands," often with slightly raised borders. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • You may have a condition called geographic tongue. (colgate.com)
  • Although geographic tongue can persist for weeks, the good news is that in most cases there is no discomfort and no treatment is necessary. (colgate.com)
  • Do I Need to See a Doctor for Geographic Tongue? (colgate.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health's Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center says that about 5 percent of people with geographic tongue are bothered by pain or sensitivity, especially when eating spicy or acidic foods. (colgate.com)
  • Fastidious oral hygiene is always recommended, but pay special attention to your oral health if you have geographic tongue. (colgate.com)
  • Even though there are certain disorders that often occur along with geographic tongue - hormonal disturbances, emotional stress, juvenile diabetes, allergies and Reiter's syndrome - there is no real proof that they play a role in causing it. (colgate.com)
  • Geographic tongue cannot be prevented or cured. (colgate.com)
  • The etiology and pathogenesis of geographic tongue are still poorly understood. (medscape.com)
  • Geographic tongue affects males and females and is noted to be more prominent in adults than in children. (medscape.com)
  • The classic manifestation of geographic tongue is an area of erythema, with atrophy of the filiform papillae of the tongue, surrounded by a serpiginous, white, hyperkeratotic border. (medscape.com)
  • Lesion activity in geographic tongue may wax and wane over time, and patients are occasionally free of lesions. (medscape.com)
  • [ 10 ] Although geographic tongue is an inflammatory condition histologically, a polygenic mode of inheritance has been suggested because it is seen clustering in families. (medscape.com)
  • In a study of patients with psoriasis, geographic tongue occurred in 10% of the patients, in contrast to only 2.5% of age- and sex-matched controls. (medscape.com)
  • [ 13 ] A polygenic mode of inheritance has been suggested for geographic tongue. (medscape.com)
  • [ 14 ] No increased incidence of geographic tongue has been noted with medication use or environmental agents. (medscape.com)
  • Immunologic and psychologic parameters have been associated with geographic tongue. (medscape.com)
  • Geographic tongue has reportedly occurred in up to 3% of the general population in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • International frequency rates for geographic tongue are similar to those reported in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • No racial or ethnic predilection is reported for geographic tongue. (medscape.com)
  • Geographic tongue is a benign condition. (medscape.com)
  • Defining geographic tongue, describing its clinical appearance, and reinforcing its benign nature is usually all that is needed to educate patients and allay any concerns they may have about geographic tongue. (medscape.com)
  • Cambiaghi S, Colonna C, Cavalli R. Geographic tongue in two children with nonpustular psoriasis. (medscape.com)
  • In geographic tongue , some areas of the tongue are red and smooth (like ulcers), often surrounded by a white border. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The cause is unknown, but fissured tongue may occur with geographic tongue and some other disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with geographic tongue among US adults. (medscape.com)
  • On the undersurface of the tongue is a fold of mucous membrane called the frenulum that tethers the tongue at the midline to the floor of the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strip of skin that connects the tongue to the bottom of the mouth is called the frenulum. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fissured tongue is a totally benign condition and is considered by most to be a variant of normal tongue architecture. (medscape.com)
  • Nectar-eating bats lap up the sweet liquid by engorging their tongues with blood, which, in turn, makes hairlike projections on the tongue stand at attention, new research finds. (nbcnews.com)
  • These hair projections are called papillae, which are specialized versions of the bumps that dot the tongues of humans and other mammals. (nbcnews.com)
  • Normally, the tongue is covered with a layer of tiny bumps called papillae, but if for some reason any of these finger-like projections are lost, those areas of the tongue will be smooth and red with slightly raised borders. (colgate.com)
  • The tongue's papillae (tiny, rounded projections) may become discolored if a person smokes or chews tobacco, eats certain foods or vitamins, or has colored bacteria growing on the tongue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In "hairy" tongue , keratin (a normal body protein that is in hair, skin, and nails) accumulates on the normal projections on the top of the tongue (papillae) and gives it a hairy appearance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Anatomists also have noticed large blood vessels in these bats' tongues, Harper told LiveScience. (nbcnews.com)
  • Scientists have long known that nectar-feeding bats have hairy-looking tongues, as do hummingbirds and other species that rely on flowers for food. (nbcnews.com)
  • Hairy tongue may develop when food debris is trapped in the papillae when people do not clean their mouth adequately. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overall, the prevalence of fissured tongue within the United States has been reported to range from 2-5% of the population. (medscape.com)
  • Zargari O. The prevalence and significance of fissured tongue and geographical tongue in psoriatic patients. (medscape.com)
  • It addresses topics concerning language and the loss of the mother tongue. (bvsalud.org)
  • It focuses on the obstacles that appear when people need to make use of a foreign language with the obligation to abandon the mother tongue, in order to be able to communicate in the country of migration's language. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is intended for active as well as future native language teachers and study assistants wishing to deepen the theoretical knowledge and practical skills in mother tongue instruction and study guidance. (lu.se)
  • Course participants should already have acquired knowledge and skills about the subject of mother tongue instruction in schools, Swedish as a working language in schools, language acquisition with a focus on language and knowledge development in minority contexts, native language study guidance, multilingual literacy, language didactics with a focus on mother tongue instruction, issues relating to core values, or the equivalent. (lu.se)
  • The course provides students with advanced knowledge of current research relating to pupils' learning in the mother tongue subject in schools, appropriate research methodology to apply to mother tongue instruction and skills in the assessment of professional practice and the documentation of the progress of pupils of mother tongue instruction. (lu.se)
  • Based on research on multilingualism, language and knowledge development and language use in schools and in society, as well as on demonstrated professional practice in the assessment and documentation of pupils' language and knowledge development in mother tongue instruction, the course aims to provide students with the tools required to apply a research-based approach to mother tongue instruction in schools. (lu.se)
  • The course includes an individual assignment requiring students to apply research methodology and theory to their professional role in the activities by carrying out a scientific analysis of data collected from mother tongue instruction and to present this research at a seminar as well as reviewing another student's work. (lu.se)
  • 3. Independent project on mother tongue tuition and multilingual study guidance, 15 credits. (lu.se)
  • Does Mother-tongue Education Matter for School Achievements? (lu.se)
  • Dissections of bat tongues revealed that there were sinuses, or spaces, along the sides of the tongues that extended into the papillae, suggesting blood flowed through the millimeter-long hairs. (nbcnews.com)
  • At 500 frames per second, the videos showed that as the bats extended their tongues, at first, the papillae were flat against the tongue surface. (nbcnews.com)
  • Mild tongue tie is when the tongue is connected to the bottom of the mouth by a thin strip of tissue called a mucous membrane. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tongues of this size typically occur in massive iced-over areas like the Larsen Ice Shelf, but are rare in relatively small Alaskan glaciers. (nasa.gov)
  • It is important to remember that problems with breast-feeding can occur for a variety of reasons and are not usually caused by tongue tie. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Black discoloration on the top of the tongue may occur if a person takes bismuth preparations for an upset stomach. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health . (bvsalud.org)
  • Make an appointment with a dentist any time you have a lesion on your tongue that doesn't go away within 10 days, advises the Mayo Clinic , to rule out anything serious. (colgate.com)
  • The patient often reports spontaneous resolution of the lesion in one area, with the return of normal tongue architecture, only to have another lesion appear in a different location of the tongue. (medscape.com)
  • We report the case of a woman in whom infective endocarditis followed the use of a tongue scraper. (cdc.gov)
  • Two months previously she had begun cleaning her tongue with a plastic tongue scraper purchased at her local pharmacy. (cdc.gov)
  • A literature review did not show any previous reports of endocartitis associated with use of a tongue scraper. (cdc.gov)
  • Brushing the tongue with a toothbrush or scraping it with a tongue scraper can remove such discoloration. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The tongue is a muscular hydrostat that forms part of the floor of the oral cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper aims to discuss the use of tongue piercing and its consequences in the oral cavity, specifically the periodontal tissues. (bvsalud.org)
  • The portions of the tongue with atrophic filiform papilla are symptomatic to acidic foods. (medscape.com)
  • When seen in association with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, the morbidity is due not to the fissured tongue but is secondary to the granulomatous inflammation of the lips/facial soft tissues and facial paralysis. (medscape.com)
  • No predilection for any particular race is apparent in fissured tongue. (medscape.com)
  • Some reports have shown a slight male predilection for fissured tongue. (medscape.com)
  • Although a specific etiology has not been elicited for fissured tongue, a polygenic or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is suspected because fissured tongue is seen with increased frequency in families with an affected proband. (medscape.com)
  • However, a small amount of bismuth interacts with sulfur-containing compounds present in saliva and food residue within our mouth forming bismuth sulfide - a significantly dark compound responsible for discoloration on teeth/tongue/gums etc. (dane101.com)
  • Antacid containing aluminum hydroxide can lead to tongue discoloration too but in gray color - this reaction starts due to high pH adjusting body blood level of acid-causing molecules [aluminum & derivatives] resulting in reduced acidity which inhibits growth of healthy mouth bacteria. (dane101.com)
  • A small blue-black discoloration on the underside of the tongue may be a tattoo caused by a fragment of dental amalgam filling material, which contains silver, becoming stuck in the tongue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • But by the finale, we still don't have the answer to one of the show's first questions: Who cut out Kowtok's tongue, and who left it at Tsalal when the scientists died? (businessinsider.com)
  • The left and right sides of the tongue are separated by a vertical section of fibrous tissue known as the lingual septum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tonsils, a specific risk material (SRM) for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), must be completed separated beef tongue products. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • A major function of the tongue is the enabling of speech in humans and vocalization in other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tongue also serves as a natural means of cleaning the teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means brushing your teeth and tongue twice a day. (colgate.com)
  • It may take up to 10 days for the tongue to heal following surgery and the baby may experience some discomfort. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A tongue twister is a sequence of words or sounds that are typically difficult to pronounce quickly and correctly. (ecenglish.com)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic condition characterized by a continuous burning sensation of the mucosa of the mouth, typically involving the tongue, with or without extension to the lips and oral mucosa. (medscape.com)
  • This division is along the length of the tongue save for the very back of the pharyngeal part and is visible as a groove called the median sulcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper surface of the tongue is called the dorsum, and is divided by a groove into symmetrical halves by the median sulcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of a typical tetrapod. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is automatic, and likely driven by muscular tension in the tongue, Harper said. (nbcnews.com)
  • Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bats' taste buds are further back on their tongues. (nbcnews.com)
  • Pronunciation of letters that involves elevation of the tongue, such as 't,' 'n,' or 'd,' may be particularly difficult. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The terminal sulcus is a shallow groove that runs forward as a shallow groove in a V shape from the foramen cecum, forwards and outwards to the margins (borders) of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average weight of the human tongue from adult males is 99g and for adult females 79g. (wikipedia.org)
  • If your tongue is painful, easily irritated by certain foods and drinks, or has become severely swollen (interfering with eating, speaking or swallowing) see your dentist for a diagnosis. (colgate.com)
  • This patient's endocarditis was most likely caused by bacteremia from tongue scraping, and the abnormal valve is likely to have been a predisposing factor. (cdc.gov)
  • In fissured tongue , deep grooves are located on the tongue surface. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Two recalls do not a trend make, but it makes you wonder if just maybe the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety & Inspection Service is looking under a few more tongues in recent days. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is when the strip of skin that connects the tongue to the bottom of the mouth is shorter than usual. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In severe cases, the tongue can be fused to the bottom of the mouth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If the tongue is attached to the bottom of the mouth near the tip it may appear blunt, forked, or heart-shaped. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, tongue tie is not always that easy to spot and the tongue can be connected to the bottom of the mouth anywhere along its underside. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A specially trained doctor will snip the piece of skin connecting the underside of the tongue to the bottom of the mouth in a quick, simple, and often painless procedure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tongue scraping is advocated as a therapy for managing halitosis and as a technique for preventing dental caries by reducing bacterial counts in the mouth ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue - mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in- mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fissured tongue is a condition frequently seen in the general population that is characterized by grooves that vary in depth and are noted along the dorsal and lateral aspects of the tongue, as shown in the image below. (medscape.com)
  • Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is a rare condition consisting of a triad of persistent or recurring lip or facial swelling, intermittent seventh (facial) nerve paralysis ( Bell palsy ), and a fissured tongue. (medscape.com)
  • The presence of fissured tongue in association with these other features is diagnostic of the condition. (medscape.com)
  • Description for Wolf Tongue Paperback. (kennys.ie)
  • The use of tongue scrapers may not be limited to those with clinical halitosis, as 10%-30% of Americans report bad breath ( 4 ), and websites offer to solve the problem of "your bad breath" for a price. (cdc.gov)
  • Yes, your tongue may turn black temporarily but it has no negative impact on your health whatsoever. (dane101.com)
  • A Cochrane review has concluded that tongue cleaning is marginally and temporarily more effective than use of a toothbrush in reducing a measurable marker for halitosis, exhaled volatile sulfur compounds ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The human tongue is divided into two parts, an oral part at the front and a pharyngeal part at the back. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human tongue is divided into anterior and posterior parts by the terminal sulcus which is a V-shaped groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average length of the human tongue from the oropharynx to the tip is 10 cm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eight muscles of the human tongue are classified as either intrinsic or extrinsic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bat tongues are just one of many animal features with promise for human engineering. (nbcnews.com)
  • human tongues do not just come in one colour! (dane101.com)
  • Acquired January 10, 2010, this true-color image shows an iceberg measuring roughly 8.5 by 9.5 kilometers drifting off the edge off the Mertz Glacier Tongue in East Antarctica. (nasa.gov)
  • A depth color coded projection of a snail's tongue (Radula) in Confocal, this image illustrates the beauty and complexity of natural forms even in something as seemingly simple as the tongue of a snail. (nikonsmallworld.com)
  • D'Erme AM, Agnoletti AF, Prignano F. Fissured tongue responding to biologics during the treatment of psoriasis: the importance of detecting oral involvement of psoriasis. (medscape.com)
  • There are two groups of muscles of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four intrinsic muscles alter the shape of the tongue and are not attached to bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four paired extrinsic muscles change the position of the tongue and are anchored to bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your tongue is made up of many muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Base of tongue squamous cell carcinomas, outcome depending on treatment strategy and p16 status. (lu.se)

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