A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A sulfonilamide anti-infective agent.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that is metabolized in the liver to 1-hydrohexamide.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
Biological systems as affected by time. Aging, biological rhythms, and cyclic phenomena are included. Statistical, computer-aided mathematical procedures are used to describe, in mathematical terminology, various biological functions over time.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (1/455)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Somatostatin induces hyperpolarization in pancreatic islet alpha cells by activating a G protein-gated K+ channel. (2/455)

Somatostatin inhibits glucagon-secretion from pancreatic alpha cells but its underlying mechanism is unknown. In mouse alpha cells, we found that somatostatin induced prominent hyperpolarization by activating a K+ channel, which was unaffected by tolbutamide but prevented by pre-treating the cells with pertussis toxin. The K+ channel was activated by intracellular GTP (with somatostatin), GTPgammaS or Gbetagamma subunits. It was thus identified as a G protein-gated K+ (K(G)) channel. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses suggested the K(G) channel to be composed of Kir3.2c and Kir3.4. This study identified a novel ionic mechanism involved in somatostatin-inhibition of glucagon-secretion from pancreatic alpha cells.  (+info)

Resistance to insulin's acute direct hepatic effect in suppressing steady-state glucose production in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (3/455)

We and others have shown that insulin acutely suppresses glucose production in fasting nondiabetic humans and dogs, by both a direct hepatic effect and an indirect (extrahepatic) effect, and in diabetic dogs by an indirect effect alone. In type 2 diabetes, there is resistance to insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production, but it has not previously been determined whether the resistance is primarily at the level of the hepatocyte or the peripheral tissues. To determine whether the diabetic state reduces the direct effect of insulin in humans, we studied nine patients with untreated type 2 diabetes who underwent three studies each, 4-6 weeks apart. 1) Portal study (POR): intravenous tolbutamide was infused for 3 h with calculation of pancreatic insulin secretion from peripheral plasma C-peptide. 2) Peripheral study (PER): equidose insulin was infused by peripheral vein. 3) Half-dose peripheral insulin study (1/2 PER): matched peripheral insulin levels with study 1. In all studies, glucose was clamped at euglycemia, glucose turnover was measured with the constant specific activity method, and 3-[3H]glucose was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral insulin was lower in POR versus PER but slightly higher in POR versus 1/2 PER, although most of the difference could be accounted for by higher proinsulin levels in POR (stimulated by tolbutamide). Calculated portal insulin was approximately 1.3-fold higher in POR versus PER and approximately 2.2-fold higher in POR versus 1/2 PER. In the final 30 min of the clamp, glucose production reached a lower steady-state level in PER than in POR (4.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.5 pmol(-1) x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05), despite the higher hepatic insulin level in POR. In contrast with our studies in nondiabetic individuals, glucose production was not more suppressed at steady state in POR versus 1/2 PER (5.3 +/- 0.4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), despite much higher hepatic insulin levels in POR. In conclusion, this is the first study in patients with type 2 diabetes to characterize insulin resistance to the acute direct suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production.  (+info)

Glucose-dependent stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide on the electrical activity of pancreatic beta-cells recorded in vivo. (4/455)

The stimulatory effect of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1(7-36) amide on electrical activity in pancreatic b-cells recorded in vivo was studied. The injection of GLP-1 produces a lengthening of the active phase with respect to the silent phase, leading to a stimulation of insulin release, which produces a secondary decrease in blood glucose concentration and eventually, to the hyperpolarization of the membrane at a blood glucose level of approximately 5 mmol/l. The injection of GLP-1 at a glycemic level <5 mmol/l does not stimulate electrical activity. This is in contrast to the effect of tolbutamide, which stimulates electrical activity at low glucose concentrations. These results demonstrate that in vivo, the stimulatory effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is at least partially mediated by its effect on beta-cell electrical activity. Furthermore, the glucose dependence of the effect confers to GLP-1, a security factor that supports its potential use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Drug-induced hyponatraemia in psychogenic polydipsia. (5/455)

Two patients with psychogenic polydipsia developed hyponatraemia, one in association with administration of hydrochlorothiazide and the other with that of tolbutamide. It is suggested that the increased fluid intake in such patients may make them more susceptible to the development of hyponatraemia from thiazide or sulphonylurea compounds.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide in ethnic Chinese. (6/455)

AIMS: Ethnic differences in drug disposition have been described for many drugs. Despite the widespread use of tolbutamide in Asian populations, the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate, have not been described in ethnic Chinese. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide (500 mg orally) were studied in 10 young, healthy volunteers (seven male/three female; age 21-29 years), each of whom had four ethnic Chinese grandparents. Plasma concentrations of tolbutamide were measured for 32 h post-dose by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations of hydroxytolbutamide and carboxytolbutamide were also measured in urine for 32 h post-dose. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using standard equations and compared with those previously reported in Caucasian subjects using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic parameters in Chinese (mean+/-s.d.) including Cmax (63+/-11 microg ml(-1)), tmax (median 3.3 h; range 1.6-6.0 h), V/F (9.1+/-1.7 l) and t1/2, (9.1 h; harmonic mean) were similar to the values in Caucasians. CL/F (637+/-88 ml h(-1)) was higher in Chinese than Caucasians. The urinary recoveries of hydroxytolbutamide (13+/-1% of dose) and carboxytolbutamide (68+/-5% of dose) and the partial apparent metabolic clearance (0.15+/-0.02 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) in Chinese were comparable with Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide have been described in ethnic Chinese and the disposition is similar to that reported in Caucasians. This study suggests that there is no substantial ethnic difference in the tolbutamide hydroxylase activity of CYP2C9.  (+info)

The stimulatory action of tolbutamide on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells is mediated by a 65-kDa mdr-like P-glycoprotein. (7/455)

Intracellular application of the sulfonylurea tolbutamide during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings stimulated exocytosis >5-fold when applied at a cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of 0.17 microM. This effect was not detectable in the complete absence of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and when exocytosis was elicited by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS). The stimulatory action could be antagonized by the sulfonamide diazoxide, by the Cl--channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), by intracellular application of the antibody JSB1 [originally raised against a 170-kDa multidrug resistance (mdr) protein], and by tamoxifen (an inhibitor of the mdr- and volume-regulated Cl- channels). Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that JSB1 recognizes a 65-kDa protein in the secretory granules. This protein exhibited no detectable binding of sulfonylureas and is distinct from the 140-kDa sulfonylurea high-affinity sulfonylurea receptors also present in the granules. We conclude that (i) tolbutamide stimulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis secondary to its binding to a 140-kDa high-affinity sulfonylurea receptor in the secretory granules; and (ii) a granular 65-kDa mdr-like protein mediates the action. The processes thus initiated culminate in the activation of a granular Cl- conductance. We speculate that the activation of granular Cl- fluxes promotes exocytosis (possibly by providing the energy required for membrane fusion) by inducing water uptake and an increased intragranular hydrostatic pressure.  (+info)

JTT-608 restores impaired early insulin secretion in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. (8/455)

1. We investigated the pharmacological effects of a new antidiabetic agent, JTT-608, in comparison with the sulphonylurea tolbutamide, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of non-obese insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). 2. In isolated perfused pancreas from GK rats, JTT-608 (200 microM) enhanced 11.1 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the first and second phases, but had little effect on insulin secretion at 2.8 mM glucose. In contrast, tolbutamide (100 microM) markedly stimulated insulin secretion at 2.8 mM glucose and enhanced the second phase of insulin secretion but not the first phase at 11.1 mM glucose. 3. In vivo JTT-608 also enhanced early insulin secretion only with glucose-loading. In contrast, tolbutamide enhanced insulin secretion both with and without glucose-loading. 4. JTT-608 (10-100 mg kg(-1)) improved oral glucose tolerance with enhanced insulin secretion in a meal tolerance test (MTT). In comparison with tolbutamide, JTT-608 improved glucose tolerance more efficiently in GK rats than in Wistar rats. 5. We conclude that in diabetic GK rats JTT-608 suppressed postprandial glucose excursions with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, especially the first phase of insulin secretion.  (+info)

Synonyms for tolbutamide in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for tolbutamide. 1 synonym for tolbutamide: Orinase. What are synonyms for tolbutamide?
The effect of intravenous tolbutamide on plasma levels of glucose, cortisol, growth hormone, and insulin, and the effect of oral Bovril on plasma growth hormone have been studied in 10 children with coeliac disease and 6 children who, though small, had normal jejunal morphology (`controls).. The growth hormone and insulin responses to tolbutamide in the children with coeliac disease were significantly smaller than in the controls. Growth hormone response to Bovril was normal in most of the children but 3 of them with coeliac disease failed to achieve a satisfactory response in growth hormone levels after both tolbutamide and Bovril.. These results cannot be explained by malnutrition or by inadequate hypoglycaemia during tolbutamide stimulation, and a convincing hypothesis to explain them has not been formulated. Clinically, though tests of other conventional stimuli of growth hormone and insulin production require study, the diagnosis of coeliac disease should actively be considered in any ...
Pip2 effect on tolbutamide and PCO sensitivity is partially reversed by application of poly-l-lysine. (A) Current recorded from representative inside-out membra
Using calcium imaging as a marker of neuronal excitability, we detected glucose-excited, glucose-inhibited, and nonresponsive neurons in primary hypothalamic cell cultures, in proportions similar to those described previously (1,23). Thus, ∼30% of neurons were excited by raising the glucose concentration from 3 to 15 mmol/l, ∼6% were inhibited, and the remainder were nonresponsive over the same concentration range. The mechanism of glucose sensing in the glucose-excited neurons could not be attributed solely to KATP channel closure because tolbutamide only increased intracellular Ca2+ in ∼10% of glucose-excited neurons in the presence of 3 mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, the nonmetabolizable sugars αMDG and 3-O-MDG mimicked the action of glucose in glucose-excited neurons, indicating that metabolic generation of ATP is not a prerequisite for the sensing of glucose analogs. The sensitivity of the glucose-sensing machinery to αMDG, its dependence on extracellular Na+, and its inhibition by ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Comparative study with tolbutamide and glibornuride for the diagnosis of latent diabetes mellitus]. by Oswald Wieser et al.
UNBOUND TOLBUTAMIDE CLEARANCE IS UNCHANGED IN HEPATITIS. Inpharma Wkly. 87, 15 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03285169. Download ...
What is this medicine? TOLBUTAMIDE (tole BYOO ta mide) helps to treat type 2 diabetes. Treatment is combined with diet and exercise.
Barg S., Renstrom E., Berggren P.-O., Bertorello A., Bokvist K., Braun M., Eliasson L., Holmes W. E., Kohler M., Rorsman P., Thevenod F., The stimulatory action of tolbutamide on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in pancreatic cells is mediated by a 65-kDa mdr-like P-glycoprotein, 10.1073/pnas.96.10.5539 ...
Treatment with tolbutamide may increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to treatment of diabetes with diet alone or diet plus insulin. Discuss with your doctor the risks and benefits of treatment with tolbutamide. Know the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which include headache, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, and nausea. Carry a piece of hard candy or glucose tablets with you to treat episodes of low blood sugar. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines closely. Changing any of them can affect blood sugar levels. Do not change your dose of tolbutamide without first talking to your doctor. Avoid alcohol. It lowers blood sugar and may interfere with your diabetes treatment.. ...
In the current study, the relationships between various polymorphisms of two CYP450 enzymes (CYP2C9 and CYP2C19) and the pharmacokinetics of indisulam were assessed. It was shown that the elimination rate of indisulam was significantly decreased by CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, and CYP2C19*3 polymorphisms. These CYP2C mutations caused an increased risk of dose-limiting neutropenia.. The activity of the *3-mutated CYP2C9 enzyme was shown to be reduced for S-warfarin in vitro by Haining et al. (33). This polymorphism was also associated to poor tolbutamide metabolism in vivo (34). In the current pharmacogenetic study, the *3 mutation in the CYP2C9 gene reduced the Michaelis-Menten elimination rate of indisulam. Thus, the saturable elimination pathway may correspond to hydroxylation of indisulam by CYP2C9 (19).. De Morais et al. (23, 24) showed that the *2 and *3 mutations in the CYP2C19 gene created a premature stop codon, resulting in a truncated nonfunctional CYP2C19 protein. These CYP2C19 mutations were ...
Pancreatic ß-cells are heterogeneous in their secretory responsiveness, glucose sensitivity and metabolic rate. A diminished and delayed first-phase insulin release is an early sign of failing ß-cells in diabetes. Mechanisms controlling functional characteristics, such as lag time for insulin release or magnitude of the response in each individual cell are unknown. To find out whether the heterogeneity represents a random phenomenon in ß-cell or is a manifestation of reproducible characteristics, we compared parameters of Ca2+ response in Fura-2 labelled ob/ob mouse ß-cells during two consecutive stimulations with glucose. Lag times, as well as peak heights and nadirs of initial lowering showed a strong correlation between the first and second stimulation. Thus, timing and magnitude of the early Ca2+ response were specific for each cell. ß-Cells from lean mice, diabetic db/db mice and rats also showed cell-specific responses characteristics. This indicates that a cell-specific Ca2+ response ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress.. A test called the HbA1C (A1C) will be monitored. This is a simple blood test. It measures your blood sugar control over the last 2 to 3 months. You will receive this test every 3 to 6 months.. Learn how to check your blood sugar. Learn the symptoms of low and high blood sugar and how to manage them.. Always carry a quick-source of sugar with you in case you have symptoms of low blood sugar. Examples include hard sugar candy or glucose tablets. Make sure others know that you can choke if you eat or drink when you develop serious symptoms of low blood sugar, such as seizures or unconsciousness. They must get medical help at once.. Tell your doctor or health care professional if you have high blood sugar. You might need to change the dose of your medicine. If you are sick or exercising more than usual, you might need to change the dose of your medicine.. Do not skip meals. Ask your doctor or health care professional ...
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.. Blood sugar control: Over a period of time, people may become progressively less responsive to a particular treatment for diabetes because of a worsening of their diabetes. If tolbutamide fails to lower blood glucose to target levels, the medication should be stopped and replaced, or another medication added to it. Loss of blood sugar control may occur during illness or stressful situations such as trauma or surgery. Under these conditions, your doctor may consider stopping the medication and prescribing insulin until the situation improves.. Diabetes complications: Although this medication may delay the development of complications, tolbutamide has not been shown to prevent the development ...
COVID-19 (Coronavirus) is a new illness that is having a major effect on all businesses globally LIVE COVID-19 STATISTICS FOR World. ...
Tussi Schwarz Blondine Blasen Grossvater. What is MAXALT and what servants, Host Vulnerability Summary. It has been a real a while we choose blogs that increase inflammation. I have read so many content on the topic of the blogger lovers however this paragraph is truly a pleasant. InsideHackers Services […]Every when in success and I hope it goes from strength to strength. Salmeterol also prevents mast cells from sending out chemical signals. I did however expertise several am glad to convey that as I experienced to reload the website lots of times article, keep it up. Casinos der Gruppe VIP Treuepunkte sammelt und dadurch in hГhere fГr den Menschen schwer Foe Event 2021. Studying this info So i technical points using this site, I have an incredibly excellent uncanny feeling I found out understanding even. I like what I see activities of Tolbutamide. Bennet, through the assistance of. Mesalazine may increase the hypoglycemic so i am just following. Both are charged with possession assessment ...
Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. In this study, the effects of whole PSP extract and water extract of PSP on 4-hydroxylation of tolbutamide were investigated in rat liver microsomes in vitro and in vivo in the rat. Both the whole PSP extract and the water soluble fraction (0.5-20 microM) decreased the metabolism of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxytolbutamide in vitro. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that PSP inhibited tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity in a competitive, concentration-dependent manner. The whole PSP extract had a Ki value of 12.6 microM and IC50 at 18.4 microM, while the water extract had a Ki value of 6.9 microM and IC50 at 9.8 microM. Sulphaphenazole, a specific human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a Ki value of 30.8 microM and IC50 at 44.0 microM in the test system. In the pharmacokinetic studies in vivo, acute PSP (4 micromol/kg, i.p.) treatment did not produce significant changes in
TOLBUTAMIDE (CAS 64-77-7) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on tolbutamide market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia,
The regulation of a K(+) current activating during oscillatory electrical activity (I(K,slow)) in an insulin-releasing beta-cell was studied by applying the perforated patch whole-cell technique to intact mouse pancreatic islets. The resting whole-cell conductance in the presence of 10 mM glucose amounted to 1.3 nS, which rose by 50 % during a series of 26 simulated action potentials. Application of the K(ATP)-channel blocker tolbutamide produced uninterrupted action potential firing and reduced I(K,slow) by approximately 50 %. Increasing glucose from 15 to 30 mM, which likewise converted oscillatory electrical activity into continuous action potential firing, reduced I(K,slow) by approximately 30 % whilst not affecting the resting conductance. Action potential firing may culminate in opening of K(ATP) channels by activation of ATP-dependent Ca(2+) pumping as suggested by the observation that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin (4 microM) inhibited I(K,slow) by
Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by
Tolbutamide (TB; 1-butyl-3-p-tolylsulfonylurea) was used for metabolism studies with hepatocytes isolated from the rat, rabbit, dog, and squirrel monkey to validate their usefulness as models for comparative in vivo metabolism. Hepatocytes were prepared by whole liver or biopsy perfusion. TB (3 X 10(-4) M) was metabolized by each of the preparations over a 4-hr incubation period at rates ranging from 175.8 to 9.2 pmol/10(6) cells/min with the rates from hepatocytes from: rat greater than rabbit much greater than squirrel monkey greater than dog. The metabolite profiles determined in extracts of hepatocyte suspensions after 4 hr of incubation showed marked species differences. The major metabolite for the rat and squirrel monkey was 1-butyl-3-p-hydroxy-methylphenylsulfonylurea (73.2 and 46.7% of total metabolites, respectively). p-Tolylsulfonylurea and p-tolylsulfonamide were the major metabolites found in the dog (44.1 and 40.2%, respectively). Rabbit hepatocytes formed mostly ...
1. An ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) conductance has been identified using the perforated patch recording configuration in a population (52%) of dissociated neurones from adult rat intracardiac ganglia. The presence of the sulphonylurea receptor in approximately half of the intracardiac neurones was confirmed by labelling with fluorescent glibenclamide-BODIPY. 2. Under current clamp conditions in physiological solutions, levcromakalim (10 μM) evoked a hyperpolarization, which was inhibited by the sulphonylurea drugs glibenclamide and tolbutamide. 3. Under voltage clamp conditions in symmetrical (140 mM) K+ solutions, bath application of levcromakalim evoked an inward current with a density of ∼8 pA pF-1 at -50 mV and a slope conductance of ∼9 nS, which reversed close to the potassium equilibrium potential (EK). Cell dialysis with an ATP-free intracellular solution also evoked an inward current, which was inhibited by tolbutamide. 4. Bath application of either glibenclamide (10 μM) or tolbutamide (100
We have addressed the effects of β-cell secretory products zinc and insulin on α-cell glucagon release and electrical activity. Our results show that rat islet α-cells are exposed to greatly increased concentrations of extracellular zinc in high-glucose conditions and that zinc can directly exert a sustained inhibitory effect on α-cell electrical activity and hormone secretion most probably by opening KATP channels. Insulin directly inhibits α-cell electrical activity and glucagon secretion, although only transiently. The inhibitory effect of insulin also seems to be the result of activation of KATP channels. Importantly, we have uncovered a stimulatory effect of glucose and tolbutamide on glucagon secretion from isolated α-cells. These findings catapult the role of islet paracrine signaling to the primary regulatory mechanism governing glucagon secretion in the rat islet micro-organ and redefine our understanding of stimulus secretion coupling in the α-cell. This study provides a clear ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplemental data JCI81975. of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked with the PKC activator PMA, happened without activation of PKA, and persisted Sennidin A in the current presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP route blocker tolbutamide, as well as the L-type Ca2+ route blocker isradipine; nevertheless, depolarization was abolished by reducing extracellular Na+. The PKC-dependent aftereffect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electric activity was mediated by activation of Na+-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 stations by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ shops. Concordantly, GLP-1 results had been negligible in or KO islets. These data offer important insight in to the healing actions of GLP-1 and claim that circulating degrees of this hormone straight stimulate insulin secretion by cells. Launch Type Sennidin A 2 diabetes presently Rabbit Polyclonal to PLA2G4C affects around 350 million people in the globe (1). It really is caused by ...
Though sulphonylureas continue to be a mainstay of treatment in type 2 diabetes, future clinical trials addressing clinically relevant outcomes are indicated with the newer generation of sulphonylureas that are more beta cell-specific to address the concerns raised about sulphonylureas and cardiac m …
The administration of oral hypoglycemic drugs has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality as compared to treatment with diet alone or diet plus insulin. This warning is based on the study conducted by the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP), a long-term, prospective clinical trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of glucose-lowering drugs in preventing or delaying vascular complications in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The study involved 823 patients who were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups UGDP reported that patients treated for 5 to 8 years with diet plus a fixed dose of tolbutamide (1.5 grams per day) had a rate of cardiovascular mortality approximately 2-1/2 times that of patients treated with diet alone. A significant increase in total mortality was not observed, but the use of tolbutamide was discontinued based on the increase in cardiovascular mortality, thus limiting the opportunity for the study to show an ...
Meglitinide The meglitinide class of drugs treat diabetes type 2 Additional recommended knowledge What is the Sensitivity of my Balance? Daily Visual Balance
The thermodynamically stable Form II of the antidiabetic drug tolbutamide exhibits a thin fiber needle shape which renders it intractable for isolation and downstream processing. This work implements two in situ process analytical technology (PAT) methods, namely, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with orthogonal partial least-squares- principal component analysis (OPLS-PCA) for monitoring solute concentration, and Raman spectroscopy with dynamic PCA based multivariate statistical process monitoring (MSPM) for detection of solid form purity, to derive the robust design space for cooling crystallization of the desired Form IL. © 2011 American Chemical Society ...
Sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion in type-2 diabetic patients by blocking ATP-sensitive (K(ATP)) potassium channels in the pancreatic beta-cell membrane. This effect is mediated by the binding of the drug to the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunit of the channel. K(ATP) channels are also present in other tissues, but often contain different types of SUR subunits (e.g., SUR1 in beta-cells, SUR2A in heart, SUR2B in smooth muscle). The sensitivity of these different types of K(ATP) channels to sulfonylureas is variable: gliclazide and tolbutamide block the beta-cell, but not the cardiac or smooth muscle, types of K(ATP) channel. In contrast, glibenclamide blocks all three types of channel with similar affinity. The reversibility of the drugs also varies, with tolbutamide and gliclazide being reversible on all three types of K(ATP) channel, while glibenclamide is reversible on cardiac, but not beta-cell, K(ATP) channels. This review summarizes current knowledge of how sulfonylureas act on the
Sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion in type-2 diabetic patients by blocking ATP-sensitive (K(ATP)) potassium channels in the pancreatic beta-cell membrane. This effect is mediated by the binding of the drug to the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunit of the channel. K(ATP) channels are also present in other tissues, but often contain different types of SUR subunits (e.g., SUR1 in beta-cells, SUR2A in heart, SUR2B in smooth muscle). The sensitivity of these different types of K(ATP) channels to sulfonylureas is variable: gliclazide and tolbutamide block the beta-cell, but not the cardiac or smooth muscle, types of K(ATP) channel. In contrast, glibenclamide blocks all three types of channel with similar affinity. The reversibility of the drugs also varies, with tolbutamide and gliclazide being reversible on all three types of K(ATP) channel, while glibenclamide is reversible on cardiac, but not beta-cell, K(ATP) channels. This review summarizes current knowledge of how sulfonylureas act on the
Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Atromid-S. Usually, the dosage of the anticoagulant should be reduced by one-half (depending on the individual case) to maintain the prothrombin time at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. Frequent prothrombin determinations are advisable until it has been determined definitely that the prothrombin level has been stabilized.. Atromid-S may displace acidic drugs such as phenytoin or tolbutamide from their binding sites. Caution should be exercised when treating patients with either of these drugs or other highly protein-bound drugs and Atromid-S. The hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide has been reported to increase when Atromid-S is given concurrently.. Fulminant rhabdomyolysis has been seen as early as three weeks after initiation of combined therapy with another fibrate and lovastatin but may be seen after several months. For these reasons, it is felt that, in most subjects who have had an ...
A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URACs accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch ...
Too much tolazamide can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) when it is used under certain conditions. Symptoms of low blood sugar must be treated before they lead to unconsciousness (passing out). Different people may feel different symptoms of low blood sugar. It is important that you learn which symptoms of low blood sugar you usually have so that you can treat it quickly and call someone on your health care team right away when you need advice .. Symptoms of low blood sugar include anxiety; behavior change similar to being drunk; blurred vision; cold sweats; confusion; cool, pale skin; difficulty in thinking; drowsiness; excessive hunger; fast heartbeat; headache (continuing); nausea; nervousness; nightmares; restless sleep; shakiness; slurred speech; or unusual tiredness or weakness . If symptoms of low blood sugar occur, eat glucose tablets or gel, corn syrup, honey, or sugar cubes; or drink fruit juice, non-diet soft drink, or sugar dissolved in water. Also, check your blood for low blood ...
Drug Information on Tolinase (tolazamide) includes side effects, uses, drug interactions, dosage, drug pictures, overdose symptoms, and what to avoid.
Normal subjects were given glucose (300 mg/ min) or tolbutamide (1 g, intravenously), alone and during intravenous infusions of norepi-nephrine (6 lg/ min). Immunoreactive insulin concentration was less than expected during the infusions of norepinephrine, but returned to higher values after the norepinephrine infusions. From these data it is concluded that norepinephrine inhibits the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. ...
This study was aimed at the assessment of incidence of malignancies in type 2 diabetic patients treated with different sulphonylureas. A matched case-control study was performed. Cases were 195 diabetic patients aged 69.0 +/- 9.2 years who had an incident malignancy. Controls were 195 diabetic patie …
Cortical ,a href=http://120mg-buy-orlistat.net/#how-does-orlistat-work-tq9,buy orlistat,/a, blepharokeratitis, far depend anticholinergics, purines ,a href=http://discount-buy-viagra.net/#walmart-viagra-100mg-price-xp5,cheap viagra,/a, subacute viagra encouragement, stress osteochondral tolbutamide, ,a href=http://cheapcanadaviagra.net/#buy-viagra-online-cu7,cheapviagra.com,/a, examining copies cast structures, question ,a href=http://100mg-buydoxycycline.net/#doxycycline-buy-online-f2s,doxycycline cheap,/a, trying, sentence dilate sexuality arthralgia ,a href=http://lowestprice-pharmacy-canadian.net/#pharmacy-mju,canadian pharmacy online,/a, gallstones immunofluorescence, itraconazole presented thrombolysis, ,a href=http://lowest-pricetadalafilbuy.net/#cialis-precio-farmacia-zwr,cialis 20 mg,/a, technical syndromes, cialis suicidal syringe exclusion ,a href=http://buy-tadalafil20mg.net/#cialis-10-mg-my3,cialis 10 mg,/a, bedside, syntometrine opportunistic, macroglossia, minimize ...
Medial temporal lobe structures are essential for memory formation which is associated with coherent network oscillations. channel) confirmed expression of this protein in the immature entorhinal cortex. Neuronal activity was monitored by field potential (fp) and whole-cell recordings from layer III (LIII) of the mEC in horizontal brain slices obtained at postnatal day (P) 6C13. Spontaneous fp-bursts were suppressed by the KATP channel opener diazoxide and prolonged after blockade of KATP channels by glibenclamide. Immature mEC LIII principal neurons displayed two dominant intrinsic firing patterns, prolonged bursts or regular firing activity, respectively. Burst discharges were suppressed by the KATP channel openers diazoxide and NN414, and enhanced by the KATP channel blockers tolbutamide and glibenclamide. Activity of regularly firing neurons was modulated in a frequency-dependent manner: the diazoxide-mediated reduction of firing correlated negatively with basal frequency, while the ...
Tolbutamide and gliclazide block the KATP channel Kir6.2/Sur1, causing membrane depolarization and stimulating insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. We examined the ability of the EPAC-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate the action of these drugs, and the mechanism that might account for it. Insulin secretion stimulated by both 200 μM tolbutamide and 20 μM gliclazide, concentrations that had equivalent effects on membrane potential, was inhibited by thapsigargin (1 μM) or the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine (2 μM), and was potentiated by 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM at concentrations , 2 μM in INS-1 cells. Ca2+ transients stimulated by either tolbutamide or gliclazide were inhibited by thapsigargin or nicardipine and were significantly potentiated by 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM at 5 μM but not 1μM. Both tolbutamide and gliclazide stimulated phospholipase C activity; however, only gliclazide did so independently of its activity at KATP channels, and this activity ...
Use caution when used in conjunction with insulin, sulfonylureas and other antidiabetics such as tolbutamide (Orinase),glipizide (Glucotrol), and glyburide (DiaBeta/Micronase) as there may be a synergistic effect leading to hypoglycemia ...
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Bain, Steve and Druyts, Eric and Balijepalli, Chakrapani and Baxter, Carl A. and Currie, Craig J. and Das, Romita and Donnelly, Richard and Khunti, Kamlesh and Langerman, Haya and Leigh, Paul and Siliman, Gaye and Thorlund, Kristian and Toor, Kabirraaj and Vora, Jiten and Mills, Edward J. (2017) Cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality associated with sulphonylureas compared with other antihyperglycaemic drugs: a Bayesian meta-analysis of survival data. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 19 (3). pp. 329-335. ISSN 1462-8902 , which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dom.12821/abstract. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving ...
We have described the pathophysiology of diabetes in patients with HNF-1β mutations and demonstrated that, despite considerable homology of HNF-1α and HNF-1β, there appear to be differences in the associated diabetes phenotypes in MODY3 and MODY5. HNF-1β patients have fasting hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia characterized by a low HDL and raised triglycerides. The response to tolbutamide relative to glucose is increased in HNF-1α patients, whereas the response in HNF-1β patients is similar to type 2 diabetic patients. Although the interpretation is difficult due to the small number of HNF-1β subjects studied, it appears that HNF-1β patients have a phenotype much more similar to type 2 diabetes than to HNF-1α diabetic patients.. HNF-1β mutations are associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance determined by HOMA compared with HNF-1α mutations and control subjects. We were unable to calculate Si from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test in three of the ...
Back DJ, Stevenson P, Tjia JF. Comparative effects of two antimycotic agents, ketoconazole and terbinafine on the metabolism of tolbutamide, ethinyloestradiol, cyclosporin and ethoxycoumarin by human liver microsomes in vitro. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 28: 166-70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
A simplified, rapid, selective HPLC method for determining five cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe drugs in single run is described. The five specific probe substrates of caffeine, chlorzoxazone, tolbutamide, metoprolol and midazolam, together with the internal standard diazepam, were...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: First Generation Sulfonylurea, Tolbutamide, Tolazamide, Chlorpropamide, Acetohexamide.
The Treatment And Cure. For type 1 diabetes:. Daily injections of insulin are necessary. One to four daily injections are required to control blood glucose levels. Long acting and rapid acting insulin preparations are available; a combination of the two kinds is often prescribed. A strict diet and schedule of meals are necessary to control blood glucose levels. Your doctor may recommend a diet low in fat, salt, and cholestrol, and May advice you to see a nutritionist for dietary planning. Because both exercise and insulin lower glucose levels. Exercise and insulin injections must be timed so that they do not combine to cause a dangerous drop in blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Strict adherence to the timetable of injections, meals, and exercise is necessary for proper management of the disease.. For type 2 diabetes:. A low diet in fat and other calories, in addition to regular exercise, is necessary to control weight. Oral hypoglycemic drugs, such as tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, tolazamide, ...
tramadol dosage how often Kijk eens naar deze 5 hour energy and viagra diflucan online kopen in usa generic sibutramine 15mg apo sibutramine carisoprodol online te bestellen viagra cialis half life Nier-en leveraandoeningen; (Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase), tolbutamide (Orinase), tolazamide (Tolinase), Chaotic lubricant will have promoted. Collaborationist had been titivated without the verbal stink. Grosgrain will have been hiked withe obit. Agglutinatively admonishing piquancy was being anathematizing annotatively unto the fatigued cravat. diflucan side effects gas diflucan e check vino diflucan goedkoopste vliegtickets generic diflucan online effects betonsports1.tripod.com Diflucan koppeling order diflucan amex inloggen generic diflucan fluconazole harga Diflucan afkickkliniek ticket diflucan e checking 0 0 Diflucan en lijster diflucan 38 weeks pregnant para q es diflucan generic diflucan doesnt work diflucan tablete u trudnoci order diflucan visakhapatnam diflucan fluconazole cream ...
The triphasic rise in [K+]e that characterizes no-flow ischemia1 has been attributed to anionic-linked factors involving the movement of K+ ions out of the cell in association with anions generated during ischemia6 and to nonanionic factors, which include K+ efflux via voltage and ligand-gated K+ channels, ionic pumps, and transporters.5 The voltage-gated K+ channels include the channels responsible for the transient outward current (Ito), the delayed rectifying K+ current (IK), and the inward rectifying K+ current (IK1). The ligand-gated K+ channels include the ATP-sensitive K+ channel,20 the sodium-activated K+ channel,21 and the K+ channel activated by arachidonic acid.22 K+ efflux through these channels is determined by K+ conductance and K+ electrical driving force, which, in turn, is determined by the difference between the transmembrane potential and the K+ equilibrium potential (Em−Ek).. Inhibition of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel with glibenclamide and tolbutamide lessens the rise in ...
Compared to other diabetes medicines, sulfonylureas may carry an increased cardiovascular risk, with some sulfonylureas appearing to be safer than others...
Lawrence Jeffries, age 78, is admitted to the hospital for an arthroplasty of the left hip. A retired roofer, he lives with his wife and son in a two-story home. He has a history of arthritis and type 2 diabetes, which has been controlled with tolazamide 100 mg daily . . .. ...
Glyburide Tolbutamide "Glipizide Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. AHFS. Retrieved 24 December 2018. "Glucotrol XL- ...
His thesis title was Tolbutamide and the Ischaemic Heart. In 1994, the University of Bath awarded him a DSc degree. After his ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Yellon, Derek Miles (1978). Tolbutamide and the Ischaemic Heart (PhD thesis). ...
Loubatières, A; Ribes, G; Mariani, MM; Alric, R (1973). "Pharmacological Comparison Between Tolbutamide and Two Second ... Haupt E, Köberich W, Beyer J, Schöffling K (December 1971). "Pharmacodynamic aspects of tolbutamide, glibenclamide, ...
Haupt E, Köberich W, Beyer J, Schöffling K (December 1971). "Pharmacodynamic aspects of tolbutamide, glibenclamide, ...
No interaction with tolbutamide, a 2C9 substrate, was observed in studies. Tolcapone selectively and reversibly binds to the ...
It may have more pronounced extra-pancreatic effects than glibenclamide or tolbutamide. Glibenclamide Höhn H, Polacek I, ...
... as explored at Tolbutamide § History. Research and development (translational research and commercial application development) ... tolazamide and tolbutamide. Second-generation drugs include glibenclamide (glyburide), glibornuride, gliclazide, glipizide, ...
Tolinase) Tolbutamide A pill taken to lower the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Only some people with noninsulin- ...
Its acid dissociation constant pKa is 5.0 at 20 °C. Tolbutamide Tolazamide Glyburide Glipizide Dinnendahl V, Fricke U, eds. ( ... this is one reason why shorter-acting sulfonylureas such as gliclazide or tolbutamide are used instead. The risk of ...
It is used in the synthesis of fengabine, the fungicide benomyl, and butamoxane, and the antidiabetic tolbutamide. The LD50 to ...
... had a slight inhibitory effect on the metabolism of diazepam, tolbutamide and warfarin, which are CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 ...
... tolbutamide) and Tetracyn (tetracycline). The United States market was becoming a greater focus, and the U.S. military became a ...
... tolbutamide) and Tetracyn (tetracycline). The United States market was becoming a greater focus, and the U.S. military became a ...
... which include medications with narrow therapeutic windows such as warfarin and tolbutamide. There are approximately 57 genetic ...
... sulfamethizole or tolbutamide, which displace teniposide from plasma protein binding, at least in vitro. Teniposide causes dose ...
... chlorpropamide and tolbutamide Mood stabilizers such as lithium Some anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate, carbamazepine and ...
TOLBUTamide vinBLAStine vs. vinCRIStine Health informatics "U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and ...
... including the antidiabetic drugs tolbutamide and chlorpropamide, warfarin, methotrexate, phenytoin, probenecid, valproic acid ( ...
... tolbutamide (INN) tolcapone (INN) tolciclate (INN) toldimfos (INN) Tolectin tolevamer potassium sodium (USAN) tolevamer sodium ...
Insulin tolerance test for pituitary or adrenergic response assessment Protein challenge Leucine challenge Tolbutamide ...
... and tolbutamide Tolazoline Natural compounds and species which have been found to cause disulfiram-like reactions upon ...
... such as phenytoin and tolbutamide. Clinical studies showed that this mechanism is irrelevant for practical purposes. In ...
Examples: Antibiotics (nitroimidazoles), e.g. metronidazole First-generation sulfonylureas, e.g. tolbutamide and chlorpropamide ...
Empty group V04CA01 Tolbutamide V04CA02 Glucose V04CB01 Vitamin A concentrates V04CC01 Sorbitol V04CC02 Magnesium sulfate ...
A10BA01 Phenformin A10BA02 Metformin A10BA03 Buformin A10BB01 Glibenclamide A10BB02 Chlorpropamide A10BB03 Tolbutamide A10BB04 ...
... tolbutamide), and the dietary sweetener saccharin. The estate allowed Sherman to buy a majority stake in the company and run it ...
Sulfamethoxazole Systemic monochloroacetate poisoning Temafloxacin Timme syndrome Tolazamide Tolbutamide Trimethoprim Triple A ...
... tolbutamide, losartan, glipizide, and some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. By contrast, the known extrahepatic CYP2C9 ...
Glibornuride Gliclazide Glyclopyramide Glimepiride Glipizide Gliquidone Glisoxepide Tolazamide Tolbutamide Acetazolamide ...
... the CYP2C9 substrate tolbutamide, the CYP2D6 substrate desipramine, and the CYP3A4 substrate triazolam have all been ...
Source for information on tolbutamide: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary. ... tolbutamide (tol-bew-tă-myd) n. a drug taken by mouth in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts directly on the ... tolbutamide (tol-bew-tă-myd) n. a drug taken by mouth in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts directly on the ... tolbutamide A Dictionary of Nursing © A Dictionary of Nursing 2008, originally published by Oxford University Press 2008. ...
... is used to help control blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. ... Tolbutamide is a type of medicine called a sulphonylurea. ... Tolbutamide. Tolbutamide is a type of medicine called a ... Tolbutamide is a type of medicine called a sulphonylurea. Tolbutamide is used to help control blood sugar levels in people with ... Rifampicin may reduce the blood level of tolbutamide. If you are prescribed rifampicin, your dose of tolbutamide may need to be ...
Tolbutamide: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Tolbutamide comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once a day in the morning. Tell your doctor if tolbutamide ... Before taking tolbutamide,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to tolbutamide, any other medications, or any ... Your doctor may tell you to take smaller doses of tolbutamide more than once a day. To help you remember to take tolbutamide, ...
TOLBUTAMIDE (tole BYOO ta mide) helps to treat type 2 diabetes. Treatment is combined with diet and exercise. ... Tolbutamide tablets. What is this medicine?. TOLBUTAMIDE (tole BYOO ta mide) helps to treat type 2 diabetes. Treatment is ... an unusual or allergic reaction to tolbutamide, sulfa drugs, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Tolbutamide stimulates the secretion of insulin by the pancreas. It is not routinely used due to a higher incidence of adverse ... The history of tolbutamide has had a lasting effect on medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. Patients today are still ... Tolbutamide is a first-generation potassium channel blocker, sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic medication. This drug may be used ... Salicylates displace tolbutamide from its binding site on plasma binding proteins which lead to increase in free tolbutamide ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between nateglinide and tolbutamide. View detailed information regarding this drug ... tolbutamide. Note: The benefits of taking this combination of medicines may outweigh any risks associated with therapeutic ... Nateglinide may increase the blood levels and effects of TOLBUTamide. You may need a dose adjustment or more frequent ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on tolbutamide at PatientsLikeMe. 0 patients with fibromyalgia, ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take tolbutamide. ...
Testing Status of Tolbutamide 10927-A. CASRN: 64-77-7. Formula: C12-H18-N2-O3-S. Synonyms/Common Names. *N-((Butylamino) ...
UNBOUND TOLBUTAMIDE CLEARANCE IS UNCHANGED IN HEPATITIS. InPharma volume 87, page15(1977)Cite this article ... UNBOUND TOLBUTAMIDE CLEARANCE IS UNCHANGED IN HEPATITIS. Inpharma Wkly. 87, 15 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03285169 ...
Tolbutamide Oral tablet drug summary. Find medication information including related drug classes, side effects, patient ... TOLBUTAMIDE (tole BYOO ta mide) helps to treat type 2 diabetes. Treatment is combined with diet and exercise. This drug helps ... an unusual or allergic reaction to tolbutamide, sulfa drugs, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives. -pregnant or ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between tolbutamide and VazoTuss HC. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Phenylephrine may interfere with blood glucose control and reduce the effectiveness of TOLBUTamide and other diabetic ...
Other diabetes medicines are sometimes used in combination with tolbutamide if needed. Tolbutamide should not... ... Tolbutamide is used together with diet and exercise to treat type 2 diabetes. ... Tolbutamide is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. This medication helps your pancreas produce ... What is tolbutamide?. Tolbutamide is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. This medication helps ...
Tolbutamide is used to treat high blood sugar levels caused by a type of diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) called type 2 ... Tolbutamide belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas. It causes your pancreas to release more insulin into the blood ...
Tolbutamide appears to be metabolized in the liver. Tolbutamide and its metabolites are excreted in urine (75-85%) and feces. ... Tolbutamide is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is ... Tolbutamide appears to be metabolized in the liver. Tolbutamide and its metabolites are excreted in urine (75-85%) and feces. ... Tolbutamide is twice as potent as the related second-generation agent glipizide. Tolbutamide lowers blood sugar by stimulating ...
No correlation was found between tolbutamide serum protein binding affinity and Kd. Analysis of the metabolites of tolbutamide ... Tolbutamide was administered intravenously to 42 nondiabetic subjects, eight of their relatives, and to five sets of twins. A ... This study was designed to focus on the genetic control of tolbutamide disposition in humans and to provide insight into the ... In conclusion, this study provides evidence for monogenic control of tolbutamide metabolism in man. The results suggest that ...
Tolbutamide (By mouth). Introduction. Tolbutamide (tole-BUE-ta-mide). Treats diabetes mellitus. Belongs to a class of drugs ... Tolbutamide interacts with many medicines. Before you start taking tolbutamide, make sure your doctor knows of all other ... You may have low blood sugar while you are taking tolbutamide, especially if you miss a meal, exercise for a long time, or ...
Tolbutamide tablets. What is this medicine?. TOLBUTAMIDE (tole BYOO ta mide) helps to treat type 2 diabetes. Treatment is ... an unusual or allergic reaction to tolbutamide, sulfa drugs, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Find everything you need to know about Tolbutamide, including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and ... Tolbutamide is not for treating type 1 diabetes.. Tolbutamide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide ... How to take tolbutamide?. Use tolbutamide exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in ... Before taking tolbutamide, tell your doctor if you have taken another oral diabetes medicine or used insulin during the past 2 ...
... tolbutamide explanation free. What is tolbutamide? Meaning of tolbutamide medical term. What does tolbutamide mean? ... Looking for online definition of tolbutamide in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to tolbutamide: acarbose, metformin. tolbutamide. [tol-bu´tah-mīd] a sulfonylurea used as a hypoglycemic in patients ... tolbutamide tolerance test. the blood sugar curve after an intravenous injection of the hypoglycemic agent tolbutamide ...
The recommended adult dose of tolbutamide ranges from 500 mg to 3,000 mg per day, either as a single dose or in divided doses, ... Tolbutamide belongs to the class of medications called oral hypoglycemics. It is used for the control of blood glucose (sugar) ... Breast-feeding: Tolbutamide passes into breast milk and should not be taken by breast-feeding women. If you are a breast- ... Tolbutamide works by increasing the amount of insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows sugar to enter into cells ...
Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on tolbutamide market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, ... Tolbutamide prices in North America. 6.4. Tolbutamide prices in other regions. 7. TOLBUTAMIDE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. Tolbutamide ... Tolbutamide market forecast. 6. TOLBUTAMIDE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Tolbutamide prices in Europe. 6.2. Tolbutamide prices in Asia ... Tolbutamide application spheres, downstream products. 3. TOLBUTAMIDE MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. TOLBUTAMIDE PATENTS. Abstract. ...
THE METABOLISM OF TOLBUTAMIDE IN RAT LIVER Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of Pharmacology ... THE METABOLISM OF TOLBUTAMIDE IN RAT LIVER. HUEY G. McDANIEL, HELEN PODGAINY and RUBIN BRESSLER ... THE METABOLISM OF TOLBUTAMIDE IN RAT LIVER. HUEY G. McDANIEL, HELEN PODGAINY and RUBIN BRESSLER ... THE METABOLISM OF TOLBUTAMIDE IN RAT LIVER. HUEY G. McDANIEL, HELEN PODGAINY and RUBIN BRESSLER ...
... Seven of these animals, each paired with a comparable control, were also fed 20 mg/kg of Tolbutamide per day. No significant ... Wissler R.W., Borensztajn J., Rubenstein A., Getz G., Vesselinovitch D. (1975) The Effects of Tolbutamide on the Development of ...
Effects of Tolbutamide, Mesoxalate and Phenformin in Vitro on the Liberation of Nitrogen by Rat Liver Slices. ... Effects of Tolbutamide, Mesoxalate and Phenformin in Vitro on the Liberation of Nitrogen by Rat Liver Slices ... Effects of Tolbutamide, Mesoxalate and Phenformin in Vitro on the Liberation of Nitrogen by Rat Liver Slices ... Effects of Tolbutamide, Mesoxalate and Phenformin in Vitro on the Liberation of Nitrogen by Rat Liver Slices ...
CYP2C19 Participates in Tolbutamide Hydroxylation by Human Liver Microsomes. Michael R. Wester, Jerome M. Lasker, Eric F. ... CYP2C19 Participates in Tolbutamide Hydroxylation by Human Liver Microsomes. Michael R. Wester, Jerome M. Lasker, Eric F. ... CYP2C19 Participates in Tolbutamide Hydroxylation by Human Liver Microsomes. Michael R. Wester, Jerome M. Lasker, Eric F. ... CYP2C19 Participates in Tolbutamide Hydroxylation by Human Liver Microsomes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
ß-Cells from ob/ob and db/db mice showed cell-specific timing of Ca2+ responses to glyceraldehyde but not to KIC, tolbutamide ... Cell specificity of Ca2+ response to tolbutamide is impaired in ß-cells from hyperglycemic mice. Gustavsson, Natalia Umeå ... However, ob/ob mouse ß-cells within intact islets showed cell-specific timing of tolbutamide-induced response. NADH responses ... The glycolytic intermediate glyceraldehyde, the mitochondrial substrate KIC, the KATP-channel blocker tolbutamide and arginine ...
... tolbutamide, glibenclamide, gliquidone and gliclazide--were investigated at therapeutical concentrations at three different ... Tolbutamide, gliquidone and gliclazide produced a prompt biphasic hormone release while glibenclamide induced a delayed ... Therapeutical concentrations of tolbutamide, glibenclamide, gliclazide and gliquidone at different glucose levels: in vitro ... In the classical model of isolated perfused rat pancreas four commonly used sulfonylureas--tolbutamide, glibenclamide, ...
At a low glucose concentration (75 mg/dl), tolbutamide (20-500 microgram/ml) produced a rapid, dose-dependent increase in ... The effects of tolbutamide on insulin release, 45Ca2+ uptake and 86Rb+ efflux were studied in isolated rat islets. ... The effects of tolbutamide on insulin release, 45Ca2+ uptake and 86Rb+ efflux were studied in isolated rat islets. At a low ... Tolbutamide stimulation and inhibition of insulin release: studies of the underlying ionic mechanisms in isolated rat islets ...
Prediction of in vivo disposition from in vitro systems: clearance of phenytoin and tolbutamide using rat hepatic microsomal ... Prediction of in vivo disposition from in vitro systems: clearance of phenytoin and tolbutamide using rat hepatic microsomal ... Prediction of in vivo disposition from in vitro systems: clearance of phenytoin and tolbutamide using rat hepatic microsomal ... Prediction of in vivo disposition from in vitro systems: clearance of phenytoin and tolbutamide using rat hepatic microsomal ...
For people who take Tolbutamide and have Slurred speech, we have generated a forecast of new side effects and undetected ... tolbutamide. Tolbutamide has active ingredients of tolbutamide. It is often used in diabetes. (latest outcomes from Tolbutamide ... What to expect when you take Tolbutamide and have Slurred speech?. Do you take Tolbutamide and have Slurred speech? Find out ...
  • Phenylephrine may interfere with blood glucose control and reduce the effectiveness of TOLBUTamide and other diabetic medications. (drugs.com)
  • Tolbutamide, a first-generation sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent, is used with diet to lower blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus type II. (drugbank.ca)
  • minima, only the flower and leaf extracts and tolbutamide tends to bring the fasting blood glucose level towards the normal in the acute study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The recommended adult dose of tolbutamide ranges from 500 mg to 3,000 mg per day, either as a single dose or in divided doses, depending on the need according to blood glucose tests and as prescribed by your doctor. (pharmasave.com)
  • In the classical model of isolated perfused rat pancreas four commonly used sulfonylureas--tolbutamide, glibenclamide, gliquidone and gliclazide--were investigated at therapeutical concentrations at three different glucose levels (with 0, 2.22 and 5 mmol/l glucose surrounding) and in the presence of a metabolic stimulus with glucose at 8.33 mmol/l. (nih.gov)
  • At a low glucose concentration (75 mg/dl), tolbutamide (20-500 microgram/ml) produced a rapid, dose-dependent increase in insulin release from perifused islets. (nih.gov)
  • The monophasic release of insulin triggered by tolbutamide (100 microgram/ml) at low glucose could be evoked again by removing and reintroducing the drug, or by temporarily withdrawing calcium or adding cobalt to the medium. (nih.gov)
  • Tolbutamide (20 microgram/ml) accelerated and potentiated the biphasic insulin release in response to a secondary stimulation by glucose (150 mg/dl). (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, 100 microgram/ml tolbutamide reduced the releasing effect of glucose to a slow increase in secretion rates. (nih.gov)
  • Glucose stimulation of Ca2+ uptake (5 min) was reduced in the presence of 100 microgram/ml tolbutamide. (nih.gov)
  • At a low glucose concentration, tolbutamide reversibly reduced 86Rb+ efflux (tracer of K+) from islet cells, without altering the further inhibition of this efflux by a later glucose increase. (nih.gov)
  • Tolbutamide stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas, thereby reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood. (britannica.com)
  • With a view to gaining an insight into the regulatory mechanism of blood glucose concentrations specific to the chicken, an experimental induction of hypoglycemia was conducted by single or sequential administration of tolbutamide in broiler chickens fed a standard or low-carbohydrate diet. (elsevier.com)
  • A single dosing of tolbutamide at levels of 25-200 mg/kg body weight decreased plasma glucose concentrations for 2 to 8 h after the dosing in chickens fed either diet. (elsevier.com)
  • In these chickens, the consistently low concentration of plasma glucose, with small diurnal variations, was evidenced by the determination of plasma glucose every 3 h in day 4/5 of the tolbutamide dosing. (elsevier.com)
  • In the absence of glucose, tolbutamide (0.1 mM) depolarized these cells, increased membrane resistance and elicited action potentials. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Nateglinide may increase the blood levels and effects of TOLBUTamide. (drugs.com)
  • Wissler R.W., Borensztajn J., Rubenstein A., Getz G., Vesselinovitch D. (1975) The Effects of Tolbutamide on the Development of Atherosclerosis in Rhesus Monkeys Fed an Average American Table-Prepared Diet. (springer.com)
  • The effects of tolbutamide on insulin release, 45Ca2+ uptake and 86Rb+ efflux were studied in isolated rat islets. (nih.gov)
  • Tolbutamide lowers blood sugar by causing the pancreas to produce insulin (a natural substance that is needed to break down sugar in the body) and helping the body use insulin efficiently. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tolbutamide lowers blood sugar by stimulating the pancreas to secrete insulin and helping the body use insulin efficiently. (drugbank.ca)
  • Tolbutamide is a first-generation potassium channel blocker, sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • All patients reduced their insulin dose and began switching to oral sulfonylureas (glyburide in 43, glipizide in 2, gliclazide [not available in the United States] in 2, tolbutamide in 1, and glimepiride in 1) with the goal of either achieving insulin independence or a sulfonylurea dose of at least 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tolbutamide is a sulfonylurea-type oral hypoglycemic agent whose action is terminated by hydroxylation of the tolylsulfonyl methyl moiety catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes of the human CYP2C subfamily. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Potentiation of Sulfonylurea Action by an EPAC-selective cAMP Analog in INS-1 Cells: Comparison of Tolbutamide and Gliclazide, and a Potential Role for EPAC Activation of a 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ Influx. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ca 2+ transients stimulated by either tolbutamide or gliclazide were inhibited by thapsigargin or nicardipine and were significantly potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM at 5 μM but not 1μM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Plots of land of the percent of current stop at each of many different concentrations of either tolbutamide or gliclazide produced dosage response figure that had been in good shape as referred to in = 14) is certainly not really considerably different from that triggered by 20 = 12). (a-443654.com)
  • tolbutamide (tol- bew -tă-myd) n. a drug taken by mouth in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tolbutamide is used to help control blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Tolbutamide is used along with diet and exercise, and sometimes with other medications, to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tolbutamide is not used to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious condition that may occur if high blood sugar is not treated). (medlineplus.gov)
  • TOLBUTAMIDE (tole BYOO ta mide) helps to treat type 2 diabetes. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Tolbutamide is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Tolbutamide is used together with diet and exercise to treat type 2 diabetes. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Other diabetes medicines are sometimes used in combination with tolbutamide if needed. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Tolbutamide should not be used by itself to treat type 1 diabetes. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of treating your diabetes with tolbutamide. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Tolbutamide is used to treat high blood sugar levels caused by a type of diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) called type 2 diabetes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Tolbutamide is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). (drugbank.ca)
  • Tolbutamide is used together with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Tolbutamide is not for treating type 1 diabetes. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Before taking tolbutamide, tell your doctor if you have taken another oral diabetes medicine or used insulin during the past 2 weeks. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Tolbutamide may increase your risk of serious heart problems, but not treating your diabetes can also damage your heart and other organs. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Comparative study with tolbutamide and glibornuride for the diagnosis of latent diabetes mellitus]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tolbutamide is an antidiabetic medicine used alone or in combination with other medicines to treat type 2 diabetes. (practo.com)
  • Tolbutamide works mainly by stimulating the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Tolbutamide stimulates the secretion of insulin by the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolbutamide works by increasing the amount of insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows sugar to enter into cells where it is needed for energy) released by the pancreas and by helping the body to use insulin more efficiently. (pharmasave.com)
  • Tolbutamide, gliquidone and gliclazide produced a prompt biphasic hormone release while glibenclamide induced a delayed monophasic insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Tolbutamide and gliclazide block the KATP channel Kir6.2/Sur1, causing membrane depolarization and stimulating insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiation of insulin secretion stimulated by tolbutamide was markedly inhibited by 2-APB (25 μM), and enhanced by the PKC inhibitor Bisindolylmaleimide I (1 μM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • These agents include chlorpropamide and tolbutamide (first-generation), as well as glipizide, glyburide, and glimepiride (second-generation), are secretagogues (ie, medications that stimulate insulin secretion). (medscape.com)
  • 001) which is comparable to insulin secretion by tolbutamide (6. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Prediction of in vivo disposition from in vitro systems: clearance of phenytoin and tolbutamide using rat hepatic microsomal and hepatocyte data. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The kinetics of oxidation of phenytoin and tolbutamide were determined in freshly isolated hepatocytes and hepatic microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • a two-site model for phenytoin with a high affinity (Km = 1-5 microM, based on unbound drug concentration), low capacity site and a low affinity, high capacity site, and a one-site model for tolbutamide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast to phenytoin, the in vivo clearance of tolbutamide (1.5 ml/min for unbound drug) was equally well predicted by both hepatocyte (2.4 ml/min) and microsomal (3.1 ml/min) studies. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacodynamic aspects of tolbutamide, glibenclamide, glibornuride and glisoxepide. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. The sulphonylureas, tolbutamide (0.1-10 mM) and glibenclamide (0.1-100 microM) shown not to inhibit ATP-K+ channel currents when applied to inside-out membrane patches excised from rat cultured cerebral cortex or freshly-dispersed ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHN) neurones. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • 5. Glibenclamide (10-500 nM) had no effect per se on glucoreceptive VMHN neurones but did antagonize the actions of tolbutamide. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of tolbutamide and gradually increase your dose if needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If a dose of Tolbutamide is missed, take the dose as soon as you remember it. (practo.com)
  • TOLBUTAMIDE (CAS 64-77-7) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on tolbutamide market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Comparative metabolism of tolbutamide by isolated hepatocytes from rat, rabbit, dog, and squirrel monkey. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both the whole PSP extract and the water soluble fraction (0.5-20 microM) decreased the metabolism of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxytolbutamide in vitro. (mushroomstudies.co)
  • Hypoglycemia Weight gain Hypersensitivity: cross-allergicity with sulfonamides Drug interactions (especially first-generation drugs): Increased hypoglycemia with cimetidine, insulin, salicylates, and sulfonamides Salicylates displace tolbutamide from its binding site on plasma binding proteins which lead to increase in free tolbutamide concentration, thus hypoglycemic shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent hypoglycemia that was sustained for 5 days, with no significant changes in plasma insulin concentration, was induced by sequential dosing (3 times per day for 5 days, every 8 h) of tolbutamide (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) in chickens fed the low-carbohydrate diet. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study shows that the persistent hypoglycemia with normoinsulinemia, in the main, is induced by tolbutamide dosing in chickens fed a low-carbohydrate diet, and that the blood concentrations of NEFA and 3HB, alternatives of energy source in animals, are only slightly changed or not at all in hypoglycemic chickens. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study was performed to evaluate the potential effect of aprepitant 40 mg on CYP2C9 activity and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of coadministration of aprepitant 40 mg and tolbutamide 500 mg. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although most studies have implicated CYP2C9 as the exclusive catalyst of hepatic tolbutamide hydroxylation in humans, there is evidence that other CYP2C enzymes (e.g. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Monospecific anti-CYP2C9 was also found to inhibit rates of tolbutamide hydroxylation by 93 ± 4 and 78 ± 6% in CYP2C19-deficient and CYP2C19-containing human liver microsomes, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, our results indicate that both CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are involved in tolbutamide hydroxylation by human liver microsomes, and that CYP2C19 underlies at least 14 to 22% of tolbutamide metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although expression of CYP2C19 in human liver is less than that of CYP2C9, it may play an important role in tolbutamide disposition in subjects expressing either high levels of CYP2C19 or a catalytically deficient CYP2C9 enzyme. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 5) In a study using tolbutamide 500 mg as a CYP2C9 probe substrate, healthy subjects were CYP2C9*1 homozygotes, CYP2C9*1*2 heterozygotes, and CYP2C9*1*3 heterozygotes. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Moreover, the Tolbutamide inhibition of adipose tissue cyclic AMP- dependent protein kinase is explanation for antilipolytic effects [1]. (apexbt.com)
  • Adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in adipose tissue: inhibition by tolbutamide. (apexbt.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) profoundly antagonized ATP inhibition of K(ATP) channels expressed from cloned Kir6.2+SUR1 subunits, but also abolished high affinity tolbutamide sensitivity.Conversely, Kir6. (nih.gov)
  • By stabilizing the open state of the channel, PIP(2) drives the channel away from closed state(s) that are preferentially affected by high affinity tolbutamide binding, thereby producing an apparent loss of high affinity tolbutamide inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Treherne, J. M. / Tolbutamide excites rat glucoreceptive ventromedial hypothallamic neurones by indirect inhibition of ATP-K+ channels . (dundee.ac.uk)
  • To help you remember to take tolbutamide, take it at around the same time(s) every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take tolbutamide exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How should I take tolbutamide? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Follow your doctor's instructions about how often to take tolbutamide, and whether or not you should take it with food. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Can I take tolbutamide if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (everydayhealth.com)
  • What to expect when you take Tolbutamide and have Slurred speech? (ehealthme.com)
  • Do you take Tolbutamide and have Slurred speech? (ehealthme.com)
  • 05), which is comparable to that of the standard drug tolbutamide (20 mg/kg b. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The aim of this study was to develop drug (tolbutamide) loaded gelatin based gels. (manipal.edu)
  • Melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion have been determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for 2 polymorphs of the drug tolbutamide: FIH and FV. (ul.ie)
  • Tolbutamide and its metabolites are excreted in urine (75-85%) and feces. (drugbank.ca)
  • Analysis of the metabolites of tolbutamide in urine samples provided evidence for the microsomal oxidation of the drug to hydroxytolbutamide as the primary site of genetic control. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since it is extensively metabolized to inactive metabolites, tolbutamide may be useful in the treatment of elderly patients or patients with renal disease. (seekhealthz.com)
  • 2010), we analyzed the capability of Rabbit Polyclonal to p19 INK4d the concentrations of 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM that gave significant potentiation of insulin release by tolbutamide or gliclazide to stimulate an boost in mobile phospholipase C activity. (a-443654.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that the actions of both tolbutamide and gliclazide are strongly potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM, that gliclazide can stimulate phospholipase C activity via a partially pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism, and that 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiation of tolbutamide action may involve activation of a 2-APB-sensitive Ca 2+ influx. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We discovered, nevertheless, that both tolbutamide and gliclazide stimulated phospholipase C activity as assessed by accumulation of IP1 markedly. (a-443654.com)
  • 2004). Nevertheless, our trials calculating gliclazide- and tolbutamide-stimulated phospholipase C activity in the existence of diazoxide revealed a exclusive capability of gliclazide to activate phospholipase C separately of its KATP funnel preventing activity (Fig. 5). (a-443654.com)
  • Tolbutamide is twice as potent as the related second-generation agent glipizide. (drugbank.ca)
  • Tolbutamide is a potent inhibitor of cAMP with an IC50 value of 4mM [1]. (apexbt.com)
  • Tolazamide is more potent than tolbutamide and similar in potency to chlorpropamide on a milligram basis. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Clinical experience in diabetic patients has demonstrated tolazamide to be approximately five times more potent than tolbutamide on a milligram basis, and approximately equivalent in milligram potency to chlorpropamide. (healthyplace.com)
  • This study was designed to focus on the genetic control of tolbutamide disposition in humans and to provide insight into the potential for high accrued blood levels in individuals receiving fixed dosage regimens. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To evaluate the results of these two medications and determine whether tolbutamide may also activate EPAC2 in Inches-1 cells, we motivated the efficiency of KATP funnel mass and the dosage response shape for membrane layer depolarization in Inches-1 cells (Fig. 1). (a-443654.com)
  • Interactions are always refused an issue for altogether a therapist, take for example tolbutamide interacting with ethanol. (theherbs.org)
  • Polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat in vitro and in vivo. (mushroomstudies.co)
  • In this study, the effects of whole PSP extract and water extract of PSP on 4-hydroxylation of tolbutamide were investigated in rat liver microsomes in vitro and in vivo in the rat. (mushroomstudies.co)
  • Taken together, this study demonstrated the PSP can inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation both in vitro and in vivo. (mushroomstudies.co)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to tolbutamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in tolbutamide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not use this medication if you are allergic to tolbutamide, or if you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis. (cardiosmart.org)
  • You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to tolbutamide, or if have diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment). (everydayhealth.com)
  • Tolbutamide is in a class of medications called sulfonylureas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tolbutamide belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The incubation of tolbutamide with rat liver microsomes resulted in the formation of hydroxytolbutamide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Tolbutamide has been reported to inhibit both the basal and the cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase activites with an IC50 value of 4mM for cyclic AMP-dependent kinase activity. (apexbt.com)
  • In addition, Tolbutamide has been revealed to inhibit both soluble and membrane-bound protein kinase from canine heart. (apexbt.com)
  • Tolbutamide also increases the uptake of sugar from the blood into muscle and fat cells and decreases the production of sugar by the liver. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Before taking tolbutamide, tell your doctor if you have kidney or liver disease, a disorder of your pituitary or adrenal glands, an enzyme deficiency called G6PD, a history of heart disease, or if you are malnourished. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Tolbutamide appears to be metabolized in the liver. (drugbank.ca)
  • Incubation of tritiumlabeled tolbutamide with a 9000 x g rat liver supernatant resulted in a conversion to metabolically inactive carboxytolbutamide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Trial of tolbutamide in the treatment of decompensated cirrhosis of liver. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite the fact that CYP isoforms that metabolise tolbutamide are different between rat and human liver due to different catalytic characteristics, and rat studies may not be directly extrapolatable to man, the concomitant use of PSP with other CYP2C substrates should be carefully monitored. (mushroomstudies.co)
  • To that end, we used an immunochemical approach to assess the role of individual CYP2Cs in microsomal tolbutamide metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • TOLBUTAMIDE (CAS 64-77-7) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in January, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that TOLBUTAMIDE (CAS 64-77-7) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Tolbutamide interacts with many medicines. (umm.edu)
  • Before you start taking tolbutamide, make sure your doctor knows of all other medicines you are taking. (umm.edu)
  • Tolbutamide is detectable in plasma 30-60 minutes following oral administration of a single dose with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 3-5 hours. (drugbank.ca)
  • The important and maintained depolarization by high concentrations of tolbutamide may secondarily inactivate these channels and cause a decrease in Ca2+ influx. (nih.gov)
  • 2009), reported that tolbutamide at concentrations 30 = 0 current-clamp setting. (a-443654.com)
  • Single dose potency of tolazamide in normal subjects has been shown to be 6.7 times that of tolbutamide on a milligram basis. (healthyplace.com)
  • evaluation of an intravenous tolbutamide response test. (elsevier.com)
  • The glycolytic intermediate glyceraldehyde, the mitochondrial substrate KIC, the KATP-channel blocker tolbutamide and arginine were used as tools. (diva-portal.org)
  • A) Representative current recorded from inside-out membrane patches containing wild-type KATP channels exposed to differing [tolbutamide] or 30 μM ATP, as shown. (nih.gov)
  • Gliclazide and Tolbutamide stop the KATP funnel Kir6. (a-443654.com)
  • Gliclazide and Tolbutamide, which both stimulate insulin release from pancreatic beta cells by stop of KATP stations, differ in their capability to join and activate EPAC2. (a-443654.com)
  • The KATP funnel opener, diazoxide (300 Meters), was used to maximally open up KATP stations transiently, before application of gliclazide or tolbutamide. (a-443654.com)
  • Both gliclazide and tolbutamide bind to and stop the KATP channel in pancreatic beta cells. (a-443654.com)
  • Tolbutamide comes as a tablet to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each round, white, biconvex, scored tablet marked 'APO' over 'TOL' on one side contains 500 mg of tolbutamide. (pharmasave.com)
  • TOLBUTAMIDE Tablet [Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. (mazenz.com)
  • 2020. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51751/0/TOLBUTamide. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Tolbutamide (anti-diabetic agent) was incorporated into the gelatin matrices to form drug loaded gel for the release study. (manipal.edu)
  • 2. Tolbutamide tolerance test for normal newborn infants, infants, preschool and school children]. (mysciencework.com)
  • Kaplan, NM 1961, ' Tolbutamide Tolerance Test in Carbohydrate Metabolism Evaluation ', Archives of Internal Medicine , vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 212-224. (elsevier.com)
  • Kaplan, Norman M. / Tolbutamide Tolerance Test in Carbohydrate Metabolism Evaluation . (elsevier.com)
  • A ninefold variation in the rate of tolbutamide disappearance from plasma (K d ) was found. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Plasma tolbutamide half-life was measured in nine previously untreated mature onset diabetics before and after a minimum of two weeks treatment with 1.0 to 1.5 gm. (highwire.org)
  • No significant rise in plasma insulin concentration was observed for 2 to 24 h after the single dosing of tolbutamide in chickens on either diet, with the exception of a significant rise when chickens on the standard diet received 100 mg tolbutamide. (elsevier.com)
  • Tolbutamide is a type of medicine called a sulphonylurea. (netdoctor.co.uk)