Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Sulfonylurea CompoundsDiazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Chlorpropamide: A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)Tolazamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Gliclazide: An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Mephenytoin: An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Sulfaphenazole: A sulfonilamide anti-infective agent.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Glipizide: An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.Acetohexamide: A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that is metabolized in the liver to 1-hydrohexamide.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Chronobiology Phenomena: Biological systems as affected by time. Aging, biological rhythms, and cyclic phenomena are included. Statistical, computer-aided mathematical procedures are used to describe, in mathematical terminology, various biological functions over time.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Phenacetin: A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Phenformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Chlorzoxazone: A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.MarylandConsumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (1/455)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Somatostatin induces hyperpolarization in pancreatic islet alpha cells by activating a G protein-gated K+ channel. (2/455)

Somatostatin inhibits glucagon-secretion from pancreatic alpha cells but its underlying mechanism is unknown. In mouse alpha cells, we found that somatostatin induced prominent hyperpolarization by activating a K+ channel, which was unaffected by tolbutamide but prevented by pre-treating the cells with pertussis toxin. The K+ channel was activated by intracellular GTP (with somatostatin), GTPgammaS or Gbetagamma subunits. It was thus identified as a G protein-gated K+ (K(G)) channel. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses suggested the K(G) channel to be composed of Kir3.2c and Kir3.4. This study identified a novel ionic mechanism involved in somatostatin-inhibition of glucagon-secretion from pancreatic alpha cells.  (+info)

Resistance to insulin's acute direct hepatic effect in suppressing steady-state glucose production in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (3/455)

We and others have shown that insulin acutely suppresses glucose production in fasting nondiabetic humans and dogs, by both a direct hepatic effect and an indirect (extrahepatic) effect, and in diabetic dogs by an indirect effect alone. In type 2 diabetes, there is resistance to insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production, but it has not previously been determined whether the resistance is primarily at the level of the hepatocyte or the peripheral tissues. To determine whether the diabetic state reduces the direct effect of insulin in humans, we studied nine patients with untreated type 2 diabetes who underwent three studies each, 4-6 weeks apart. 1) Portal study (POR): intravenous tolbutamide was infused for 3 h with calculation of pancreatic insulin secretion from peripheral plasma C-peptide. 2) Peripheral study (PER): equidose insulin was infused by peripheral vein. 3) Half-dose peripheral insulin study (1/2 PER): matched peripheral insulin levels with study 1. In all studies, glucose was clamped at euglycemia, glucose turnover was measured with the constant specific activity method, and 3-[3H]glucose was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral insulin was lower in POR versus PER but slightly higher in POR versus 1/2 PER, although most of the difference could be accounted for by higher proinsulin levels in POR (stimulated by tolbutamide). Calculated portal insulin was approximately 1.3-fold higher in POR versus PER and approximately 2.2-fold higher in POR versus 1/2 PER. In the final 30 min of the clamp, glucose production reached a lower steady-state level in PER than in POR (4.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.5 pmol(-1) x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05), despite the higher hepatic insulin level in POR. In contrast with our studies in nondiabetic individuals, glucose production was not more suppressed at steady state in POR versus 1/2 PER (5.3 +/- 0.4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), despite much higher hepatic insulin levels in POR. In conclusion, this is the first study in patients with type 2 diabetes to characterize insulin resistance to the acute direct suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production.  (+info)

Glucose-dependent stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide on the electrical activity of pancreatic beta-cells recorded in vivo. (4/455)

The stimulatory effect of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1(7-36) amide on electrical activity in pancreatic b-cells recorded in vivo was studied. The injection of GLP-1 produces a lengthening of the active phase with respect to the silent phase, leading to a stimulation of insulin release, which produces a secondary decrease in blood glucose concentration and eventually, to the hyperpolarization of the membrane at a blood glucose level of approximately 5 mmol/l. The injection of GLP-1 at a glycemic level <5 mmol/l does not stimulate electrical activity. This is in contrast to the effect of tolbutamide, which stimulates electrical activity at low glucose concentrations. These results demonstrate that in vivo, the stimulatory effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is at least partially mediated by its effect on beta-cell electrical activity. Furthermore, the glucose dependence of the effect confers to GLP-1, a security factor that supports its potential use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Drug-induced hyponatraemia in psychogenic polydipsia. (5/455)

Two patients with psychogenic polydipsia developed hyponatraemia, one in association with administration of hydrochlorothiazide and the other with that of tolbutamide. It is suggested that the increased fluid intake in such patients may make them more susceptible to the development of hyponatraemia from thiazide or sulphonylurea compounds.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide in ethnic Chinese. (6/455)

AIMS: Ethnic differences in drug disposition have been described for many drugs. Despite the widespread use of tolbutamide in Asian populations, the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate, have not been described in ethnic Chinese. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide (500 mg orally) were studied in 10 young, healthy volunteers (seven male/three female; age 21-29 years), each of whom had four ethnic Chinese grandparents. Plasma concentrations of tolbutamide were measured for 32 h post-dose by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations of hydroxytolbutamide and carboxytolbutamide were also measured in urine for 32 h post-dose. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using standard equations and compared with those previously reported in Caucasian subjects using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic parameters in Chinese (mean+/-s.d.) including Cmax (63+/-11 microg ml(-1)), tmax (median 3.3 h; range 1.6-6.0 h), V/F (9.1+/-1.7 l) and t1/2, (9.1 h; harmonic mean) were similar to the values in Caucasians. CL/F (637+/-88 ml h(-1)) was higher in Chinese than Caucasians. The urinary recoveries of hydroxytolbutamide (13+/-1% of dose) and carboxytolbutamide (68+/-5% of dose) and the partial apparent metabolic clearance (0.15+/-0.02 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) in Chinese were comparable with Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide have been described in ethnic Chinese and the disposition is similar to that reported in Caucasians. This study suggests that there is no substantial ethnic difference in the tolbutamide hydroxylase activity of CYP2C9.  (+info)

The stimulatory action of tolbutamide on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells is mediated by a 65-kDa mdr-like P-glycoprotein. (7/455)

Intracellular application of the sulfonylurea tolbutamide during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings stimulated exocytosis >5-fold when applied at a cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of 0.17 microM. This effect was not detectable in the complete absence of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and when exocytosis was elicited by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS). The stimulatory action could be antagonized by the sulfonamide diazoxide, by the Cl--channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), by intracellular application of the antibody JSB1 [originally raised against a 170-kDa multidrug resistance (mdr) protein], and by tamoxifen (an inhibitor of the mdr- and volume-regulated Cl- channels). Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that JSB1 recognizes a 65-kDa protein in the secretory granules. This protein exhibited no detectable binding of sulfonylureas and is distinct from the 140-kDa sulfonylurea high-affinity sulfonylurea receptors also present in the granules. We conclude that (i) tolbutamide stimulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis secondary to its binding to a 140-kDa high-affinity sulfonylurea receptor in the secretory granules; and (ii) a granular 65-kDa mdr-like protein mediates the action. The processes thus initiated culminate in the activation of a granular Cl- conductance. We speculate that the activation of granular Cl- fluxes promotes exocytosis (possibly by providing the energy required for membrane fusion) by inducing water uptake and an increased intragranular hydrostatic pressure.  (+info)

JTT-608 restores impaired early insulin secretion in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. (8/455)

1. We investigated the pharmacological effects of a new antidiabetic agent, JTT-608, in comparison with the sulphonylurea tolbutamide, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of non-obese insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). 2. In isolated perfused pancreas from GK rats, JTT-608 (200 microM) enhanced 11.1 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the first and second phases, but had little effect on insulin secretion at 2.8 mM glucose. In contrast, tolbutamide (100 microM) markedly stimulated insulin secretion at 2.8 mM glucose and enhanced the second phase of insulin secretion but not the first phase at 11.1 mM glucose. 3. In vivo JTT-608 also enhanced early insulin secretion only with glucose-loading. In contrast, tolbutamide enhanced insulin secretion both with and without glucose-loading. 4. JTT-608 (10-100 mg kg(-1)) improved oral glucose tolerance with enhanced insulin secretion in a meal tolerance test (MTT). In comparison with tolbutamide, JTT-608 improved glucose tolerance more efficiently in GK rats than in Wistar rats. 5. We conclude that in diabetic GK rats JTT-608 suppressed postprandial glucose excursions with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, especially the first phase of insulin secretion.  (+info)

  • Prediction of in vivo disposition from in vitro systems: clearance of phenytoin and tolbutamide using rat hepatic microsomal and hepatocyte data. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The kinetics of oxidation of phenytoin and tolbutamide were determined in freshly isolated hepatocytes and hepatic microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • a two-site model for phenytoin with a high affinity (Km = 1-5 microM, based on unbound drug concentration), low capacity site and a low affinity, high capacity site, and a one-site model for tolbutamide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast to phenytoin, the in vivo clearance of tolbutamide (1.5 ml/min for unbound drug) was equally well predicted by both hepatocyte (2.4 ml/min) and microsomal (3.1 ml/min) studies. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent conversion of phenytoin (PHT) to p -hydroxy phenytoin (pHPPH), and tolbutamide (TLB) to 4-hydroxy tolbutamide (hydroxy-TLB), in human liver microsomes was studied in the presence of increasing concentrations (0-4%) of bovine serum albumin (BSA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • For a better understanding of the effect of protein binding on the estimation of in vitro kinetic parameters, we examined phenytoin (PHT) and tolbutamide (TLB) metabolism in human liver microsomes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Tolbutamide, gliquidone and gliclazide produced a prompt biphasic hormone release while glibenclamide induced a delayed monophasic insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacodynamic aspects of tolbutamide, glibenclamide, glibornuride and glisoxepide. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. The sulphonylureas, tolbutamide (0.1-10 mM) and glibenclamide (0.1-100 microM) shown not to inhibit ATP-K+ channel currents when applied to inside-out membrane patches excised from rat cultured cerebral cortex or freshly-dispersed ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHN) neurones. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • 5. Glibenclamide (10-500 nM) had no effect per se on glucoreceptive VMHN neurones but did antagonize the actions of tolbutamide. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • TOLBUTAMIDE (CAS 64-77-7) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on tolbutamide market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • This study was designed to focus on the genetic control of tolbutamide disposition in humans and to provide insight into the potential for high accrued blood levels in individuals receiving fixed dosage regimens. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To evaluate the results of these two medications and determine whether tolbutamide may also activate EPAC2 in Inches-1 cells, we motivated the efficiency of KATP funnel mass and the dosage response shape for membrane layer depolarization in Inches-1 cells (Fig. 1). (a-443654.com)
  • Phenylephrine may interfere with blood glucose control and reduce the effectiveness of TOLBUTamide and other diabetic medications. (drugs.com)
  • minima, only the flower and leaf extracts and tolbutamide tends to bring the fasting blood glucose level towards the normal in the acute study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tolbutamide (anti-diabetic agent) was incorporated into the gelatin matrices to form drug loaded gel for the release study. (manipal.edu)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Fasting biochemistry and a tolbutamide-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were compared in matched HNF-1β, HNF-1α, type 2 diabetic, and control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The HNF-1β patients had similar β-cell responses to tolbutamide and glucose as the type 2 diabetic patients, but in the HNF-1α patients, the tolbutamide response was considerably increased relative to the response to glucose ( P = 0.002). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the Tolbutamide inhibition of adipose tissue cyclic AMP- dependent protein kinase is explanation for antilipolytic effects . (apexbt.com)
  • Adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in adipose tissue: inhibition by tolbutamide. (apexbt.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) profoundly antagonized ATP inhibition of K(ATP) channels expressed from cloned Kir6.2+SUR1 subunits, but also abolished high affinity tolbutamide sensitivity.Conversely, Kir6. (nih.gov)
  • By stabilizing the open state of the channel, PIP(2) drives the channel away from closed state(s) that are preferentially affected by high affinity tolbutamide binding, thereby producing an apparent loss of high affinity tolbutamide inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Treherne, J. M. / Tolbutamide excites rat glucoreceptive ventromedial hypothallamic neurones by indirect inhibition of ATP-K+ channels . (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Tolbutamide interacts with many medicines. (umm.edu)
  • Before you start taking tolbutamide, make sure your doctor knows of all other medicines you are taking. (umm.edu)
  • TOLBUTAMIDE (CAS 64-77-7) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in January, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that TOLBUTAMIDE (CAS 64-77-7) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Tolbutamide is a potent inhibitor of cAMP with an IC50 value of 4mM . (apexbt.com)
  • 2020. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51751/0/TOLBUTamide. (unboundmedicine.com)