A widely used industrial solvent.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (1/1074)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol. (2/1074)

The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase alpha-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase gamma-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase beta-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with >60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of sigma54 (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase alpha-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not. Benzene was oxidized to phenol, which accumulated transiently before being further oxidized. Toluene was oxidized to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresols (39.8, 18, and 41.7%, respectively) and a small amount (0.5%) of benzyl alcohol, none of which were further oxidized. In growth studies Xanthobacter strain Py2 was found to grow on phenol and catechol but not on benzene or toluene; growth on phenol required a functional alkene monooxygenase. However, there is no evidence of genes encoding steps in the metabolism of catechol in the vicinity of the aam gene cluster. This suggests that the inducer specificity of the alkene monooxygenase may have evolved to benefit from the naturally broad substrate specificity of this class of monooxygenase and the ability of the host strain to grow on catechol.  (+info)

Evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. II. Stability in soil. (3/1074)

The effect of paddy soils on mycobacillin and versicolin was investigated. Soil inactivated mycobacillin as determined by spectral analysis and microbiological assay. Soil can inactive mycobacillin only at or above the threshold concentration (125 approximately 130 mug per 10 mg of soil), the excess being unreacted. No new peak appears in the ultraviolet spectrum (240 approximately 300 nm) while mycobacillin is inactivated. Soil is without any effect on versicolin.  (+info)

Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0. (4/1074)

We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers: field and laboratory microcosm experiments. (5/1074)

This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% alpha-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems.  (+info)

Tremor induced by toluene misuse successfully treated by a Vim thalamotomy. (6/1074)

A 22 year old man developed a vigorous tremor of 5 Hz in his right hand, after a 7 year history of toluene misuse. T2 Weighted MRI depicted marked decreases in the signal intensity of the basal ganglia, red nucleus, and thalamus on both sides. The stereotactic coagulation of the left nucleus ventrointermedius (Vim) of the thalamus abolished the tremors in his right hand. This patient clearly exhibited the pathological involvement of rubral lesions in generation of a toluene induced tremor on MRI. Toluene induced tremor is an irreversible symptom which persists even after stopping toluene misuse, therefore in medically intractable cases, it should be positively treated by a Vim thalamotomy.  (+info)

The IIANtr (PtsN) protein of Pseudomonas putida mediates the C source inhibition of the sigma54-dependent Pu promoter of the TOL plasmid. (7/1074)

The gene cluster adjacent to the sequence of rpoN (encoding sigma factor sigma54) of Pseudomonas putida has been studied with respect to the C source regulation of the Pu promoter of the upper TOL (toluene catabolism) operon. The region includes four open reading frames (ORFs), two of which (named ptsN and ptsO genes) encode proteins similar to components of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. Each of the four genes was disrupted with a nonpolar insertion, and the effects in the inhibition caused by glucose on Pu activity were inspected with a lacZ reporter system. Although cells lacking ORF102, ORF284, and ptsO did not display any evident phenotype under the conditions tested, the loss of ptsN, which encodes the IIANtr protein, made Pu unresponsive to repression by glucose. The ptsN mutant had rates of glucose/gluconate consumption identical to those of the wild type, thus ruling out indirect effects mediated by the transport of the carbohydrate. A site-directed ptsN mutant in which the conserved phospho-acceptor site His68 of IIANtr was replaced by an aspartic acid residue made Pu blind to the presence or absence of glucose, thus supporting the notion that phosphorylation of IIANtr mediates the C source inhibition of the promoter. These data substantiate the existence of a molecular pathway for co-regulation of some sigma54 promoters in which IIANtr is a key protein intermediate.  (+info)

Effect of organic solvents on the yield of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. (8/1074)

Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h-1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells.  (+info)

A 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst was prepared by the evaporative drying method. The catalytic toluene oxidation activity of the catalyst was investigated and the calcination temperature dependence on the toluene oxidation activity was characterized. It was confirmed that only CO2 and steam were produced by the complete oxidation of toluene, and no toluene-derived compounds were detected as by-products with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Toluene was completely oxidized at 320 °C on the 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst calcined at 500 °C. The toluene oxidation activity slightly decreased with increasing the calcination temperature of the catalyst. However, significant deactivation was not recognized in the present 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst, and toluene was completely oxidized at 360 °C even after calcination at 1000 °C. From these results, it became obvious that the 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst has high thermal stability for toluene
Ong, C.N.,Foo, S.C.,Lee, B.L. (1994). Effect of fasting on toluene metabolism: A study of hippuric acid and O- cresol excretion. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 9 (9) : 622-625. [email protected] Repository ...
The aim of this study was designed to investigate the possible beneficial effects of Nigella sativa (NS) and derived thymoquinone (TQ) on neurodegeneration in hippocampus after chronic toluene exposure in rats. The rats were randomly allotted into one of four experimental groups: A (control), B (toluene treated), C (toluene treated with NS) and D (toluene treated with TQ); each group contain 10 animals. Toluene treatment was performed by inhalation of 3,000 ppm toluene, in a 8 h/day and 6 day/week order for 12 weeks. Control group received 1 ml serum physiologic and the rats in NS and TQ treated groups (C and D) were given NS (in a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight) and TQ (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally by using intra gastric intubation for 12 weeks starting just after toluene exposure respectively. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathological investigation. To date, no histopathological changes of neurodegeneration in hippocampus after chronic toluene exposure in rats by NS and TQ ...
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The solubility of ammonia in toluene has been measured at 398 K and at pressures up to 340 kPa using a static, synthetic and isochoric technique. The goal of the present study is to determine the equilibrium solubility of ammonia in toluene at a pressure and temperature regime that is relevant to the reaction conditions of amination of 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene leading to the formation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene. The ammonia solubility data in toluene were hitherto unavailable under these experimental conditions. The solubility data have also been compared with the result obtained from a direct sampling method. The results are in agreement with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation. The Henrys law constant at the reaction temperature has been determined ...
A novel bead-pack micromodel has been developed to observe directly with videomicroscopy movement and distribution of toluene in the subsurface, including effects of water infiltration, variations in the water table, and alcohol-water flushing. If the medium was initially partially water-saturated, toluene spread downward along air-water interfaces, leaving behind very low residual saturation. It did not penetrate low-permeable strata that were water-saturated. If the medium was initially dry, toluene saturated only a small area where it was injected. Water infiltration displaced such toluene downward, ultimately trapping it as ganglia. Subsequent water drainage exposed some ganglia to air, allowing toluene to spread downward. Other ganglia in regions of low permeability remained trapped. Limited upward displacement of toluene occurred with the raising of the water table. However, the toluene was eventually trapped. Enhanced solubilization and mobilization of toluene were observed with a ...
Benzene and toluene mixing ratios were measured in the indoor air of homes with attached garages for several seasons using a thermal desorption GC-FID sampling and analysis protocol (EPA T0-17). Benzene in the living area of these homes ranged from 1--72 ppbv and toluene ranged 3--111 ppbv. The garage levels of benzene ranged from 8--304 pbbv and the toluene levels ranged from 14--591 ppbv. Numerous experiments and a model support the hypothesis of a single source of toluene and benzene. Source strength estimate calculations supported the hypothesis that gasoline in the attached garage is the primary source of these compounds in living area air. They also showed that the home with the air-to-air heat exchangers and forced ventilation had less transport of aromatics than an unventilated home. Perturbation experiments showed that a metal gas can filled with gasoline in the garage and an indoor window open were important factors for benzene and toluene levels in the living areas of the homes. For ...
A semidetailed mechanism (137 species and 633 reactions) and new experiments in a homogeneous charge conic pression ignition (HCCI) engine on the autoignition of toluene reference fuels are presented. Skeletal mechanisms for isooctane and n-heptane were added to a detailed toluene submechanism. The model shows generally good agreement with ignition delay times measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine and is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, and mixture strength. The addition of reactions involving the formation and destruction of benzylperoxide radical was crucial to modeling toluene shock tube data. Laminar burning velocities for benzene and toluene were well predicted by the model after some revision of the high-temperature chemistry. Moreover, laminar burning velocities of a real gasoline at 353 and 500 K Could be predicted by the model using a toluene reference fuel as a surrogate. The model also captures the experimentally observed differences in combustion ...
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This study examined the effects of ethanol (EtOH) and toluene on fixed-ratio (FR) responding in mice selectively bred for sensitivity to the effects of EtOH on sleep time. Although the more sensitive long sleep (LS) mice showed greater EtOH-induced impairment in a motor performance task than did the less sensitive short sleep (SS) mice, changes in FR performance in the two
5.1 Exposure data. Toluene is an industrial chemical produced in high volume, that is used in blending gasoline and as a solvent. Occupational exposure to toluene is extensive and occurs in its production and during the manufacture and use of toluene-containing paints, thinners, cleaning agents, coatings and adhesives. It is commonly detected in ambient air and at low levels in water.. 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. Toluene was mentioned as an exposure in eight studies. Two were community-based case control studies, one of which involved brain cancer and one involved several types of cancer. Of the six industry-based studies, three were analysed as cohort studies and three were configured as nested case control studies of one or a few types of cancer. In two of the studies, that of shoe-manufacturing workers in the United States and particularly that of Swedish rotogravure printers, it was believed that toluene was the predominant exposure; in the other studies, there were probably concomitant ...
In order to reduce exposure to toxic chemicals, the European REACH regulation (1907/2006) recommends substituting toxic molecules with compounds that are less harmful to human health and the environment. Toluene is one of the most frequently used solvents in industries despite its toxicity. The objective of this study is to better understand and compare the toxicity of toluene and its homologues in a bronchial cell model. Thus, human bronchial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to steams of toluene, m-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene), and benzene (20 and 100 ppm). Exposure was carried out using an air-liquid interface (ALI) system (Vitrocell) during 1 h/ day for 1, 3, or 5 days. Cytotoxicity, xenobiotic metabolism enzyme gene expression, and inflammatory response were evaluated following cell exposures. BEAS-2B cell exposure to toluene and its homologues revealed the involvement of major (CYP2E1) and minor metabolic pathways (CYP1A1). A late induction of genes (EPHX1, DHDH, ALDH2, and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The prevalence of surface oxygen vacancies over the mobility of bulk oxygen in nanostructured ceria for the total toluene oxidation. AU - López, Jose Manuel. AU - Gilbank, Alexander L.. AU - García, Tomás. AU - Solsona, Benjamín. AU - Agouram, Said. AU - Torrente-Murciano, Laura. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - This paper reveals the key importance of surface oxygen defects in the oxidation catalytic activity of nanostructured ceria. A series of nanostructured rods and cubes with different physico-chemical properties have been synthesized, characterized and tested in the total toluene oxidation. The variation of the temperature and base concentration during the hydrothermal syntheses of nanostructured ceria leads not only to different ceria morphologies with high shape purity, but also to structures with tuneable surface areas and defect concentrations. Ceria nanorods present a higher surface area and a higher concentration of bulk and surface defects than nanocubes ...
OSHA comments from the January 19, 1989 Final Rule on Air Contaminants Project extracted from 54FR2332 et. seq. This rule was remanded by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and the limits are not currently in force.. CAS: 108-88-3; Chemical Formula: C6H5CH3. The former OSHA standard for toluene was 200 ppm as an 8-hour TWA limit, with a 300-ppm ceiling (not to be exceeded for more than 10 minutes in any eight-hour period), and a 500-ppm peak. The ACGIH has an exposure limit for toluene of 100 ppm as an 8-hour TWA and 150 ppm as a 15-minute STEL; NIOSH recommends a 100-ppm 8-hour TWA and a 10-minute ceiling of 200 ppm. The proposed PELs were 100 ppm as an 8-hour TWA and 150 ppm as a STEL; NIOSH (Ex. 8-47, Table N1) concurs with these limits, which are established in the final rule. Toluene is a flammable, colorless liquid with an aromatic hydrocarbon odor.. The acute toxicity of toluene in animals is greater than that of benzene. Patty (1963b, as cited in ACGIH 1986/Ex. 1-3, p. 578) reports that ...
|p| The injection of a mixed toluene and D |sub|2|/sub| O (conservative tracer) pulse into a pristine mesoscale aquifer enabled a first direct experimental comparison of contaminant-specific isotopic fractionation from sorption versus biodegradation and transverse dispersion on a relevant scale. Water samples were taken from two vertically resolved sampling ports at 4.2 m distance. Analysis of deuterium and toluene concentrations allowed quantifying the extent of sorption (R = 1.25) and biodegradation (37% and 44% of initial toluene at the two sampling ports). Sorption and biodegradation were found to directly affect toluene |sup|13|/sup| C/ |sup|12|/sup| C breakthrough curves. In particular, isotope trends demonstrated that biodegradation underwent Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than first-order kinetics.
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Biological monitoring tests were conducted in humans experimentally exposed to methyl-ethyl-ketone (78933) (MEK) and toluene (108883), both alone and in combination, by inhalation. Subjects were exposed in a 2 cubic meter exposure chamber for 4 hours to 200 parts per million (ppm) MEK (20 subjects), 100ppm toluene (30 subjects), 100ppm MEK plus 50ppm toluene (16 subjects) or, as a positive control
It is flammable at temperatures greater than 40�F (4.4�C); therefore, it is a significant fire hazard at room temperature. Toluene mixes readily with many organic solvents, but is poorly soluble in water. Toluene is less dense than water and will float on the surface of water. Toluene should be stored indoors in a standard flammable liquids room or cabinet that is separate from oxidizing materials. Synonyms include methyl benzene, methyl benzol, phenyl methane, and toluol. Toluene is a clear, colorless, volatile liquid with a sweet, pungent, benzene-like odor.
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A simple deep-ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrophotometer based on ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) was developed for the detection of air-borne toluene with a good sensitivity. A fiber-coupled deep UV-LED was employed as a light source, and a spectrometer was used as a detector with a gas cell in between. 3D printed opto-fluidics connectors were designed to integrate the gas flow with UV light. Two types of hollow core waveguides (HCW) were tested as gas cells: a glass capillary tube with aluminum-coated inner walls and an aluminum capillary tube. The setup was tested for different toluene concentrations (10-100 ppm), and a linear relationship was observed with sensitivities of 0.20 mA U/ppm and 0.32 mA U/ppm for the glass and aluminum HCWs, respectively. The corresponding limits of detection were found to be 8.1 ppm and 12.4 ppm, ...
The chemical reactions of toluene and oxygen in a 50 Hz ac discharge have been studied in a capacitive coupled discharge reactor. The variables investigated were partial pressure of the reactants, reactor pressure, reactor temperature, reactant ratios, applied reactor voltage, discharge current,capacitive current, breakdown voltage, and the phase shift. The thermal reaction was negligible at temperatures below 300 °C. The major products of the reaction between toluene and oxygen were benzaldehyde, o-cresol, benzene, m+p-cresol, phenol and benzyl alcohol. The reaction was controlled by the electric field and the total reactor pressure. The threshold energy for the chemical reaction was found to be about 10 eV. The reaction was found to be of first order with respect to oxygen. The effect of the electric field was correlated by the parameter E/N. The selectivity of benzene was mainly determined by the ratio of toluene to oxygen. Cresol, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and phenol were mainly ...
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The most sensitive cell component to toluene was the plasma membrane where a morphological response in terms of a loss of membrane protuberances and a response in terms of enzymatic activity was observed at 25 ppm both with treatment times of 5 min or less. Thus the plasma membrane is indicated as one important target for toluene intoxication A perturbation of an ATP or ATPase-dependent reaction is indicated. A second target identified was that of the transition region between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus where transfer of material appears to be blocked rapidly by 100 ppm or lower toluene both in situ and in a cell-free system newly developed to study this phenomenon. Specifically, membranes involved in the internal trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus fail to form protuberances. Again perturbation of the ATP or ATP-dependent step is indicated together with a related involvement of boundary lipids of membrane proteins involved in membrane energization that
Research Summary: The report presents detailed overview of the toluene market in the world and regions (CIS countries in particular) by contemplating and analyzing its various parameters. Firstly, brief introduction is provided. Thus, toluene properties, application areas and manufacturing technologies are considered. Further goes the analysis of global toluene market with emphasis on its main components which […].... ...
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Aromatic solvents market is categorized into xylene, toluene, and ethyl benzene. Among these, xylene is anticipated to hold the largest share in the market during the forecast period
Jan 01, 2007 The effects of temporal and spatial changes in biological activity and biomass amount on biofilter performance were investigated in a lab-scale trickle-bed air biofilter at a toluene loading of 46.9 g m −3 h −1 under two different experimental strategies, namely, periodic backwashing at a rate of 1. h once a week and 2 d starvation.. Analysis of the overall reaction for toluene metabolism. Contact ...
Bestchem Toluene is a pure hydrocarbon (C7H8). i.e. it contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms. It belongs to a particular category of hydrocarbons called aromatic hydrocarbons. Complete combustion of toluene yields CO2 and H2O. This fact ensures that the entire emission control system such as the catalyst and oxygen s
Shop Toluene 1,2-dioxygenase system ferredoxin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Toluene 1,2-dioxygenase system ferredoxin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Nominated Substances: Toluene, Toluene (technical). Nomination Date: 01/00/1979 Nominator: CPSC, EPA, NIOSH, OSHA Rationale: High production; worker and consumer exposure; analog of benzene; lack of toxicological data. NTP Principles: Pre 1993 - 2, 3, 4, 8 (. ...
Local dynamics of polyisoprene in dilute solution with toluene are examined through C-13 NMR relaxation measurements. The variations of T1 and NOE with Larmor frequency are analyzed over a wide temperature range, including both the extreme narrowing region and the T1 minima. A frequency-temperature superposition of the data demonstrates that the distribution of motional time constants does not change shape with temperature and has a temperature and viscosity dependence consistent with that in nine other solvents. The data are analyzed in terms of eight motional models. Only those models that invoke motion on two well-separated time scales are successful. The slower, conformational motions correspond to activated torsional dynamics. The faster motions are librations within potential energy wells. Local dynamics in toluene are believed to exemplify polyisoprene dynamics in other solvents. Some similarities to local dynamics in bulk polymers are also expected.. ...
Definition of toluene in US English - a colorless liquid hydrocarbon present in coal tar and petroleum and used as a solvent and in organic synthesis.
World Aromatic Solvents Market to 2021 (covering USA, Europe, China, Japan, India, South East Asia etc). 118 pages report provides the complete industry outlook. Request a sample to receive latest industry data, market drivers, opportunities and threats faced by the market Players. Buy full report at researchcosmos.com
Diethylzinc, 1.5M solution in toluene, AcroSeal™, ACROS Organics™ 800mL; AcroSeal glass bottle Diethylzinc, 1.5M solution in toluene, AcroSeal™,...
Transparency Market Research Aromatic Solvents Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2015 - 2023 Published Date
Aromatic Solvents Market Was Valued Is Expected To Reach Over US$ 6.50 Bn By 2022, Expanding At A CAGR Of More Than 4.0 % From 2016 To 2022
In this report, the global Aromatics Solvent market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing
International toluene chemical supplier and distributor by Tradeasia International. Toluene trade is common in places like Singapore and China.
poly(toluene 2,4-diisocyanate-polycaprolactonediol-ethylenediamine) copolymer: a polyurea-urethane formed from toluene diisocyanate, polycaprolactonediol, and ethylenediamine
[104 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global All Three Toluene Market Professional Survey Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Production, means the output of All Three Toluene Revenue,...
What are other names or identifying information for toluene? What is the WHMIS 1988 classification? What are the most important things to know about toluene in an emergency?
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The kinetics of cyclization of substituted phenyl N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)carbamates and their N-methyl analogs, prepared by the reaction of 2-(aminomethyl)phenols with substituted phenyl chloroformates, was studied in dioxane or toluene at the temperatures 110-180 °C. Electron-withdrawing substituents in the leaving phenoxy group strongly accelerate the rate of cyclization (ρ = 2.45 ± 0.15) while the substituents in the other ring have virtually no effect. The cyclization was catalyzed with triethylamine in toluene but not in dioxane. On the basis of these results, the most convenient method for preparation of substituted 4H-1,3-benzoxazin-2(3H)-ones was a one-hour reflux of substituted 4-nitrophenyl N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)carbamates in dioxane. Based on the influence of substituents, solvents (dioxane and toluene) and triethylamine, the reaction mechanism and structure of the transition state were proposed. Keywords: Carbamates; Cyclizations; Kinetics; Benzoxazines; Benzoxazinones; Substituent ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An Inhibitor-Based Method to Measure Initial Decomposition of Naturally Occurring Polysaccharides in Sediments. AU - Boschker, H.T.S.. AU - Bertilsson, S.A.. N1 - Reporting year: 1995 Metis note: 2011; CL; RE; file:///L:/Endnotedatabases/NIOOPUB/pdfs/Pdfs1995/Boschker_ea_2011.pdf. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - A method that can be used to measure the initial decomposition rates of polysaccharides in sediment samples was developed. It uses toluene to specifically inhibit microbial uptake of carbohydrates without affecting extracellular hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Accumulating carbohydrates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Field-sampled litter from the common reed (Phragmites australis), which contains cellulose and arabinoxylan as its main polysaccharides, was used as a model system. Toluene concentrations of between 1 and 10% resulted in the accumulation of similar amounts of monomeric carbohydrates, which was linear over time for most neutral sugars. ...
3-Chloro-4-nitrotoluene chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 3-Chloro-4-nitrotoluene 38939-88-7, What are the physical properties of 3-Chloro-4-nitrotoluene ect.
Toluene is a volatile organic compound which is made of carbon and hydrogen. This organic compound is a clear, colourless liquid at room temperate and pressure.
toluene. Bacillus subtilis stained with Nile red as a membrane dye (shown in red). This strain grows partly as cell chains, so ...
Part 1. Reactions in toluene; X-ray crystal structures of [Ir(CO)ClH(PEt 3 ) 2 (AsH 2 )] and [Ir(CO)XH(PEt 3 ) 2 (µ-ZH 2 )RuCl ...
Solvent was Toluene. bCalculated directly from 1H-NMR measurements at 30°C. cCalculated from extrapolation of van't Hoff plot. ...
With toluene the major product is benzylsodium. n-Butylsodium reacts with 1-bromonaphthalene to make 1-sodiumnapthalene and 1- ... Broaddus, C. D. (September 1966). "Metalation of Toluene. The Question of Kinetic vs. Thermodynamic Control". Journal of the ...
"Safety Data Sheet - TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE (TDI)" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-11-24. "Health Effects of Diisocyanates: Guidance for ... "TOLUENE DIISOCYANATES" (PDF). IARC. 1987. Retrieved 2018-11-18. "4,4′-METHYLENEDIPHENYL DIISOCYANATE AND POLYMERIC 4,4′- ... Daniels, Robert D. (2018-02-01). "Occupational asthma risk from exposures to toluene diisocyanate: A review and risk assessment ... ISBN 978-0-7176-6703-1. "Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate". CDC. Retrieved 2018-11-24. "Request for assistance in preventing asthma and ...
Toluene and Xylene. In: Olson KR, ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine ... monoxide Carbon disulfide Cyanide Ethanol Hexane Maneb/Mancozeb Manganese Mercury Methanol MPTP Paraquat Rotenone Toluene ( ...
2010: Toluene oxidation. 2017: Patheon, a pharmaceutical contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO) joint ...
Toluene also has the risk of damaging the fetus of a pregnant woman if she were to be exposed to the chemical. Toluene is also ... Toluene's most abundant use is in the production of benzene, another chemical found at the site. Toluene is also one of the ... "Tox Town - Toluene". Tox Town - Toluene. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 20 September 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Toluene is also flammable in its liquid and gaseous state, which in high amounts can be very dangerous if the area is known for ...
... which were named after a brand of toluene-laden contact cement. Other toluene-containing substances have also been used, most ... Toluene can damage myelin. Toxicity may also result from the pharmacological properties of the drug; excess NMDA antagonism can ... Another very common inhalant is Erase-X, a correction fluid that contains toluene. It has become very common for school and ... Filley CM, Halliday W, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK (January 2004). "The effects of toluene on the central nervous system". J. ...
Toluene diisocyanate "ChemicalBook.com". Retrieved 18 March 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ...
... and the carcinogen toluene. However, in comparison to traditional cigarette smoke, the toxic substance levels identified in e- ...
Triphenylmethane Toluene Robbins, A.; Jeffrey, G. A.; Chesick, J. P.; Donohue, J.; Cotton, F. A.; Frenz, B. A.; Murillo, C. A ...
The addition of catalytic reformer enables a hydroskimming refinery to generate higher octane reformate; benzene, toluene, and ...
See also toluene toxicity. Butane Gasoline (petrol) F17.5 is reserved for tobacco-induced psychosis, but is traditionally not ... Rao, Naren P.; Arun Gupta; K. Sreejayan; Prabhat K. Chand; Vivek Benegal; Pratima Murthy (2009). "Toluene associated ... F16.5 hallucinogens (LSD and others)[citation needed] F18.5 volatile solvents (volatile inhalants); Toluene, found in glue, ... Tarsh, M.J. (1979). "Schizophreniform Psychosis caused by Sniffing Toluene". Occupational Medicine. 29 (4): 131-133. doi: ...
The method has been used to prepare compounds that cannot be prepared by traditional synthetic methods, e.g. Ti(η6-toluene)2. ...
A comparative study of the gas- and liquid-phase attack on benzene and toluene". (1979) "Gas-phase reaction of free isopropyl ... A comparative study of the gas- and liquid-phase attack on benzene and toluene". Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin ... A comparative study of the alkylation of benzene and toluene with C3H7+ ions from the protonation of cyclopropane and propene ... A comparative study of the alkylation of benzene and toluene with C3H7+ ions from the protonation of cyclopropane and propene ...
Toluene Volatile organic compounds[which?] Water Composition of electronic cigarette aerosol List of heated tobacco products ...
A comparative study of the gas- and liquid-phase attack on benzene and toluene". Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin ... A comparative study of the alkylation of benzene and toluene with C3H7+ ions from the protonation of cyclopropane and propene ... Alkylation of benzene and toluene". Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 99, issue 16, pages 5477-5478. {{doi, ...
Toluene can be found on cosmetic labels under the names, benzene, toluol, phenylmethane, methylbenzene. Toluene enters the ... such as toluene. Associations were found between pregnant women who inhaled Formaldehyd, phthalates, and toluene and adverse ... Toluene is found in cosmetic products such as nail polish, nail glue, and hair dyes and is widely used as an industrial solvent ... Toluene is an industrial solvent and is usually in nail polish removers. Formaldehyde can be found in a variety of beauty ...
A 1:1 mixture of toluene and 1,4 dioxane has δD, δP and δH values of 17.8, 1.6 and 5.5, comparable to those of chloroform at ... Because of the health hazards associated with toluene itself, other mixtures of solvents may be found using a full HSP dataset ... Ethanol has a synergistic effect when taken in combination with many solvents; for instance, a combination of toluene/benzene ... Specific uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene); as paint thinners (toluene, turpentine); as ...
... toluene, -78 °C; (v) ClCOCOCl, DCM, -78 °C, DMSO, 30 min, TEA; (vi) Ph3P+CH2RBr−, n-BuLi, THF, room temp; (vii) H2, Pt/C. 40 ...
It may be synthesized from toluene; more interesting is its production when acetone dicarboxylic ester is condensed with the ...
Toluene hydrodealkylation converts toluene to benzene. In this hydrogen-intensive process, toluene is mixed with hydrogen, then ... Toluene disproportionation (TDP) is the conversion of toluene to benzene and xylene. Given that demand for para-xylene (p- ... The solvent-properties of the two are similar, but toluene is less toxic and has a wider liquid range. Toluene is also ... As its toxicity became obvious, benzene was supplanted by other solvents, especially toluene (methylbenzene), which has similar ...
BTX stands for benzene, toluene, xylene. This is a group of common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are found in the oil ... toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene among workers at petroleum distribution facilities". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. ... including ethylene and benzene-toluene-xylenes ("BTX") which are often sent to petrochemical plants for further processing in a ...
Like other solvents, toluene is also used as an inhalant drug for its intoxicating properties. Toluene can be used as an octane ... Ferrocene Iron pentacarbonyl Toluene Isooctane BTEX - a hydrocarbon mixture of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl-benzene, also ... Toluene at 100% can be used as a fuel for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines; however, due to the density of the fuel and ... Toluene at 86% by volume fueled all the turbo Formula 1 teams in the 1980s, first pioneered by the Honda team. The remaining 14 ...
Toluene is also called methyl benzene. In this plant toluene is converted into benzene and methane. The xylene ( a group of ... BTX stands for Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene. BTX is a mixture of these chemical species plus many other species. Both liquids ...
He also delivered Toluene for explosives. This job involved driving all over the country, he often drove through the black out ...
Solvents can be Et2O, THF, toluene. Tolerated Functional Groups: Ethers R-O-R, R-S-R, Imines RN=CHR. Amides, primary and ...
Toluene is also a valuable petrochemical for use as a solvent and intermediate in chemical manufacturing processes and as a ... Benzene/Toluene Archived 2011-08-31 at the Wayback Machine. Introduction to a ChemSystems report, 2009. 10.6 Aromatics, Online ... The BTX Chain: Benzene, Toluene, Xylene. Chapter 4 of the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) report ... In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, the initialism BTX refers to mixtures of benzene, toluene, and the ...
... and toluene for use in explosives. Toluene was in high demand during World War II, and production of it was essential to the ... The light oils were the secondary products benzene, toluene and solvent naphtha.[citation needed] This concrete platform was ... toluene, solvent naphtha, sulfur, xylene, and resin tar.[citation needed] Primary manufacturing and support facilities ...
Exposure to toluene can cause eye and nose irritation, tiredness, confusion, euphoria, dizziness, headache, dilated pupils, ... Toluene (C₆H₅CH₃) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor. ... Useful search terms for toluene include "methyl benzene," "methyl benzol," "phenyl methane," and "toluol." ... Toluene (C₆H₅CH₃) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor. Exposure to toluene can cause eye and nose irritation, ...
ILO: International Labour Organization - The International Labour Organization is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights
Toluene affects the nervous system. Toluene has been found at 959 of the 1,591 National Priority List sites identified by the ... Exposure to toluene occurs from breathing contaminated workplace air, in automobile exhaust, some consumer products paints, ... How can toluene affect children?. The effects of toluene on children have not been studied very much, but toluene seems to ... How likely is toluene to cause cancer?. Studies in workers and animals exposed to toluene generally indicate that toluene is ...
The study was done to find out the long-term health risks from exposure to toluene and other solvents. Solvent exposures could ... Shoe Manufacturers (Toluene). 1996. Study Background. Why the Study Was Done. The study was done to find out the long-term ... health risks from exposure to toluene and other solvents.. Solvent exposures could occur in the Fitting, Sole Leather, Last, ...
Toxicological Profile for Toluene. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes ... Toxicological profile for Toluene. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ... A useful two page information sheet, the ToxFAQsTM(Toluene), is also available. ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
You can smell toluene at 8 parts of toluene per million parts of air (ppm) and taste it in water at 0.0ppm to 1ppm.. Toluene is ... What happens to toluene when it enters the environment?. *Toluene has been found in waste sites and landfills when discarded as ... How can toluene affect my health?. Toluene affects the brain. Low-to-moderate levels from long-term exposure can cause ... Is there a medical test to show whether Ive been exposed to toluene?. Laboratory tests can detect toluene or its breakdown ...
What are the most important things to know about toluene in an emergency? ... What are other names or identifying information for toluene? What is the WHMIS 1988 classification? ... Toluene. CLOSE ALL. What are other names or identifying information for toluene?. CAS Registry No.: 108-88-3. Other Names: ... What handling and storage practices should be used when working with toluene?. Handling: In the event of a spill or leak, exit ...
Other names: Benzene, methyl; Methacide; Methylbenzene; Methylbenzol; Phenylmethane; Antisal 1a; Toluol; Methane, phenyl-; NCI- ...
... has role hapten (CHEBI:59174) toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (CHEBI:53556) is a toluene meta- ... CHEBI:53556 - toluene 2,4-diisocyanate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... A toluene meta-diisocyanate in which the isocyanato groups are at positions 2 and 4 relative to the methyl group on the benzene ...
Toluene definition, a colorless, water-insoluble, flammable liquid, C7H8, having a benzenelike odor, obtained chiefly from coal ... Words nearby toluene. Tolstoy, Leo, Toltec, tolu, toluate, Toluca, toluene, toluic, toluic acid, toluidine, toluidine blue O, ... Toluene consists of a methyl group attached to benzene. Also called methylbenzene. Chemical formula: C7H8. ... toluene. *. Toluene, alcohol, and chloroform all dissolve atropine readily.. Scientific American Supplement, No. 324, March 18 ...
Toluene and xylene poisoning can occur when someone swallows these substances, breathes in their fumes, ... Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. ... Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. Toluene and xylene poisoning ... Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of water in toluene at different concentrations measured using diaphragm cell ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of water in toluene. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of water in toluene at different concentrations measured using diaphragm cell ...
Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate , Monograph containing literature references, physical and biological properties and relevant ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of toluene in tetrachloro-methane at different concentrations measured using ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of toluene in tetrachloro-methane. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of toluene in tetrachloro-methane at different concentrations measured using ...
Toluene can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels for internal combustion engines as well as jet fuel. Toluene at 86% ... Toluene can be used to break open red blood cells in order to extract hemoglobin in biochemistry experiments. Toluene has also ... "Toluene". Spigel, Saul (8 July 2009). "State Laws on Inhalant Use". "EU sets 0.1% limit on use of toluene, TCB". ICIS. Reed ... The extent of toluene substitution has not been determined. In the laboratory, toluene is used as a solvent for carbon ...
European SCCS: Toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulfate are extreme skin sensitizers.. Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS ... Toluene-2, 5-Diamine Sulfate is a substituted aromatic amine salt.. 1,4-BENZENEDIAMINE, 2-METHYL-, SULFATE, 1,4-BENZENEDIAMINE ... Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS), OPINION ON Toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulfate, COLIPA n A5 June 2012. ... OPINION ON Toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulfate, COLIPA n A5 June 2012. ...
Toluene has the chemical formula C7H8. It also has a molecular weight of 92 grams per mole and is a common organic chemistry ... Toluene has the chemical formula C7H8. It also has a molecular weight of 92 grams per mole and is a common organic chemistry ... Toluene is a six-member carbon ring with alternating double and single bonds. At Carbon 1, there is a methyl group attached to ... Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely utilized as both a solvent and as industrial feedstock. It can also be ...
(Methanol Anhydrous) CH₃OH FW 32.04 Methanol-synthetic wood alcohol Nonphotochemically reactive Flash point: 4°C (39.3°F) Store at 15°C to 30°C
Toluene. Whether you need HPLC toluene, ACS toluene, Anhydrous toluene or one of our many other grades, we stock the right ... As a leading supplier of high-purity, research grade solvents, we have the toluene to meet your exact needs.. ...
Receive supply/demand analysis of current China markets for Toluene Diisocyanate with 10-year demand forecasts, future trends, ... China Report: Toluene Diisocyanate US$2,100.00. Buy Individual Report Now Find the chemical market research you need Contact an ... This China Report product profile on Toluene Diisocyanate contains a summary, leading producers in China with plant locations, ...
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H3(NCO)2. Two of the six possible isomers are ... 2,4-TDI is prepared in three steps from toluene via dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diaminotoluene (TDA). Finally, the TDA is subjected ... ISBN 978-0-471-95812-3. International Chemical Safety Card 0339 IARC Monograph: "Toluene Diisocyanates" NIOSH Pocket Guide to ... 0621". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate". Immediately Dangerous to Life ...
Toluene. Translated names 13 CAS names 1 IUPAC names 16 Trade names 23 Other identifiers 4 ...
If a substance is on this list, it means that a Member State has evaluated or will evaluate it over the coming years. The list is called the Community rolling action plan (CoRAP).. For each substance, the table shows the evaluating Member State, the (planned) year of evaluation and a short description of the concern which led to it being placed on the list.. Documents to do with substance evaluation are also available here. They include: documents justifying selection of the substances, decisions to request more information. Member States conclusions and Member States final evaluation reports are included for substances for which evaluation has been finalised.. ...
The screening assessment of the available data for toluene indicates that conclusion (i) is appropriate for this substance as ... Toluene fulfils the toxicity criterion (T) in the context of PBT assessment since it is classified toxic for reproduction ( ...
This is the ICIS pricing methodology for toluene. ICIS quotes toluene prices in Europe, Asia-Pacific, China and the US Gulf. ... Toluene Overview. With a network of price reporters across Asia, Europe and the US, ICIS is fully equipped to keep you updated ... Toluene Methodology - 3 July 2017 This entry was posted on July 3, 2017. by Sam Weatherlake. Methodology ... on everything that happens in the global Toluene market, whether you buy or sell Toluene or related products. ...
During the nitration of toluene, one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene ring are replaced by a nitro group. The ... During the nitration of toluene, one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene ring are replaced by a nitro group. The ... Nitration of toluene requires a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. The nitric acid is the ... Toluene reacts much faster than benzene in nitration reactions because the methyl group pushes the electrons toward the ring, ...
  • A toluene meta -diisocyanate in which the isocyanato groups are at positions 2 and 4 relative to the methyl group on the benzene ring. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dinitrotoluene is the precursor to toluene diisocyanate, which used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H3(NCO)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit with a ceiling at 0.02 ppm (0.14 mg/m3), while the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has not established a recommended exposure limit, due to the classification of toluene diisocyanate as a possible occupational carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This China Report product profile on Toluene Diisocyanate contains a summary, leading producers in China with plant locations, salient statistics and current consumption levels by market. (ihs.com)
  • Zion Market Research has published a new report titled "Toluene Market by Type (Benzyl Chloride, Trinitrotoluene (TNT), Benzaldehyde, Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI), Benzoic Acid and Other) for Industrial Solvent, Production of Explosives, Production of Benzene, Gasoline Additive and Other application: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 - 2021. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Benzyl chloride, trinitrotoluene (TNT), benzaldehyde, toluene diisocyanate (TDI), benzoic acid and other are some of the important types of toluene. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • 2602.5 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Polyurethane foams with improved uniformity of cell size in the absence of striations and undesirable discoloration are prepared using mixtures of toluene diisocyanate and polyphenylmethylene polyisocyanate. (google.com)
  • GlobalData's additional report, "Toluene Diisocyanate Industry Outlook in Japan (JP) to 2019 - Market value, Company Share, Price Trends, Capacity Forecasts of All Active and Planned Plants", offers detailed coverage of Japan's Toluene Diisocyanate industry and presents main market trends. (reportlinker.com)
  • The market research includes Japan's Toluene Diisocyanate plants and presents installed capacity by process and technology. (reportlinker.com)
  • It also gives historical and forecast market size, demand and production forecasts, end-use demand details, price trends, trade balance data, and company shares of the country's leading Toluene Diisocyanate producers to provide exhaustive coverage of all parameters of the Toluene Diisocyanate industry. (reportlinker.com)
  • It is an important raw material to synthesize pharmaceuticals, paints, resins, dyes, toluene diisocyanate and explosives like trinitrotoluene. (alfa.com)
  • EPA issued a proposed rule in the Federal Register of January 15, 2015, concerning 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate unspecified isomers (these three chemical substances are hereafter referred to as toluene diisocyanates or TDI) and related compounds. (federalregister.gov)
  • Useful search terms for toluene include "methyl benzene," "methyl benzol," "phenyl methane," and "toluol. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene (/ˈtɒljuiːn/), also known as toluol (/ˈtɒljuɒl/), is an aromatic hydrocarbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene, also referred as Toluol has a colorless appearance and is usually insoluble in water having paint thinner like odor. (tradeindia.com)
  • Toluene has been found in waste sites and landfill s when discarded as used solvent or in paint s, paint thinner s, and nail polish . (everything2.com)
  • A volatile petrochemical solvent and paint thinner, toluene is a potent neurotoxicant that acts as an irritant, impairs breathing, and causes nausea. (ewg.org)
  • Toluene is predominantly used as an industrial feedstock and a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the solvent in some types of paint thinner, permanent markers, contact cement and certain types of glue, toluene is sometimes used as a recreational inhalant and has the potential of causing severe neurological harm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Final separation and purification is done by any of the distillation or solvent extraction processes used for BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers). (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely utilized as both a solvent and as industrial feedstock. (reference.com)
  • Toluene is an industrial chemical produced in high volume, that is used in blending gasoline and as a solvent. (inchem.org)
  • Industrial solvent, production of explosives, and production of benzene, the gasoline additive and other are the major applications for toluene market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Prenatal toluene exposure may be be related to neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with fetal solvent syndrome. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Toluene Solvent In order to provide the full satisfaction to our customers, we are engaged in manufacturing, trading and supplying a wide range of Toluene Solvent as a part of our huge collection of highly qualitative products by being centered in Bharuch, Gujarat, India. (tradeindia.com)
  • Toluene Solvent In order to become one of the chosen business choices, we are willingly concentrated as trader and supplier of a comprehensive consignment of Toluene Solvent in New Delhi, Delhi, India. (tradeindia.com)
  • Toluene Solvent We are offering to our valuable customers a wide range of Toluene Solvent is also manufactured by our company. (tradeindia.com)
  • Toluene Solvent Price : 1 INR J OSHI A GRO OFFER I NTERNATIONAL QUALITY TOLUENE SOLVENT WHICH ARE AVAILABLE IN OUR SMALL PACK AS WELL AS IN BULK FOR RESALE and EXPORT. (tradeindia.com)
  • Toluene Solvent We are delighted to introduce ourselves as most effective increasing company which is engaged in widely demanded array of Tetracycline, we manufacture and supply of Toluene Solvent in Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India keeping in the mind clients needs and requirements. (tradeindia.com)
  • Among the VOCs, toluene is widely used as an organic solvent for paints, printing inks, adhesives, and antiseptics due to its excellent ability to dissolve organic substances. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, toluene is a solvent that's been found to cause nausea, nervous-system damage if you huff it, and maaaaaybe cancer (the jury's out). (xojane.com)
  • The solvent-tolerant P. putida DOT-T1E grows in the presence of high concentrations (e.g., 1% [vol/vol]) of toluene and octanol. (asm.org)
  • Toluene Solvent / Cleaner / Thinner. (bestmaterials.com)
  • Toluene Solvent is a very fast drying high purity solvent used for surface cleaning, thinning oil-based paints, varnishes, enamels and alkyd resins. (bestmaterials.com)
  • FOR EPDM: EDPM surface is first wiped with Toluene solvent or seam cleaner before application of Tape Primer. (bestmaterials.com)
  • The solvent-free catalytic oxidation of toluene was investigated using the copper- and iron-doped MCM-22 catalyst at 90 °C in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant. (rsc.org)
  • Apart from risks associated with occupational exposure, toluene poses special hazards to glue-sniffers, who intentionally abuse solvent mixtures containing this chemical. (ionscience.com)
  • Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Toluene and xylene poisoning can occur when someone swallows these substances, breathes in their fumes, or when these substances touch the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other products may also contain toluene and xylene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation: C6H5CH3 + H2 → C6H6 + CH4 The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Out of the total consumption of toluene, 60% is utilized in the production of benzene and xylene. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Toluene market directly depends on the growth of benzene and xylene market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Technicians commonly use xylene and toluene in a laboratory setting. (ehow.co.uk)
  • According to the Occupational and Health Safety Administration (OSHA), exposure to xylene and toluene can result in severe and chronic health conditions such as abdominal pain, nausea, bronchitis and bronchial pneumonia, among others. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Both toluene and xylene are water insolvable. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Immediately rinse the eyes and skin if exposed to toluene or xylene. (ehow.co.uk)
  • All the bacterial strains were primary toluene and xylene degraders (i.e. each strain was able to use the individual pollutants as the sole carbon and energy source for growth). (scielo.br)
  • Independent laboratories have isolated Pseudomonas putida strains tolerant to different aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, styrene, and p -xylene ( 6 , 15 , 42 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Name】 Dimethyl thio- toluene diamine 【CAS】 106264-79-3 【Synonyms】 2,4-Diamino-3,5-dimethylthio toluene 3,5- Dimethylthio -2,4- toluene diamine dimethyl thio- toluene diamine DADMT 1,3-Benzene diamine , 2(or 4)-methyl. (burrillandco.com)
  • If you work in an industry that uses toluene, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • Families can reduce their risk of exposure to toluene by using consumer products containing the chemical (such as paints, glues, inks, and stain removers) in well-ventilated areas and reading the labels of the products. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene has the chemical formula C7H8. (reference.com)
  • Shanghai Dinghan Chemical co Ltd, Shell chemicals, BASF, Exxon Mobil, BP, Reliance Industries, Dongjin Semichem co ltd and China National Petroleum Corporation among other are some of the foremost key players in the toluene market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The chemical formula for toluene is C 7 H 8 or C 6 H 5 CH 3. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Call a chemical waste disposal service to remove the container containing toluene. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Pandis, S. N. Formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol from toluene: changes in chemical composition, volatility, and hygroscopicity. (alfa.com)
  • DEA has determined that the advance notification requirement for acetone, 2-Butanone, and toluene is not necessary for effective chemical diversion control and, therefore, is waiving this requirement for these three List II chemicals. (usdoj.gov)
  • The chemical reactions of toluene and oxygen in a 50 Hz ac discharge have been studied in a capacitive coupled discharge reactor. (bl.uk)
  • Toluene is the common name for methylbenzene, a commercially important intermediate chemical produced throughout the world in enormous quantities. (ionscience.com)
  • From benzene and toluene alone about forty distinct colouring-matters of the rosaniline group are sent into commerce. (dictionary.com)
  • Note also that although the initial amounts of benzene and toluene in the solution were equal, more benzene than toluene escapes to the gas phase because of benzene's higher vapor pressure. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • With a network of price reporters across Asia, Europe and the US, ICIS is fully equipped to keep you updated on everything that happens in the global Toluene market, whether you buy or sell Toluene or related products. (icis.com)
  • Benzoic acid followed with benzyl chloride together account for the largest share of the global toluene market in terms of revenue in 2015. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • 216 Pages Report] The global toluene market was valued at USD 20.02 Billion in 2015 and is projected to reach USD 23.41 Billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 6.3% from 2016 to 2021. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • 2017. Toxicological profile for Toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • Please note that Toluene Market in Singapore: Business Report 2017 is a half ready publication. (marketpublishers.com)
  • According to the report, global demand for toluene was valued at over USD 25.1 billion in 2015, is expected to reach above USD 31.8 billion in 2021 and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of slightly above 4.0% between 2016 and 2021. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health related questions (FAQs) regarding exposure to toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term daily inhalation exposure to toluene in the workplace may cause some hearing and color vision loss. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to toluene? (cdc.gov)
  • The study was done to find out the long-term health risks from exposure to toluene and other solvents. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing contaminated air or touching it when working with gasoline , kerosene , heating oil , paint s, and lacquer s puts people at the greatest risk of exposure to toluene in air and on the skin . (everything2.com)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( NIOSH ) recommends an exposure limit of 100 ppm of toluene in workplace air and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ( ACGIH ) recommends an exposure limit of 50 ppm in workplace air. (everything2.com)
  • Mother's exposure to toluene vapors during pregnancy may cause developmental damage in the fetus. (ewg.org)
  • Occupational exposure to toluene is extensive and occurs in its production and during the manufacture and use of toluene-containing paints, thinners, cleaning agents, coatings and adhesives. (inchem.org)
  • Toluene was mentioned as an exposure in eight studies. (inchem.org)
  • Cancers of most sites were not significantly associated with toluene exposure in any study. (inchem.org)
  • Toluene was tested for carcinogenicity by inhalation exposure in one study in mice and in one study in rats. (inchem.org)
  • Toluene toxicity is most prominent in the central nervous system after acute and chronic exposure. (inchem.org)
  • Developmental neurotoxicity after toluene inhalation exposure in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Prenatal exposure to toluene may have an adverse effect on postnatal development and behavior in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Thymoquinone and Nigella sativa cause's morphologic improvement on neurodegeneration in hippocampus after chronic toluene exposure in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Toluene exposure may result in acute neurobehavioral effects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ежемесячное издание Argus Toluene and Xylenes Outlook содержит прогнозы цен на ближайшие 24 месяца, анализ спроса, предложения и торговых потоков на мировом рынке толуола и ксилолов, а также уровня запасов. (argusmedia.com)
  • El servicio de Argus Toluene and Xylenes Daily lo ayuda a ver cambios en los diferenciales de precios por región o productos relacionados, con una visión global y comentarios diarios de noticias y precios. (argusmedia.com)
  • Toluene and other monoaromatic compounds such benzene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are commonly found in gasoline-contaminated sites (EPA 1995). (scielo.br)
  • Based on a proprietary zeolite catalyst, MTDP-3 toluene-conversion technology allows for robust production of high-value mixed xylenes and high-purity benzene at minimal cost. (exxonmobilchemical.com)
  • The amount of 14 C-labeled substrate in whole cells increased in competition assays in which toluene and xylenes were the unlabeled competitors, whereas this was not the case when benzene was the competitor. (asm.org)
  • Although no data were suitable for deriving an intermediate-duration inhalation MRL for toluene, ATSDR (2000) concluded that the neurotoxicity-based chronic MRL would also be protective for intermediate-duration exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene is produced during the process of making gasoline and other fuel s from crude oil , in making coke from coal , and as a by-product in the manufacture of styrene . (everything2.com)
  • Toluene and styrene are industrial solvents that can severely damage auditory function. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • As such, its systematic IUPAC name is methylbenzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human epidemiological studies and in animal studies toluene has been also associated with toxicity to the immune system and a possible link to blood cancer such as malignant lymphoma. (ewg.org)
  • Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and thymoquinone on toluene induced liver toxicity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • As a leading supplier of high-purity, research grade solvents, we have the toluene to meet your exact needs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • as corrected at 65 FR 67796, November 13, 2000) to amend DEA regulations to waive the advance notification requirement to import the solvents acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK), and toluene, which are regulated as List II chemicals. (usdoj.gov)
  • as corrected at 65 FR 67796), to amend Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) § 1313.12 to waive the advance notification requirement for imports of the solvents acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK), and toluene, which are regulated as List II chemicals. (usdoj.gov)
  • Approximately two thirds of all 15-day advance notifications of importation (on average 2000 advance notifications annually) are for the solvents acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK), and toluene, equating to an initial paperwork burden reduction of 420 hours. (usdoj.gov)
  • China uses toluene in a variety of applications such as in the production of Paraxylene and Benzene, in solvents manufacturing and in gasoline blending. (spglobal.com)
  • Individuals who work with gasoline, paint, lacquer, or dyes have greater exposures to toluene, as do individuals who smoke or intentionally inhale products containing toluene for its euphoric effects or to get high. (cdc.gov)
  • Few data are available on levels of occupational or environmental exposures to vinyl toluene. (inchem.org)
  • Depending on the position at which the nitro group is added, relative to the methyl group in toluene, two isomers can be formed in this reaction. (reference.com)
  • Vinyl toluene has been produced since the 1940s, as a mixture mainly of meta and para isomers, by dehydrogenation of meta - and para -ethyl toluene. (inchem.org)
  • Naphtha accounts for the maximum share in terms of the feedstock used for producing toluene and other aromatics. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • however, because of the shortage of supply and the lower combustion value of these products, naphtha is the most commonly used raw material for the production of toluene and other aromatics. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • MTDP-3 is designed to process toluene and limited amounts of C9 aromatics and can allow for inexpensive debottlenecking of existing toluene disproportionation (TDP) facilities. (exxonmobilchemical.com)
  • Toluene (C₆H₅CH₃) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid with a distinctive smell. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene, C 6 H 5 -CH 3 , is a clear colorless liquid, highly flammable with a sweet, pungent aromatic odor. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • The Para Toluene Sulfonic Acid we supply and export is made from extremely pure substances. (exportersindia.com)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) set a maximum level of 200 ppm toluene in workplace air for an 8-hour workday , 40-hour workweek . (everything2.com)
  • Toluene is also used in the manufacture of other chemicals, nylon, and plastics. (cdc.gov)
  • Acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK) and toluene are widely used as industrial chemicals in the United States. (usdoj.gov)
  • The process is ideal for toluene upgrade to more valuable chemicals without investing in paraxylene separation facilities. (exxonmobilchemical.com)
  • We offer optimal quality Para Toluene Sulfonic Acid which is made up of best quality chemicals. (exportersindia.com)
  • Latin America and the Middle East is expected to have a sluggish market for toluene during the years to come. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The demand for toluene is driven by the diverse industrial markets ranging from building & construction, automotive, industrial, and oil & gas, among others. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • With the increasing concerns regarding the conservation of energy, the market for PU is expected to grow, which, in turn, is expected drive the demand for toluene. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Benzoic acid and benzaldehyde are produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was confirmed that only CO 2 and steam were produced by the complete oxidation of toluene, and no toluene-derived compounds were detected as by-products with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. (mdpi.com)
  • Nitration of toluene requires a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. (reference.com)
  • Nitration of toluene give mono-, di-, and trinitrotoluene, all of which are widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene is inflammable, clear liquid with volatile nature aromatic hydrocarbon. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Toluene is a volatile organic compound and a priority environmental contaminant as designated by the US EPA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of toluene in tetrachloro-methane at different concentrations measured using interferometry and diaphragm cell. (springer.com)
  • Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of toluene in tetrachloro-methane. (springer.com)
  • The amount of biomass which was formed in the reactor equalled the amount removed by the NaOH-wash Under these conditions it should be possible to maintain a high toluene removal rate without clogging of the reactor taking place for a long period of time. (wur.nl)
  • Here we report the toluene-producing enzyme PhdB, a glycyl radical enzyme of bacterial origin that catalyzes phenylacetate decarboxylation, and its cognate activating enzyme PhdA, a radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme, discovered in two distinct anoxic microbial communities that produce toluene. (osti.gov)
  • Initially, the scientists started analyzing a bacterial species known to produce toluene. (azocleantech.com)
  • Microbial toluene biosynthesis was reported in anoxic lake sediments more than three decades ago, but the enzyme catalyzing this biochemically challenging reaction has never been identified. (osti.gov)
  • Beller got the inspiration to analyze bio-based toluene upon reading literature reports from the 1980s that evinced the biosynthesis of microbial toluene in anoxic lake sediments. (azocleantech.com)
  • Toluene in the air combines with oxygen to form benzaldehyde and cresol , which can be harmful to people . (everything2.com)
  • Toluene reacts with Potassium permanganate to yield benzoic acid, and with chromyl chloride to yield benzaldehyde (Étard reaction). (wikipedia.org)
  • The thermal reaction was negligible at temperatures below 300 °C. The major products of the reaction between toluene and oxygen were benzaldehyde, o-cresol, benzene, m+p-cresol, phenol and benzyl alcohol. (bl.uk)
  • Toluene vapor is heavier than air. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • The inoculation suspension was prepared using three-stage submerged cultivations with toluene vapor as the sole carbon and energy source. (scielo.br)
  • Studies in workers and animals exposed to toluene generally indicate that toluene is not carcinogenic The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that toluene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The EPA determined there is inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential of toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not considered the carcinogenic potential of toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services and the International Agency for Research on Cancer have not classified toluene for carcinogenic effects. (everything2.com)
  • Toluene reacts as a normal aromatic hydrocarbon in electrophilic aromatic substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene is used in making paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, and rubber and in some printing and leather tanning processes. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) heated with toluene in the presence of AIBN leads to benzyl bromide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene is mainly converted to benzyl alcohol and excreted as hippurate. (inchem.org)
  • Why Is DEA Waiving the Advance Notification Requirement for Importation of Acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK), and Toluene? (usdoj.gov)
  • What Will Be Required for Imports of Acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK), and Toluene? (usdoj.gov)
  • With waiver of the advance notification requirement, importers of acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK) and toluene will not be required to submit individual DEA Form 486s in advance of each importation. (usdoj.gov)
  • In lieu of this paperwork requirement, DEA is requiring that importers of acetone, 2-Butanone (MEK) and toluene complete a quarterly summary report of all transactions. (usdoj.gov)
  • It is excreted when many aromatic compounds, such as benzoic acid and toluene , are taken internally. (dictionary.com)
  • Flammable or explosive items such as Fire Extinguishers, MEK, Toluene, Paint Thinner, etc. are subject to a $40.00 Hazmat fee via ground shipping methods. (skygeek.com)
  • Surprise Fire-Medical Fire Chief Tom Abbott, and Retired Phoenix Fire Department Fire Chief Ron Jamison, recount modern "Toluene Tank" incidents such as the 2019 lithium-ion battery plant explosion and other unknowns like refrigerated carbon dioxide systems in restaurants, battery charging stations in residential garages, and clandestine grow houses and drug labs. (everyonegoeshome.com)
  • Toluene is a hydrocarbon (C7H8) and because of the small difference in the electronegativties of C and H, their bond is regarded as nonpolar. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Toluene and toluene vapour are highly flammable. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Along with these, the growing petrochemical industry in the Asia-Pacific region countries such as, India, Taiwan, and Thailand is also driving the toluene market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The present invention relates to certain novel p-toluene sulfonate salts of 2-alkyl imidazolines and, more particularly, relates to the use of such compounds as internal and external antistatic agents for normally non-conducting organic materials, such as fibers and plastics. (google.com.au)
  • Clean up any toluene spills by covering them with sand, clay, dirt or an organic commercial product. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Para Toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA or pTsOH) or tosylic acid (TsOH) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO3H. (exportersindia.com)
  • The discovery of the enzyme is the result of the extensive research performed on two highly distinctive microbial communities that synthesized toluene. (azocleantech.com)
  • Some older children and adolescents who have repeatedly breathed large amounts of toluene to get high have developed loss of muscle control, loss of memory, poor balance, and decreased mental abilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Some mothers who breathed large amounts of toluene during pregnancy to get high have had children with birth defects, including retardation of mental abilities and growth. (cdc.gov)
  • TID converted only trace amounts of toluene to 1,2-dihydro-3-methylcatechol after prolonged incubation time. (nih.gov)
  • In December 2007, the SCCP found that toluene did not pose a risk to the health of consumers in the amounts used. (skininc.com)
  • Vinyl toluene (predominantly para isomer) was tested for carcinogenicity in one experiment in mice and one experiment in rats by intragastric intubation. (inchem.org)