Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Basilar Membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Gastric Fundus: The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Esophagogastric Junction: The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Oxymetazoline: A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Hexamethonium: A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Bamum has tone, vowel length, diphthongs and coda consonants. Vowels[edit]. The simple vowels are: Front. Central. Back ...
Proto-Tai tones correspond regularly to Middle Chinese tones.[11][12] (Note that Old Chinese did not have tones.) The following ... Tones[edit]. Proto-Tai had three contrasting tones on syllables ending with sonorant finals ("live syllables"), and no tone ... Tone Notes (Written Thai orthography) Middle Chinese Tone Chinese name Notes (Middle Chinese) ... The *D tone can also be split into the *DS (short vowel) and *DL (long vowel) tones. With voicing contrast, these would be *DS1 ...
In essence, every tone in Old Thai split into two new tones, with a lower-pitched tone corresponding to a syllable that ... represent the three tones of Old Thai, and the complex relationship between tone mark and actual tone is due to the various ... with the lower variant of former tone 2 merging with the higher variant of former tone 3, becoming the modern "falling" tone.[h ... Furthermore, the six tones that resulted after the three tones of Old Thai were split have since merged into five in standard ...
Tone terracing[edit]. The phonetic pitch of the three tones depends on their environment, often being lowered after other tones ... H/ tones have the same pitch as a preceding /H/ or /M/ tone within the same tonic phrase, whereas /M/ tones have a lower pitch ... Tones[edit]. Twi has three phonemic tones, high (/H/), mid (/M/), and low (/L/). Initial syllable may only be high or low. ... After the first "prominent" syllable of a clause, usually the first high tone, there is a downstep. This syllable is usually ...
Tone[edit]. From those barely moving fingers came an unforced, bronzelike sonority and an accuracy bordering on infallibility.[ ... He had the secret of the golden, living tone which comes from the heart ... I was always under the spell of his glorious and ... Coupled to this tone was a vocal quality not unlike that attributed to Chopin's playing. With Rachmaninoff's extensive operatic ... Beginning in the mid-1890s, his compositions began showing a more individual tone. His First Symphony has many original ...
Tones of Nanning Pinghua Tone name Level. píng 平 Rising. shàng 上 Departing. qù 去 Entering. rù 入 ... Tones[edit]. Southern Pinghua has six contrasting tones in open syllables, and four in checked syllables,[12] as found in ... Lee, Gina (1993). Comparative, diachronic and experimental perspectives on the interaction between tone and the vowel in ... The split of the lower entering tone is determined by the initial consonant, with the low rising contour occurring after ...
Diagnostic words for proto-Karen tone categories (Manson 2009)[14] Initial consonant Tone class ... Tones[edit]. Ken Manson (2009) reconstructs three proto-Karen tonal categories *A, *B and *B' for syllables with vocalic or ... These tones subsequently split in different ways in different subgroups, conditioned by the manner of the initial consonant. ...
For example, in Standard Chinese a third tone changes to a second tone when followed by another third tone.[100] Particularly ... the tones resulting from the split of Middle Chinese rising and departing tones merged, leaving four tones. Furthermore, final ... The tones of Middle Chinese, as well as similar systems in neighbouring languages, experienced a tone split conditioned by ... Many Chinese varieties exhibit tone sandhi, in which the realization of a tone varies depending on the context of the syllable ...
Tones. I'm adding many Bambara words to the Wiktionnaire. And I'd like to give an indication of tone. So now I just do what ... Tone diacritics for non-latin vowel symbols. One of the ways in IPA to indicate tones is by diacritics, like acute (á) and ... I want to add more contour tones, since the Doulos SIL font now supports tone letters.). I've changed the layout to an ... Since not a single standard font has Unicode support for contour-tone diacritics or tone letters, that jpg is all any of us ...
Tone tag[edit]. I posted the tone tag. The lead does not look academic/clinical enough ("a group of philosophers" =, "a school ... You could always change the tone of the lead yourself, you know. :P Singinglemon (talk) 18:28, 17 November 2010 (UTC). Agree: " ... I have added much more and attempted to respect the tone of the numerous comments below: in particular, 1) being careful not to ... There's also many problems of tone and neutrality in that section (and in the entire article as well). Things like "which had ...
Added tone chords[edit]. Main article: Added tone chord. An important characteristic of jazz and blues is the extensive use of ... Chords containing quarter tones[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding ... If the number is 2, 4, 6, etc., the chord is a major added tone chord (e.g., C6 = CM6 = Cadd6) and contains, together with the ... Those are notated in a similar manner to inversions, except that the bass note is not necessarily a chord tone. Examples: *C/A♭ ...
Nasal vowels carry tone as well, resulting in a two diacritics on vowels with high tone: ą́ (presenting problems for ... Vowels can carry tone as well as syllabic n (Example: ń). The practical orthography has tried to simplify the Americanist ... Here are some vowel contrasts involving nasalization, tone, and length from Chiricahua Apache: cha̧a̧ 'feces'. chaa 'beaver'. ... Additionally, rising tone on long vowels is indicated by an unmarked first vowel and an acute accent on the second. It is vice ...
Tone assimilation[edit]. Zulu has tonic assimilation: high tones tend to spread allophonically to following low-tone syllables ... Tone displacement[edit]. Depressor consonants have an effect called tone displacement. Tone displacement occurs whenever a ... However, low tone does not behave the same as the other two, as high tones can "spread" into low-toned syllables while the ... Whenever tone displacement is blocked, this results in a depressor syllable with high tone, which will have the low-tone onset ...
Resting muscle tone varies along a bell shaped curve. Low tone is experienced as "floppy, mushy, dead weight" and high tone is ... Muscles with high tone are not necessarily strong and muscles with low tone are not necessarily weak. In general, low tone does ... These athletes usually have high tone that is within normal limits. A person with high tone will usually not be flexible in ... Normally, people are unaware of their muscle tone in their daily activities. The body maintains the balance between the tone of ...
Tone production[edit]. Classical guitarists have a large degree of freedom within the mechanics of playing the instrument. ... Often these decisions influence tone and timbre. Factors include: *At what position along the string the finger plucks the ... Many fingerstyle guitarists have adopted a combination of acrylic nails and a thumbpick to improve tone and decrease nail wear ... This style, while unorthodox, was widely regarded as an innovative method for enhancing the warm tone associated with jazz ...
Another unique result is that the syllable is spoken with a low-rising or "dipping" tone much like the "hỏi" tone in Vietnamese ... Phonation and tone[edit]. Khmer once had a phonation distinction in its vowels, but this now survives only in the most archaic ... Full doubt interrogatives remain fairly even in tone throughout, but rise sharply towards the end. ... level versus peaking tone) to compensate for the elision of /r/.[33] ...
Style and tone[edit]. In an interview with IGN before the release of the first issue, Morrison detailed that the tone of the ...
They all started with four tones, soon afterward developed into different phonological tones such as checked tone because of ... The aspiration of the initial and the length of the vowel in checked tone led to further tone development of dialects in these ... The aspiration property also determined the tone development of Kra-Dai, of which the tone eventually developed into sixteen ... A growing number of scholars believe that Old Chinese did not use tones, and that the tones of Middle Chinese developed from ...
Hedonic tone assessment[edit]. Hedonic assessment is the process of rating odors according to a scale ranging from extremely ... It is important to note that intensity and hedonic tone, whilst similar, refer to different things: that is, the strength of ... the odor (intensity) and the pleasantness of an odor (hedonic tone). Moreover, it is important to note that perception of an ...
The low tone is unmarked (a), the high level tone is marked with the acute accent (á), and the rising tone with the caron (ǎ). ... preferred an analysis with only two tones, in which the rising tone was analyzed as two consecutive tones on one long vowel. In ... Bartholomew has been a leading advocate for the marking of tone, arguing that because tone is an integrated element of the ... In Mezquital Otomi, suffixes are never specified for tone, while in Tenango Otomi, the only syllables not specified for tone ...
Brown, Bruce A. (July-August 1997). "super tones". 7ball (13): 12-14. ISSN 1082-3980. ...
Control protocols included relatively rudimentary telephony features such as indicating who wants to talk to whom; ring tones; ...
Carlozo, Lou (February 1999). "Super Tone Deaf". CCM Magazine. 21 (8). ISSN 1524-7848. Quote by Brandon Ebel. Newcomb, Brian ... Brown, Bruce A. (July-August 1997). "super tones". 7ball (13): 12-14. ISSN 1082-3980. Hill, Don (1996). "Reviews / Adventures ...
Roth, Henry (December 1994). "Indiana tones". The Strad. 105 (1256): 1242-1247. "Stefan Milenkovich, Violinist, Biography". ...
Sensitive style Notes Lord Rayleigh (April 1915). "Æolian Tones". The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and ...
... for both click and pure tone stimuli. Transplanted cells survived within the perilymphatic compartments but did not integrate ... for both click and pure tone stimuli. Transplanted cells survived within the perilymphatic compartments but did not integrate ...
A simple example of global tone mapping filter is V. out. =. V. in. V. in. +. 1. ,. {\displaystyle V_{\text{out}}={\frac {V_{\ ... Tone mapped HDR image of Dundas Square; Tone mapping was done as post-processing technique, using Photomatix photographic ... Not all tone mapped images are visually distinctive. Reducing dynamic range with tone mapping is often useful in bright sunlit ... Tone mapping algorithms[edit]. *Perceptually Based Tone Mapping for Low-Light Conditions ...
Resting muscle tone varies along a bell shaped curve. Low tone is experienced as "floppy, mushy, dead weight" and high tone is ... Muscles with high tone are not necessarily strong and muscles with low tone are not necessarily weak. In general, low tone does ... These athletes usually have high tone that is within normal limits. A person with high tone will usually not be flexible in ... Normally, people are unaware of their muscle tone in their daily activities. The body maintains the balance between the tone of ...
Tags: Dark Tones, Light Tones, Low Key, Pdf, Photograph. Exposing Scenes that are Lighter or Darker than Average. Scenes that ... Dark Tones High and Low Key. The term high and low key refer to the dominant prevailing tones - light or dark - used in a ... Tags: Assumption, Automatic Camera, Dark Tones, Extra, Ing, Light Tones, Pdf, Photograph, Reason, Snow Scene. ... A high key photograph consist mostly of white and light tones and some middle tones, whereas a low key photograph is composed ...
Download Vital Tones Physical and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Vital Tones Physical. ... Vital Tones has discovered an evolutionary brainwave technology which can stimulate specific parts of the brain and the body.. ... Vital Tones method and technology is incomparable. THERAPIES:. Asthma. Ataxia. Autism. Breast Milk. Cerebral Palsy. Carpal ...
tone (third-person singular simple present tones, present participle toning, simple past and past participle toned) ... "tone" in The Bokmål Dictionary.. Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]. Etymology[edit]. From Old Norse tóni, from Latin tonus ("sound, tone" ... tone (imperative ton, infinitive at tone, present tense toner, past tense tonede, perfect tense har tonet) ... Mandarin: 聲調 (zh), 声调 (zh) (shēngdiào), 聲 (zh), 声 (zh) (shēng), (4 tones) 四聲 (zh), 四声 (zh) (sì shēng). Min Nan: 聲調 (zh-min-nan) ...
Lyrics to Skibbereen by Wolfe Tones: O, Father dear, I ofttimes heard you talk of Erins Isle / Her valleys green, her lofty ...
Toned Arm workout For Women Over 50 , Start Losing Those Flabby Bat Wing Arms Today! - Duration: 11:00. fabulous50s 931,174 ... Quick Workout: The 5-Minute One-Dumbbell Workout For Total-Body Toning from Womens Health - Duration: 6:12. Womens Health ... Reboot Your Butt With This Toning Pilates Workout , Class FitSugar - Duration: 10:42. POPSUGAR Fitness 146,632 views ...
Beautiful Heart - Beautiful Tone posted Sep 27, 2010, 5:25 PM by Stephanie Chevalier [ updated Dec 4, 2010, 2:35 PM ] Beautiful ... "Beautiful heart- Beautiful tone," which means the outside represents the inside, is suggested by Susan. Consequently, Susan ... They are working on bowing, beautiful tone production, perfect intonation, and concepts of physics and geometry, such as ...
Join Bert Monroy for an in-depth discussion in this video Adding color tones in the drawer, part of Creating Commercial ... So here we go.…Were now going to start adding the…nice little tones inside here.…Lets start with this little guy first.…So I ... Join Bert Monroy for an in-depth discussion in this video Adding color tones in the drawer, part of Creating Commercial ...
... s Dry Shampoo Light Tones at Sephora. This shampoo cleanses, refreshes, and brings out the best in light-colored hair. ... Moroccanoil®s Dry Shampoo Light Tones instantly cleanses and refreshes, thanks to ultra-fine rice starch that absorbs excess ... Formulated for light hair tones, subtle violet pigments similar to concept of purple shampoo help balance brassiness and bring ...
A match was made in heaven the day Jacob Craig came to direct the Silver Tones, a Senior Resource Association choral program. ​ ... Silver Tones celebrate anniversary with concert. A match was made in heaven the day Jacob Craig came to direct the Silver Tones ... Silver Tones celebrate anniversary with concert A match was made in heaven the day Jacob Craig came to direct the Silver Tones ... Silver Tones celebrate anniversary with concert. YourNews contributor Published 5:34 p.m. ET May 17, 2017 , Updated 5:37 p.m. ...
Shop Moroccanoils Dry Shampoo Dark Tones at Sephora. This dry cleansing spray is formulated to absorb oil and buildup from ...
Luganda has high-toned and low-toned verbs. In the infinitive, low-toned verbs have the usual phrasal tones on all but the ... to distinguish them from phrasal high tones, lexical and grammatical tones will be marked in bold. Phrasal tones are high tones ... However, a phrasal tone can very easily form a plateau with a following lexical tone or phrasal tone: mu kyaló Másíńdi in the ... Phrasal tones tend to be less prominent than lexical tones and often in a sentence if a word with lexical tone is substituted ...
On Friday 30 October 2009 Polly Tones was chosen as Band of the Day by the British newspaper The Guardian - Polly Tones are ... Polly Tones myspace page Polly Tones as band of the day on The Guardian. ... Polly Tones first EP Take this Pill was released in late 2008. A second EP, The Toast, was released in November 2011, ... Polly Tones is acoustic Swedish duo consisting of Malin Dahlgren (vocals) and Viktor Näslund (guitar). Their music can be ...
1. muscular tonus, muscle tone, tonicity, tonus, tone. usage: normal tonicity of the muscles; "exercise improves muscle tone". ...
Earlier you saw how we can control tone through exposure--that is, we can darken…a tone by underexposing to put it back to its ... Tone also has an impact on color.…Take a look at our flowers again.…This is a different set than we have used before.…My light ... dial in a 1/3rd-stop exposure compensation and watch what happens to these tones in here.… ...
MoveOn.org, which claims 3.3 million members and is becoming a tone-setting tail that wags the Democratic Party dog -- a dog ...
Quiet, Conciliatory Tone.". From The New Yorker Herold.. JULY 11, 1915. Continue reading the main story Share This Page ... Conciliatory Tone.". Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
Relevant Tones is proud to partner with The Look + Listen Festival. The Look + Listen Festival is an annual event dedicated to ... We continue Relevant Tones, a weekly exploration of the most fascinating time in classical music history: right now. From up- ... Relevant Tones is broadcast in markets throughout the United States and internationally through the WFMT Radio Network. Hide ... Weve always been fascinated here at Relevant Tones with how our perceptions of music change when its paired with visual ...
Of Dial Tones and Static. by Scott Thomas Outlar / March 8th, 2020 ...
Listen to Twin Tones Radio free online. Listen to free internet radio, sports, music, news, talk and podcasts. Stream live ...
Plaid Autumn Earth Tone Flannel Eshakti Dress Mediumish Custom-sized Worn Once ... Vtg African 2 piece Maxi Dress Outfit Wax Block Fabric Beige Orange Earth Tone ...
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Some top Republican lawmakers on Tuesday voiced support for vaccinating children but questioned the need for a new law requiring it.
  • Tones perform various functions in Luganda: they help to distinguish one word from another, they distinguish one verb tense from another, and they are also used in sentence intonation, for example, to distinguish a statement from a question. (wikipedia.org)
  • To these can be added boundary tones and other tones indicating intonation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are working on bowing, beautiful tone production, perfect intonation, and concepts of physics and geometry, such as clarifying the angles between the hair of the bow and the strings. (google.com)
  • For the use of the term "tone" in weight training and bodybuilding, see Toning exercises . (wikipedia.org)
  • hiya everyone i have a problem with my tone, when i record myself and listen back my tone isnt good at all its too thick and dark, my tone lacks brightness and i read that tone should ring but mine doesnt so does anyone now any tips, techniques and exercises that could help me brighten my tone. (ultimate-guitar.com)
  • Dermatologists measured improvements in the appearance of the faces of a small group of middle-age women after they did half an hour of daily face-toning exercises for eight weeks, followed by alternate-day exercises for another 12 weeks. (reuters.com)
  • Diagnostic standard pure-tone threshold audiometry, used most often in clinical settings, includes manual air-conduction measurements at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz (125 Hz under some circumstances) plus bone-conduction measurements at octave intervals from 250 Hz to 4000 Hz and at 3000 Hz as needed. (asha.org)
  • Network Working Group H. Schulzrinne Request for Comments: 2833 Columbia University Category: Standards Track S. Petrack MetaTel May 2000 RTP Payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. (ietf.org)
  • RFC 2833 Tones May 2000 end system such as an "Internet phone" can emulate DTMF functionality without concerning itself with generating precise tone pairs and without imposing the burden of tone recognition on the receiver. (ietf.org)
  • RFC 2833 Tones May 2000 Generally, since the recognition of signals often depends on their on/off pattern or the sequence of several tones, this recognition can take several seconds. (ietf.org)
  • Her rousing speech gave an upbeat tone to the rest of the evening. (wiktionary.org)
  • Ross told China there was a need for it to "guarantee fair and reciprocal treatment for U.S. firms" during a visit to Beijing, where he tried to strike an upbeat tone amid trade tensions between the two countries. (reuters.com)
  • Barack Obama and Mitt Romney struck contrasting tones on the European debt crisis on Friday in public appearances just minutes apart as they seized on a new report on the U.S. job market to criticize the other's party and policies. (wsj.com)
  • Very soft and soothing with hydrating apricot extract to add some much needed moisture to the toning part of our skincare routine. (independent.ie)
  • Fisher L.E., Steinhart C.M., Catravas J.D. (1998) Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment and Extracapillary Vascular Tone. (springer.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 control of vascular tone. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that a well-known growth factor, FGF2, long thought to be involved in many developmental and homeostatic processes, including growth of the tissue layers of vessel walls, functions in vascular tone control. (nih.gov)
  • These results force us to reconsider the function of FGF2 in vascular development and homeostasis in terms of vascular tone control. (nih.gov)
  • Abstract This memo describes how to carry dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) signaling, other tone signals and telephony events in RTP packets. (ietf.org)
  • 1 Introduction This memo defines two payload formats, one for carrying dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) digits, other line and trunk signals ( Section 3 ), and a second one for general multi-frequency tones in RTP [ 1 ] packets ( Section 4 ). (ietf.org)
  • Having the gateway detect tones relieves the receiving Internet end system from having to do this work and also avoids that low bit-rate codecs like G.723.1 render DTMF tones unintelligible. (ietf.org)
  • 2 Events vs. Tones A gateway has two options for handling DTMF digits and events. (ietf.org)
  • Tone provides an easy-to-understand broadcast mechanism that behaves like the human voice-it doesn't pass through walls like radio or require pairing or addressing….However, because many laptop microphones and nearly all video conferencing systems are optimized for voice, it improved reliability considerably to also include a minimal DTMF -based audible codec. (thenextweb.com)
  • Since not all human beings are capable of whistling proper DTMF tones, this should be handled by the software. (launchpad.net)
  • Dramatically evens the appearance of skin tone and is clinically shown to significantly improve skin brightness. (marykay.com)
  • Navy bean extract - an amazing discovery shown to significantly improve the brightness of skin † and improve the appearance of overall evenness of skin tone. (marykay.com)
  • We know that as women of color it can be difficult to find the best blush for your skin tone. (vibe.com)
  • Dollymix looks great on any skin tone, and creates naturally pink cheeks. (vibe.com)
  • This looked much better on a fairer skin tone, it looks more pink on me but loved it! (cosmopolitan.com)
  • Rather than blindly choosing a color you like, make sure it will work with your shade and skin tone. (wikihow.com)
  • Think about the colors that flatter you the most when determining your skin tone. (wikihow.com)
  • If you look better in blue, gray, and violet, you probably have a cool skin tone. (wikihow.com)
  • This means that the hair colors you choose should be at the opposite side of your skin tone on a color wheel to ensure that they will look good on you. (wikihow.com)
  • If you have a neutral skin tone, then you will look best in muted shades, such as mahogany. (wikihow.com)
  • Select a shade that is the opposite of your skin tone on a color wheel. (wikihow.com)
  • Tone mapping addresses the problem of strong contrast reduction from the scene radiance to the displayable range while preserving the image details and color appearance important to appreciate the original scene content. (wikipedia.org)
  • When creating content for the Web, considering tone of voice is important. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • A high key photograph consist mostly of white and light tones and some middle tones, whereas a low key photograph is composed predominately of black and dark tones. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The reason is that the meter will make its usual assumption that it is pointed at a scene consisting of light, medium, and dark tones, and it will expose the film accordingly. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - The tone between China and U.S. is "pretty good" ahead of U.S. President Donald Trump's China visit, U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said at a function in Hong Kong. (reuters.com)
  • Rapid Tone Australia It also stimulates the physical activity in the body and fights with diabetes and makes your mood free. (issuu.com)
  • At its core is our industry-first navy bean extract to help reduce the appearance of discoloration on the skin's surface † and improve the look of more even-toned skin overall. (marykay.com)
  • The only slightly nevative thing that cought my attention was that the top of your hair seems more grey and toned out than the rest of your work. (newgrounds.com)
  • Rapid Tone Australia that work synergistically to deliver the desired result. (issuu.com)
  • There are a growing number of muscle-toning products that can work alongside an exercise regime to shape, tone and strengthen your abdominals. (argos.co.uk)
  • With its informative, yet engagingly down-to-earth presentation, Relevant Tones seeks to make contemporary music accessible to diehard classical music fans while attracting new and younger listeners. (prx.org)
  • Make an appearance in these sparkling jet black silver tone drop earrings from 1928. (kohls.com)
  • Tone aims to make sharing digital things with nearby people as easy as talking to them. (thenextweb.com)
  • You may also notice if you do these edits on your own that the adjustments you make to the tone curve are also quantified in the sliders below the graph, as you can see below. (digital-photography-school.com)
  • Experiments conducted by researchers at the University of Toronto suggest that very young children make judgments about people based on their tone of voice. (foxnews.com)
  • In fact, women from fair to deep tones* showed a significant improvement in their skin's overall appearance. (marykay.com)
  • The term high and low key refer to the dominant prevailing tones - light or dark - used in a picture. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • But this will underexpose a scene that consists mostly of light tones, resulting in a too-dark final photograph. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Moroccanoil®'s Dry Shampoo Light Tones instantly cleanses and refreshes, thanks to ultra-fine rice starch that absorbs excess oil and product buildup. (sephora.com)
  • The Tone Curve panel seems downright strange at first, with a light gray histogram and a diagonal line going right through the middle of it. (digital-photography-school.com)
  • Created by designer Helle Damkjær, this silver-toned tea light holder has been inspired by natural crystallized rocks. (swarovski.com)
  • LONDON (CBS.MW) - Siemens on Thursday helped set the tone for a turnaround in European earnings after making clear it had seen a recovery in its fiscal first quarter over the prior quarter. (marketwatch.com)
  • Shopping for the best deal on Silver tone watch, Plastic Watches - Select a product below or see other matches to read product reviews, compare prices and store ratings. (pricegrabber.com)
  • Mini Tone is a minimalist puzzle game that combines musical notes and physical intuition. (steampowered.com)
  • The discussion reveals that there are three acoustic properties of musical sounds, as they occur in the air, between the instrument and the listener, that are particularly useful in summarizing the effects of the physical properties on the musical tones they produce, and in explaining how these musical tones produce the perceptions that we hear. (springer.com)
  • Two-tone watch featuring black dial with EL backlight, logo at 12 o'clock, and checkerboard-textured center bracelet links Quartz movement with analog and digital displays Features glass crystal dial window, fold-over clasp, daily alarm, timer, and. (pricegrabber.com)
  • Kenneth Jay Lane Black Face Watch With Silver And Gold Two Tone Steel Bracelet. (pricegrabber.com)
  • Rising tones are not found in Luganda, even on long vowels, since a sequence such as [àá] automatically becomes [áá]. (wikipedia.org)
  • This descent is known as downdrift or 'automatic downstep' and is common in many African languages whenever tones come in a sequence HLH. (wikipedia.org)
  • With TimeWise ® Tone-Correcting Serum, you'll transform dull, lifeless-looking skin into a more luminous complexion. (marykay.com)
  • MoveOn.org, which claims 3.3 million members and is becoming a tone-setting tail that wags the Democratic Party dog -- a dog that is mostly such tails -- adopted Sheehan during her Crawford demonstration, organizing 1,627 vigils around the country to express solidarity with her. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Modern watch featuring black case with silver-tone bezel and numberless skelet. (pricegrabber.com)
  • I used Edwal ultra black and I r eally liked the cold bluish tint, but when I toned in 5:1 selenium that was repl aced in 2 minutes by a purplish tint. (largeformatphotography.info)
  • I develop Azo in Agfa Neutol WA 1:3 for 2 minutes and tone in Rapid Selenium Toner 1:15 for 3 minutes and get a neutral to warm black and extension of Dmax, but go 4 minutes and it turns purple-brown. (largeformatphotography.info)
  • Keep one as a reference print while you tone, time the first one to see when it goes from black to purple, then tone the third one for just short of the time it takes to go purple. (largeformatphotography.info)
  • Two-tone watch featuring black dial with EL backlight, logo at 12 o'clock, and. (pricegrabber.com)
  • XOXO Women's XO5218 Black Dial Two-Tone Half Cuff and Half B. (pricegrabber.com)
  • Unique Design】:Silver Black Men Automatic Watch Adopts a Fully Automatic Mechanical Movement .Two Sub-dials to display Year and Month, a little window to tell you the week and date.Two tone mens wach with a tourbillon on the black dial. (pricegrabber.com)