A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Nucleic acid sequences that are involved in the negative regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by chromatin silencing.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Diseases of plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.

Enhancer-like properties of an RNA element that modulates Tombusvirus RNA accumulation. (1/222)

Prototypical defective interfering (DI) RNAs of the plus-strand RNA virus tomato bushy stunt virus contain four noncontiguous segments (regions I-IV) derived from the viral genome. Region I corresponds to 5'-noncoding sequence, regions II and III are derived from internal positions, and region IV represents a 3'-terminal segment. We analyzed the internally located region III in a prototypical DI RNA to understand better its role in DI RNA accumulation. Our results indicate that (1) region III is not essential for DI RNA accumulation, but molecules that lack it accumulate at significantly reduced levels ( approximately 10-fold lower), (2) region III is able to function at different positions and in opposite orientations, (3) a single copy of region III is favored over multiple copies, (4) the stimulatory effect observed on DI RNA accumulation is not due to region III-mediated RNA stabilization, (5) DI RNAs lacking region III permit the efficient accumulation of head-to-tail dimers and are less effective at suppressing helper RNA accumulation, and (6) negative-strand accumulation is also significantly depressed for DI RNAs lacking region III. Collectively, these results support a role for region III as an enhancer-like element that facilitates DI RNA replication. A scanning-type mutagenesis strategy was used to define portions of region III important for its stimulatory effect on DI RNA accumulation. Interestingly, the results revealed several differences in the requirements for activity when region III was in the forward versus the reverse orientation. In the context of the viral genome, region III was found to be essential for biological activity. This latter finding defines a critical role for this element in the reproductive cycle of the virus.  (+info)

Subgenomic mRNA regulation by a distal RNA element in a (+)-strand RNA virus. (2/222)

Subgenomic (sg) mRNAs are synthesized by (+)-strand RNA viruses to allow for efficient translation of products encoded 3' in their genomes. This strategy also provides a means for regulating the expression of such products via modulation of sg mRNA accumulation. We have studied the mechanism by which sg mRNAs levels are controlled in tomato bushy stunt virus, a small (+)-strand RNA virus which synthesizes two sg mRNAs during infections. Neither the viral capsid nor movement proteins were found to play any significant role in modulating the accumulation levels of either sg mRNA. Deletion analysis did, however, identify a 12-nt-long RNA sequence located approximately 1,000 nt upstream from the site of initiation of sg mRNA2 synthesis that was required specifically for accumulation of sg mRNA2. Further analysis revealed a potential base-pairing interaction between this sequence and a sequence located just 5' to the site of initiation for sg mRNA2 synthesis. Mutant genomes in which this interaction was either disrupted or maintained were analyzed and the results indicated a positive correlation between the predicted stability of the base-pairing interaction and the efficiency of sg mRNA2 accumulation. The functional significance of the long-distance interaction was further supported by phylogenetic sequence analysis which revealed conservation of base-pairing interactions of similar stability and relative position in the genomes of different tombusviruses. It is proposed that the upstream sequence represents a cis-acting RNA element which facilitates sg mRNA accumulation by promoting efficient synthesis of sg mRNA2 via a long-distance RNA-RNA interaction.  (+info)

Broad-spectrum protection against tombusviruses elicited by defective interfering RNAs in transgenic plants. (3/222)

We have designed a DNA cassette to transcribe defective interfering (DI) RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and have investigated their potential to protect transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants from tombusvirus infections. To produce RNAs with authentic 5' and 3' termini identical to those of the native B10 DI RNA, the DI RNA sequences were flanked by ribozymes (RzDI). When RzDI RNAs transcribed in vitro were mixed with parental TBSV transcripts and inoculated into protoplasts or plants, they became amplified, reduced the accumulation of the parental RNA, and mediated attenuation of the lethal syndrome characteristic of TBSV infections. Analysis of F1 and F2 RzDI transformants indicated that uninfected plants expressed the DI RNAs in low abundance, but these RNAs were amplified to very high levels during TBSV infection. By two weeks postinoculation with TBSV, all untransformed N. benthamiana plants and transformed negative controls died. Although infection of transgenic RzDI plants initially induced moderate to severe symptoms, these plants subsequently recovered, flowered, and set seed. Plants from the same transgenic lines also exhibited broad-spectrum protection against related tombusviruses but remained susceptible to a distantly related tombus-like virus and to unrelated viruses.  (+info)

Rapid delivery of foreign genes into plants by direct rub-inoculation with intact plasmid DNA of a tomato bushy stunt virus gene vector. (4/222)

Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) cDNA, positioned between a modified cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the hepatitis delta virus antigenomic ribozyme with a downstream nopaline synthase gene polyadenylation signal, established infections upon rub-inoculation of plants with intact plasmids. Application of this methodology produced a TBSV DNA-based gene vector which yielded readily detectable levels of localized foreign gene expression in inoculated leaves. This is the first demonstration of an infectious DNA from a member of the Tombusviridae which permits rapid TBSV-mediated foreign-gene expression upon direct rub-inoculation of miniprep DNA onto a variety of plant species.  (+info)

Interactions between tombusviruses and satellite RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus: a defect in sat RNA B1 replication maps to ORF1 of a helper virus. (5/222)

The biological properties of two recently described satellite RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) were analyzed in natural and experimental hosts. Full-length cDNA clones were constructed for sat RNAs B1(822 nt) and B10 (612 nt) and used in inoculations with satellite-free transcripts of different tombusviruses. In all virus-host combinations tested, TBSV sat RNA B10 drastically reduced the accumulation of viral genomic RNA and attenuated symptoms. In contrast, sat RNA B1 caused a less marked reduction of viral RNA level and did not have any effect on symptoms. Experiments with Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts showed that the differential effects of sat RNAs B1 and B10 on TBSV titer were related to differential abilities to interfere with virus replication. Three tombusviruses tested were able to maintain both sat RNAs in N. benthamiana plants, although carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) was a poor helper for sat RNA B1. Using chimeric viruses, a strong determinant for low sat RNA B1 accumulation was mapped to the 5'-terminal part of the genome of CIRV. The poor helper activity of CIRV was shown to be due to low sat RNA B1 replication. A single-nucleotide mutation in the start codon of CIRV ORF1 restored the ability to replicate sat RNA B1 to high levels. This mutant encodes an ORF1 that is 22 amino acids shorter at the N-terminus than the wild-type virus.  (+info)

A primary determinant of cap-independent translation is located in the 3'-proximal region of the tomato bushy stunt virus genome. (6/222)

Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a positive-strand RNA virus and is the prototype member of the genus Tombusvirus. The genomes of members of this genus are not polyadenylated, and prevailing evidence supports the absence of a 5' cap structure. Previously, a 167-nucleotide-long segment (region 3.5) located near the 3' terminus of the TBSV genome was implicated as a determinant of translational efficiency (S.K. Oster, B. Wu and K. A. White, J. Virol. 72:5845-5851, 1998). In the present report, we provide evidence that a 3'-proximal segment of the genome, which includes region 3.5, is involved in facilitating cap-independent translation. Our results indicate that (i) a 5' cap structure can substitute functionally for the absence of region 3.5 in viral and chimeric reporter mRNAs in vivo; (ii) deletion of region 3.5 from viral and chimeric mRNAs has no appreciable effect on message stability; (iii) region 3.5 represents part of a larger 3' proximal element, designated as the 3' cap-independent translational enhancer (3'CITE), that is required for proficient cap-independent translation; (iv) the 3'CITE also facilitates cap-dependent translation; (v) none of the major viral proteins are required for 3'CITE activity; and (vi) no significant 3'CITE-dependent stimulation of translation was observed when mRNAs were tested in vitro in wheat germ extract under various assay conditions. This latter property distinguishes the 3'CITE from other characterized plant viral 3'-proximal cap-independent translational enhancers. Additionally, because the 3'CITE overlaps with cis-acting replication signals, it could potentially participate in regulating the initiation of genome replication.  (+info)

Suppression of gene silencing: a general strategy used by diverse DNA and RNA viruses of plants. (7/222)

In transgenic and nontransgenic plants, viruses are both initiators and targets of a defense mechanism that is similar to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Recently, it was found that potyviruses and cucumoviruses encode pathogenicity determinants that suppress this defense mechanism. Here, we test diverse virus types for the ability to suppress PTGS. Nicotiana benthamiana exhibiting PTGS of a green fluorescent protein transgene were infected with a range of unrelated viruses and various potato virus X vectors producing viral pathogenicity factors. Upon infection, suppression of PTGS was assessed in planta through reactivation of green fluorescence and confirmed by molecular analysis. These experiments led to the identification of three suppressors of PTGS and showed that suppression of PTGS is widely used as a counter-defense strategy by DNA and RNA viruses. However, the spatial pattern and degree of suppression varied extensively between viruses. At one extreme, there are viruses that suppress in all tissues of all infected leaves, whereas others are able to suppress only in the veins of new emerging leaves. This variation existed even between closely related members of the potexvirus group. Collectively, these results suggest that virus-encoded suppressors of gene silencing have distinct modes of action, are targeted against distinct components of the host gene-silencing machinery, and that there is dynamic evolution of the host and viral components associated with the gene-silencing mechanism.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of tomato bushy stunt virus p19-protein-mediated host-dependent symptom induction and systemic invasion. (8/222)

The plus-sense single-stranded RNA of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) encodes a 19-kDa protein, which is translated from a 3' proximal open reading frame (p19) that is entirely nested within the cell-to-cell movement gene (p22). Expression of the cytosolic p19-protein induces either a systemic lethal collapse in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii, or necrotic local lesions on resistant N. tabacum. In spinach, the p19-protein is required at high abundance for efficient systemic invasion. This study aimed to determine whether these seemingly different host-dependent biological activities are governed by the same or separate regions on the 172 amino acid p19-protein. For this purpose, codons for charged amino acids predicted to be exposed on the surface of the polypeptide and presumably available for host-specific interactions, were targeted for mutagenesis. A total of 12 mutants were generated, which had no deficiencies in replication or cell-to-cell movement, and substitution of amino acids at the extreme N-terminal end or within the carboxyl 70 amino acids failed to cause a noticeable biological effect on plants. However, mutations dispersed between positions 43 and 85 on the N-terminal half prevented the onset of a systemic lethal necrosis on N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii. With one exception, the same mutants elicited mostly chlorotic, rather than necrotic, local lesions on N. tabacum. Mutations in the central region, which substituted Arg with Gly at positions 72 or 75-78, impaired the ability of TBSV to systemically invade spinach plants. However, substitution with Ala instead of Gly at position 72 had minimal effects on systemic spread in spinach, suggesting the possible influence of protein structure effects. The implications are that regions on the N-terminal portion of the p19-protein mediate interactions in a host-dependent manner and that a central region is required for all activities either by a direct effect of the amino acids or through maintenance of structural integrity.  (+info)

Tombusvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Tombusviridae, order Tymovirales. These are positive-strand RNA viruses that infect a wide range of plants, causing various symptoms such as mosaic patterns, necrotic lesions, and stunting. The name "tombusvirus" is derived from the type species, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). TBSV has a 4.8 kb RNA genome that encodes for five proteins involved in replication, encapsidation, and movement within the host plant. Other notable tombusviruses include Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) and Pelargonium leaf curl virus (PelLCV).

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

'Cucumis sativus' is the scientific name for the vegetable we commonly know as a cucumber. It belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is believed to have originated in South Asia. Cucumbers are widely consumed raw in salads, pickled, or used in various culinary applications. They have a high water content and contain various nutrients such as vitamin K, vitamin C, and potassium.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Transcriptional silencer elements are DNA sequences that bind to specific proteins, known as transcriptional repressors or silencers, to inhibit the transcription of nearby genes. These elements typically recruit chromatin-modifying complexes that alter the structure of the chromatin, making it inaccessible to the transcription machinery. This results in the downregulation or silencing of gene expression. Transcriptional silencer elements can be found in both the promoter and enhancer regions of genes and play crucial roles in regulating various cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and disease pathogenesis.

A satellite RNA is a type of non-coding RNA that does not encode proteins but instead plays a role in the regulation of gene expression. It is so named because it can exist as a separate, smaller molecule that "satellites" around a larger RNA molecule called the helper RNA. Satellite RNAs are often associated with viruses and can affect their replication and packaging. They can also be found in some eukaryotic cells, where they may play a role in regulating the expression of certain genes or in the development of diseases such as cancer.

Carmovirus is a genus of viruses in the family *Tombusviridae*, which infect plants. The name "Carmovirus" is derived from the initials of the plant it was first isolated from, **C**harlock **A**rtichoke **M**osaic **Virus**. These viruses have a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome and are transmitted by beetles and through mechanical means such as contaminated tools or hands.

Carmoviruses cause symptoms such as mosaic patterns, leaf curling, and stunting in infected plants. They replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells and form viral inclusion bodies called **X**-**bodies**. Examples of Carmoviruses include:

* Carmovirus (CarMV)
* Cardamine chlorotic fleck virus (CCFV)
* Poplar mosaic virus (PopMV)
* Turnip crinkle virus (TCV)

It's important to note that medical professionals and researchers in human health may not encounter the term "Carmovirus" frequently, as it primarily relates to plant virology.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Tombusviridae is a family of viruses in the order Picornavirales, characterized by having single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes. Members of this family typically infect plants and are transmitted by mechanical means or through contact with contaminated soil. The virions are non-enveloped and have icosahedral symmetry, with a diameter of about 30-34 nanometers. Tombusviruses are known to cause various symptoms in their host plants, including mottling, necrosis, and stunting. Some notable examples of tombusviruses include Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV).

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

A protoplast is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions, but rather it is a term commonly used in cell biology and botany. A protoplast refers to a plant or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed, leaving only the plasma membrane and the cytoplasmic contents, including organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, and other cellular structures.

Protoplasts can be created through enzymatic or mechanical means to isolate the intracellular components for various research purposes, such as studying membrane transport, gene transfer, or cell fusion. In some cases, protoplasts may be used in medical research, particularly in areas related to plant pathology and genetic engineering of plants for medical applications.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Peroxisomes are membrane-bound subcellular organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including the breakdown of fatty acids and the detoxification of harmful substances such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Peroxisomes contain numerous enzymes, including catalase, which converts H2O2 into water and oxygen, thus preventing oxidative damage to cellular components. They also participate in the biosynthesis of ether phospholipids, a type of lipid essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. Additionally, peroxisomes are involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contribute to the regulation of intracellular redox homeostasis. Dysfunction or impairment of peroxisome function has been linked to several diseases, including neurological disorders, developmental abnormalities, and metabolic conditions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Yeasts are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the fungus kingdom. They are characterized by their ability to reproduce asexually through budding or fission, and they obtain nutrients by fermenting sugars and other organic compounds. Some species of yeast can cause infections in humans, known as candidiasis or "yeast infections." These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, genitals, and internal organs. Common symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, redness, irritation, and discharge. Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

A genetic template refers to the sequence of DNA or RNA that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism or any of its components. These templates provide the code for the synthesis of proteins and other functional molecules, and determine many of the inherited traits and characteristics of an individual. In this sense, genetic templates serve as the blueprint for life and are passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

In molecular biology, the term "template" is used to describe the strand of DNA or RNA that serves as a guide or pattern for the synthesis of a complementary strand during processes such as transcription and replication. During transcription, the template strand of DNA is transcribed into a complementary RNA molecule, while during replication, each parental DNA strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand.

In genetic engineering and synthetic biology, genetic templates can be manipulated and modified to introduce new functions or alter existing ones in organisms. This is achieved through techniques such as gene editing, where specific sequences in the genetic template are targeted and altered using tools like CRISPR-Cas9. Overall, genetic templates play a crucial role in shaping the structure, function, and evolution of all living organisms.

The virus uses the cis-regulatory elements, Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 and Tombusvirus 5' UTR to ... Tombusvirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Tombusviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are 17 species in this ... Viralzone: Tombusvirus ICTV Description of Plant Viruses International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses University of Leicester ... necrotic spot virus Petunia asteroid mosaic virus Sikte waterborne virus Tomato bushy stunt virus Viruses in Tombusvirus are ...
... is an important cis-regulatory region of the Tombus virus genome. Tomato bushy stunt virus is the prototype ... Page for Tombusvirus 5′ UTR at Rfam v t e (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from ... An interesting feature of Tombusvirus is its ability to support the replication of defective interfering (DI) RNAs. These sub- ... "The p92 Polymerase Coding Region Contains an Internal RNA Element Required at an Early Step in Tombusvirus Genome Replication ...
In virology, the tombusvirus internal replication element (IRE) is a segment of RNA located within the region coding for p92 ... Page for Tombusvirus internal replication element (IRE) at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, All stub articles, ... Other non-coding RNA structures in Tombusvirus include the 3' UTR region IV and 5' UTR. Monkewich, S; Lin HX; Fabian MR; Xu W; ... "The p92 Polymerase Coding Region Contains an Internal RNA Element Required at an Early Step in Tombusvirus Genome Replication ...
Tombusvirus 3′ UTR is an important cis-regulatory region of the Tombus virus genome. Tomato bushy stunt virus is the prototype ... Page for Tombusvirus 3′ UTR region IV at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Tombusviridae, All stub articles, Molecular ... Other non-coding RNA structures in Tombusvirus include the 5′ UTR and an internal replication element. Fabian MR, Na H, Ray D, ... "The p92 Polymerase Coding Region Contains an Internal RNA Element Required at an Early Step in Tombusvirus Genome Replication ...
Page for Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Tombusviridae, All ... Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 is an important cis-regulatory region identified in the 3' UTR of ... Tombusvirus defective interfering particles (DI). Defective interfering RNAs are small sub-viral replicons which are non-coding ...
... (TBSV) is a virus of the tombusvirus family. It was first reported in tomatoes in 1935 and primarily ... TBSV is assigned to the Tombusvirus genus in the family Tombusviridae. Both the genus and the family derive their names from an ... However, the closely related tombusvirus Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) has been observed to be transmitted by Olpidium ... Scholthof, Herman B. (6 March 2006). "The Tombusvirus-encoded P19: from irrelevance to elegance". Nature Reviews Microbiology. ...
The tomato bushy stunt virus, which is the type species of the tombusvirus family, is a long-standing model system for the ... RNA silencing suppressor p19 (also known as Tombusvirus P19 core protein and 19 kDa symptom severity modulator) is a protein ... Both genes, and their relative positions, are conserved within the tombusvirus family. P19 is thought to have originated de ... Scholthof HB (May 2006). "The Tombusvirus-encoded P19: from irrelevance to elegance". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 4 (5): 405- ...
... a possible member of the Tombusvirus genus". Fitopatologia Brasileira (22): 529-534. Lima, J.A.A.; Nascimento, A. K. Q.; Lima, ...
"Tombusvirus Y-Shaped Translational Enhancer Forms a Complex with eIF4F and Can Be Functionally Replaced by Heterologous ...
The name of the group is a syllabic abbreviation of "tombusvirus-like" with the suffix -virales indicating a virus order. The ...
... and a RNA tombusvirus, which infect plants. The study surprised scientists, because DNA and RNA viruses vary and the way the ...
... and a RNA tombusvirus, which infect plants. The study surprised scientists, because DNA and RNA viruses vary and the way the ...
Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 Dalton K, Casais R, Shaw K, Stirrups K, Evans S, Britton P, Brown TD, ...
Titanvirus Tlsvirus Tobamovirus Tobravirus Tocinivirus Tofonivirus Tohkunevirus Tohvovirus Tomasvirus Tombusvirus Tonitrusvirus ...
... plus strand cis-regulatory element Tombusvirus 3′ UTR region IV Tombusvirus 5′ UTR Tombusvirus internal replication element ( ...
... tombusvirus MeSH B04.715.850.860 - tymovirus MeSH B04.820.057.070 - arenavirus MeSH B04.820.057.070.100 - arenaviruses, old ... tombusvirus MeSH B04.820.880.400 - giardiavirus MeSH B04.820.880.500 - leishmaniavirus MeSH B04.820.880.800 - totivirus MeSH ...
Betacarmovirus Betanecrovirus Gallantivirus Gammacarmovirus Macanavirus Machlomovirus Panicovirus Pelarspovirus Tombusvirus ...
... virus Tombusvirus algeriaense Tombusvirus bulgariaense Tombusvirus cucumis Tombusvirus cymbidii Tombusvirus cynarae Tombusvirus ... Tombusvirus latofluminis Tombusvirus limonii Tombusvirus lycopersici Tombusvirus melongenae Tombusvirus moroccoense Tombusvirus ... neckarfluminis Tombusvirus necropelargonii Tombusvirus pelargonii Tombusvirus petuniae Tombusvirus siktefluminis Tonate virus ...
The virus uses the cis-regulatory elements, Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 and Tombusvirus 5 UTR to ... Tombusvirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Tombusviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are 17 species in this ... Viralzone: Tombusvirus ICTV Description of Plant Viruses International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses University of Leicester ... necrotic spot virus Petunia asteroid mosaic virus Sikte waterborne virus Tomato bushy stunt virus Viruses in Tombusvirus are ...
d.255.1: Tombusvirus P19 core protein, VP19 [103145] (1 family) More info for Fold d.255: Tombusvirus P19 core protein, VP19. ... Timeline for Fold d.255: Tombusvirus P19 core protein, VP19: *Fold d.255: Tombusvirus P19 core protein, VP19 is new in SCOP ... Fold d.255: Tombusvirus P19 core protein, VP19 appears in SCOP 1.69. *Fold d.255: Tombusvirus P19 core protein, VP19 appears in ... Fold d.255: Tombusvirus P19 core protein, VP19 [103144] (1 superfamily). beta(2)-alpha-beta(2)-alpha; 2 layers: alpha/beta; ...
Panaviene, Z, Panavas, T & Nagy, PD 2005, Role of an internal and two 3′-terminal RNA elements in assembly of tombusvirus ... Role of an internal and two 3′-terminal RNA elements in assembly of tombusvirus replicase. Journal of Virology. 2005 Aug;79(16 ... Role of an internal and two 3′-terminal RNA elements in assembly of tombusvirus replicase. / Panaviene, Zivile; Panavas, Tadas ... Dive into the research topics of Role of an internal and two 3′-terminal RNA elements in assembly of tombusvirus replicase. ...
Tombusvirus. T40136. Tomato bushy stunt virus. Dianthovirus. T40247. Carnation ringspot virus. Luteovirus. T40230. Soybean ...
Burgyan J., Dalmay T., Rubino L., Russo M. 1992; The replication of cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus defective interfering- ... Burgyan J., Rubino L., Russo M. 1996; The 5′-terminal region of a tombusvirus genome determines the origin of multivesicular ... Rubino L., Russo M. 1998; Membrane targeting sequences in tombusvirus infections. Virology 252:431-437 [CrossRef] ... interaction domain in RNA replication and intracellular localization of p33 and p92 proteins of Cucumber necrosis tombusvirus. ...
4. Ded1p promotes plus-strand synthesis by the affinity-purified tombusvirus and FHV replicases. (A) Scheme of the tombusvirus ... Ded1p is co-purified with the tombusvirus replicase. To examine if Ded1p is present within the tombusvirus replicase complex, ... A Co-Opted DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Enhances Tombusvirus Plus-Strand Synthesis Download PDF České info ... Tombusvirus replicase purification from yeast and in vitro RdRp assay. Yeast strains (BY4741 and TET::DED1) were transformed ...
Dive into the research topics of Yeast screens for host factors in positive-strand RNA virus replication based on a library of temperature-sensitive mutants. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a tombusvirus with a non-segmented, plus-stranded RNA genome, codes for p33 and p92 replicase ... N2 - Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a tombusvirus with a non-segmented, plus-stranded RNA genome, codes for p33 and p92 ... AB - Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a tombusvirus with a non-segmented, plus-stranded RNA genome, codes for p33 and p92 ... abstract = "Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a tombusvirus with a non-segmented, plus-stranded RNA genome, codes for p33 and ...
Tombusvirus/metabolismo , Tombusvirus/patogenicidade , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética ... Tombusvirus-based vector systems to permit over-expression of genes or that serve as sensors of antiviral RNA silencing in ... We found that tombusvirus P22 and P19 proteins elicited HR-like necrosis in certain Nicotiana species but, also, that Nicotiana ... Tombusvirus P19 proteins also appeared to differ in their effectiveness as silencing suppressors; in our assay, the P19 ...
Článek Co-opting the fermentation pathway for tombusvirus replication: Compartmentalization of cellular metabolic pathways for ... Co-opting the fermentation pathway for tombusvirus replication: Compartmentalization of cellular metabolic pathways for rapid ...
Effect of expression of truncation mutants of the antiviral RH30 DEAD-box helicase on tombusvirus genomic RNA replication in N ... Dissecting Features Affecting Pro-Viral versus Antiviral Functions of Cellular DEAD-Box Helicases in Tombusvirus Replication ... Dissecting Features Affecting Pro-Viral versus Antiviral Functions of Cellular DEAD-Box Helicases in Tombusvirus Replication" ( ...
Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), the type member of the genus Tombusvirus in the family Tombusviridae is one of the best ... abstract = {Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), the type member of the genus Tombusvirus in the family Tombusviridae is one of the ...
Panavas, T.; Stork, J.; Nagy, P.D. 2006: Use of double-stranded RNA templates by the tombusvirus replicase in vitro: ...
... tombusvirus group). Galinsoga mosaic virus particles also failed to react with antisera to the following ungrouped viruses: ...
Beet Black Scorch Tombusvirus. BBSV. * Beet Mosaic Potyirus. BtMV. * Brome Mosaic Bromovirus. BMV ...
National Institutes of Health . . . Turning Discovery Into Health™. ...
Sasvari, Z.; Alatriste Gonzalez, P.; Nagy, P.D. Tombusvirus-yeast interactions identify conserved cell-intrinsic viral ...
Evaluation of various species demarcation criteria in attempts to classify ten new tombusvirus isolates. ...
Tombusvirus RNA replication depends on the TOR pathway in yeast and plants.. Inaba JI; Nagy PD. Virology; 2018 Jun; 519():207- ... 1. Blocking tombusvirus replication through the antiviral functions of DDX17-like RH30 DEAD-box helicase.. Wu CY; Nagy PD. PLoS ... 8. Role of Viral RNA and Co-opted Cellular ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III Factors in Formation of Tombusvirus Spherules Harboring the ... 9. A Co-Opted DEAD-Box RNA helicase enhances tombusvirus plus-strand synthesis.. Kovalev N; Pogany J; Nagy PD. PLoS Pathog; ...
The centromeric histone CenH3 is recruited into the tombusvirus replication organelles. Gonzalez PA, Nagy PD. Gonzalez PA, et ...
A complex network of RNA-RNA interactions controls subgenomic mRNA transcription in a tombusvirus. Lin HX, White KA. Lin HX, et ...
Tombusvirus B04.715.820 Tospovirus B04.715.850 Tymoviridae B04.715.850.860 Tymovirus B04.725 Proviruses B04.800 Reassortant ... Tombusvirus B04.820.880 Totiviridae B04.820.880.400 Giardiavirus B04.820.880.500 Leishmaniavirus B04.820.880.800 Totivirus ...
2016) Role of viral RNA and Co-opted cellular ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III factors in formation of Tombusvirus spherules harboring the ...
use TOMBUSVIRUS to search TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES 1994-96. History Note. 94; TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES was see TOMBUSVIRUS ... Tombusvirus Preferred Term Term UI T053392. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag ABX. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Tombusvirus Preferred Concept UI. M0026991. Registry Number. txid12141. Related Numbers. txid12144. txid12145. Scope Note. A ... 94; TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES was see TOMBUSVIRUS 1994-96. Online Note. ...
use TOMBUSVIRUS to search TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES 1994-96. History Note. 94; TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES was see TOMBUSVIRUS ... Tombusvirus Preferred Term Term UI T053392. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag ABX. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Tombusvirus Preferred Concept UI. M0026991. Registry Number. txid12141. Related Numbers. txid12144. txid12145. Scope Note. A ... 94; TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES was see TOMBUSVIRUS 1994-96. Online Note. ...
void:inDataset: http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/void.ttl#Agrovoc. Created: 2003-03-27T00:00:00Z. skos:notation: 32871 ...
tombusvirus (Parola chiave). Incoming links:. Insieme di parole chiave. *Cymbidium Ringspot Virus Controls The Accumulation Of ...
use TOMBUSVIRUS to search TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES 1994-96. History Note:. 94; TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES was see TOMBUSVIRUS ... Tombusvirus - Preferred Concept UI. M0026991. Scope note. A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission ... 94; TOMATO BUSHY STUNT VIRUSES was see TOMBUSVIRUS 1994-96. Online Note:. ...
Tombusvirus group Active Synonym false false 112522017 Tomato bushy stunt virus group (Angiosperm hosts) Active Synonym false ...
In addition to these new insights into tombusvirus gene expression, there has also been significant progress made in our ... In addition to these new insights into tombusvirus gene expression, there has also been significant progress made in our ... In addition to these new insights into tombusvirus gene expression, there has also been significant progress made in our ... In addition to these new insights into tombusvirus gene expression, there has also been significant progress made in our ...
Wintermantel WM, Anchieta AG: Tombusvirus infection of lettuce is influenced by soil salinity. Proceedings of the 5th symposium ...
Nucleolin/Nsr1p binds to the 3′ noncoding region of the tombusvirus RNA and inhibits replication. Virology. 2010;396:10-20. ...
Yeast-based complementation studies demonstrate that AtHsp70-2 or AtErd2 are present in the purified tombusvirus replicase. RNA ... Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Tombusvirus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia ... These functions include activation of the tombusvirus RdRp, and stimulation of replicase assembly. ...
4-Diisocyanate Toluidines Tomatine Tombusviridae Tombusvirus Tomography Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed Tomography, ...
... proteins play central roles in the formation of membrane-bound replication complexes for certain members of the tombusvirus, ...
Riboviria / Orthornavirae / Kitrinoviricota / Tolucaviricetes / Tolivirales / Tombusviridae / Procedovirinae / Tombusvirus / ...
Riboviria / Orthornavirae / Kitrinoviricota / Tolucaviricetes / Tolivirales / Tombusviridae / Procedovirinae / Tombusvirus / ... Riboviria / Orthornavirae / Kitrinoviricota / Tolucaviricetes / Tolivirales / Tombusviridae / Procedovirinae / Tombusvirus / ...
  • The replicase of Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), a tombusvirus, contains the viral p33 and p92 replication proteins and possible host factors. (uky.edu)
  • To define cis-acting viral RNA sequences that stimulate replicase assembly, we performed a systematic deletion approach with a model tombusvirus replicon RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which also coexpressed p33 and p92 replication proteins. (uky.edu)
  • Altogether, the role of multiple RNA elements in tombusvirus replicase assembly could be an important factor to ensure fidelity of template selection during replication. (uky.edu)
  • We also find that Ded1p is a component of the tombusvirus replicase complex and Ded1p binds to the 3′-end of the viral minus-stranded RNA. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a tombusvirus with a non-segmented, plus-stranded RNA genome, codes for p33 and p92 replicase proteins. (uky.edu)
  • The virus uses the cis-regulatory elements, Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 and Tombusvirus 5' UTR to control expression of defective interfering RNAs and viral RNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The replication of cymbidium ringspot tombusvirus defective interfering-satellite RNA hybrid molecules. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mutations in either p33 or p92 within the short regions involved in p33:p33 and p33:p92 interactions decreased the replication of a TBSV defective interfering RNA in yeast, a model host, supporting the significance of these protein interactions in tombusvirus replication. (uky.edu)
  • S2 Fig. Effect of expression of truncation mutants of the antiviral RH30 DEAD-box helicase on tombusvirus genomic RNA replication in N. benthamiana plant. (uky.edu)
  • The 5′-terminal region of a tombusvirus genome determines the origin of multivesicular bodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Tombusvirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Tombusviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gel diffusion tests, galinsoga mosaic virus particles and/or antiserum failed to react with those of 19 viruses from nine taxonomic groups including red clover necrotic mottle (dianthovirus group), southern bean mosaic (sobemovirus group) and tomato bushy stunt and glycine mottle ( tombusvirus group ). (dpvweb.net)
  • 6. Similar roles for yeast Dbp2 and Arabidopsis RH20 DEAD-box RNA helicases to Ded1 helicase in tombusvirus plus-strand synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • 9. A Co-Opted DEAD-Box RNA helicase enhances tombusvirus plus-strand synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Another exciting recent advance has been the creation of yeast-based systems that support amplification of tombusvirus RNA replicons and will allow the identification of host factors involved in viral RNA synthesis. (uky.edu)
  • 8. Role of Viral RNA and Co-opted Cellular ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III Factors in Formation of Tombusvirus Spherules Harboring the Tombusvirus Replicase. (nih.gov)