A widely used industrial solvent.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (1/1074)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol. (2/1074)

The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase alpha-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase gamma-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase beta-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with >60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of sigma54 (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase alpha-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not. Benzene was oxidized to phenol, which accumulated transiently before being further oxidized. Toluene was oxidized to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresols (39.8, 18, and 41.7%, respectively) and a small amount (0.5%) of benzyl alcohol, none of which were further oxidized. In growth studies Xanthobacter strain Py2 was found to grow on phenol and catechol but not on benzene or toluene; growth on phenol required a functional alkene monooxygenase. However, there is no evidence of genes encoding steps in the metabolism of catechol in the vicinity of the aam gene cluster. This suggests that the inducer specificity of the alkene monooxygenase may have evolved to benefit from the naturally broad substrate specificity of this class of monooxygenase and the ability of the host strain to grow on catechol.  (+info)

Evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. II. Stability in soil. (3/1074)

The effect of paddy soils on mycobacillin and versicolin was investigated. Soil inactivated mycobacillin as determined by spectral analysis and microbiological assay. Soil can inactive mycobacillin only at or above the threshold concentration (125 approximately 130 mug per 10 mg of soil), the excess being unreacted. No new peak appears in the ultraviolet spectrum (240 approximately 300 nm) while mycobacillin is inactivated. Soil is without any effect on versicolin.  (+info)

Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0. (4/1074)

We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers: field and laboratory microcosm experiments. (5/1074)

This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% alpha-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the FC aquifer community. These studies demonstrated that alterations in aquifer microbial communities resulting from specific anthropogenic perturbances can be inferred from microcosm studies integrating chemical and phylogenetic probe analysis and in the case of hydrocarbon contamination may facilitate the identification of organisms important for in situ biodegradation processes. Further work integrating and coordinating microcosm and field experiments is needed to explore how differences in scale, substrate complexity, and other hydrogeological conditions may affect patterns observed in these systems.  (+info)

Tremor induced by toluene misuse successfully treated by a Vim thalamotomy. (6/1074)

A 22 year old man developed a vigorous tremor of 5 Hz in his right hand, after a 7 year history of toluene misuse. T2 Weighted MRI depicted marked decreases in the signal intensity of the basal ganglia, red nucleus, and thalamus on both sides. The stereotactic coagulation of the left nucleus ventrointermedius (Vim) of the thalamus abolished the tremors in his right hand. This patient clearly exhibited the pathological involvement of rubral lesions in generation of a toluene induced tremor on MRI. Toluene induced tremor is an irreversible symptom which persists even after stopping toluene misuse, therefore in medically intractable cases, it should be positively treated by a Vim thalamotomy.  (+info)

The IIANtr (PtsN) protein of Pseudomonas putida mediates the C source inhibition of the sigma54-dependent Pu promoter of the TOL plasmid. (7/1074)

The gene cluster adjacent to the sequence of rpoN (encoding sigma factor sigma54) of Pseudomonas putida has been studied with respect to the C source regulation of the Pu promoter of the upper TOL (toluene catabolism) operon. The region includes four open reading frames (ORFs), two of which (named ptsN and ptsO genes) encode proteins similar to components of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. Each of the four genes was disrupted with a nonpolar insertion, and the effects in the inhibition caused by glucose on Pu activity were inspected with a lacZ reporter system. Although cells lacking ORF102, ORF284, and ptsO did not display any evident phenotype under the conditions tested, the loss of ptsN, which encodes the IIANtr protein, made Pu unresponsive to repression by glucose. The ptsN mutant had rates of glucose/gluconate consumption identical to those of the wild type, thus ruling out indirect effects mediated by the transport of the carbohydrate. A site-directed ptsN mutant in which the conserved phospho-acceptor site His68 of IIANtr was replaced by an aspartic acid residue made Pu blind to the presence or absence of glucose, thus supporting the notion that phosphorylation of IIANtr mediates the C source inhibition of the promoter. These data substantiate the existence of a molecular pathway for co-regulation of some sigma54 promoters in which IIANtr is a key protein intermediate.  (+info)

Effect of organic solvents on the yield of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. (8/1074)

Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h-1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells.  (+info)

A 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst was prepared by the evaporative drying method. The catalytic toluene oxidation activity of the catalyst was investigated and the calcination temperature dependence on the toluene oxidation activity was characterized. It was confirmed that only CO2 and steam were produced by the complete oxidation of toluene, and no toluene-derived compounds were detected as by-products with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Toluene was completely oxidized at 320 °C on the 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst calcined at 500 °C. The toluene oxidation activity slightly decreased with increasing the calcination temperature of the catalyst. However, significant deactivation was not recognized in the present 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst, and toluene was completely oxidized at 360 °C even after calcination at 1000 °C. From these results, it became obvious that the 0.4 wt%Pt/Ce0.76Zr0.19Zn0.05O1.95 catalyst has high thermal stability for toluene
Ong, C.N.,Foo, S.C.,Lee, B.L. (1994). Effect of fasting on toluene metabolism: A study of hippuric acid and O- cresol excretion. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 9 (9) : 622-625. [email protected] Repository ...
The aim of this study was designed to investigate the possible beneficial effects of Nigella sativa (NS) and derived thymoquinone (TQ) on neurodegeneration in hippocampus after chronic toluene exposure in rats. The rats were randomly allotted into one of four experimental groups: A (control), B (toluene treated), C (toluene treated with NS) and D (toluene treated with TQ); each group contain 10 animals. Toluene treatment was performed by inhalation of 3,000 ppm toluene, in a 8 h/day and 6 day/week order for 12 weeks. Control group received 1 ml serum physiologic and the rats in NS and TQ treated groups (C and D) were given NS (in a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight) and TQ (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally by using intra gastric intubation for 12 weeks starting just after toluene exposure respectively. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathological investigation. To date, no histopathological changes of neurodegeneration in hippocampus after chronic toluene exposure in rats by NS and TQ ...
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3,5-Difluorotoluene 117358-51-7 NMR spectrum, 3,5-Difluorotoluene H-NMR spectral analysis, 3,5-Difluorotoluene C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The solubility of ammonia in toluene has been measured at 398 K and at pressures up to 340 kPa using a static, synthetic and isochoric technique. The goal of the present study is to determine the equilibrium solubility of ammonia in toluene at a pressure and temperature regime that is relevant to the reaction conditions of amination of 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene leading to the formation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene. The ammonia solubility data in toluene were hitherto unavailable under these experimental conditions. The solubility data have also been compared with the result obtained from a direct sampling method. The results are in agreement with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation. The Henrys law constant at the reaction temperature has been determined ...
A novel bead-pack micromodel has been developed to observe directly with videomicroscopy movement and distribution of toluene in the subsurface, including effects of water infiltration, variations in the water table, and alcohol-water flushing. If the medium was initially partially water-saturated, toluene spread downward along air-water interfaces, leaving behind very low residual saturation. It did not penetrate low-permeable strata that were water-saturated. If the medium was initially dry, toluene saturated only a small area where it was injected. Water infiltration displaced such toluene downward, ultimately trapping it as ganglia. Subsequent water drainage exposed some ganglia to air, allowing toluene to spread downward. Other ganglia in regions of low permeability remained trapped. Limited upward displacement of toluene occurred with the raising of the water table. However, the toluene was eventually trapped. Enhanced solubilization and mobilization of toluene were observed with a ...
Benzene and toluene mixing ratios were measured in the indoor air of homes with attached garages for several seasons using a thermal desorption GC-FID sampling and analysis protocol (EPA T0-17). Benzene in the living area of these homes ranged from 1--72 ppbv and toluene ranged 3--111 ppbv. The garage levels of benzene ranged from 8--304 pbbv and the toluene levels ranged from 14--591 ppbv. Numerous experiments and a model support the hypothesis of a single source of toluene and benzene. Source strength estimate calculations supported the hypothesis that gasoline in the attached garage is the primary source of these compounds in living area air. They also showed that the home with the air-to-air heat exchangers and forced ventilation had less transport of aromatics than an unventilated home. Perturbation experiments showed that a metal gas can filled with gasoline in the garage and an indoor window open were important factors for benzene and toluene levels in the living areas of the homes. For ...
A semidetailed mechanism (137 species and 633 reactions) and new experiments in a homogeneous charge conic pression ignition (HCCI) engine on the autoignition of toluene reference fuels are presented. Skeletal mechanisms for isooctane and n-heptane were added to a detailed toluene submechanism. The model shows generally good agreement with ignition delay times measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine and is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, and mixture strength. The addition of reactions involving the formation and destruction of benzylperoxide radical was crucial to modeling toluene shock tube data. Laminar burning velocities for benzene and toluene were well predicted by the model after some revision of the high-temperature chemistry. Moreover, laminar burning velocities of a real gasoline at 353 and 500 K Could be predicted by the model using a toluene reference fuel as a surrogate. The model also captures the experimentally observed differences in combustion ...
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This study examined the effects of ethanol (EtOH) and toluene on fixed-ratio (FR) responding in mice selectively bred for sensitivity to the effects of EtOH on sleep time. Although the more sensitive long sleep (LS) mice showed greater EtOH-induced impairment in a motor performance task than did the less sensitive short sleep (SS) mice, changes in FR performance in the two
5.1 Exposure data. Toluene is an industrial chemical produced in high volume, that is used in blending gasoline and as a solvent. Occupational exposure to toluene is extensive and occurs in its production and during the manufacture and use of toluene-containing paints, thinners, cleaning agents, coatings and adhesives. It is commonly detected in ambient air and at low levels in water.. 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. Toluene was mentioned as an exposure in eight studies. Two were community-based case control studies, one of which involved brain cancer and one involved several types of cancer. Of the six industry-based studies, three were analysed as cohort studies and three were configured as nested case control studies of one or a few types of cancer. In two of the studies, that of shoe-manufacturing workers in the United States and particularly that of Swedish rotogravure printers, it was believed that toluene was the predominant exposure; in the other studies, there were probably concomitant ...
In order to reduce exposure to toxic chemicals, the European REACH regulation (1907/2006) recommends substituting toxic molecules with compounds that are less harmful to human health and the environment. Toluene is one of the most frequently used solvents in industries despite its toxicity. The objective of this study is to better understand and compare the toxicity of toluene and its homologues in a bronchial cell model. Thus, human bronchial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to steams of toluene, m-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene), and benzene (20 and 100 ppm). Exposure was carried out using an air-liquid interface (ALI) system (Vitrocell) during 1 h/ day for 1, 3, or 5 days. Cytotoxicity, xenobiotic metabolism enzyme gene expression, and inflammatory response were evaluated following cell exposures. BEAS-2B cell exposure to toluene and its homologues revealed the involvement of major (CYP2E1) and minor metabolic pathways (CYP1A1). A late induction of genes (EPHX1, DHDH, ALDH2, and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The prevalence of surface oxygen vacancies over the mobility of bulk oxygen in nanostructured ceria for the total toluene oxidation. AU - López, Jose Manuel. AU - Gilbank, Alexander L.. AU - García, Tomás. AU - Solsona, Benjamín. AU - Agouram, Said. AU - Torrente-Murciano, Laura. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - This paper reveals the key importance of surface oxygen defects in the oxidation catalytic activity of nanostructured ceria. A series of nanostructured rods and cubes with different physico-chemical properties have been synthesized, characterized and tested in the total toluene oxidation. The variation of the temperature and base concentration during the hydrothermal syntheses of nanostructured ceria leads not only to different ceria morphologies with high shape purity, but also to structures with tuneable surface areas and defect concentrations. Ceria nanorods present a higher surface area and a higher concentration of bulk and surface defects than nanocubes ...
OSHA comments from the January 19, 1989 Final Rule on Air Contaminants Project extracted from 54FR2332 et. seq. This rule was remanded by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and the limits are not currently in force.. CAS: 108-88-3; Chemical Formula: C6H5CH3. The former OSHA standard for toluene was 200 ppm as an 8-hour TWA limit, with a 300-ppm ceiling (not to be exceeded for more than 10 minutes in any eight-hour period), and a 500-ppm peak. The ACGIH has an exposure limit for toluene of 100 ppm as an 8-hour TWA and 150 ppm as a 15-minute STEL; NIOSH recommends a 100-ppm 8-hour TWA and a 10-minute ceiling of 200 ppm. The proposed PELs were 100 ppm as an 8-hour TWA and 150 ppm as a STEL; NIOSH (Ex. 8-47, Table N1) concurs with these limits, which are established in the final rule. Toluene is a flammable, colorless liquid with an aromatic hydrocarbon odor.. The acute toxicity of toluene in animals is greater than that of benzene. Patty (1963b, as cited in ACGIH 1986/Ex. 1-3, p. 578) reports that ...
|p| The injection of a mixed toluene and D |sub|2|/sub| O (conservative tracer) pulse into a pristine mesoscale aquifer enabled a first direct experimental comparison of contaminant-specific isotopic fractionation from sorption versus biodegradation and transverse dispersion on a relevant scale. Water samples were taken from two vertically resolved sampling ports at 4.2 m distance. Analysis of deuterium and toluene concentrations allowed quantifying the extent of sorption (R = 1.25) and biodegradation (37% and 44% of initial toluene at the two sampling ports). Sorption and biodegradation were found to directly affect toluene |sup|13|/sup| C/ |sup|12|/sup| C breakthrough curves. In particular, isotope trends demonstrated that biodegradation underwent Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than first-order kinetics.
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Biological monitoring tests were conducted in humans experimentally exposed to methyl-ethyl-ketone (78933) (MEK) and toluene (108883), both alone and in combination, by inhalation. Subjects were exposed in a 2 cubic meter exposure chamber for 4 hours to 200 parts per million (ppm) MEK (20 subjects), 100ppm toluene (30 subjects), 100ppm MEK plus 50ppm toluene (16 subjects) or, as a positive control
It is flammable at temperatures greater than 40�F (4.4�C); therefore, it is a significant fire hazard at room temperature. Toluene mixes readily with many organic solvents, but is poorly soluble in water. Toluene is less dense than water and will float on the surface of water. Toluene should be stored indoors in a standard flammable liquids room or cabinet that is separate from oxidizing materials. Synonyms include methyl benzene, methyl benzol, phenyl methane, and toluol. Toluene is a clear, colorless, volatile liquid with a sweet, pungent, benzene-like odor.
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A simple deep-ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrophotometer based on ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) was developed for the detection of air-borne toluene with a good sensitivity. A fiber-coupled deep UV-LED was employed as a light source, and a spectrometer was used as a detector with a gas cell in between. 3D printed opto-fluidics connectors were designed to integrate the gas flow with UV light. Two types of hollow core waveguides (HCW) were tested as gas cells: a glass capillary tube with aluminum-coated inner walls and an aluminum capillary tube. The setup was tested for different toluene concentrations (10-100 ppm), and a linear relationship was observed with sensitivities of 0.20 mA U/ppm and 0.32 mA U/ppm for the glass and aluminum HCWs, respectively. The corresponding limits of detection were found to be 8.1 ppm and 12.4 ppm, ...
The chemical reactions of toluene and oxygen in a 50 Hz ac discharge have been studied in a capacitive coupled discharge reactor. The variables investigated were partial pressure of the reactants, reactor pressure, reactor temperature, reactant ratios, applied reactor voltage, discharge current,capacitive current, breakdown voltage, and the phase shift. The thermal reaction was negligible at temperatures below 300 °C. The major products of the reaction between toluene and oxygen were benzaldehyde, o-cresol, benzene, m+p-cresol, phenol and benzyl alcohol. The reaction was controlled by the electric field and the total reactor pressure. The threshold energy for the chemical reaction was found to be about 10 eV. The reaction was found to be of first order with respect to oxygen. The effect of the electric field was correlated by the parameter E/N. The selectivity of benzene was mainly determined by the ratio of toluene to oxygen. Cresol, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and phenol were mainly ...
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The most sensitive cell component to toluene was the plasma membrane where a morphological response in terms of a loss of membrane protuberances and a response in terms of enzymatic activity was observed at 25 ppm both with treatment times of 5 min or less. Thus the plasma membrane is indicated as one important target for toluene intoxication A perturbation of an ATP or ATPase-dependent reaction is indicated. A second target identified was that of the transition region between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus where transfer of material appears to be blocked rapidly by 100 ppm or lower toluene both in situ and in a cell-free system newly developed to study this phenomenon. Specifically, membranes involved in the internal trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus fail to form protuberances. Again perturbation of the ATP or ATP-dependent step is indicated together with a related involvement of boundary lipids of membrane proteins involved in membrane energization that
Research Summary: The report presents detailed overview of the toluene market in the world and regions (CIS countries in particular) by contemplating and analyzing its various parameters. Firstly, brief introduction is provided. Thus, toluene properties, application areas and manufacturing technologies are considered. Further goes the analysis of global toluene market with emphasis on its main components which […].... ...
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Aromatic solvents market is categorized into xylene, toluene, and ethyl benzene. Among these, xylene is anticipated to hold the largest share in the market during the forecast period
Jan 01, 2007 The effects of temporal and spatial changes in biological activity and biomass amount on biofilter performance were investigated in a lab-scale trickle-bed air biofilter at a toluene loading of 46.9 g m −3 h −1 under two different experimental strategies, namely, periodic backwashing at a rate of 1. h once a week and 2 d starvation.. Analysis of the overall reaction for toluene metabolism. Contact ...
Bestchem Toluene is a pure hydrocarbon (C7H8). i.e. it contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms. It belongs to a particular category of hydrocarbons called aromatic hydrocarbons. Complete combustion of toluene yields CO2 and H2O. This fact ensures that the entire emission control system such as the catalyst and oxygen s
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Nominated Substances: Toluene, Toluene (technical). Nomination Date: 01/00/1979 Nominator: CPSC, EPA, NIOSH, OSHA Rationale: High production; worker and consumer exposure; analog of benzene; lack of toxicological data. NTP Principles: Pre 1993 - 2, 3, 4, 8 (. ...
Local dynamics of polyisoprene in dilute solution with toluene are examined through C-13 NMR relaxation measurements. The variations of T1 and NOE with Larmor frequency are analyzed over a wide temperature range, including both the extreme narrowing region and the T1 minima. A frequency-temperature superposition of the data demonstrates that the distribution of motional time constants does not change shape with temperature and has a temperature and viscosity dependence consistent with that in nine other solvents. The data are analyzed in terms of eight motional models. Only those models that invoke motion on two well-separated time scales are successful. The slower, conformational motions correspond to activated torsional dynamics. The faster motions are librations within potential energy wells. Local dynamics in toluene are believed to exemplify polyisoprene dynamics in other solvents. Some similarities to local dynamics in bulk polymers are also expected.. ...
Definition of toluene in US English - a colorless liquid hydrocarbon present in coal tar and petroleum and used as a solvent and in organic synthesis.
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Diethylzinc, 1.5M solution in toluene, AcroSeal™, ACROS Organics™ 800mL; AcroSeal glass bottle Diethylzinc, 1.5M solution in toluene, AcroSeal™,...
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In this report, the global Aromatics Solvent market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing
International toluene chemical supplier and distributor by Tradeasia International. Toluene trade is common in places like Singapore and China.
poly(toluene 2,4-diisocyanate-polycaprolactonediol-ethylenediamine) copolymer: a polyurea-urethane formed from toluene diisocyanate, polycaprolactonediol, and ethylenediamine
[104 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global All Three Toluene Market Professional Survey Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Production, means the output of All Three Toluene Revenue,...
What are other names or identifying information for toluene? What is the WHMIS 1988 classification? What are the most important things to know about toluene in an emergency?
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The kinetics of cyclization of substituted phenyl N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)carbamates and their N-methyl analogs, prepared by the reaction of 2-(aminomethyl)phenols with substituted phenyl chloroformates, was studied in dioxane or toluene at the temperatures 110-180 °C. Electron-withdrawing substituents in the leaving phenoxy group strongly accelerate the rate of cyclization (ρ = 2.45 ± 0.15) while the substituents in the other ring have virtually no effect. The cyclization was catalyzed with triethylamine in toluene but not in dioxane. On the basis of these results, the most convenient method for preparation of substituted 4H-1,3-benzoxazin-2(3H)-ones was a one-hour reflux of substituted 4-nitrophenyl N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)carbamates in dioxane. Based on the influence of substituents, solvents (dioxane and toluene) and triethylamine, the reaction mechanism and structure of the transition state were proposed. Keywords: Carbamates; Cyclizations; Kinetics; Benzoxazines; Benzoxazinones; Substituent ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An Inhibitor-Based Method to Measure Initial Decomposition of Naturally Occurring Polysaccharides in Sediments. AU - Boschker, H.T.S.. AU - Bertilsson, S.A.. N1 - Reporting year: 1995 Metis note: 2011; CL; RE; file:///L:/Endnotedatabases/NIOOPUB/pdfs/Pdfs1995/Boschker_ea_2011.pdf. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - A method that can be used to measure the initial decomposition rates of polysaccharides in sediment samples was developed. It uses toluene to specifically inhibit microbial uptake of carbohydrates without affecting extracellular hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Accumulating carbohydrates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Field-sampled litter from the common reed (Phragmites australis), which contains cellulose and arabinoxylan as its main polysaccharides, was used as a model system. Toluene concentrations of between 1 and 10% resulted in the accumulation of similar amounts of monomeric carbohydrates, which was linear over time for most neutral sugars. ...
3-Chloro-4-nitrotoluene chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 3-Chloro-4-nitrotoluene 38939-88-7, What are the physical properties of 3-Chloro-4-nitrotoluene ect.
Toluene is a volatile organic compound which is made of carbon and hydrogen. This organic compound is a clear, colourless liquid at room temperate and pressure.
... can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels for internal combustion engines as well as jet fuel. Toluene at 86% ... Toluene can be used to break open red blood cells in order to extract hemoglobin in biochemistry experiments. Toluene has also ... The extent of toluene substitution has not been determined. In the laboratory, toluene is used as a solvent for carbon ... In addition, toluene disrupts voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-gated ion channels. Toluene is used as an intoxicative ...
... (TDI) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H3(NCO)2. Two of the six possible isomers are ... 2,4-TDI is prepared in three steps from toluene via dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diaminotoluene (TDA). Finally, the TDA is subjected ... ISBN 978-0-471-95812-3. International Chemical Safety Card 0339 IARC Monograph: "Toluene Diisocyanates" NIOSH Pocket Guide to ... 0621". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate". Immediately Dangerous to Life ...
Polyvinyltoluene (PVT, polyvinyl toluene) is a synthetic polymer of alkylbenzenes with a linear formula [CH2CH(C6H4CH3)]n. ... Commercial vinyl toluene is a mixture of methyl styrene isomers chemical formula for PVT PVT can be doped with anthracene or ...
In enzymology, a toluene dioxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction toluene + NADH + H+ + O2 ... This enzyme participates in toluene and xylene degradation. Renganathan V (1989). "Possible involvement of toluene-2,3- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is toluene,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating). This enzyme is also called ... Subramanian V, Liu TN, Yeh WK, Gibson DT (1979). "Toluene dioxygenase: purification of an iron-sulfur protein by affinity ...
... refers to the harmful effects caused by toluene on the body. While a significant amount of toluene, 25%-40%, ... There appears to be some dispute over whether m-cresol is produced as a metabolite of toluene or not. When exposure to toluene ... The smoking and drinking habits of those exposed to toluene will partially determine the elimination of toluene. Studies have ... CYP2E1 seems to be the primary enzyme in the hydroxylation of toluene, accounting for roughly 44% of toluene metabolism; ...
... (DETDA) is a liquid aromatic organic molecule with formula C11H18N2. It is chemically an aromatic ...
This page provides supplementary chemical data on toluene. This box: view edit Except where noted otherwise, data relate to ... Lange's Handbook of Chemistry 10th ed (1967), pp 1522-1524 NIST website Physical and Chemical Properties of Toluene in chemeo. ...
toluene. Bacillus subtilis stained with Nile red as a membrane dye (shown in red). This strain grows partly as cell chains, so ...
Part 1. Reactions in toluene; X-ray crystal structures of [Ir(CO)ClH(PEt 3 ) 2 (AsH 2 )] and [Ir(CO)XH(PEt 3 ) 2 (µ-ZH 2 )RuCl ...
Solvent was Toluene. bCalculated directly from 1H-NMR measurements at 30°C. cCalculated from extrapolation of van't Hoff plot. ...
With toluene the major product is benzylsodium. n-Butylsodium reacts with 1-bromonaphthalene to make 1-sodiumnapthalene and 1- ... Broaddus, C. D. (September 1966). "Metalation of Toluene. The Question of Kinetic vs. Thermodynamic Control". Journal of the ...
"Safety Data Sheet - TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE (TDI)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-04-17. Retrieved 2018-11-24. " ... "TOLUENE DIISOCYANATES" (PDF). IARC. 1987. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-11-25. Retrieved 2018-11-18. "4,4′- ... Daniels, Robert D. (2018-02-01). "Occupational asthma risk from exposures to toluene diisocyanate: A review and risk assessment ... ISBN 978-0-7176-6703-1. "Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate". CDC. Retrieved 2018-11-24. "Request for assistance in preventing asthma and ...
Toluene and Xylene. In: Olson KR, ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine ... Carbon monoxide Carbon disulfide Cyanide Ethanol Hexane Maneb/Mancozeb Mercury Methanol MPTP Paraquat Rotenone Toluene ( ...
2010: Toluene oxidation. 2017: Patheon, a pharmaceutical contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO) joint ...
Toluene also has the risk of damaging the fetus of a pregnant woman if she were to be exposed to the chemical. Toluene is also ... Toluene's most abundant use is in the production of benzene, another chemical found at the site. Toluene is also one of the ... "Tox Town - Toluene". Tox Town - Toluene. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 20 September 2017. U.S. National Library ... Toluene is also flammable in its liquid and gaseous state, which in high amounts can be very dangerous if the area is known for ...
... which were named after a brand of toluene-laden contact cement. Other toluene-containing substances have also been used, most ... Toluene can damage myelin. Toxicity may also result from the pharmacological properties of the drug; excess NMDA antagonism can ... Another very common inhalant is Erase-X, a correction fluid that contains toluene. It has become very common for school and ... Filley CM, Halliday W, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK (January 2004). "The effects of toluene on the central nervous system". J. ...
... and the carcinogen toluene. However, in comparison to traditional cigarette smoke, the toxic substance levels identified in e- ...
Triphenylmethane Toluene Robbins, A.; Jeffrey, G. A.; Chesick, J. P.; Donohue, J.; Cotton, F. A.; Frenz, B. A.; Murillo, C. A ...
The addition of catalytic reformer enables a hydroskimming refinery to generate higher octane reformate; benzene, toluene, and ...
See also toluene toxicity. Butane Gasoline (petrol) F17.5 is reserved for tobacco-induced psychosis, but is traditionally not ... Rao, Naren P.; Arun Gupta; K. Sreejayan; Prabhat K. Chand; Vivek Benegal; Pratima Murthy (2009). "Toluene associated ... F16.5 hallucinogens (LSD and others)[citation needed] F18.5 volatile solvents (volatile inhalants); Toluene, found in glue, ... Tarsh, M.J. (1979). "Schizophreniform Psychosis caused by Sniffing Toluene". Occupational Medicine. 29 (4): 131-133. doi: ...
The method has been used to prepare compounds that cannot be prepared by traditional synthetic methods, e.g. Ti(η6-toluene)2. ...
A comparative study of the gas- and liquid-phase attack on benzene and toluene". (1979) "Gas-phase reaction of free isopropyl ... A comparative study of the gas- and liquid-phase attack on benzene and toluene". Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin ... A comparative study of the alkylation of benzene and toluene with C3H7+ ions from the protonation of cyclopropane and propene ... A comparative study of the alkylation of benzene and toluene with C3H7+ ions from the protonation of cyclopropane and propene ...
Toluene Volatile organic compounds[which?] Water Composition of electronic cigarette aerosol List of heated tobacco products ...
A comparative study of the gas- and liquid-phase attack on benzene and toluene". Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin ... A comparative study of the alkylation of benzene and toluene with C3H7+ ions from the protonation of cyclopropane and propene ... Alkylation of benzene and toluene". Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume 99, issue 16, pages 5477-5478. doi:10.1021 ...
Toluene can be found on cosmetic labels under the names, benzene, toluol, phenylmethane, and methylbenzene. Toluene enters the ... such as toluene. Associations were found between pregnant women who inhaled Formaldehyd, phthalates, and toluene and adverse ... Toluene is found in cosmetic products such as nail polish, nail glue, and hair dyes and is widely used as an industrial solvent ... Toluene is an industrial solvent and is usually in nail polish removers. Formaldehyde can be found in a variety of beauty ...
A 1:1 mixture of toluene and 1,4 dioxane has δD, δP and δH values of 17.8, 1.6 and 5.5, comparable to those of chloroform at ... Because of the health hazards associated with toluene itself, other mixtures of solvents may be found using a full HSP dataset ... Ethanol has a synergistic effect when taken in combination with many solvents; for instance, a combination of toluene/benzene ... Specific uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene); as paint thinners (toluene, turpentine); as ...
It may be synthesized from toluene; more interesting is its production when acetone dicarboxylic ester is condensed with the ...
Toluene hydrodealkylation converts toluene to benzene. In this hydrogen-intensive process, toluene is mixed with hydrogen, then ... Toluene disproportionation (TDP) is the conversion of toluene to benzene and xylene. Given that demand for para-xylene (p- ... The solvent-properties of the two are similar, but toluene is less toxic and has a wider liquid range. Toluene is also ... As its toxicity became obvious, benzene was supplanted by other solvents, especially toluene (methylbenzene), which has similar ...
BTX stands for benzene, toluene, xylene. This is a group of common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are found in the oil ... toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene among workers at petroleum distribution facilities". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. ... including ethylene and benzene-toluene-xylenes ("BTX") which are often sent to petrochemical plants for further processing in a ...
Like other solvents, toluene is also used as an inhalant drug for its intoxicating properties. Toluene can be used as an octane ... Ferrocene Iron pentacarbonyl Toluene Isooctane BTEX - a hydrocarbon mixture of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl-benzene, also ... Toluene at 100% can be used as a fuel for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines; however, due to the density of the fuel and ... Toluene at 86% by volume fueled all the turbo Formula 1 teams in the 1980s, first pioneered by the Honda team. The remaining 14 ...
Toluene. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Toluene results for Great Plains ... Toluene. Great Plains Development Authority. Toluene is a volatile solvent that harms the nervous and immune systems, damages ... Toluene is a petroleum-derived chemical found in gasoline and used as a solvent in paints, adhesives and cleaning supplies. ... Toluene is highly neurotoxic. Exposure can cause fatigue and nausea, and may lead to nervous system disorders. ...
Exposure to toluene can cause eye and nose irritation, tiredness, confusion, euphoria, dizziness, headache, dilated pupils, ... Useful search terms for toluene include "methyl benzene," "methyl benzol," "phenyl methane," and "toluol." ... Toluene (C₆H₅CH₃) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor. Exposure to toluene can cause eye and nose irritation, ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR): ToxFAQs™ for Toluene. *ATSDRs Medical Management Guidelines: Toluene ...
Toluene affects the nervous system. Toluene has been found at 959 of the 1,591 National Priority List sites identified by the ... Exposure to toluene occurs from breathing contaminated workplace air, in automobile exhaust, some consumer products paints, ... Can toluene cause cancer?. Studies in workers and animals exposed to toluene generally show that toluene does not cause cancer. ... What is toluene?. Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid with a distinctive smell. It occurs naturally in crude oil and in the ...
Toluene and xylene poisoning can occur when someone swallows these substances, breathes in their fumes, ... Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. ... Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. Toluene and xylene poisoning ... Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. ...
Toluene diisocyanates / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International ... published studies in an effort to determine the risks to human health and the environment posed by the two isomers of toluene ...
... methylbenzene, toluol, phenylmethane) is an aromatic hydrocarbon (C7 H8) commonly used as an industrial solvent for the ... It is identified as CAS#108-88-3, and the United Nations Department of Transportations number for toluene is UN#1294. ... encoded search term (Toluene Toxicity) and Toluene Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Toluene Toxicity Treatment & Management. Updated: Apr 11, 2022 * Author: Nathanael J McKeown, DO; Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, ...
Toluene diisocyanates / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International ... published studies in an effort to determine the risks to human health and the environment posed by the two isomers of toluene ...
Ethenylmethylbenzene, Methylstyrene, Tolyethylene Colorless liquid with a strong, disagreeable odor.
Toluene. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Toluene results for Texarkana Water ... Toluene. Texarkana Water Utilities. Toluene is a volatile solvent that harms the nervous and immune systems, damages the liver ... Toluene is a petroleum-derived chemical found in gasoline and used as a solvent in paints, adhesives and cleaning supplies. ... Toluene is highly neurotoxic. Exposure can cause fatigue and nausea, and may lead to nervous system disorders. ...
Testing Status of Toluene ethylsulfonamide 8047992. CASRN: 8047-99-2. Formula: C9-H13-N-O2-S. Synonyms/Common Names. * ...
Toluene. CASRN 108-88-3 , DTXSID7021360. *Toxicological Review (PDF) (179 pp, 1.80 M) ... inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential of toluene because studies of humans chronically exposed to toluene ... are inconclusive, toluene was not carcinogenic in adequate inhalation cancer bioassays of rats and mice exposed for life (CIIT ...
This page contains information on the chemical Toluene diisocyanate including: 90 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... TOLUENE 2,4-DIISOCYANATE*Toluene 2,6-diisocyanate*TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE*Toluene diisocyanate polymer*Toluene diisocyanate, ... Toluene, 2,4-diisocyanato-*Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate*Toluene-2,6-diisocyanate*Toluilenodwuizocyjanian*Toluilenodwuizocyjanian ( ... 2,4-Diisocyanate-1-methylbenzene*2,4-Diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene*2,4-Diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene (9CI) *2,4-Diisocyanato-1- ...
The best placee to buy reaction of toluene with bromine online! GUARANTEED worldwide delivery right to your door! ... Buy reaction of toluene with bromine. Purchase reaction of toluene with bromine online. Order reaction of toluene with bromine ... reaction of toluene with bromine online. order reaction of toluene with bromine -deeply boodle haurire regnabit dronkarde damus ... Buy reaction of toluene with bromine. Cheap reaction of toluene with bromine online.. truage geen mungooz microcosmographia ...
... removal of Cu2+ ions from water co-polluted by CuSO4 or CuCl2 and toluene. While lauric acid emulsifies water and toluene in ... This is beneficial, to avoid that copper ions are re-entrained in the water phase alongside with toluene, following their ... or toluene and copper. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water are freely miscible in the absence of lauric acid. Lauric acid separates ... or in toluene (immiscible in water), enabling their removal from water. Laurate ions and copper ions likely interact through ...
... Molecular Formula: C8H10O3 ... 2-methoxy-6-methyl-benzene-1,4-diol Registries: PubChem CID ...
Toluene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Teemperature and Pressure - Density and specific weight of liquid toluene. ... Thermal properties of Toluene C7H8:. Temperature - t - (oC). Load Calculator! Density. - ρ - (kg/m3). Specific Heat - cp -. (kJ ... Toluene Liquid - Thermal Properties vs- Temperature Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and more. Sponsored Links ... Toluene (toluol) is a clear water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinner. ...
Other Name O/P-Toluene sulphonamide; O/P-Toluenesulfonamide; O/PTSA; Ortho Para Toluene Sulfonamide; Toluenesulfonamide CAS No ... Product Name O/P-Toluene Sulfonamide (OPTSA) ... SELL O/P-Toluene Sulfonamide (OPTSA) Payment:. T/T or DA or DP ...
benzaldehyde from toluene and nickle oxide. Has anyone actual tried making benzaldehyde acording to the method Eng. Pat. 22887 ... In this method they react 300 parts of toluene with 150 parts of nickle oxide and heat it for 5 to 6 hours and then filter of ... because toluene is not an alkene I see some nice write-ups already ... The question is, how long does it take for the toluene to get converted to benzaldehyde? ...
Standard Test Method for Determination of 2,4-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and 2,6-Toluene Diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) in ... 1.1 This test method describes the determination of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) ...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toluene diisocyanate. / Grammer, L.. In: Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 111, No. 8, 15.10. ... Grammer, L. / Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toluene diisocyanate. In: Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989 ; Vol. 111, No. 8. ... Grammer, L 1989, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toluene diisocyanate., Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toluene diisocyanate. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989 Oct 15;111(8):690-691. ...
The ION Science toluene gas factsheet provides crucial information on ways of detecting toluene and looking more into the ... Detecting Toluene. Formula: C7H8 , CAS: 108-88-3. Synonyms: toluene, methylbenzene, toluol, phenylmethane, Methacide, Antisal ... Toluene. Formula: C7H8 , CAS: 108-88-3. Detecting toluene: Toluene is the raw material for a range of other aromatic chemicals ... Detecting Toluene a member of the BTEX family guide covers topics on btex compounds, source of toluene and toluene detection ...
This is not surprising as toluene-based inks are cheaper than those without toluene. However, the substance is no longer ... As one consequence of the thorough commitment to product safety, Siegwerk produces and sells toluene-free packaging inks only. ... In South East Asia (SEA), Siegwerk has been successfully implementing toluene-free packaging inks for over a decade. Customers ... What is more: Siegwerks Process Management and Consulting (PMC) experts assist printers to switch to toluene-free packaging ...
... er the temp. range -60 degrees C up to 200 degrees C with pressures up to 35 ... Liquid Density Standard over Wide Ranges of Temperature and Pressure Based on Toluene: A Reprint from the Journal of Research ...
Ammoxidation of Toluene over Y-Ba-Cu-Co-O Perovskites. *Mark. Hansen, Staffan LU ; Otamiri, JC and Andersson, Arne LU (1990) In ... mmoxidation of toluene over the perovskites YBa2Cu3O6.1, YBa2Cu2CoO6.7 and YBaCuCoO4.9 was investigated at 400 °C. At low ... article{0622413c-ec15-4849-b435-99a26426d8fd, abstract = {{mmoxidation of toluene over the perovskites YBa2Cu3O6.1, ... Ammoxidation of Toluene over Y-Ba-Cu-Co-O Perovskites}}, url = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00764050}}, doi = {{10.1007/ ...
cyclanes, cyclenes, benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, ethylbenzene and cumene) Commodity code: 29 02 90290290 * Cyclic ... cyclanes, cyclenes, benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, ethylbenzene and cumene) Commodity code: 29 02 90 0029029000 ... cyclanes, cyclenes, benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, ethylbenzene and cumene). This section is Commodity ...
... toluene, chloroform) - details and specifications - Applichrom ABOA StyDiViBe columns ... AppliChrom® StyDiViBe GPC-columns for GPC analysis of organic molecules using (THF, toluene, chloroform). ...
Top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong, China.. Fang, X. K.; Shao, M.; ... Top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong, … ...
  • Useful search terms for toluene include "methyl benzene," "methyl benzol," "phenyl methane," and "toluol. (cdc.gov)
  • The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) benzene ( B ), toluene ( T ), ethylbenzene ( E ), and the isomers of xylene ( X ) also known as BTEX are important industrial solvents which frequently become industrial contaminants. (ionscience.com)
  • Top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong, China. (nilu.no)
  • Methylbenzene is more reactive towards electrophiles than benzene itself. (docbrown.info)
  • Methylbenzene reacts faster than benzene, because the methyl group activates the benzene ring by increasing its electron density (+I effect). (docbrown.info)
  • Therefore in methylbenzene, the 2 and 4 positions become the preferred substitution points for nitration in the benzene ring of methylbenzene. (docbrown.info)
  • Methylbenzene is more reactive than benzene, so a lower reaction temperature is used. (docbrown.info)
  • Characterizing exposure to benzene, toluene , and naphthalene in firefighters wearing different types of new or laundered PPE. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene, toluene , and naphthalene were found to diffuse through and/or around the turnout jacket, as inside jacket benzene concentrations were often near levels reported outside the turnout jacket (9.7-11.7% median benzene reduction from outside the jacket to inside the jacket). (cdc.gov)
  • The smoke may contain ultra-fine particles, toxic compounds (e.g., benzene, toluene, hydrogen cyanide), viruses (e.g., human papilloma virus [HPV]), and cancer cells (Guideline for Surgical Smoke Safety). (cdc.gov)
  • The fumarate addition reaction mechanism is central to the anaerobic biodegradation pathway of various hydrocarbons, both aromatic ( e.g. , toluene, ethyl benzene) and aliphatic ( e.g. , n -hexane, dodecane). (rsc.org)
  • Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) are toxic petroleum hydrocarbons pollutants that can affect the central nervous system and even cause cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Toluene and xylene poisoning can occur when someone swallows these substances, breathes in their fumes, or when these substances touch the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other products may also contain toluene and xylene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All five bacteria were capable of growth on toluene, benzoic acid, m-toluic acid, ethylbenzene, pseudocumene, m - and p-xylene and m - and p -chlorophenol. (dcu.ie)
  • Xylene I believe is better than toluene. (sciencemadness.org)
  • However, the photolysis of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) at ice surfaces has not been investigated. (syr.edu)
  • rate constants were (4.5 ± 0.5) × 10 -4 s -1 (toluene), (5.4 ± 0.3) × 10 -4 s -1 (ethylbenzene), and (3.8 ± 1.2) × 10 -4 s -1 (xylenes). (syr.edu)
  • Toluene (toluol) is a clear water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinner. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term daily exposure to toluene in the workplace may cause some hearing and color vision loss. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of toluene during pregnancy, such as those associated with solvent abuse, may lead to developmental effects, such as reduced mental abilities and growth in children. (cdc.gov)
  • These tests cannot predict whether you will have health problem from exposure to toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • To reduce exposure to toluene, you should use products that contain it (such as paints, nail polish, glues, inks, and stain removers) in well-ventilated areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Cardioversion of dysrhythmias induced by toluene exposure may be necessary. (medscape.com)
  • Apart from risks associated with occupational exposure, toluene poses special hazards to glue-sniffers, who intentionally abuse solvent mixtures containing this chemical. (ionscience.com)
  • The presence of toluene in the environment does not always lead to exposure. (ionscience.com)
  • Toluene has an unfavorable toxicological profile, prolonged exposure impacts on occupational safety (ototoxicity), besides being pollutant to the environment. (siegwerk.com)
  • Title : Mortality Among Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate in the US Polyurethane Foam Industry: Update and Exposure-Response Analyses Personal Author(s) : Pinkerton, Lynne E.;Yiin, James H.;Daniels, Robert D.;Fent, Kenneth W. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing gasoline or car exhaust will also result in some exposure to toluene. (wisconsin.gov)
  • This report assesses close to 500 animal and human studies concerned with the effects of short- and long-term exposure to toluene, including its abuse. (who.int)
  • Although no data were suitable for deriving an intermediate-duration inhalation MRL for toluene, ATSDR (2000) concluded that the neurotoxicity-based chronic MRL would also be protective for intermediate-duration exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid mouth-to-mouth breathing because 20% of toluene is expired unchanged, and the rescuer may be overcome by direct inhalation of fumes. (medscape.com)
  • The general population is exposed to toluene mainly through inhalation of vapour in ambient air or from cigarette smoke. (ionscience.com)
  • Toluene is a volatile solvent that harms the nervous and immune systems, damages the liver and may increase the risk of miscarriage and birth defects. (ewg.org)
  • Toluene is a petroleum-derived chemical found in gasoline and used as a solvent in paints, adhesives and cleaning supplies. (ewg.org)
  • Toluene is a good solvent (a substance that can dissolve other substances). (cdc.gov)
  • In many countries of the world, printers still use inks containing the solvent toluene - despite its proven hazardous and harmful properties. (siegwerk.com)
  • However, as toluene-based inks are cheaper and less awareness on its potential threats, printers still use inks with this solvent. (siegwerk.com)
  • CS2 is a good solvent but expensive, DCM is a poor but cheap solvent, I have read woelen recommend hot toluene on another forum. (sciencemadness.org)
  • The method is based on the reaction of the respective nitroalkane with α-amido sulfones effected by CsOH·H2O base in toluene as solvent and in the presence of cinchone-derived ammonium catalysts. (uzh.ch)
  • to high levels of toluene when they breathe vapors from paints, paint thinners, or glues. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The adsorption equilibrium and regeneration efficiency of n-hexane, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and toluene under supercritical CO 2 on an activated carbon fiber were experimentally determined. (elsevier.com)
  • In animal studies, the effects of toluene were similar to those seen in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The optimum pH for growth of all the isolates in the presence of toluene was between pH 5.8 to pH 7.4. (dcu.ie)
  • This stra in carried a large plasmid (85 - 120 kb) only when grown in the presence of toluene. (dcu.ie)
  • Detecting toluene: Toluene is the raw material for a range of other aromatic chemicals such as benzaldehyde, benzoic acid and dyes. (ionscience.com)
  • Using platinum nanocatalyst, a two-member team at the IIT Madras has successfully converted petroleum waste-product toluene into benzoic acid. (gktoday.in)
  • Toluene is converted into benzoic acid through selective and controlled oxidation in the presence of a catalyst - binaphthyl-stabilised platinum nanoparticles (Pt-BNP). (gktoday.in)
  • Also, a green oxidant (70% aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide or TBHP) is used for converting toluene into benzoic acid. (gktoday.in)
  • The yield of benzoic acid varied from 68-96% depending on whether the toluene used is electron-deficient or electron-rich. (gktoday.in)
  • Part 1: Methanol and toluene are flammable liquids whose vapor pressures at 68ºF (20ºC) are 96 and 22 mmHg, respectively. (proficientwritershub.com)
  • Thus, a new 2D TLC technique was developed, applying n-pentanol-pyridine-methanol (6:4:3, v/v/v) and toluene-ethyl acetate-ethanol-formic acid (10:8:1:2, v/v/v/v) as eluents. (helsinki.fi)
  • To cater to the domestic requirements and to maintain its leadership position, DFPCL also imports and supplies acetone, ammonia, IPA, methanol, phenol and toluene. (dfpcl.com)
  • In this study, we consider model aromatic (toluene) and aliphatic (butane) compounds to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the energetics and kinetics of the fumarate addition mechanism by means of high level ab initio gas-phase calculations. (rsc.org)
  • Because hexane's boiling point is about 69°C and the boiling point of toluene is 111°C, the two compounds distill at different times. (odinity.com)
  • 1. Methylbenzene is nitrated with an equal volume mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids. (docbrown.info)
  • In the case of the MEK/toluene mixture, the difference in the desorption rate and desorption amount between two adsorbates was decreased as the pressure was increased. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aimed to study the adsorption of Cr(VI) by activated peanut shells using a mixture of ethanol-toluene (1:1). (undiksha.ac.id)
  • Meanwhile, the maximum adsorption power of Cr (VI) by activated peanut shells with a mixture of ethanol-toluene (1:1) was 4.0 mg/g. (undiksha.ac.id)
  • Simple Distillation: Separation of Hexane and Toluene By: Jessica Hauger Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to separate a mixture of hexane and toluene by collecting fractions through simple distillation. (odinity.com)
  • Repeatedly breathing toluene from glue or paint thinners may permanently damage the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • You can use either use Zero Paints Airbrush Cleaner or Basecoat Thinners , alternatively any thinners that contain Toluene should work, but it's best to test first. (hiroboy.com)
  • Toluene (C₆H₅CH₃) is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid with a distinctive smell. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene is highly neurotoxic. (ewg.org)
  • People that abuse (inhale) certain products such as glue or paint thinner can be exposed to toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • Complications of chronic glue (toluene) abuse in adolescents. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Pseudomonas putida F1 todC1C2BA genes code for toluene dioxygenase, which initiates the degradation of toluene, as well as the catalysis of indan oxidation to (-)-(1R)-indanol and trans-1,3-indandiol. (readabstracts.com)
  • We predict that the rate of toluene degradation is ∼100 times faster than butane at 298 K, and that the first abstraction step is kinetically significant for both hydrocarbons, which is consistent with deuterium isotope effect studies on toluene degradation. (rsc.org)
  • article{0622413c-ec15-4849-b435-99a26426d8fd, abstract = {{mmoxidation of toluene over the perovskites YBa2Cu3O6.1, YBa2Cu2CoO6.7 and YBaCuCoO4.9 was investigated at 400 °C. At low partial pressures of O2 benzonitrile was selectively formed, while CO2 was the main product at high pressures of O2. (lu.se)
  • The Global Para Toluene Sulfonyl Hydrazide Market was accounted for USD 62.9 Million in 2020 and is expected to reach USD 76.8 Million by 2028, growing at a CAGR of around 2.5% between 2021 and 2028. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • The legal limit for toluene, established in 1991, was based on a toxicity study in laboratory animals conducted in the 1980s. (ewg.org)
  • Growth was b e tter when toluene was supplied in the vapour phase. (dcu.ie)
  • You may be exposed to toluene by breathing contaminated air or touching products that contain this chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing toluene can cause headaches, dizziness, and nausea. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing toluene for a lifetime at 1,400 ppbv is very unlikely to be harmful to people. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Toluene can enter the air from car exhaust or when materials that contain it (such as paints or fingernail polish) are used. (cdc.gov)
  • I would like to know if it is ok to use Toluene as an octane booster. (renntech.org)
  • Toluene is also used in the manufacture of other chemicals, nylon, and plastics. (cdc.gov)
  • In the air, toluene rapidly breaks down by reacting with other chemicals or oxygen in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Toluene, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. (weaverleathersupply.com)
  • Explaining the side-effects of these substances, Dr Mohd Siddiqui of Osmania General Hospital says that whiteners contain chemicals like naphtha and toluene which straight away affects the brain and slows down the neuron system by increasing inhibitory neurotransmitters. (newindianexpress.com)
  • Toluene is produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil and in making coke from coal. (cdc.gov)
  • People who work with gasoline, paint, or dyes may be exposed to higher levels of toluene than most people. (cdc.gov)
  • Residual toluene on prints can easily affect the organoleptic quality of food (odor and taste). (siegwerk.com)
  • Exposures to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in polyurethane foam plants. (cdc.gov)
  • This manuscript describes the separation of THF from water in the absence of copper ions, as well as the treatment of water co-polluted with either THF and copper, or toluene and copper. (nature.com)
  • Deprotonated lauric acid (laurate ions) also induces the migration of Cu 2+ ions in either THF (following separation from water) or in toluene (immiscible in water), enabling their removal from water. (nature.com)
  • Method for separation of methyl paraben, propyl paraben, benzonitrile and toluene was developed on a Obelisc R column. (sielc.com)
  • This is not surprising as toluene-based inks are cheaper than those without toluene. (siegwerk.com)
  • As one consequence of the thorough commitment to product safety, Siegwerk produces and sells toluene-free packaging inks only. (siegwerk.com)
  • What is more: Siegwerk's Process Management and Consulting (PMC) experts assist printers to switch to toluene-free packaging inks while still achieving a more efficient performance. (siegwerk.com)
  • In South East Asia (SEA), Siegwerk has been successfully implementing toluene-free packaging inks for over a decade. (siegwerk.com)
  • Being a major component in flexible packaging inks, the impact of toluene is not to be taken lightly. (siegwerk.com)
  • Due to the negative aspects of toluene, many global brand owners have restricted or banned the usage of toluene in inks used for packaging material of their products. (siegwerk.com)
  • Most recently in India, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has officially imposed a ban on the use of toluene in food packaging inks. (siegwerk.com)
  • Due to Siegwerk's comprehensive technical and empirical know-how, the company supports printers with the transition to toluene-free packaging inks by applying a holistic approach. (siegwerk.com)
  • They guide to improve effective production time and print speed with toluene-free inks. (siegwerk.com)
  • After all, inks containing toluene need more time to dry and therefore limit the printing speed. (siegwerk.com)
  • In the end, printers can benefit from higher efficiency across the whole value chain absorbing extra costs for toluene-free packaging inks. (siegwerk.com)
  • Toluene - Density and Specific Weight vs. Teemperature and Pressure - Density and specific weight of liquid toluene. (engineeringtoolbox.com)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that there is inadequate information to assess the carcinogenicity of toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • When toluene-containing products are placed in landfills or waste disposal sites, toluene can enter the soil or water near the waste site. (cdc.gov)
  • Toluene and its breakdown products can be measured in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • When toluene is oxidised, it gives four products. (gktoday.in)
  • The detailed computations also show that the predicted stereo-chemical preference of the succinate products for both toluene and butane are due to the differences in the radical addition rate constants for the various isomers. (rsc.org)
  • The toxic effect of directly added toluene was alleviated by the addition of a readily metabolizable carbon source and by the acclimation of the cells to toluene. (dcu.ie)
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity (ability to cause cancer) of toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that toluene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The growth of these bacteria was investigated under different cultural conditions - solid culture, liquid culture, directly added toluene and in the presence of other carbon sources. (dcu.ie)