Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Fecal Impaction: Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Enkephalin, D-Penicillamine (2,5)-: A disulfide opioid pentapeptide that selectively binds to the DELTA OPIOID RECEPTOR. It possesses antinociceptive activity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Encopresis: Incontinence of feces not due to organic defect or illness.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Morphinans: Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Enkephalin, Leucine-2-Alanine: A delta-selective opioid (ANALGESICS, OPIOID). It can cause transient depression of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate.Defecography: Radiographic examination of the process of defecation after the instillation of a CONTRAST MEDIA into the rectum.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Diprenorphine: A narcotic antagonist similar in action to NALOXONE. It is used to remobilize animals after ETORPHINE neuroleptanalgesia and is considered a specific antagonist to etorphine.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Enkephalin, Leucine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Benzeneacetamides: Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Methadyl Acetate: A narcotic analgesic with a long onset and duration of action.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Nalbuphine: A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.PyrrolidinesGastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Self Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Mice, Inbred C57BLMedication Reconciliation: The formal process of obtaining a complete and accurate list of each patient's current home medications including name, dosage, frequency, and route of administration, and comparing admission, transfer, and/or discharge medication orders to that list. The reconciliation is done to avoid medication errors.Medication Systems: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Benzomorphans: Morphine derivatives of the methanobenzazocine family that act as potent analgesics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Nalorphine: A narcotic antagonist with some agonist properties. It is an antagonist at mu opioid receptors and an agonist at kappa opioid receptors. Given alone it produces a broad spectrum of unpleasant effects and it is considered to be clinically obsolete.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Toilet Training: Conditioning to defecate and urinate in culturally acceptable places.United StatesEuphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Levorphanol: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Morphine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of morphine.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
... for their role in decreasing the development of tolerance to opioids and as possible for eliminating addiction/tolerance/ ... Doses of naltrexone take longer to be eliminated from the person's system. A common problem in treating methadone overdoses is ... Oral medication is usually preferable because it offers safety, simplicity and represents a step away from injection-based drug ... but tolerance to euphoria usually develops rapidly, whereas tolerance to constipation, sedation, and respiratory depression ...
... is a phenanthrene opioid receptor agonist - its main effect is binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptors in the ... In serious drug dependency (high tolerance), 2000-3000 mg per day can be tolerated. Morphine is the prototypical opioid and is ... Medication development issues for opiate addiction". Neuropsychopharmacology. 13 (4): 269-93. doi:10.1016/0893-133X(95)00140-9 ... Calignano A, Moncada S, Di Rosa M (December 1991). "Endogenous nitric oxide modulates morphine-induced constipation". Biochem. ...
... , sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and ... a blood-pressure medication that may reduce some opioid withdrawal symptoms), and anti-inflammatory/pain relief drugs such as ... FQ receptor activation attenuates antinociception induced by mixed nociceptin/orphanin FQ/mu-opioid receptor agonists". J. ... Unlike some other opioids and opioid antagonists, buprenorphine binds only weakly to and possesses little if any activity at ...
... long-term injecting drug users who do not benefit from methadone and other medication options are treated with pure injectable ... increased tolerance to opioids, and withdrawal syndrome when opioids are abruptly discontinued. Addiction and dependence are ... The medication naltrexone may also be useful to prevent relapse. Naloxone is useful for the treatment of an opioid overdose. In ... constipation) Tolerance Withdrawal There are efforts to decrease the number of opioids prescribed in an effort to decrease ...
... risks such as addiction and the body's becoming used to the drug (tolerance) can occur. The effect of tolerance means that ... Opioid receptor agonist (μ, δ, κ).. IM, intrathecal, PO, IV, SC, rectal.. Protein binding = 35%; extensive hepatic metabolism, ... is a medication used to treat pain and fever.[5] It is typically used for mild to moderate pain.[5] In combination with opioid ... may require switching to a different opioid. Constipation occurs in almost all patients on opioids, and laxatives (lactulose, ...
Opioid tolerance should not be confused with opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The symptoms of these two conditions can appear very ... risks such as addiction and the body's becoming used to the drug (tolerance) can occur. The effect of tolerance means that ... Opioid receptor agonist (μ, δ, κ).. IM, intrathecal, PO, IV, SC, rectal.. Protein binding = 35%; extensive hepatic metabolism, ... is a medication used to treat pain and fever.[5] It is typically used for mild to moderate pain.[5] In combination with opioid ...
... is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use. Increasing its dosage may re-amplify the drug's effects; however, this may accelerate tolerance, further reducing the drug's effects. Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not necessarily associated with drug dependence or addiction.[5] The process of tolerance development is reversible (e.g., through a drug holiday[6]) and can involve both physiological factors and psychological factors.[7] One may also develop drug tolerance to side effects,[8] in which ...
... refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism. Alcohol tolerance is increased by regular drinking. This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. Alcohol tolerance may lead to (or be a sign of) alcohol dependency. Heavy alcohol consumption over a period of years can lead to "reverse tolerance". A liver can be damaged by chronic alcohol use, leading to a buildup of fat and scar tissue. The reduced ability of such a liver to metabolize or break down alcohol means that small amounts can lead to a high blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and more rapid intoxication. Direct alcohol ...
Pharmacokinetics refers to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs (ADME). All psychoactive drugs are first absorbed into the bloodstream, carried in the blood to various parts of the body including the site of action (distribution), broken down in some fashion (metabolism), and ultimately removed from the body (excretion). All of these factors are very important determinants of crucial pharmacological properties of a drug, including its potency, side effects, and duration of action. Pharmacokinetic tolerance (dispositional tolerance) occurs because of a decreased quantity of the substance reaching the site it affects. This may be caused by an increase in induction of the enzymes required for degradation of the drug e.g. CYP450 enzymes. This is most commonly seen with substances such ...
... has potential for either medical misuse when the drug is continued long term without or against medical advice, or for recreational use when the drug is taken to achieve a "high".[52][53] The transition from medical use of zolpidem to high-dose addiction or drug dependence can occur with use, but some believe it may be more likely when used without a doctor's recommendation to continue using it, when physiological drug tolerance leads to higher doses than the usual 5 mg or 10 mg, when consumed through inhalation or injection, or when taken for purposes other than as a sleep aid.[52] Recreational use is more prevalent in those having been dependent on other drugs in the past, but tolerance and drug ...
... has potential for either medical misuse when the drug is continued long term without or against medical advice, or for recreational use when the drug is taken to achieve a "high".[53][54] The transition from medical use of zolpidem to high-dose addiction or drug dependence can occur with use, but some believe it may be more likely when used without a doctor's recommendation to continue using it, when physiological drug tolerance leads to higher doses than the usual 5 mg or 10 mg, when consumed through inhalation or injection, or when taken for purposes other than as a sleep aid.[53] Recreational use is more prevalent in those having been dependent on other drugs in the past, but tolerance and drug ...
... , or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism. It contrasts with conventional immune-mediated elimination of foreign antigens (see Immune response). Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally induced-in the thymus and bone marrow (central) or in other tissues and lymph nodes (peripheral). The mechanisms by which these forms of tolerance are established are distinct, but the resulting effect is similar. Immune tolerance is important for normal physiology. Central tolerance is the main way the immune ...
... has a resistance to drought. This sugarcane was developed by PT Riset Perkebunan Nusantara which coorporates with Jember University. This strain already have been approved by Indonesian Agricultural Ministry. This strain has purple stem, green non-hairy leaves. This strain was modified using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and plasmid pMHL2113. Agrobacterium transferred the betA gene from Rhizobium meliloti. (in Indonesian) Rijzaani H. 2013. Tebu Biotek Toleran Kekeringan Disetujui untuk Dilepas [online]. http://biogen.litbang.deptan.go.id/index.php/2013/05/tebu-biotek-toleran-kekeringan-disetujui-untuk-dilepas/ [27 Apr 2014]. (in Indonesian)Johan. 2014. Mengenal Varietas Tebu NXI-4T Sebagai Produk Rekayasa Genetika Di PTPN XI [online]. http://www.ptpn-11.com/mengenal-varietas-tebu-nxi-4t-sebagai-produk-rekayasa-genetika-di-ptpn-xi-persero.html [28 Apr 2014 ...
... or antibiotic tolerance is the ability of a disease-causing microorganism to resist being killed by antibiotics or other antimicrobials. It is mechanistically distinct from multidrug resistance: It is not caused by mutant microbes, but rather by microbial cells that exist in a transient, dormant, non-dividing state. Microorganisms that display multidrug tolerance can be bacteria, fungi or parasites. Recognition of antibiotic tolerance dates back to 1944 when Joseph Bigger, an Irish physician working in England, was experimenting with the recently discovered penicillin. Bigger used penicillin to lyse a suspension of bacteria and then inoculated culture medium with the penicillin-treated liquid. Colonies of bacteria were able to grow after antibiotic killing. The important observation that Bigger made was that this new population could be ...
A checkweigher is an automatic or manual machine for checking the weight of packaged commodities. It is normally found at the offgoing end of a production process and is used to ensure that the weight of a pack of the commodity is within specified limits. Any packs that are outside the tolerance are taken out of line automatically. A checkweigher can weigh in excess of 500 items per minute (depending on carton size and accuracy requirements). Checkweighers can be used with metal detectors and X-ray machines to enable other attributes of the pack to be checked and acted upon accordingly. An automatic checkweigher incorporates a series of conveyor belts. These checkweighers are known also as belt weighers, in-motion scales, conveyor scales, dynamic scales, and in-line scales. In filler applications, they are known as check scales. Typically, there are three belts or chain beds: An infeed belt that may change the speed of the package and to bring it up or down to a speed ...
... (Morphine methobromide, Morphine bromomethylate, Morphosan) a derivative of morphine. It is an opioid listed as a Schedule I Narcotic with an ACSCN of 9305 and a 2014 aggregate national production quota of 5 grammes. It is a salt of morphine with a freebase conversion ratio of 0.75.controlled substance. 21 C.F.R. 1308.11 http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/quotas/conv_factor/index.html http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/quotas/conv_factor/index. ...
Organizations promoting low-dose naltrexone have advocated it as a treatment for a variety of medical conditions.[2] However, currently no peer-reviewed studies that would justify clinical use of low-dose naltrexone in treating Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have been published.[7]. Low-dose naltrexone may relieve certain symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis, although medical practitioners often advise against using it as a substitute to proven therapies,[3][8] and the evidence supporting its use in MS is not robust, as different studies have come to conflicting conclusions.[1] Writing for the National MS Society in 2009, neurologist Alan Bowling called research into low-dose naltrexone "encouraging" but further research needed to be done before any definitive conclusions could be reached. Bowling noted that safety of low-dose naltrexone treatment for multiple sclerosis has not been assessed, and that ...
... (LDN) describes the off-label use of the medication naltrexone at low doses for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Naltrexone is typically prescribed for opioid dependence or alcohol dependence, as it is a strong opioid antagonist. Preliminary research has been promising for use of LDN in treating chronic medical conditions such as chronic pain, but at this stage the use of LDN as a treatment is still experimental and more research needs to be done before it can be widely recommended. Some proponents of low-dose naltrexone have brought forth claim about its efficacy in treating a wide range of diseases, including cancer and HIV/AIDS. Low-dose naltrexone organizations have promoted its use on their webpages. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist, ...
The drug combination morphine/naltrexone (trade name Embeda) was an opioid combination pain medication developed by King Pharmaceuticals for use in moderate to severe pain. The active ingredients were morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride; morphine being an opioid receptor agonist and naltrexone an opioid receptor antagonist. It is a schedule 2 controlled substance, and was intended for long-term pain caused by malignancy or where lower tiers of the pain management ladder have already been exhausted, and where medications such as oxycodone would otherwise have been indicated. Embeda capsules are formulated with morphine pellets and an inner core containing naltrexone. The purpose of this formulation was to prevent people from crushing the tablet for ...
Look here for the signs of heroin use and side effects of heroin addiction. Call The Right Step Texas. ... Medication. There are three drugs to help people quit heroin.. *Methadone is an opioid agonist. It works by preventing the high ... What Is Heroin Addiction?. When heroin is used, it quickly enters your brain. Here, it binds to opioid receptors on brain cells ... It relieves drug cravings without making you feel high.. *Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist. It is non-addictive and blocks ...
... for their role in decreasing the development of tolerance to opioids and as possible for eliminating addiction/tolerance/ ... Doses of naltrexone take longer to be eliminated from the persons system. A common problem in treating methadone overdoses is ... Oral medication is usually preferable because it offers safety, simplicity and represents a step away from injection-based drug ... but tolerance to euphoria usually develops rapidly, whereas tolerance to constipation, sedation, and respiratory depression ...
... opioid tolerance, or suspected opioid-induced hyperalgesia.. *Ultralow-dose oral naloxone combined with various opioid agonists ... Addiction Medicine. *Drug Monitoring/Screening. *Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT). *Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) ... dose naloxone or naltrexone combined with oral opioid analgesics to help prevent or reverse opioid-induced constipation and ... In patients treated with buprenorphine (a mixed agonist-antagonist opioid) postoperatively and experiencing breakthrough pain, ...
... and addiction, and are associated with significant morbidity, prolong hospital stays, increase use of medications needed to ... However, opioids also have unwanted side effects like nausea, vomiting, constipation, postoperative sedation, dizziness, ... Opioid-free anesthesia is an alternative aimed at providing pain relief without the opioid-related adverse effects and to ... Furthermore, use and abuse of opioids have contributed to an opioid epidemic, especially in the United States since the ...
All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic ... Oxycodone is a full opioid agonist and is relatively selective for the mu receptor, although it can bind to other opioid ... resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of ... This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.. Revised: 12/2016. ...
Oxycodone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type. Such drugs are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders ... who are treated with Percodan tablets for more than a few weeks should be advised not to abruptly discontinue the medication. ... Opioids like oxycodone may cause increases in the serum amylase level.. Tolerance and Physical Dependence. Tolerance is the ... Agonist/antagonist analgesics (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, naltrexone, and butorphanol) should be administered with caution ...
Morphine is a phenanthrene opioid receptor agonist - its main effect is binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptors in the ... In serious drug dependency (high tolerance), 2000-3000 mg per day can be tolerated. Morphine is the prototypical opioid and is ... Medication development issues for opiate addiction". Neuropsychopharmacology. 13 (4): 269-93. doi:10.1016/0893-133X(95)00140-9 ... Calignano A, Moncada S, Di Rosa M (December 1991). "Endogenous nitric oxide modulates morphine-induced constipation". Biochem. ...
Oxycodone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type. Such drugs are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders ... Tolerance and Physical Dependence Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as ... Binding of the drug to plasma proteins is variable; only 20% to 50% may be bound at the concentrations encountered during acute ... Like other opioid medications, oxycodone and acetaminophen tablets are subject to the Federal Controlled Substances Act. After ...
Drug dependence, tolerance and potential for abuse Prolonged use of this product may lead to drug dependence (addiction), even ... Opioid antagonists: Naloxone and naltrexone antagonises the analgesic, CNS and respiratory depressant effects of methadone and ... As with other opioids, methadone may cause troublesome constipation, which is particularly dangerous in patients with severe ... Methadone is a strong opioid agonist with actions predominantly at the µ receptor. The analgesic activity of the racemate is ...
Medications for Opioid Dependence[edit]. Methadone, a synthetic opioid mu-receptor agonist, is a long-acting analgesic that has ... Ehret GB, Voide C, et al.: Drug-induced long QT syndrome in injection drug users receiving methadone: high frequency in ... Johnson BA, Ait-Daoud N, et al.: Combining ondansetron and naltrexone effectively treats biologically predisposed alcoholics: ... Addiction 92: 381-395, 1997. Hyman SE, Arana GW, et al.: Handbook of Psychiatric Drug Therapy, Third Edition. Boston: Little, ...
Other nervous system drugs; drugs used in addictive disorders; drugs used in opioid dependence. ... Treatment is intended for use in adults and adolescents aged 16 years or older who have agreed to be treated for addiction. ... naltrexone: This is an opioid antagonist that can block the pharmacological effects of buprenorphine. For opioid dependent ... opioid analgesics: Adequate analgesia may be difficult to achieve when administering a full opioid agonist in patients ...
They can be divided into 3 classes: Naturally occurring opioids: The following 6 opium alkaloids occur naturally: morphine, ... Types of opioids Opioids are defined by their ability to bind to and influence opiate receptors on cell membranes. ... Understanding the role of endogenous peptides allows us to understand why medications and drugs that bind to opioid receptors ... Improving clinical outcomes in treating heroin dependence: randomized, controlled trial of oral or implant naltrexone. Arch Gen ...
Agonist-replacement therapy was introduced 40 years ago and represented a breakthrough in the management of heroin addiction. ... and alternative therapies that are effective in treating opioid use disorders. Additionally, the demographics, characteristics ... and the powerful reinforcing effects of the drug. ... of opioid action and the neurobiology of opioid addiction; the ... This course will provide the most pertinent, up-to-date information regarding the characteristics of the opioid-addicted ...
Buprenorphine is an opioid drug which is derivative from tebaine that works as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid ... drug for medication-assisted treatment with opiate addiction. This is about my Benadryl experience and tips on taking this drug ... Like all opioids, Suboxone works by binding to a receptor called the - mu receptor. In some circumstances, it is used to treat ... Opioid Induced Itch (Pruritus) Weve often discussed the multitude of negative side effects resulting from opiate use. However ...
... which is commonly known as opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem ... its chronic abuse increases tolerance and physical dependence, ... J Subst Abuse Treat. 1985;2:5-17.. *OBrien C. Drug addiction ... Interactions between μ-opioid receptor agonists and cannabinoid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys: antinociception, drug ... naltrexone and nalorphine) (3). Morphine is a natural product but has high potential for addiction, tolerance, and ...
Currently opioids are the most frequently used medications for chronic noncancer pain. Opioid-induced constipation is the most ... They treat those suffering from addiction to illegal opioids like.. Find Opiate Drug Detox Treatment Centers in Minnesota, get ... Kratom and opiate tolerance:. there is a cross tolerance between any and all mu opioid agonists. If you take kratom or ... "is to prevent it in the first place by not overusing opioids." Constipation is different for people on opioids. Opioids bind to ...
option for opioid rotation, when tolerance. develops?. (A) Serotonin agonist. (B) α2B-Adrenoreceptor agonist. (C) μ-Agonist. (D ... medications. (B) Withdrawal symptoms are as severe as. with morphine. (C) Rarely used in opioid addiction. (D) Sedation and ... binds to the GABAB receptor (other benzodiazepines. bind to the GABAA receptor) and has. been utilized to treat various ... 2) Induced analgesia is centrally mediated. (3) It has peripheral mechanism of action. (4) It is a drug of choice for relieving ...
... or partial agonists (buprenorphine), as well as antagonist agonists (nalbuphine, butorphanol) opioid receptors. Inductors of ... hypertension, body temperature, 38 ° C, induced or ocular clonus.. Withdrawal of serotonergic drugs usually leads to quick ... Prolonged use of opioid analgesics and barbiturates stimulates the development of cross-tolerance plasma concentrations of ... In the modern world, there are many methods of getting rid of alcohol addiction: in this article, I will tell you about how to ...
All of these medications compete with opioids at opioid receptor sites.. Naltrexone is used to treat substance use disorders, ... It is used to treat postoperative ileus and opioid-induced constipation. Alvimopan is for short-term use only because long term ... The prototype for moderate to strong opioid agonists is codeine. An agonist-antagonist binds to one receptor creating a ... When used for opioid addiction, its use is to prevent euphoria and thus, the clients desire to use opioid. The client should ...
Psychotropic Medications. Dale Sanderson, PA-C Physician Assistant Seattle Mental Health. ► SSRI antidepressants ► Atypical ... naltrexone (ReVia). opioid antagonist. COMBINE study demonstrates effectiveness in reducing relapse with "medical management" ... Choosing a medication. diagnosis. benefit vs. side-effects, toxicity, ease of use, drug-drug interactions (www.drug- ... contains both an agonist & antagonist. bupropion (Zyban). identical to Wellbutrin. treats nicotine craving ...
... is a synthetic opioid and strong analgesic medication. ... Buprenorphine, is an opioid drug with partial agonist and antagonist ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a ... Levorphanol is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. ... Meptazinol is an opioid analgesic for use with moderate to ... Morphine is an opioid receptor agonist - its main effect is binding to and activating the µ-opioid receptors in the central ...
This class is known as the opioids. Purpose Methadone, formerly known as dolophine, is a psycho-active drug, meaning that it ... Methadone Definition Methadone is a powerful narcotic drug in the same class as heroin. ... The latter includes addiction, tolerance, and death by overdose. In his book Illegal Drugs: A Complete Guide to Their History, ... which is used to treat tuberculosis, and dilantin, phenytoin, and carbamazepine, which are medications commonly used to treat ...
When medication was stopped, the drug-treated group regained weight faster than the group that had been on placebo, showing ... During weight loss induced by diet, phentermine, or fenfluramine, the -receptor binding by platelets of ligand NB4101 [2-([2, ... Adrenergic agonists are another approach to using thermogenesis to treat obesity. Ephedrine and caffeine combined have been ... These are the reports of drug abuse and addiction, of neuronal changes, of the serotonin syndrome, of PPH, and of valvular ...
... dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDRs drug ... PDR Drug Summaries are concise point-of-care prescribing, ... Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a barbiturate to ... Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Bupropion may interact with drugs that induce hepatic microsomal isoenzyme function via ... tolerance to sleep benefits, and risk of overdose at low dosages. Also, with the exception of treating seizure and mood ...
... "opioid-induced constipation".[38] Dependence and withdrawal See also: Opioid dependence The risk of experiencing severe ... Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions. Elsevier Science. ... and the κ-opioid receptor (KOR), where it is an agonist similarly.[34][35] After oxycodone binds to the MOR, a G protein- ... Tolerance to the analgesic and rewarding effects of opioids is complex and occurs due to receptor-level tolerance (e.g., MOR ...
  • The risks and benefits of opioid use are evaluated regularly, and physician impressions are discussed openly with the patient. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid derived from thebaine, an opioid alkaloid found in the Persian poppy and one of the many alkaloids found in the opium poppy. (whmsoft.net)
  • In his book Illegal Drugs: A Complete Guide to Their History, Chemistry, Use and Abuse, Paul M. Gahlinger noted that the famous ancient Roman general Hannibal kept a fatal dose of opium in a ring on his finger and actually used it to kill himself in 183 bce. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some minor opium alkaloids and various substances with opioid action are also found elsewhere in nature, including alkaloids present in Kratom , Corydalis , and Salvia plants and some species of poppy aside from Papaver somniferum, and there are strains which produce copious amounts of thebaine, an important raw material for making many semi-synthetic and synthetic opioids. (wikia.org)
  • Thus, most often for drug-treated patients of opium and cannabidiol drug addiction. (russianpatents.com)
  • Unsuspecting buyers may not realize how potent the drug is and take a larger dose than they intended. (rightstep.com)
  • Opioid rotation may allow for a lower equivalent dose, and hence fewer side effects may be encountered to achieve the desired effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually when doing opioid rotation, one cannot go down to a completely naive dose, because there is cross-tolerance carried over to the new opioid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys excrete approximately 30% of the administered dose of the drug in unchanged form, 60% - in the formation of metabolites and glucuronic conjugates. (curaxispharma.com)
  • The dose of the drug should be adjusted depending on the intensity of pain and sensitivity of the patient, for anesthesia should choose the minimum effective therapeutic dose. (curaxispharma.com)
  • Tolerance is a physiologic state resulting from regular use of a drug in which an increased dosage is needed to produce a specific effect, or a reduced effect is observed with a constant dose over time. (brainscape.com)
  • a titration trial with a low dose Short Acting Opioid to establish his/her opioid requirement. (brainscape.com)
  • Altho the worst is over in 5-7 days, sleep, discomfort and bodily abnormalities can persist for up to 6 months Pharmacologically assisted gradual withdrawal Gradual withdrawal milder symptoms Substitute a legal, orally effective opioid & decrease dose over 5-10 days. (docplayer.net)
  • 100 mg of morphine equivalence/day), is prescribed any dose of opioid accompanied by a benzodiazepine , or is suspected or known to use opioids nonmedically. (yowlink.com)
  • If constipation continues unchecked it soon becomes a more serious condition like disease of the colon and obesity.Our kidneys are an integral part naturally occurring method of detoxification. (doctors-medicine.com)
  • Methadone products when used for the treatment of opioid addiction in detoxification or maintenance programs, shall be dispensed only by opioid treatment programs (and agencies, practitioners or institutions by formal agreement with the program sponsor) certified by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and approved by the designated state authority. (rxdrugsinfo.com)
  • SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to psychiatry and drug addiction, and may be used for detoxification-infusion therapy of the patients used psychotropic cannabis products. (russianpatents.com)
  • Prolonged use of OxyContin during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. (drugs.com)
  • According to a 2007 meta-analysis conducted in Canada, the combination of CBD and THC buccal spray was found to be effective in treating neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, which can be debilitating for 50 to 70 percent of MS patients. (happinessmedicine.com)
  • Tolerance, as defined by either a need for markedly increased amounts of opioids to achieve intoxications or desired effect, or a markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of an opioid. (medscape.com)
  • Discuss therapies used to maintain extended abstinence from opioids, including agonist replacement and abstinence therapies. (netce.com)
  • [email protected] Team Administrator Introduction Page 1 ADMISSION AND DISCHARGE PROCESSES Poor communication of information at transition points is responsible for as many as 50% of all medication errors and up to 20% of adverse drug events in hospital. (spotidoc.com)
  • D. adverse reactions to medications. (cram.com)