Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
The contamination of indoor air.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Relating to the size of solids.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Use of TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum L) and TOBACCO PRODUCTS.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
The status of health in urban populations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Living facilities for humans.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The motion of air currents.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.

The effect of cotinine or cigarette smoke co-administration on the formation of O6-methylguanine adducts in the lung and liver of A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (1/2289)

4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, induces lung adenomas in A/J mice, following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. However, inhalation of tobacco smoke has not induced or promoted tumors in these mice. NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis is thought to involve O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) formation, leading to GC-->AT transitional mispairing and an activation of the K-ras proto-oncogene in the A/J mouse. NNK can be metabolized by several different cytochromes P450, resulting in a number of metabolites. Formation of the promutagenic DNA adduct O6MeG is believed to require metabolic activation of NNK by cytochrome P450-mediated alpha-hydroxylation of the methylene group adjacent to the N-nitroso nitrogen to yield the unstable intermediate, methanediazohydroxide. Nicotine, cotinine (the major metabolite of nicotine), and aqueous cigarette tar extract (ACTE) have all been shown to effectively inhibit metabolic activation of NNK to its mutagenic form, most likely due to competitive inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in alpha-hydroxylation of NNK. The objective of the current study was to monitor the effects of cotinine and cigarette smoke (CS) on the formation of O6MeG in target tissues of mice during the acute phase of NNK treatment. To test the effect of cotinine, mature female A/J mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of NNK (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mumole/mouse) with cotinine administered at a total dose of 50 mumole/mouse in 3 separate i.p. injections, administered 30 min before, immediately after, and 30 min after NNK treatment. To test the effect of whole smoke exposure on NNK-related O6MeG formation, mice were exposed to smoke generated from Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarettes at 0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 mg wet total particulate matter/liter (WTPM/L) for 2 h, with a single i.p. injection of NNK (0, 3.75, or 7.5 mumole/mouse) midway through the exposure. Cigarette smoke alone failed to yield detectable levels of O6MeG. The number of O6MeG adducts following i.p. injection of NNK was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in both lung and liver by cotinine and by cigarette smoke exposure. Our results demonstrate that NNK-induced O6MeG DNA adducts in A/J mice are significantly reduced when NNK is administered together with either cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, or the parental complex mixture, cigarette smoke.  (+info)

Evaluation of passive smoking by measuring urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. (2/2289)

No method has yet been established to evaluate the exposure to tobacco smoke in passive smoking (PS). We therefore conducted a study on the possibility that the levels of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) could be indices of the passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The moderate correlation was observed between urinary MA levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. The mean urinary MA level of the PS (+) group was significantly higher than that with the PS (-) group. Among the PS (+) group, the mean MA level in the urine obtained in the afternoon was higher than that obtained in the morning. A high correlation was observed between the exhaled CO levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. Like the urinary MA level, the mean exhaled CO level in the PS (+) group, too, gave a significantly higher level than in the PS (-) group. Because the biological half life of MA (7.5 +/- 0.85 h) was longer than that of CO (3.0 +/- 0.36 h), the measurement of urinary MA level is recommended for evaluating the exposure of passive smoking. The measurement of exhaled CO levels is useful only for chain smokers and nonsmokers with PS just before measurement.  (+info)

The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children. (3/2289)

The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors.  (+info)

Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease--a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. (4/2289)

BACKGROUND: The effect of passive smoking on the risk of coronary heart disease is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of the risk of coronary heart disease associated with passive smoking among nonsmokers. METHODS: We searched the Medline and Dissertation Abstracts Online data bases and reviewed citations in relevant articles to identify 18 epidemiologic (10 cohort and 8 case-control) studies that met prestated inclusion criteria. Information on the designs of the studies, the characteristics of the study subjects, exposure and outcome measures, control for potential confounding factors, and risk estimates was abstracted independently by three investigators using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: Overall, nonsmokers exposed to environmental smoke had a relative risk of coronary heart disease of 1.25 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.32) as compared with nonsmokers not exposed to smoke. Passive smoking was consistently associated with an increased relative risk of coronary heart disease in cohort studies (relative risk, 1.21; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.30), in case-control studies (relative risk, 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.81), in men (relative risk, 1.22; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.35), in women (relative risk, 1.24; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.34), and in those exposed to smoking at home (relative risk, 1.17; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.24) or in the workplace (relative risk, 1.11; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.23). A significant dose-response relation was identified, with respective relative risks of 1.23 and 1.31 for nonsmokers who were exposed to the smoke of 1 to 19 cigarettes per day and those who were exposed to the smoke of 20 or more cigarettes per day, as compared with nonsmokers not exposed to smoke (P=0.006 for linear trend). CONCLUSIONS: Passive smoking is associated with a small increase in the risk of coronary heart disease. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking, the public health consequences of passive smoking with regard to coronary heart disease may be important.  (+info)

Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke. (5/2289)

One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios.  (+info)

Health effects of passive smoking-10: Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. (6/2289)

BACKGROUND: Two recent reviews have assessed the effect of parental smoking on respiratory disease in children. METHODS: The results of the systematic quantitative review published as a series in Thorax are summarised and brought up to date by considering papers appearing on Embase or Medline up to June 1998. The findings are compared with those of the review published recently by the Californian Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Areas requiring further research are identified. RESULTS: Overall there is a very consistent picture with odds ratios for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and middle ear disease of between 1.2 and 1.6 for either parent smoking, the odds usually being higher in pre-school than in school aged children. For sudden infant death syndrome the odds ratio for maternal smoking is about 2. Significant effects from paternal smoking suggest a role for postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recent publications do not lead us to alter the conclusions of our earlier reviews. While essentially narrative rather than systematic and quantitative, the findings of the Californian EPA review are broadly similar. In addition they have reviewed studies of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke on children with cystic fibrosis and conclude from the limited evidence that there is a strong case for a relationship between parental smoking and admissions to hospital. They also review data from adults of the effects of acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke under laboratory conditions which suggest acute effects on spirometric parameters rather than on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It seems likely that such effects are also present in children. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial benefits to children would arise if parents stopped smoking after birth, even if the mother smoked during pregnancy. Policies need to be developed which reduce smoking amongst parents and protect infants and young children from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The weight of evidence is such that new prevalence studies are no longer justified. What are needed are studies which allow comparison of the effects of critical periods of exposure to cigarette smoke, particularly in utero, early infancy, and later childhood. Where longitudinal studies are carried out they should be analysed to look at the way in which changes in exposure are related to changes in outcome. Better still would be studies demonstrating reversibility of adverse effects, especially in asthmatic subjects or children with cystic fibrosis.  (+info)

Urinary cotinine and exposure to parental smoking in a population of children with asthma. (7/2289)

BACKGROUND: Studies of the effects of tobacco smoke often rely on reported exposure to cigarette smoke, a measure that is subject to bias. We describe here the relationship between parental smoking exposure as assessed by urinary cotinine excretion and lung function in children with asthma. METHODS: We studied 90 children 4-14 years of age, who reported a confirmed diagnosis or symptoms of asthma. In each child, we assessed baseline pulmonary function (spirometry) and bronchial responsiveness to carbachol stimulation. Urinary cotinine was measured by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. RESULTS: Urinary cotinine concentrations in the children were significantly correlated (P <0.001) with the number of cigarettes the parents, especially the mothers, smoked. Bronchial responsiveness to carbachol (but not spirometry test results) was correlated (P <0.03) with urinary cotinine in the children. CONCLUSION: Passive smoke exposure increases the bronchial responsiveness to carbachol in asthmatic children.  (+info)

Ischemic stroke risk and passive exposure to spouses' cigarette smoking. Melbourne Stroke Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group. (8/2289)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between ischemic stroke risk and passive exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS: Risk factors among 452 hospitalized cases of first-episode ischemic stroke were compared with 452 age- and sex-matched "neighbor-hood" controls. RESULTS: The risk of stroke was twice as high for subjects whose spouses smoked as for those whose spouses did not smoke (95% confidence interval = 1.3, 3.1), after adjustment for the subject's own smoking, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and education level. These results were confirmed when analysis was limited to those who never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that spousal smoking may be a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke.  (+info)

This case-control analysis presents odds ratios for active and passive cigarette smoke exposure and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of levels II and III (CIN II and CIN III) while controlling for confounders. From 1987 to 1988, 103 biopsy-conformed incident cases of CIN II or III and 268 controls with normal cervical cytology were enrolled. Seventy % of cases were cigarette smokers, while only 30% of controls had ever smoked. The adjusted odds ratio for current cigarette smoking was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0). The following confounders were included in logistic regression models: age, race, education, number of sex partners, contraceptive use, sexually transmitted disease history, and Pap smear history. The risk of CIN II/III increased with increasing years of cigarette smoking and with increasing pack-years of exposure. Smoking was associated more strongly with CIN III than CIN II. The effect of passive cigarette smoke exposure was explored separately for smokers and nonsmokers and was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of in utero and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the developmental expression of pulmonary cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. AU - Lee, Chanhung Z.. AU - Royce, Fred H.. AU - Denison, Michael S.. AU - Pinkerton, Kent E. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Pulmonary cytochrome P450 monooxygenases metabolize xenobiotic chemicals, including those found in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Exposure to ETS beginning at birth has been shown to induce the P450 CYP1A1 by seven days of life. The effects of perinatal exposure to ETS of the rat lung on the expression of CYP1A1,1B1, 2B1, and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase were measured using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Timed pregnant dams and their pups were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke (ADSS) as a surrogate for ETS for four hours/ day from gestational day 5 through postnatal day 21. For all genes analyzed, mRNA could be detected in the fetal lung ...
Second Hand Smoke The Not Just simply Harming On your own. It only takes several occasions to read the particular Cosmetic surgeon Generals warning with the pack of smoking cigarettes prior to you possibly light in weight up to understand that will Smoking cigarettes is not simply bad for your wellness, it can kill a person. Most of us are aware of the health and fitness risks to be able to ourselves whether we select for you to heed the alert around the label or certainly not. Each time you opt to light up you may possibly believe that you are solely harming your self, nonetheless that will is not a good true fact. What is true?…. Truth be told00 that tobacco using tobacco is one of typically the important killers in the United States, and second hand smoke can be nearly like dangerous to those who are living with smoking lover, lover, or parent. Unaggressive or secondhand smoke has become private as a Group the carcinogen by the EPA due to the specifications of major health issues linked to ...
Involuntary (or passive) smoking is the exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) which is a mixture of exhaled mainstream smoke and side stream smoke released from a smouldering cigarette or other smoking device (cigar, pipe, bidi, etc.) and diluted with ambient air. Second-hand tobacco smoke is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Involuntary smoking involves inhaling carcinogens and other toxic components that are present in second-hand tobacco smoke.. Article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, adopted by all WHO Member States in May 2003, reads:. ...
Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.
Cigarette smoke exposure is the key initiator of chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and the loss of alveolar blood vessels that lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which is comprised of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is the major risk factor for non-smokers to develop emphysema. While the first-hand smoke is directly inhaled by smokers, passive smoking occurs when non-smokers are involuntary exposed to environmental tobacco smoke also known as second hand smoke (SHS). SHS is a mixture of 2 forms of smoke that come from burning tobacco: side stream smoke (smoke that comes from the end of a lit cigarette, pipe, or cigar) and mainstream smoke (smoke that is exhaled by a smoker). These two types of smoke have basically the same composition, however in SHS many toxic components are more concentrated than in first-hand smoke, therefore more hazardous for peoples health. Several pathological events have been implicated in the
Second-hand tobacco smoke threatens the health of 21 million American children ? 35 percent of everyone age 17 and younger ? who live in homes where residents or visitors smoke once a week or more, according to a study published Nov. 13 by researchers from RAND and UCLA. The study is the most thorough ever conducted of youths exposure to environmental second-hand tobacco smoke at home. It found that 19 million American children ? 28 percent of everyone in the United States 17 and younger ? are exposed to tobacco smoke at home on a daily basis.
Introduction: Annually, hundred thousands of people worldwide die as a result of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure. There is no safe exposure level to SHS yet in Bulawayo, smokers have been observed smoking without restraint thus exposing non-smokers to SHS. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence and contributing factors of SHS exposure among adults in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and participants were randomly selected from residents who visited the 13 municipal revenue halls. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Home SHS exposure prevalence was 22% and females were 2.11 times more likely than males to be exposed at home. Prevalence of SHS exposure in public transportation, health facilities, educational and food premises was 40.9%, 26.3%, 42,9% and 36.8% respectively. Conclusion: SHS exposure in Bulawayo was high and there ...
This chapter will address extensively the detrimental effects of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, beginning with a discussion on the relationship between active and passive smoking. The risk to...
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A second hand smoke is the inhalation of smoke from the smoke exhaled by the smoker. Avoiding this might be too difficult since the number of smokers in the country exceeded ...
The smoke residue on clothes will probably not penetrate into the lungs like actual second hand smoke can. But, as you have experienced, the smoke odor from the residue on clothes can also hit you like a ton of bricks and will irritate the nasal passages and eyes. This irritation can make a person more susceptible to infections. It will be important for your husband to use a smoking jacket that he can take off after smoking. ...
Study of exposure to second hand smoke in pregnant women and its impact on pulmonary functions and pregnancy outcomes - IJOGR- Print ISSN No: - 2394-2746 Online ISSN No:- 2394-2754 Article DOI No:- 10.18231/2394-2754.2019.0003, Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research-Indian J Obstet Gynecol Res
Underground condos in Utah and a Japanese study outlining second hand smoke dangers were among the news items covered in this installment of a regular feature.
Drug test detects second hand smoke 2014 - Comments on: Will Hill blames latest positive test on .... Sports nutritionals. Muscle Advance Weight Gainer with 810 Calories, 52g Protein, 94g Carbs Per-Serving.
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in indoor air is a substantial risk factor for many health issues. Children are particularly susceptible to ETS with increased risk of asthma attacks, respiratory infections, and sudden infant death syndrome. The health effects of ETS are well researched in adults, but few studies examine the impact on childrens cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CRF has been shown to be a useful biomarker for monitoring health effects which would normally be too subtle to identify at rest. In adults, ETS has been shown to reduce CRF, and children may be at greater risk due to high respiration rates and developing organs. This preliminary research tests the hypothesis that ETS has a detrimental impact on CRF in children. Twenty-five children (9-11 yrs) from one Merseyside primary school were recruited. ETS exposure was determined by parental surveys and coupled with childrens exhaled carbon monoxide concentration. CRF was determined using a VO2peak test, with lung function ...
Synonyms for Anti-tobacco, anti-second hand smoke in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anti-tobacco, anti-second hand smoke. 1 synonym for blue ribbon: cordon bleu. What are synonyms for Anti-tobacco, anti-second hand smoke?
Good morning everyone...Today Id like to talk about a study conducted in 2002 concerning feline lymphoma and secondhand cigarette smoke. The information gathered back then by scientists at Tufts School of Veterinary Medicine and the University of Massachusetts in a study called Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Malignant Lymphoma in Pet Cats showed a direct link to secondhand smoke and pet cats developing the cancer.. The findings of this study was published in the August, 2002 issue of American Journal of Epidemiology, show that cats who live with secondhand smoke are twice as susceptible. Increased feline lymphoma rates may even be as much as 65% greater than a cat living in a smoke-free environment. Figures for a cat living for 5 years in a tobacco smoking home increased to 3x the risk for developing lymphoma. When there are two smokers in a home the rate rises to 4x as likely.. Dogs living in a smoking home have a 60% risk of developing lung cancer.. The study was conducted at the ...
The study consisted of 290 children with persistent asthma, 28% of whom were exposed to smoke in the house, and 19% who were exposed to smoke outside the house. All the children were educated on the dangers of second hand smoke, and were educated about avoiding their asthma triggers -- especially second hand smoke. Of the children whose exposure to second hand smoke decreased, fewer hospitalizations and emergency department visits were reported in the 12 months prior to the second interview compared to the 12 months prior to the first interview. Additionally, these children were 48% less likely to experience an episode of poor asthma control ...
We carried out five sets of analyses using published data. Firstly, we conducted a meta-analysis of the studies of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (or passive smoking) and ischaemic heart disease.18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 We identified relevant studies through Medline (MeSH terms: smoking, tobacco smoke pollution), by scanning the reference lists of each study and of review articles, and by discussion with colleagues. All the studies used spouses smoking as an objective measure of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (non-smokers who live with smokers have greater exposure both inside and outside the home13 37). We extracted data on non-fatal infarction or death from ischaemic heart disease in never smokers according to whether their spouses currently smoked or had never smoked, excluding data on ex-smoker spouses where possible. We calculated the average of the relative risk estimates, adjusted for age and sex, of the studies, each weighted by the ...
Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%). 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was
Do you smoke? Have you thought about the adverse effect the habit is probably having on your pets health? Research shows just how dangerous second and third hand smoke is to the animals who live with us.
If you have not heard of third hand smoke before, rest assured you are not alone. But now that you have, the question hotel administrators and housekeeping departments must ask themselves is how to deal with this problem. In many cases, they may be dealing with it already. Because many of the hotel readers of this publication are green focused, it is quite possible they have already taken steps to eliminate smoking in their properties entirely.. However, for those that still allow smoking in specific guest rooms or specific areas, effective and through cleaning of these areas where smoking is allowed is your best defense. The following are some ways to help eliminate or at least significantly minimize the amount of third hand smoke that accumulates in carpet, fabrics, and other touchable surfaces through cleaning:. Set up a cleaning schedule: Because we know that carpet, rugs and fabrics will absorb third hand smoke, set up a cleaning schedule for these areas based on room usage…not on so ...
The high proportion of the population with detectable serum cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the US population. Both the home and workplace environments significantly contribute to environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the United States.
Author(s): Benowitz, NL | Abstract: Biomarkers are desirable for quantitating human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and for predicting potential health risks for exposed individuals. A number of biomarkers of ETS have been proposed. At present cotinine, measured in blood, saliva, or urine, appears to be the most specific and the most sensitive biomarker. In nonsmokers with significant exposure to ETS, cotinine levels in the body are derived primarily from tobacco smoke, can be measured with extremely high sensitivity, and reflect exposure to a variety of types of cigarettes independent of machine-determined yield. Under conditions of sustained exposure to ETS (i.e., over hours or days), cotinine levels reflect exposure to other components of ETS. Supporting the validity of cotinine as a biomarker, cotinine levels have been positively correlated to the risks of some ETS-related health complications in children who are not cigarette smokers.
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The introduction of comprehensive smoke-free legislation has increased the rate at which smoking prevalence was declining in some locations, but in the majority of jurisdictions had no measureable impact on existing trends in smoking prevalence.
Adverse health effects in children caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are well known. Children are primarily exposed by their parents smoking in their homes. A comprehensive evidence base shows that parental smoking during pregnancy and ETS exposure in early childhood are associated with an increased risk for a range of adverse health problems. Child Health Care nurses, who meet nearly all families in Sweden with children aged 0-6 years, have thus an important role in tobacco preventive work in order to support parents in their ambitions to protect their children from ETS exposure.. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop, test and evaluate a new model for tobacco preventive work in Child Health Care (CHC) with special focus on areas with a high prevalence of parental smoking. In a first step CHC nurses and parents views on tobacco preventive work were analysed in two studies based on questionnaires.. The intervention was performed during the second step, based on the results ...
Second-hand smoke remains a significant public health threat. Despite evidence to suggest that secondhand smoke contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, little is known about the dose-dependent vascular effects of brief secondhand smoke exposure at low doses commonly encountered in the community. This study will investigate the acute vascular effects and dose-dependent biological mechanisms of secondhand smoke on endothelial function and oxidative stress ...
It is quite an established fact that smoking is injurious to health. But did you know that secondhand smoke, also known as passive smoke is equally generous? Read to know
Results of this study show that measurement of cotinine levels was useful not only for quantifying ETS exposure but also for categorizing the children exposed to smoking, and non-smoking mothers (categorized further in exposed to other smokers, and non-exposed). Furthermore, as a whole, a decrease in the percentage of non exposed children to tobacco smoke and an increase in the percentage of children with a small-medium ETS exposure have been documented during the 4-year follow-up period. Conversely, the very high exposure found at birth (measuring cotinine in cord blood) and coming from the direct feto-placental passage of high amount of tobacco smoke from heavy smoker mothers disappeared.. The moderate linear relationship between results of maternal self-reporting and urinary cotinine in the 4 year olds was useful to distinguish between the presence or absence of smoking mothers, in agreement with other studies [15-17, 24]. On the basis of these results, different authors [25, 26] have ...
Cigarette smoking is known to cause dental problems in adults. Now a new study shows that breathing in passive smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke, may cause more cavities in children. Carol Pearson has the story. NATURAL SOUND, DENTIST PREPARING TO EXAMINE YOUNG BOY DENTIST Let?s see that big smile of yours there. This little boy wont feel like smiling if hes told he has a cavity. If he spends time around cigarette smoke, hes a lot more likely to have a cavity, according to a new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Research Database. Noreens research focuses on tobacco use, second hand smoke (SHS) exposure and alcohol consumption with an emphasis on low and middle income countries (LMICs). She investigates individual-level and population-level health perspectives and approaches with a focus on specific populations such as HIV positive and TB patients. She investigate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco use or second hand smoke exposure in specific populations (e.g. HIV positive and TB patients) or settings; their determinants; their impact on health outcomes; interventions to address these behaviours/ exposures; and the impact of those interventions both on the behaviours/exposure and treatment outcomes (TB/ HIV treatment outcomes) including mortality. She is co-investigator (Co-I) on an ongoing project addressing smoking, alcohol misuse and medication adherence among TB patients in South Africa; another on addressing tobacco use, alcohol use, poor diet and physical inactivity among people with severe ...
An IARC-coordinated International collaborative case-control study was aimed at investigating the relationship between exposure to ETS and to other environmental and occupational risk factors and the risk of lung cancer in subjects who have never smoked tobacco. A total of 650 cases and 1542 controls have been enrolled in 12 centres in seven European countries. Information on exposure to occupational carcinogens, urban air pollution, background radiation and dietary habits, as well as lifelong exposure to ETS, has been collected by personal interview of cases and controls. Self-reported (non-)smoking status was confirmed by interviews of relatives. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer risk was 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.44) for exposure to ETS from the spouse, 1.17 (95% CI 0.94-1.45) for workplace ETS exposure and 1.14 (0.88-1.47) for combined spousal and workplace exposure. Several quantitative indicators of ETS showed a dose-response relationship with lung cancer risk; RRs were higher for squamous ...
Second hand or passive smoke is also associated with health risks in both children and adults. This environmental tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals, many toxic and about 40 proven to cause cancer in humans. The EPA estimates that environmental tobaccos smoke causes approximately 3,000 lung cancer and about 37,000 coronary heart disease deaths in nonsmokers each year. Children, exposed to secondhand smoke before and after birth, are at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, cleft pallets and lips, childhood leukemia, attention deficit disorder and childhood wheezing. Besides Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), second hand smoke is also associated with an increase in acute lower respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic respiratory symptoms and middle ear infections in children. Adults experience an increased risk of lung cancer, nasal sinus cancer, heart disease mortality, acute and chronic coronary heart disease morbidity and eye and nasal ...
Second hand or passive smoke is also associated with health risks in both children and adults. This environmental tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals, many toxic and about 40 proven to cause cancer in humans. The EPA estimates that environmental tobaccos smoke causes approximately 3,000 lung cancer and about 37,000 coronary heart disease deaths in nonsmokers each year. Children, exposed to secondhand smoke before and after birth, are at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, cleft pallets and lips, childhood leukemia, attention deficit disorder and childhood wheezing. Besides Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), second hand smoke is also associated with an increase in acute lower respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic respiratory symptoms and middle ear infections in children. Adults experience an increased risk of lung cancer, nasal sinus cancer, heart disease mortality, acute and chronic coronary heart disease morbidity and eye and nasal ...
Second hand or passive smoke is also associated with health risks in both children and adults. This environmental tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals, many toxic and about 40 proven to cause cancer in humans. The EPA estimates that environmental tobaccos smoke causes approximately 3,000 lung cancer and about 37,000 coronary heart disease deaths in nonsmokers each year. Children, exposed to secondhand smoke before and after birth, are at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, cleft pallets and lips, childhood leukemia, attention deficit disorder and childhood wheezing. Besides Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), second hand smoke is also associated with an increase in acute lower respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic respiratory symptoms and middle ear infections in children. Adults experience an increased risk of lung cancer, nasal sinus cancer, heart disease mortality, acute and chronic coronary heart disease morbidity and eye and nasal ...
Second hand or passive smoke is also associated with health risks in both children and adults. This environmental tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals, many toxic and about 40 proven to cause cancer in humans. The EPA estimates that environmental tobaccos smoke causes approximately 3,000 lung cancer and about 37,000 coronary heart disease deaths in nonsmokers each year. Children, exposed to secondhand smoke before and after birth, are at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, cleft pallets and lips, childhood leukemia, attention deficit disorder and childhood wheezing. Besides Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), second hand smoke is also associated with an increase in acute lower respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic respiratory symptoms and middle ear infections in children. Adults experience an increased risk of lung cancer, nasal sinus cancer, heart disease mortality, acute and chronic coronary heart disease morbidity and eye and nasal ...
Second hand or passive smoke is also associated with health risks in both children and adults. This environmental tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals, many toxic and about 40 proven to cause cancer in humans. The EPA estimates that environmental tobaccos smoke causes approximately 3,000 lung cancer and about 37,000 coronary heart disease deaths in nonsmokers each year. Children, exposed to secondhand smoke before and after birth, are at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, cleft pallets and lips, childhood leukemia, attention deficit disorder and childhood wheezing. Besides Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), second hand smoke is also associated with an increase in acute lower respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic respiratory symptoms and middle ear infections in children. Adults experience an increased risk of lung cancer, nasal sinus cancer, heart disease mortality, acute and chronic coronary heart disease morbidity and eye and nasal ...
Nicotine - Cotinine Test. These tests are 20 times more sensitive than a standard nicotine cotinine test. They will show exposure to second-hand smoke. .
Second hand or passive smoke is also associated with health risks in both children and adults. This environmental tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals, many toxic and about 40 proven to cause cancer in humans. The EPA estimates that environmental tobaccos smoke causes approximately 3,000 lung cancer and about 37,000 coronary heart disease deaths in nonsmokers each year. Children, exposed to secondhand smoke before and after birth, are at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, cleft pallets and lips, childhood leukemia, attention deficit disorder and childhood wheezing. Besides Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), second hand smoke is also associated with an increase in acute lower respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic respiratory symptoms and middle ear infections in children. Adults experience an increased risk of lung cancer, nasal sinus cancer, heart disease mortality, acute and chronic coronary heart disease morbidity and eye and nasal ...
Blog sponsored by Becker & Poliakoff Secondhand smoke, means smoke emitted from lighted, smoldering, or burning tobacco when the smoker is not inhaling; smoke emitted at the mouthpiece during puff drawing; and smoke exhaled by the smoker. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has...
UPdate spring 2005. Researchers in New Zealand recently concluded the largest ever study on mortality due to second hand smoke. The study found 15% more deaths in people who had never smoked but were exposed to secondhand smoke at home, compared with people who had never smoked who lived in a smoke-free household. The study was based on census data from two different periods. Because of the unparalleled sample size of the study, the results strengthen the case that exposure to secondhand smoke leads to illness and death. Surprisingly, few studies have examined the link between exposure to secondhand smoke and mortality. The results of the New Zealand study are consistent with the largest previous study of the subject. The study is summarized in the British Medical Journal, April 2004 ...
PubMed journal article Parental smoking behavior and passive smoke exposure in children with asthm were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental tobacco smoke. T2 - Experimental facts and societal issues. AU - Witschi, H.. AU - Pinkerton, Kent E. AU - Coggins, R. E.. AU - Penn, A.. AU - Gori, G. B.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Involuntary exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in public or in working places is considered to be a serious risk to human health. This symposium addressed several issues of toxicological interest that are associated with exposure to ETS. Epidemiologic evidence obtained in human studies suggests that passive smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer in nonsmokers and favors the development of respiratory tract infections in children. Comparatively few data are available from animal studies that provide experimental support of the observations. Exposure of pregnant or neonate rats to cigarette sidestream smoke (SS) affects developmental patterns of drug metabolizing enzymes that may persist up to 90 days. In young roosters, SS accelerates the development of ...
If you are a smoker, then you have probably been told by many people to stop smoking. Get ready to add two more to the list: your veterinarian and your cat!. Cats that live in smoking households are unwilling victims of second hand smoke. Second hand smoke has long been suspected of causing respiratory disease and lung cancer (and other cancers) in cats. Few studies are available, however, a 2002 study by Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine showed that cats living in smoking households were twice a likely to develop feline lymphoma (a type of cancer).. In addition, in smoking households, smoke particles land and cover exposed surfaces, including the cats. These particles (and more picked up through contact) are swallowed by cats during grooming, causing an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma, a deadly oral cancer. Basically, you are covering your cat in cancer-causing particles.. Lastly, cats that swallow tobacco products can be poisoned by nicotine. Menthol is especially ...
A good air purifier helps in purifying the contaminated air by freeing the air from pollutants. People living in a congested home and locality usually live in contaminated air. Environmental studies have revealed that the air inside the house is dirtier than the air outside. Air purifiers are extremely beneficial for people suffering from allergies and asthma. Dust, pollen, pet dander and molds are some of the allergy inducing particles. A home air purifier not only effectively removes these harmful particles, but also provides protection against hazardous smoke particles and airborne gases. The air purifiers convert the dirty and contaminated air into clean air and provide protection against second hand smoke.. Air purifiers alleviate asthma, and some completely removes the allergens causing asthma by providing superior quality air. By reducing the dust floating in the air, filtering second hand smoke, and purifying the air of chemical pollutants, car exhaust fumes or other contaminants, air ...
Passive smoking is linked with cancer, heart disease, respiratory illness 1 2 and is the leading source of indoor airpollution.3 In the United States, passive smoking has been linked to the deaths of at least 53 000 non-smokers each year, about one non-smoker for each eight smokers that tobacco kills. 2 4 By August 2001, 234 US communities had enacted local ordinances that required all workplaces to be completely smoke-free (185 communities included restaurants; American Nonsmokers Rights Foundation, local ordinance database), and many businesses implemented voluntary policies creating smoke-free workplaces. By 1998-9,69% of US workers employed indoors outside the home had smoke-free workplaces.5. Smoke-free workplaces not only protect non-smokers, they also create an environment that encourages smokers to cut back6 or quit. Since as early as the 1980s the tobacco industry has recognised that smoke-free workplaces have a major effect on cigaretteconsumption.7 In 1992 Phillip Morris Tobacco ...
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Everyone knows that secondhand smoke is bad for everyone, in particular kids, who can go on to develop serious physical ailments because of exposure to nicotine and tobacco products. But a new study suggests that the brains of young people are also vulnerable to the assaults of secondhand smoke, and that a smoky home can have lasting neurodevelopmental effects.. The researchers, who published their results in Pediatrics, write that more than twofold-increased rates were observed in parent-reported childhood neurobehavioral disorders in kids exposed to secondhand smoke at home compared with kids who hadnt been exposed. The disorders with elevated risk include ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders, and learning disorders. They also found, according to a report in the Los Angeles Times, that secondhand smoke exposure was linked to a 50% greater probability that children would develop two or more of these illnesses.. The researchers caution that they have not identified a concrete causal ...
Tobacco smoke. *Pollution. References[change , change source]. *. "Are you aware of your allergic symptoms?". Retrieved 28 ...
Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; ... lower size of tobacco smoke 10 nm Shortest extreme ultraviolet wavelength or longest X-ray wavelength 11 nm - the average half- ... cooking oil smoke: 30 to 30000 nm; wood smoke: 7 to 3000 nm) Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum and Spectroscopy ... 30 nm - lower size of cooking oil smoke 32 nm - the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2009-2010 ...
Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; ... lower size of tobacco smoke 10 nm - the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured circa 2016-2017 13 nm - the length of ... cooking oil smoke: 30 to 30000 nm; wood smoke: 7 to 3000 nm) Stryer, Lubert (1988). Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ... diameter of tobacco mosaic virus (Generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm.)[citation needed] 20 nm - Length of a ...
Environmental pollution is also a common cause of throat irritation. In fact, indoor pollution because of tobacco smoke used to ... Since smoke irritates the throat, stop smoking and avoid all fumes from chemicals, paints and volatile liquids. Rest your voice ... Post-nasal drip can be caused by the common cold, allergies to dust, smoking, or pet dander. Even spicy foods can sometimes ... Other items known to induce throat irritation include alcohol, spicy or hot foods and smokeless tobacco. This affliction is a ...
Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution. Treatment of acute bronchitis typically involves ... Tobacco smoking is the most common cause, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller ... Most cases of chronic bronchitis are caused by tobacco smoking. Chronic bronchitis in young adults who smoke is associated with ... Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollutants. A small number of cases are due to bacteria ...
Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution. A small number of cases are due to high levels ... Prevention is by not smoking and avoiding other lung irritants. Frequent hand washing and flu vaccination may also be ... Prevention is by not smoking and avoiding other lung irritants. Frequent hand washing may also be protective. Furthermore, an ... To help the bronchial tree heal faster and not make bronchitis worse, smokers should quit smoking completely.[citation needed] ...
February). „Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European ... tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. ... Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) ... tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. [...] Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke ... 2002) „Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking" (PDF). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 83, ...
The most common cause of COPD is tobacco smoking, with a smaller number of cases due to factors such as air pollution and ... The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking.[9] Of those who smoke, about 20% will get COPD,[44] and of those ... The primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoke, with occupational exposure and pollution from indoor fires being significant causes ... and water-pipe smoke, also confer a risk.[9] Water-pipe smoke appears to be as harmful as smoking cigarettes.[49] Problems from ...
Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. In ... The primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoke, with occupational exposure and pollution from indoor fires being significant causes ... The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking. Of those who smoke, about 20% will get COPD, and of those who are ... Other types of smoke, such as, marijuana, cigar, and water-pipe smoke, also confer a risk. Water-pipe smoke appears to be as ...
Broyde has studied the damage caused to DNA by sun light, air pollution, tobacco smoke and barbecue foods. Elected to Sigma Xi ...
Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer. In terms of the " ... Acrolein was identified as one of the chemicals involved in the 2019 Kim Kim River toxic pollution incident. ... Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors". Atmos Environ. 44 (1): 8-14. Bibcode: ... The smell of burnt fat (as when cooking oil is heated to its smoke point) is caused by glycerol in the burning fat breaking ...
The Tobacco Advisory Council of the UK organised for a pro-smoking book to be ghosted for either Bernard Levin or Auberon Waugh ... as a serious form of atmospheric pollution and even made references to the dangers of "passive hamburger eating". He also ... Waugh held that while the dangers of smoking (especially passive smoking) and drinking were exaggerated, the dangers of ... He opposed anti-tobacco smoking legislation (despite a heart condition which was ultimately to kill him prematurely) and in his ...
Asthma exacerbations can be triggered by many factors such as tobacco smoke, dust mites, air pollution, pets, and mold. Surface ... pollution monitoring, and the environment - courtesy Louisville (KY) Metro Air Pollution Control District Tulsa's Ozone Alert ... additional articles and resources Vast link page to various worldwide sites on general air pollution, ... 2] https://www.airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=aqi_brochure.index Randall, Paul M. "Pollution prevention methods in the surface ...
... ing may be caused by air pollution including tobacco smoke, particulate matter, irritant gases, and dampness in a home. ... Chronic bronchitis is often the cause of "smoker's cough". The tobacco smoke causes inflammation, secretion of mucus into the ... Most of the time, irregular coughing is caused by a respiratory tract infection but can also be triggered by choking, smoking, ... May be treated by quitting smoking. May also be caused by pneumoconiosis and long-term fume inhalation. In people with ...
These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking. While mercury is a constituent of tobacco smoke, studies have largely ... In 2002, several lakes in Norway were found to have a poor state of mercury pollution, with an excess of 1 µg/g of mercury in ... "Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (12): 613-628. doi: ... The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves. ...
... and outdoor air pollution (1-2%). Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 5,300 identified chemicals. The most ... Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzo[a]pyrene, tobacco- ... Lung cancer is largely caused by tobacco smoke. Risk estimates for lung cancer in the United States indicate that tobacco smoke ... Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking Archived 2015-03-15 at the Wayback Machine, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of ...
... and outdoor air pollution (1-2%).[35] Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 5,300 identified chemicals. The most ... Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzo[a]pyrene, tobacco- ... Lung cancer is largely caused by tobacco smoke. Risk estimates for lung cancer in the United States indicate that tobacco smoke ... Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 83 (2004). ...
The most common triggers include allergens, smoke (from tobacco or other sources), air pollution, non selective beta-blockers, ... The World Health Organization recommends decreasing risk factors such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, chemical irritants ... Cigarette smoking and second-hand smoke (passive smoke) may reduce the effectiveness of medications such as corticosteroids. ... air pollution, and other environmental chemicals. Smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is associated with a greater risk ...
Additionally, environmental exposures such as air pollution and maternal tobacco smoking can increase an individual's chances ... risk of allergic rhinitis in those who have early exposure to foods or formula and/or heavy exposure to cigarette smoking ...
The main risk factors for developing CRDs are: tobacco smoking, indoor and outdoor air pollution, allergens, and occupational ... They include age, gender, genetics, exposure to air pollution, and behaviors such as smoking, unhealthy diet and physical ... caused by smoking tobacco Diabetes mellitus type 2 Lower back pain caused by too little exercise Malnutrition caused by too ... raising taxes on tobacco, and legislating to curb smoking in public places. The World Health Organization is the specialized ...
Whiting co-sponsored legislation to ban smoking tobacco products in public places, the first of its kind in Oregon. Whiting was ... She wrote and helped to pass legislation that banned chlorofluorocarbon pollution that contributes to the depletion of the ... a co-sponsor of the Oregon Bottle Bill, an effort intended to curb litter and pollution that first passed in 1971. Whiting co- ...
These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking.[106] While mercury is a constituent of tobacco smoke,[107] studies have ... Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution ... "Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (12): 613-628. doi: ... The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves. ...
PAHs are among the complex suite of contaminants in tobacco smoke and particulate air pollution and may contribute to ... people who smoke tobacco products, or who are exposed to second-hand smoke, are among the most highly exposed groups; tobacco ... Human exposure varies across the globe and depends on factors such as smoking rates, fuel types in cooking, and pollution ... Lower-temperature combustion, such as tobacco smoking or wood-burning, tends to generate low molecular weight PAHs, whereas ...
Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution.[1] A small number of cases are due to high ... Tobacco smoking is the most common cause, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller ... Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution.[1] A small number of cases are due to high ... Most cases of chronic bronchitis are caused by smoking and other forms of tobacco.[24][26][27] In addition, chronic inhalation ...
The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Lung cancer in non-smokers, who account for ... approximately 15% of cases, is often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution. ...
... see table of tobacco-related DNA damages in Tobacco smoking). Other causes include radon, exposure to secondhand smoke, ... and air pollution. In general, DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer. Though most DNA damages are ... It is closely correlated with a history of tobacco smoking, more so than most other types of lung cancer. According to the ... Smoking is by far the leading risk factor for lung cancer. Cigarette smoke contains more than 6,000 components, many of which ...
... of infant deaths to tobacco-smoking mothers, considered adopting a smoking ban for pregnant women in 2006 with the aim of ... women due to the health risks posed by the consumption of fish contaminated with methylmercury through industrial pollution. ... The use of tobacco products or exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy has been linked to low birth weight. Governor Mike ... "Some Legislators Want To Ban Pregnant Women From Smoking". (14 June 2006). The Hometown Channel. Retrieved 31 July 2006.[dead ...
... tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. ... Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) ... Avoidance of risk factors, including smoking and air pollution, is the primary method of prevention. Treatment and long-term ... Marijuana smoke contains many of the same carcinogens as those found in tobacco smoke, however, the effect of smoking cannabis ... tobacco smoking is still widespread. Eliminating tobacco smoking is a primary goal in the prevention of lung cancer, and ...
"Active smoking and secondhand smoke increase breast cancer risk: the report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and ... Light Pollution as new risk factor for human Breast and Prostate Cancers- Haim, Abraham; Portnov, Biris P., 2013, ISBN 978-94- ... Smoking tobacco appears to increase the risk of breast cancer, with the greater the amount smoked and the earlier in life that ... Recent studies have indicated that exposure to light pollution is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer.[34] ...
Effects upon tobacco consumption[edit]. Smoking bans are generally acknowledged to reduce rates of smoking; smoke-free ... "Study Finds That New Jersey Bars and Restaurants Have Nine Times More Air Pollution than Those in Smoke-Free New York". ... smoking ban in public areas,Helena Montana smoking ban,environmental tobacco smoke Archived 24 August 2007 at the Wayback ... Smoking ban 'costs pub takings' 17 December 2007, BBC News *^ "The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke ...
Tobacco Smoke, smog, indoor air pollution. *Benzene. *Work-related carcinogens. *Aerosols, fumes, smoke ... The environment protection act defines pollution in terms of harm to health. The occupational physician's role as health ...
"Pollution: Petrol vs. Hemp". Hempcar.org. Archived from the original on 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2011-04-20.. ... In other words, smoking hemp cannot create a 'high.' ... The dense growth of hemp eliminates other weeds.... The best growing ... flat and very fertile culture still wide until the last century grew up tobacco, a plant that needs a large space to expand and ... 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their ...
Smoking and ventilationEdit. ASHRAE standard 62 states that air removed from an area with environmental tobacco smoke shall not ... The ability for a system to reduce pollution in a space is described as its "ventilation effectiveness". However, the overall ... DSD = design smoking density (estimated number of cigarettes smoked per hour per unit area) ... This critique (e.g. Tiller[42]) led ASHRAE to reduce outdoor ventilation rates in 1981, particularly in non-smoking areas. ...
"How much of the decrease in cancer death rates in the United States is attributable to reductions in tobacco smoking?". Tobacco ... but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, the cancer may have ... Tobacco smoke, for example, causes 90% of lung cancer.[34] It also causes cancer in the larynx, head, neck, stomach, bladder, ... Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K (August 2004). "Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence ...
... usually through first or second-hand tobacco smoke. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the infant born to a non-smoking ... Industrial pollution can also lead to congenital defects. Over a period of 37 years, the Chisso Corporation, a petrochemical ... Smoking[edit]. Paternal smoking prior to conception has been linked with the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in ... Smoking causes DNA mutations in the germline of the father, which can be inherited by the offspring. Cigarette smoke acts as a ...
... women who smoked less than one pack of cigarettes per day had a 25% greater risk of mortality, and those who smoked one or more ... Specifically, air pollution is highly associated with SIDs in the United States during the post-neonatal stage.[37] High infant ... avoiding tobacco use, and avoiding excessive alcohol and drug use. If women follow some of the above guidelines, later ... A recent study by The Economist showed that economic slowdowns reduce the amount of air pollution, which results in a lower ...
... or second-hand tobacco smoke. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the infant born to a nonsmoking mother is around 2%, and ... Industrial pollution can also lead to congenital defects. Over a period of 37 years, the Chisso Corporation, a petrochemical ... Smoking[edit]. Paternal smoking prior to conception has been linked with the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in ... Smoking causes DNA mutations in the germline of the father, which can be inherited by the offspring. Cigarette smoke acts as a ...
However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts". Out ... tobacco or illegal drugs (compare Christianity and alcohol). In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee, tea, cola, and other ... to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the ... asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a ...
Research has focused primarily on cigarette tobacco smoking.[1][2] Tobacco smoke contains more than fifty chemicals that cause ... Risks vary according to the amount of tobacco smoked, with those who smoke more at greater risk. Smoking so-called "light" ... Sidestream tobacco smoke, or exhaled mainstream smoke, is particularly harmful. Because exhaled smoke exists at lower ... only collects data on smoked tobacco.[1] Smoking has therefore been studied more extensively than any other form of tobacco ...
TTC = Threshold of Toxicological Concern have been established for the constituents of tobacco smoke[32] ... "Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (12): 613-628. doi: ...
... tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. ... Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) ... A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases. Reviews on ... Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking (PDF). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (WHO ... Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. California Environmental Protection Agency. Tobacco Control. 1997, 6 ...
Robert Kapp (2005), "Tobacco Smoke", Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 4 (2nd ed.), Elsevier, pp. 200-202, ISBN 978-0-12-745354-5. ... See also: Plastic pollution and Marine pollution § Plastic debris. Cigarette butts are the most littered anthropogenic (man- ... reprocessed tobacco leaf wastes), incorporation of tobacco stalks, reduction of the amount of tobacco needed to fill a ... The tobacco industry has reduced tar and nicotine yields in cigarette smoke since the 1960s. This has been achieved in a ...
... is a constituent of tobacco smoke.[89]. Coking wastewaterEdit. Ammonia is present in coking wastewater streams, as a ... Jacobson, Mark Z. (2012-04-23). Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions. Cambridge University Press. ... "Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (12): 613-628. doi: ... Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium ...
Smokeless tobacco Tobacco smoke, second hand Tobacco smoking Ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices This evaluation applies to ... Outdoor air pollution Particulate matter in outdoor air pollution 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran 3,4,5,3',4'- ... including tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, and household coal smoke. The update was conducted with the advice of 30 scientists from ... Alcoholic beverages Areca nut Betel quid with tobacco Betel quid without tobacco Coal-tar pitches Coal-tars Coal, indoor ...
2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking (PDF). International Agency for Research on Cancer (2004). Iliwekwa ... Effect of cigarette butt pollution on marine life. *↑ Hackendahl NC, Sereda CW (Machi 2004). "The Dangers of Nicotine Ingestion ... Theis RP, Dolwick Grieb SM, Burr D, Siddiqui T, Asal NR (2008). "Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell ... Office on Smoking and Health (2006-06-27). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the ...
... and less commonly wood smoke and secondhand tobacco smoke.[11] Food items reported as triggers include tartrazine (a.k.a. FD&C ... Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. Co-sponsored by: The American Lung Association (ALA), The ... Commonly attributed substances for MCS symptoms include scented products, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fabrics, smoke, ... US EPA and US Consumer Product Safety Commission published a booklet on indoor air pollution that discusses MCS, among other ...
... tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. [...] Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke ... A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases". Reviews on ... Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking" (PDF). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. WHO ... Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. California Environmental Protection Agency". Tobacco Control. 6 (4 ...
Other factors affecting an individual's life expectancy are genetic disorders, drug use, tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol ... Life expectancy is also likely to be affected by exposure to high levels of highway air pollution or industrial air pollution. ... Traditional arguments tend to favor sociology-environmental factors: historically, men have generally consumed more tobacco, ... drug use including smoking and alcohol consumption, disposition, education, environment, sleep, climate, and health care.[10] ...
... and outdoor air pollution (1-2%).[36] Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 5,300 identified chemicals. The most ... Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzo[a]pyrene, tobacco- ... Lung cancer is largely caused by tobacco smoke. Risk estimates for lung cancer in the United States indicate that tobacco smoke ... Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking Archived 2015-03-15 at the Wayback Machine, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of ...
Tobacco smoking during pregnancy can cause a wide range of behavioral, neurological, and physical difficulties.[111] Smoking ... Air and Water Pollution". Prenatal exposures: psychological and educational consequences for children. New York: Springer. doi: ... Preventing Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Before, During, and After Pregnancy Archived 11 September 2011 at the ... "Tobacco Use and Pregnancy - Reproductive Health - CDC". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017.. ...
Particulate matter from tobacco versus diesel car exhaust: an educational perspective. Tobacco Control 13, S.219-221 (2004) ... National Study Examines Health Risks of Coarse Particle Pollution Health Effects of Air Pollution in Bangkok Archived 17 ... Koren, I.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Remer, L. A.; Martins, J. V. (2004). "Measurement of the Effect of Amazon Smoke on Inhibition of ... PM10 pollution in coal mining areas in Australia such as the Latrobe Valley in Victoria and the Hunter Region in New South ...
Smoking and nicotine. When a mother smokes during pregnancy the fetus is exposed to nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide. ... Proietti, E (2013). "Air pollution during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: A review". Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary ... Espy, K (2011). "Prenatal tobacco exposure: Developmental outcomes in the neonatal period". Developmental Psychology. 47: 153- ... Ruckinger, S (2010). "Growth in utero and body mass index at age 5 years in children of smoking and non-smoking mothers". Early ...
Evidence Brief: How can we best protect non-smokers from exposure to tobacco smoke?  ... Comprehensive smoke-free laws are the only effective means of eliminating the risks associated with smoking. Article 8 of the ... Browsing Publications by Subject "Tobacco Smoke Pollution". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... Research clearly shows that there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke. ...
Tobacco Smoke Pollution behavior Tobacco Smoke Pollution affects behavior. 1: Homo sapiens. Brain. 2 genes: HTR1A , HTR2A 1. ... Tobacco Smoke Pollution gene expression Tobacco Smoke Pollution affects gene expression. 1: Homo sapiens. Blood. 5 genes: FAS ... Tobacco Smoke Pollution inflammatory response Tobacco Smoke Pollution affects inflammatory response. 164 genes: ACKR1 , ACOD1 ... Tobacco Smoke Pollution feeding behavior Tobacco Smoke Pollution affects feeding behavior. 1: Homo sapiens. Digestive System. 8 ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ... Environmental tobacco smoke (‎ETS)‎ poses a significant risk to health. It is carcinogenic to humans and is a risk factor for ... Policies to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke : report on a WHO working group meeting, Lisbon, Portugal 29-30 May ... Legislating for smoke-free workplaces  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎Copenhagen : WHO Regional ...
Pollution like diluted smoke. speccomm , November 30, 2017 "Air pollution is like diluted smoking," according to Andrea A. ... "Smoking causes cancer, cardiovascular disease and bone mineral density loss. So does air pollution. Even at pollution levels ... all-day World Conference on Tobacco or H... World Conference on Tobacco or H... Mar 7 - Mar 9 all-day ... What smoking bans?. It seems to be the case that, contrary to general belief, smoking is not banned in thousands of government ...
... which is only an estimate of individual exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke outside the home. Misclassification of county ... The relationship between smoke-free laws and ever having asthma with current symptoms trended to significance (OR: 0.74 [95% CI ... Smoke-free laws were significantly related with lower odds of asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval ( ... Smoke-Free Air Laws and Asthma Prevalence, Symptoms, and Severity Among Nonsmoking Youth. Christopher Randolph ...
Background Over a 6-month period, we examined tobacco smoke pollutants (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) that remained in ... When smokers quit: exposure to nicotine and carcinogens persists from thirdhand smoke pollution ... When smokers quit: exposure to nicotine and carcinogens persists from thirdhand smoke pollution ... Residents continued to be exposed to THS toxicants that accumulated in settled house dust and on surfaces before smoking ...
When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure ... When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure ... When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure ...
Introduction: Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace may occur not only between ... Environmental tobacco smoke and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. Am J Pub Health. 2003; 93: ... Nebot M, Lopez M., Tomas Z, Ariza C, Borrell C, Villalbi J. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work and at home: a ... Predictors of smoking initiation - Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Poland 2009-2010 ...
Background: Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors ... We identified 33 papers on tobacco smoking and TB, five papers on passive smoking and TB, and five on indoor air pollution and ... confidence intervals on how tobacco smoking, passive smoke exposure, and indoor air pollution are associated with TB. ... Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We ...
Smoking - adverse effects Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects Abstract. Four authoritative reviews of active smoking and ... Smoking - adverse effects - prevention & control Smoking Cessation Time Factors Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - ... Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects Abstract. Active smoking is a well- ... Tobacco Industry Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - prevention & control PubMed ID. 12170694 View in PubMed ...
OR tobacco smoke pollution/pc[majr] OR smoking/lj[mh:noexp] OR smoking ban*[all fields] OR second hand smoke[all fields} OR ... passive smoking[all fields] OR involuntary smoking[all fields]OR s - Search Results - PubMed ... Workplace/lj[mh] (tobacco smoke pollution/lj[majr] OR tobacco smoke pollution/pc[majr] OR smoking/lj[mh:noexp] OR smoking ban ... BACKGROUND: Tobacco taxation and smoke-free workplaces reduce smoking, tobacco-related premature deaths and associated out-of- ...
Smoking Subject Tobacco Smoke Pollution Remove constraint Subject: Tobacco Smoke Pollution ... National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health and United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. ... Office on Smoking and Health and United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. ... Office on Smoking and Health and United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. ...
Tobacco Smoke Pollution Remove constraint Subject: Tobacco Smoke Pollution Subject Smoking Remove constraint Subject: Smoking ... Office on Smoking and Health. United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. Date:. 1984. Publisher:. ... Office on Smoking and Health. United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. Date:. 1979. Publisher:. ... Office on Smoking and Health. United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. Date:. 1994. Publisher:. ...
B Substances , Tobacco (cigarette smoking). B Substances , Tobacco (cigarette smoking) , Environmental smoke (passive smoking) ... Home , Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation ... Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation of ... which calls for legislation to reduce tobacco smoke pollution. ... The Ireland smoke-free law stands as a positive example of how ...
"Tobacco Smoke Pollution" by people in this website by year, and whether "Tobacco Smoke Pollution" was a major or minor topic of ... "Tobacco Smoke Pollution" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Tobacco Smoke Pollution*Tobacco Smoke Pollution. *Pollution, Tobacco Smoke. *Pollutions, Tobacco Smoke ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Tobacco Smoke Pollution" by people in Profiles. ...
Tobacco free sports : a manual designed to expand tobacco free sports at national, regional and international levels  World ... A guide to tobacco-free mega events  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional ... Regional action plan for the tobacco free initiative in the Western Pacific (2010-2014)  Regional Committee for the Western ... Meeting of National Focal Persons on Tobacco or Health, Manila, Philippines, 4-6 August 1999 : report  World Health ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. ... Tobacco free sports : a manual designed to expand tobacco free sports at national, regional and international levels  World ... A guide to tobacco-free mega events  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional ... Rallying the region for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control : a workbook to assess country receptiveness ...
The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of environmental tobacco smoking and air pollution on the symptoms of ... Impacts of air pollution and enviornmental tobacco smoking on the symptoms of childhood asthma. ... Our results suggest that living in polluted area and exposure to tobacco smoking are significantly associated with the ... It is associated with many environmental factors such as air pollutant exposure, parental smoking, climate condition, and ...
Many people turn to vaping as an alternative to smoking, but what are the effects of vapor on chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Exposure to tobacco smoke. Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke causes the majority of COPD cases. The risk increases with the ... Pollution or dust exposure. Living in areas of high pollution or working somewhere with dust or chemical fumes also increase ... It may help to set a particular day to quit smoking. Smokers should quit using tobacco products to reduce their risk of COPD ...
Smoking and COVID-19: Did we overlook representativeness? The Tobacco Control Scale as a research tool to measure country-level ... COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence The double-edged relationship between COVID-19 stress and smoking: ... Smoking and COVID-19: Did we overlook representativeness? Smoking and risk of negative outcomes among COVID-19 patients: A ... Implications for smoking cessation Active smoking is associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 ): An ...
... economic and policy-related aspects of tobacco use, and tobacco-related diseases in the State of California. ... funds research that enhances understanding of tobacco use, prevention and cessation, the social, ... We hypothesize that the combined effect of exposure to tobacco smoke and air pollution will be more detrimental to asthma risk ... We will examine the interaction effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure on asthma outcomes at two time points: ...
Environmental tobacco smoke : measuring exposures and assessing health effects / Committee on Passive Smoking, Board on ... WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2009 : implementing smoke-free environments. by World Health Organization ... Evaluating the effectiveness of smoke-free policies. by IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Smoke-free ... WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2011: warning about the dangers of tobacco. by World Health Organization ...
Through the smokescreen : a critique of environmental tobacco smoke, a review of the literature by the Tobacco Institute of New ... Towards a smoke-free health service : report of a seminar, London, UK, on Worlds 2nd No-Tobacco Day, 31 May 1989. by Hurst, ... The chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke : composition and measurement / M. R. Guerin, R. A. Jenkins, B. A. Tomkins.. by ... Other peoples tobacco smoke / edited by A. K. Armitage.. by Armitage, A. K ...
... data on location and time spent by children in the presence of tobacco smoke; c) to ... about smoking status and behavior; b) 48-hr time-activity (T-A) ... metrics were used to assess exposure to environmental tobacco ... smoke (ETS) for a probability sample (n = 152) of elementary school-age children in two economically disadvantaged ... Pollution; Quantitative-analysis; Questionnaires; Racial-factors; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Smoking; Statistical-analysis; ...
The relative risk of coronary artery disease among never smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus never ... environmental pollution; tobacco smoke; heart diseases; lipoproteins; HDL cholesterol; risk factors ... Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk factors for heart disease among never smokers in the Third National Health and ... The relative risk of coronary artery disease among never smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus never ...
Environmental tobacco smoke. Parents, friends, and relatives of children with asthma should try to stop smoking and avoid ... television and plan your activities when air pollution levels are lowest. , Mold. Get rid of mold in all parts of your home. ... people who quit smoking are less likely to die from illnesses caused by smoking than those who continue smoking. Studies show ... Most cases of oral cancer are linked to cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol use, or the use of both tobacco and alcohol together. ...
Affected by indoor air pollution? Find out the effects and how to relieve symptoms. ... Tobacco Smoke. A major cause of indoor air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, or secondhand smoke-causes over 40,000 ... www.lung.org/stop-smoking/smoking-facts/health-effects-of-secondhand-smoke.html ... Sources of Indoor Air Pollution. There are many sources that can be responsible for indoor air pollution, some of which are ...
Learn about the effects of air pollution and some possible solutions. ... Air pollution is a growing problem, and it has a negative impact on all of us. ... Tobacco Smoke. The EPA classifies tobacco smoke as a Group A carcinogen, which means that it is known to cause cancer in humans ... What Is Air Pollution?. Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases present in the air we breathe. When we think of ...
Tobacco smoke. *Air pollution. *Perfumes or cologne. *Pet dander (animal skin or hair) ...
  • To investigate the relationship between smoke-free laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking children aged 3 to 15 years. (aappublications.org)
  • Smoke-free laws were significantly related with lower odds of asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]) among nonsmoking youth. (aappublications.org)
  • Smoke-free laws were associated with lower odds of asthma episodes (OR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.28-1.56]) and emergency department visits for asthma (OR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.27-1.13]), but these outcomes were not statistically significant. (aappublications.org)
  • Smoke-free laws decrease asthma symptoms, including persistent wheeze, chronic nocturnal cough, and wheeze-medication use in youthful nonsmoking populations. (aappublications.org)
  • Misclassification of county smoke-free laws might not reflect individual exposure, and misclassification of current asthma is possible because self-reports were not validated by objective measures or clinical assessment. (aappublications.org)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. (aaem.pl)
  • Strand M, Rabinovitch N. Health effects of concurrent ambient and tobacco smoke-derived particle exposures at low concentrations in children with asthma. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of environmental tobacco smoking and air pollution on the symptoms of childhood asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results suggest that living in polluted area and exposure to tobacco smoking are significantly associated with the prevalence of symptoms of childhood asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although much is known about the separate effects of air pollution and cigarette smoke on asthma and asthma attacks, what remains to be determined is whether combined exposures to tobacco smoke and air pollution have greater effects on asthma risk and morbidity than what would be expected based on the individual exposures (i.e., interaction effects). (yes4yes.com)
  • We hypothesize that the combined effect of exposure to tobacco smoke and air pollution will be more detrimental to asthma risk and morbidity than what would be expected based on the individual exposures. (yes4yes.com)
  • We will examine the interaction effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure on asthma outcomes at two time points: early-life (pregnancy through first two years of life) and recent (exposures within the past year). (yes4yes.com)
  • Our goal is to determine how tobacco smoke and air pollution exposures affect asthma and asthma attacks in minority populations, which may lead to more targeted therapies. (yes4yes.com)
  • 2] The inhalation of cigarette smoke is particularly harmful to children, increasing the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), severe asthma, ear problems, and acute respiratory infections. (justenergy.com)
  • Being exposed to your triggers - for example, pet dander, exercise, or smoke - can lead to an asthma flare-up and coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. (kidshealth.org)
  • If outdoor air pollution is a trigger for your asthma, running the air conditioner can help. (kidshealth.org)
  • Children exposed to paternal tobacco smoking before birth are more likely to develop asthma - and associated changes to immune genes predict the level of risk. (news-medical.net)
  • 4. Tobacco smoke can make asthma attacks more severe. (rochester.edu)
  • Tobacco smoke from pipes, cigars, and cigarettes can trigger an asthma attack. (rochester.edu)
  • Tobacco smoke can also make an asthma attack worse. (rochester.edu)
  • Other types of smoke that can make asthma symptoms worse include smoke from fireplaces and outdoor smog. (rochester.edu)
  • Pollution may cause asthma or make it worse. (northshore.org)
  • Research shows that air pollution can worsen asthma symptoms . (aafa.org)
  • A study of young campers with moderate to severe asthma showed they were 40 percent more likely to have acute asthma episodes on high pollution summer days than on days with average pollution levels. (aafa.org)
  • How Can Air Pollution Affect My Asthma? (aafa.org)
  • Other forms of air pollution may also trigger your asthma. (aafa.org)
  • Because they have chronic airway inflammation, adults with asthma may be particularly susceptible to indoor air pollution. (bmj.com)
  • Despite widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), gas stoves, and woodsmoke, the impact of these exposures on adult asthma has not been well characterised. (bmj.com)
  • 1, 3 Despite these potential health risks, few studies have examined the effects of indoor air pollution on adults with asthma. (bmj.com)
  • Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported as a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. (bmj.com)
  • Objective The aim was to study the independent and combined effects of ETS and personal smoking on the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in teenagers. (bmj.com)
  • In multivariate analyses, maternal ETS was a significant risk factor for physician-diagnosed asthma and ever wheeze (OR 1.3-1.5) and personal daily smoking for current wheeze (OR 2.0). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Both ETS and personal smoking were significantly related to asthma and wheeze in teenagers. (bmj.com)
  • Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in early life, especially that from the mother, and maternal smoking during pregnancy are known risk factors for respiratory symptoms and asthma among children. (bmj.com)
  • 9 10 The association between smoking and asthma among adults is not as strong or consistent. (bmj.com)
  • 11 While cross-sectional studies have primarily found relationships between asthma and ex-smoking or ever smoking, 12 several longitudinal studies have found significant associations between current smoking and the onset of asthma. (bmj.com)
  • 1 13 14 Among teenagers, smoking is reported to be a risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both cross-sectional 15 and longitudinal studies. (bmj.com)
  • 15 Furthermore, in utero ETS exposure increases the risk of incident asthma among smoking teenagers. (bmj.com)
  • This study aimed to estimate the association between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in children and asthma, wheezing and perceived health. (isciii.es)
  • Even if you don't smoke, being in a space where someone else has smoked (even if it was a while ago) can cause an asthma attack. (webmd.com)
  • A large literature links both prenatal maternal smoking and children's ETS exposure to decreased lung growth and increased rates of respiratory tract infections, otitis media, and childhood asthma, with the severity of these problems increasing with increased exposure. (aappublications.org)
  • 24 - 26 In a meta-analysis, the risk of developing asthma was 1.37 if either parent smoked. (aappublications.org)
  • Tobacco smoke, air pollution and indoor mold worsen asthma symptoms in children. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Early exposure - Exposure to tobacco smoke, infections and allergens at a young age increases the chance of developing asthma. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that outdoor air pollution alone caused 4.2 worldwide million deaths in 2016. (justenergy.com)
  • Particulate matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, is the term commonly used in discussion of outdoor air pollution. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • A number of studies provide insights into road traffic-specific component of outdoor air pollution. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • Outdoor air pollution is caused by particles and gasses that are not normally part of the air. (aafa.org)
  • Even if you work in what seems to be a chemical-free environment, you may have exposure to indoor or outdoor air pollution. (aafa.org)
  • 570,000 children under 5 years die from respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollution and second-hand smoke - smoke that is released by burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Background Over a 6-month period, we examined tobacco smoke pollutants (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) that remained in the homes of former smokers and the exposure to these pollutants. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, people who may be exposed to indoor air pollutants for the longest periods of time are often those most susceptible to the effects of indoor air pollution. (epa.gov)
  • The main objective of this study is to analyse quantitatively the influence of urban air pollution on the health of children, by (i) analysing the concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere, (ii) analysing the indoor air concentrations, and (iii) conducting epidemiological surveys. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A preliminary note of caution about tobacco industry interference is appropriate before embarking on a discussion of other pollutants and health. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • Tobacco companies have historically sought to distract the public from the issue of secondhand smoke by emphasising the dangers of other pollutants, including carpet glue fumes and car exhaust. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • ndoor Air Pollution addresses the problems arising from pollutants that all too commonly contaminate the indoor environment, including biological sources such as bacteria, fungi and molds, common combustion products, radon and other sources of radiation, solvents used in industry and the home, asbestos and dust pollution. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The aim is to provide a balanced account of the health risks associated with these major pollutants and to quantify the scale of the problem on a pollution-by-pollution basis. (booktopia.com.au)
  • In addition, indoor pollutants such as tobacco smoke, radon, asbestos and benzene may substantially contribute to the increase of cancer incidents in the population. (innovations-report.com)
  • The results of this study will be crucial to help close gaps in our understanding of the types, quantity, and clinical effects of OTS, THS exposure, and THS pollutants in a unique sample of tobacco smoke-exposed ill children and their homes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our research indicates that smoker's homes become reservoirs of persistent toxic pollutants, such as nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and the highly carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In summary, the take-home message and conclusion of this important study is that smoke-free laws are associated with decreased exposure to secondhand smoke but equally with decreased respiratory symptoms as well. (aappublications.org)
  • Home Smoke Exposure and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Acute Respiratory Illness. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Respiratory health effects of passive smoking : lung cancer and other disorders, the report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (who.int)
  • Respiratory health effects of passive smoking : lung cancer and other disorders. (who.int)
  • In cities like Beijing, air pollutions masks are the norm while in other urban areas, we're just beginning to see increased rates of respiratory illnesses tied to air pollution. (justenergy.com)
  • Newborn infants exposed to indoor air pollution and tobacco smoke are at risk of developing lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing, according to a study published in Lancet Planterary Health . (pollution.news)
  • The study supported evidence that exposure to indoor pollution and tobacco smoke can cause childhood lower respiratory tract illness or wheezing. (pollution.news)
  • There is growing concern regarding to the possible effects of air pollution on respiratory health of children in Eleme industrial area of Port-Harcourt Nigeria. (environmental-expert.com)
  • While air pollution is connected to a greater risk of respiratory diseases , strokes and heart attacks , the new findings could add more urgency to Beijing's efforts to curb the problem, which has long plagued Chinese cities. (nytimes.com)
  • In addition, pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and inflammatory markers also decrease after smoke-free environments are implemented ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Passive smoking is linked with cancer, heart disease, respiratory illness 1 2 and is the leading source of indoor airpollution. (bmj.com)
  • This project will examine how different home smoking behaviors contribute to THS and OTS and if levels of THS are associated with respiratory illnesses in nonsmoking children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among adults, personal smoking is a major cause of respiratory symptoms and diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Smoking is a major cause of respiratory symptoms, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among adults. (bmj.com)
  • 1 7 8 16-19 Few studies have reported on the independent and combined effects of ETS and personal smoking on respiratory health among teenagers. (bmj.com)
  • The effect of pre- and post-natal smoke exposure on exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)) in infants was evaluated and the association between respiratory symptoms and F(eNO) in the first 2 months of life was investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Studies of each of these problems suggest independent effects of both pre- and postnatal exposure for each, with the respiratory risk associated with parental smoking seeming to be greatest during fetal development and the first several years of life. (aappublications.org)
  • It has been suggested that parental smoking might be associated with respiratory infections in children because the parents themselves are more likely to bring home a respiratory infection. (aappublications.org)
  • This mechanism would not explain why parental smoking increases the risk and severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants. (aappublications.org)
  • In smoking households, children are at greater risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness. (aappublications.org)
  • 22 Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with an odds ratio of 3.8 for infant death as a result of respiratory disease (excluding conditions related to prematurity). (aappublications.org)
  • Infants and preschool children exposed to indoor and outdoor pollution are at a higher risk of contracting pneumonia and chronic respiratory diseases. (washingtonpost.com)
  • When we think of air pollution in the United States, we usually think of man-made sources, like vehicle emissions and industrial chemicals, but it can also come from natural sources like pollen, wildfires, and mold spores. (justenergy.com)
  • This can come from pollen, smoke, dust, ozone and emissions from cars and factories. (aafa.org)
  • You can bring pollen and smoke particles inside on your clothing. (aafa.org)
  • Evidence Brief: How can we best protect non-smokers from exposure to tobacco smoke? (who.int)
  • Compared with people who do not smoke, smokers have an increased risk of having a positive tuberculin skin test, of having active TB, and of dying from TB. (harvard.edu)
  • Overall, 83% of Irish smokers reported that the smoke-free law was a "good" or "very good" thing. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • The Ireland smoke-free law stands as a positive example of how a population-level policy intervention can achieve its public health goals while achieving a high level of acceptance among smokers. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • There is little evidence - and certainly nothing which proves scientifically - that cigarette smoke causes disease among non-smokers. (wordpress.com)
  • USSG Julius Richmond's 1979 Report: "Healthy non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke have little to no physiologic response to the smoke, and what response does occur may be due to psychological factors. (wordpress.com)
  • Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk factors for heart disease among never smokers in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (cdc.gov)
  • The relative risk of coronary artery disease among never smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus never smokers not exposed to ETS is approximately 1.2 based on more than a dozen epidemiologic studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors studied 3,338 never-smoking adults aged 17 years or older, who are representative of all US never smokers, in the 1988-1991 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to determine whether selected risk factors for heart disease differ between ETS-exposed and -nonexposed persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondhand smoke exposure in adulthood and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a pooled analysis of two large studies. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of the study was to obtain precise and valid estimates of the risk of lung cancer in never smokers following exposure to secondhand smoke, including adjustment for potential confounders and exposure misclassification. (nih.gov)
  • Clear dose-response relationships consistent with a causal association were observed between exposure to secondhand smoke from spousal, workplace and social sources and the development of lung cancer among never smokers. (nih.gov)
  • The risk for all types of smokers increases with the number of years and amount of tobacco smoked. (mayoclinic.org)
  • There was a 14% reduction in the number of admissions for acute coronary syndrome among smokers, a 19% reduction among former smokers, and a 21% reduction among persons who had never smoked. (nih.gov)
  • Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? (bmj.com)
  • In the study, published in Clinical Science, researchers exposed mice to similar levels of smoke found in smokers' homes. (tobacco.org)
  • 3 In the United States, passive smoking has been linked to the deaths of at least 53 000 non-smokers each year, about one non-smoker for each eight smokers that tobacco kills. (bmj.com)
  • Smoke-free workplaces not only protect non-smokers, they also create an environment that encourages smokers to cut back 6 or quit. (bmj.com)
  • the changes in the characteristics of participants before and after the Smoke-Free Environment Act in São Paulo and the levels of urinary cotinine in active and passive smokers and controls. (usp.br)
  • At baseline and follow-up, we will collect urine and handwipe samples from children and samples of dust and air from the homes of smokers who smoke indoors, have smoking bans or who have quit smoking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These samples will be analyzed to examine to what extent THS pollution at home contributes to OTS exposure over and above SHS and to what extent THS continues to persist and contribute to OTS in homes of smokers who have quit or have smoking bans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, we will determine to what extent home THS contributes to OTS exposure over and above SHS and to what extent THS continues to linger and lead to OTS in homes with smoking bans and in homes after smokers quit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If smokers live in or visit your home, ask them to smoke outside. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. (harvard.edu)
  • TB control programs might benefit from a focus on interventions aimed at reducing tobacco and indoor air pollution exposures, especially among those at high risk for exposure to TB. (harvard.edu)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke : measuring exposures and assessing health effects / Committee on Passive Smoking, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council. (who.int)
  • The clinician should consider the following possible sources of indoor air pollution when eliciting information on exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Children's exposure to tobacco constituents during fetal development and via environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is perhaps the most ubiquitous and hazardous of children's environmental exposures. (aappublications.org)
  • Sudden infant death syndrome, behavioral problems, neurocognitive decrements, and increased rates of adolescent smoking also are associated with such exposures. (aappublications.org)
  • Irritants in the air, such as cigarette smoke or other kinds of air pollution. (northshore.org)
  • We examined maternal plasma cotinine (an objective biomarker of smoking) measured during pregnancy in relation to DNA methylation at 473,844 CpG sites (CpGs) in 1,062 newborn cord blood samples from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K). (arctichealth.org)
  • COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is caused primarily by exposure to cigarette smoke. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers added that it was possible that e-cigarette smoke may contribute to similar damage in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A Rebuttal to the Tobacco Industry's Paper, "Cigarette Smoke and the Nonsmoker" published in the Journal of Public Health Policy, September 1984, pp 368-375. (wordpress.com)
  • Moreover, cigarette smoke contains at least 70 carcinogens, chemicals that have been proven to cause cancers, as well as around 7,000 other chemicals that your body could do without. (justenergy.com)
  • Particulate matter (PM) is the term for tiny particles in the air emitted from vehicles, factories, construction, cigarette smoke, burning wood, and burning fossil fuels. (justenergy.com)
  • For example, limit your child's exposure to pets and cigarette smoke, and have them stay indoors on days when air pollution is bad. (familydoctor.org)
  • Examples might include being near to someone's pet, exposure to cigarette smoke, or going outside during times of low air quality. (healthline.com)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), derived primarily from side-stream cigarette smoke emitted between puffs, is a major contributor to indoor air pollution wherever smoking occurs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Which one is cigarette smoke in? (brainscape.com)
  • Of the 4700 chemicals found in cigarette smoke, about how many are known carcinogens? (brainscape.com)
  • Which carcinogen in cigarette smoke is also related to pancreatic cancer? (brainscape.com)
  • Which strong carcinogen in cigarette smoke is actually just from the burning paper? (brainscape.com)
  • Which radioactive compound is inhaled from cigarette smoke? (brainscape.com)
  • Which component of cigarette smoke inhibits mucociliary movement? (brainscape.com)
  • What are the two vascular diseases associated with cigarette smoke? (brainscape.com)
  • Background: Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods and Findings: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals on how tobacco smoking, passive smoke exposure, and indoor air pollution are associated with TB. (harvard.edu)
  • We identified 33 papers on tobacco smoking and TB, five papers on passive smoking and TB, and five on indoor air pollution and TB. (harvard.edu)
  • Although we also found evidence that passive smoking and indoor air pollution increased the risk of TB disease, these associations are less strongly supported by the available evidence. (harvard.edu)
  • The finding that passive smoking and biomass fuel combustion also increase TB risk should be substantiated with larger studies in future. (harvard.edu)
  • Misclassification of smoking habits and passive smoking : a review of the evidence / Peter N. Lee. (who.int)
  • Active and passive smoking hazards in the workplace / Judith A. Douville. (who.int)
  • Maternal smoking and passive smoke exposure were also linked to cases of wheezing. (pollution.news)
  • Wheezing in babies was also linked to the mothers' exposure to passive smoking. (pollution.news)
  • Secondhand smoke, also known as passive or environmental tobacco smoke, is smoke that you inadvertently inhale from someone else's cigarette, pipe or cigar. (mayoclinic.org)
  • ETS is often referred to as secondhand smoke and exposure to ETS is often called passive smoking. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr Chambers added: 'From the studies we looked at, it appears that parents often find it difficult to discuss the issues of passive smoking and over-treating grandchildren. (tobacco.org)
  • To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. (isciii.es)
  • Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. (isciii.es)
  • Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. (isciii.es)
  • Wellman RJ, Wilson KM, O'Loughlin EK, Dugas EN, Montreuil A, O'Loughlin J. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Infants who showed wheezing symptoms had mothers who smoked before and after they gave birth. (pollution.news)
  • The second most predominant trigger of COPD symptoms is combustible smoke, "such as breathing in smoke while cooking over an open wood fire, or heating your home with a kerosene heater that is poorly ventilated," Dr. Sims says. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Although it's important to stay as active as you can with COPD , you do need to be aware of what's going on outdoors: Traditional city air pollution can trigger COPD symptoms. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Although the lung damage that occurs in emphysema develops gradually, most people with tobacco-related emphysema begin to experience symptoms of the disease between the ages of 40 and 60. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Symptoms of COPD due to smoking tend to begin at age 50 or 60, and will worsen unless the smoker quits. (drugs.com)
  • Maternal ETS exposure was associated with lifetime symptoms, but daily smoking among the teenagers was more strongly related to current symptoms. (bmj.com)
  • Smoke exposure, airway symptoms and exhaled nitric oxide in infants: the Generation R study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 13 , 14 Even when controlling for parental symptoms, birth weight, and family size, bronchitis and pneumonia are more common during the first year of life in smoking households. (aappublications.org)
  • Tobacco smoke, asbestos, radon and benzene released inside buildings are prime suspects in the increase in cancer cases amongst the European population. (innovations-report.com)
  • Air pollution, chemical fumes, or other substances in the air. (webmd.com)
  • Read on to learn more about vaping and COPD, and discover how to quit smoking without using e-cigarettes . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest that vaping is less harmful than smoking conventional cigarettes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Smoking is a leading cause of lung cancer, with nine out of 10 lung cancers caused by smoking cigarettes. (aapc.com)
  • More than 34 million Americans still smoke cigarettes, and smoking remains the single largest preventable cause of death and illness in the world. (aapc.com)
  • Totally smoke-free workplaces are associated with reductions in prevalence of smoking of 3.8% (95% confidence interval 2.8% to 4.7%) and 3.1 (2.4 to 3.8) fewer cigarettes smoked per day per continuing smoker. (bmj.com)
  • Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases present in the air we breathe. (justenergy.com)
  • Indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. (epa.gov)
  • Some of the particles in city air pollution are so small that they can't be seen with the eye, but can be breathed deep into the small airways, where they deposit and cause inflammation," Sims says. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A consensus is building that air pollution can cause neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but how fine, sooty particles cause problems in the brain is still an unanswered question. (news-medical.net)
  • Although there is ample evidence that air pollution--specifically airborne particulate matter--is associated with an increased risk of premature death, it is still not known which specific particles are responsible for this effect. (news-medical.net)
  • What Are the Medical Effects of Exposure to Smoke Particles? (burningissues.org)
  • Biomass (wood) smoke is composed of a relatively equal mixture of coarse and ultrafine particles and can penetrate deeply into the lung, producing a variety of morphologic and biochemical changes,' said Dr. Ramírez-Venegas. (burningissues.org)
  • If you already have one at home, set aside a respirator, like an N95 respirator, to keep smoke particles out of the air you breathe. (ready.gov)
  • Air pollution includes gases, smoke from fires, volcanic ash and dust particles. (aafa.org)
  • Airborne particles, found in haze, smoke and airborne dust, present serious air quality problems. (aafa.org)
  • What size particles in air pollution are the most dangerous? (brainscape.com)
  • 100 nm - larger than 90% of the particles of wood smoke[citation needed] (ranges from 7 to 3000 nanometres) Lengths between 10−7 and 10−6 m (100 nm and 1 µm). (wikipedia.org)
  • 100 nm - greatest particle size that can fit through a surgical mask 100 nm - 90% of particles in wood smoke are smaller than this. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings support initiatives in many countries toward implementing smoke-free legislation, particularly those who have ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which calls for legislation to reduce tobacco smoke pollution. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • On February 27, 2005 the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control encouraged countries to "Protect citizens from exposure to tobacco smoke in workplaces, public transport and indoor public places. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Guatemala signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and ratified it in November 16, 2005. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 2003 the World Health Organization ratified its first international public health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) ( http://www.who.int/fctc/en/ ). (bmj.com)
  • The interpretation of the evidence linking exposure to secondhand smoke with lung cancer is constrained by the imprecision of risk estimates. (nih.gov)
  • Subjects included 1263 never smoking lung cancer patients and 2740 population and hospital controls recruited during 1985-1994 from 5 metropolitan areas in the United States, 11 areas in Germany, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, France, Spain and Portugal. (nih.gov)
  • Odds ratios (ORs) of lung cancer were calculated for ever exposure and duration of exposure to secondhand smoke from spouse, workplace and social sources. (nih.gov)
  • Talk to your patients, friends, and loved ones about this deadly disease and spread the word about Medicare-covered preventative services, such as counseling to prevent tobacco use, lung cancer screening counseling, and annual screening for lung cancer with low dose computed tomography. (aapc.com)
  • It is important to note that not everyone who smokes gets cancer nor does everyone who gets lung cancer smoke. (aapc.com)
  • While tobacco use is the most important risk factor for lung cancer, about one in five lung cancers occurs in people who never smoked. (aapc.com)
  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends yearly lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for people who have a history of heavy smoking, smoke now or have quit within the past 15 years, and who are between 55 and 80 years old. (aapc.com)
  • Lung cancer mortality was also examined in this secondhand smoke adjusted study whereby a (non-significant) risk estimate of 1.39 (95% CI, 0.79-2.46) was obtained. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • Hoarseness can also occur due to cancer in the larynx (larynx cancer, different than lung cancer), which is most often caused by tobacco use. (express.co.uk)
  • Creating smoke-free environments has been shown to lead to significant decreases in heart disease and lung cancer mortality, smoking prevalence, and cigarette consumption ( 1 , 3 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Author will indemnify International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Environmental Modelling (IJEPEM) against and costs, expenses or damages that may incur or for winch International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Environmental Modelling may become liable as a result of any breach of these warranties. (ijepem.com)
  • This representations and warranties may be extended to third parties by International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Environmental Modelling. (ijepem.com)
  • Results We observed significant short-term reduction of nicotine on surfaces (BL: 22.2 μg/m 2 , W1: 10.8 μg/m 2 ) and on fingers of non-smoking residents (BL: 29.1 ng/wipe, W1: 9.1 ng/wipe) without further significant changes. (bmj.com)
  • Vaping products usually contain nicotine, a highly addictive drug, although they do not involve tobacco smoke inhalation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) require warnings on vaping products that contain nicotine and tobacco from 2018 onward. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Results: Nicotine was detected in most (68%) locations surveyed (including workplaces where smoking is banned). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nicotine concentrations in bars and restaurants were 710 and 114 times higher, respectively, compared with hospital concentrations after adjustment for smoking ban signs, type of ventilation, and volume of the area. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Wood-burning stoves and poorly vented gas ranges can produce smoke or gases that can cause breathing problems. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). (aaem.pl)
  • Workplace Smoke - Free Policies and Cessation Programs Among U.S. Working Adults. (nih.gov)
  • But the CDC advise against e-cigarette use by young people, those who are pregnant, or adults who do not currently use tobacco. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Secondhand smoke (SHS), the mixture of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke, harms children and adults' health ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Another study found that older adults were more likely to visit the emergency room for breathing problems when summer air pollution was high. (aafa.org)
  • This is significant as the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) recently reported, Air pollution, which kills more than 6 million people every year, is the biggest environmental health risk of our time. (webwire.com)
  • Residents continued to be exposed to THS toxicants that accumulated in settled house dust and on surfaces before smoking cessation. (bmj.com)
  • Data on smoke - free workplace policy coverage and cessation programs by industry and occupation are limited. (nih.gov)
  • Smoke - Free Policies and Smoking Cessation in the United States, 2003-2015. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Smoking cessation programs. (nap.edu)
  • Smoking cessation products are often used together with behavior modification and counseling support groups to help you stop smoking. (drugs.com)
  • 19 There are many potential elements of such a programme, including increased taxes, legislation on smoke-free workplaces and public places, mass media education programmes, youth access laws, school based programmes, community programmes, and cessation assistance. (bmj.com)
  • CASES AND METHODS: A historical cohort study was conducted, of which the inclusion criterion was the registration in the outpatient smoking cessation Clinic in the HU USP, in the period from 2004 to 2011. (usp.br)
  • This project leverages the experimental design from an ongoing pediatric emergency department-based tobacco cessation trial of caregivers who smoke and their children (NIHR01HD083354). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Building on prior research and leveraging the experimental design from an active tobacco cessation trial of caregivers who smoke and their children (NIHR01HD083354), we will examine how home smoking behaviors contribute to THS and OTS pollution and exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Workplace tobacco control interventions reduce smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. workers. (nih.gov)
  • Secondhand smoke exposure and higher blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in NHANES. (ucdenver.edu)
  • 3 A similarly large, although generally newer body of work, clearly links both prenatal maternal smoking and ETS exposure to ear infections, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), behavioral problems, and neurocognitive deficits. (aappublications.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 million people each year die from COPD that develops as a result of indoor air pollution . (everydayhealth.com)
  • A co-pollutant, carbon monoxide (CO) has been widely used as a surrogate measure of PM 2.5 in studies of household air pollution. (nih.gov)
  • In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. (aaem.pl)
  • In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential. (aaem.pl)
  • Objective: To measure secondhand smoke levels in workplaces in Guatemala and to compare exposure to levels in other Latin American cities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A survey about attitudes for smoke-free workplaces was distributed among employees. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is an urgent need for complete smoke-free legislation and for educating workers about the benefits of smoke-free workplaces. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To quantify the effects of smoke-free workplaces on smoking in employees and compare these effects to those achieved through tax increases. (bmj.com)
  • American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation, local ordinance database), and many businesses implemented voluntary policies creating smoke-free workplaces. (bmj.com)
  • By 1998-9,69% of US workers employed indoors outside the home had smoke-free workplaces. (bmj.com)
  • Since as early as the 1980s the tobacco industry has recognised that smoke-free workplaces have a major effect on cigaretteconsumption. (bmj.com)
  • 7 In 1992 Phillip Morris Tobacco Company privately estimated that if all workplaces were smoke-free, total consumption would drop about 10%, through a combination of quitting and cutting down. (bmj.com)
  • Estimating the effect of creating smoke-free workplaces on total cigarette consumption is important because many places are implementing tobacco control programmes with money from dedicated taxes 9 - 18 or with funds from the settlement of lawsuits against the tobacco industry. (bmj.com)
  • Research clearly shows that there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke. (who.int)
  • Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. (aaem.pl)
  • Global estimate of the burden of disease from second-hand smoke. (aaem.pl)
  • Second hand smoke, assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. (aaem.pl)
  • Twose J, Schiaffino A, García M, Borras JM, Fernández E. Correlates of exposure to second-hand smoke in an urban Mediterranean population. (aaem.pl)
  • Martin I want 2 tickets in the smoking section next to stanton glantz.I always wanted to blow tobacco smoke in his face and see if 30 minutes of second hand smoke will actually kill him like he claims! (wordpress.com)
  • Association between exposure to second-hand smoke and health status in children. (isciii.es)
  • Indoor air pollution is the presence of one or more contaminants indoors that carry a certain degree of human health risk. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, for many people, the risks to health may be greater due to exposure to air pollution indoors than outdoors. (epa.gov)
  • The only way to fully protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke is not to allow smoking indoors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The American Lung Association has published an annotated bibliography of recent studies of the health effects of air pollution. (burningissues.org)
  • The recent research elucidates several pathways to explain the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system. (burningissues.org)
  • A new study published on Monday adds to growing evidence of the negative health effects of air pollution on pregnant women and their fetuses. (nytimes.com)
  • Comprehensive smoke-free laws are the only effective means of eliminating the risks associated with smoking. (who.int)
  • To catch up, the U.S. should focus on preventable risks -- especially behavior changes such as tobacco, alcohol , and diet -- which can lead to a 'domino effect' in reducing health loss from other diseases such as diabetes and cancers," he added. (webmd.com)
  • Behaviour such as exposure to smoking and regularly treating children increases cancer risks as children grow into adulthood," said lead author Dr Stephanie Chambers. (tobacco.org)
  • We found substantial evidence that tobacco smoking is positively associated with TB, regardless of the specific TB outcomes. (harvard.edu)
  • Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. (arctichealth.org)
  • The purpose of this review was to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with adverse birth outcomes including fetal growth, prematurity and miscarriage. (mdpi.com)
  • There has been a lot of evidence suggesting a link between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes in general, particularly the risk of a premature birth and a low weight baby," said Tom Clemens , a lecturer at the University of Edinburgh who has researched the subject and was not involved in the study. (nytimes.com)
  • 5 A 2008 systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases was conducted by Chen and colleagues. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • Previous studies have suggested a reduction in the total number of hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome after the enactment of legislation banning smoking in public places. (nih.gov)
  • We collected information prospectively on smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke based on questionnaires and biochemical findings from all patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome to nine Scottish hospitals during the 10-month period preceding the passage of the legislation and during the same period the next year. (nih.gov)
  • The number of admissions for acute coronary syndrome decreased after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. (nih.gov)
  • Objective To assess the evidence for a reduced risk of acute coronary events following comprehensive smoke-free legislation. (bmj.com)
  • Apart from five subgroup analyses, all of the published results suggested a reduction in the incidence of acute coronary events following the introduction of smoke-free legislation. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions There is now a large body of evidence supporting a reduction in acute coronary events following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation, with the effect increasing over time from implementation. (bmj.com)
  • The effect of introducing comprehensive smoke-free legislation on acute coronary events has now been studied in a number of countries. (bmj.com)
  • A broader discussion of indoor air quality, ventilation and 'sick building syndrome' has served, in some cases, to drown out concerns about the harms of secondhand smoke. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • Kaleta D, Makowiec-Dąbrowska T, Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk E, Fronczak A. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of daily cigarette smoking in Poland: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009-2010). (aaem.pl)
  • The prevalence rates are also relatively higher by 1~2% for a group exposed to environmental smoking (ETS) than the other group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 2006. (aaem.pl)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Global Tobacco Surveillance System. (aaem.pl)
  • Smoking causes cancer, cardiovascular disease and bone mineral density loss. (tobaccoreporter.com)
  • New research from the University at Buffalo provides pathophysiologic evidence of the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular disease in China. (news-medical.net)
  • Air pollution significantly increases the risk for premature deaths, particularly in people with underlying cardiovascular disease, clinical and epidemiological studies have determined. (news-medical.net)
  • For heart disease, although SHS increases the risk by 30%, recent evidence indicates that smoke-free environments have immediate cardiovascular benefit, decreasing heart attack admissions to the hospital and heart disease incidence rates ( 6 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Owing to its scale of coverage, smoke-free legislation has the potential to achieve vast public health benefit if it is effective in reducing the risk of smoking-related conditions such as cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • Exploded search terms were applied to the titles, abstracts, MeSH terms and keywords of publications (smok* OR tobacco OR cigarette*) AND (legislation OR ban OR bans OR restriction* OR law OR laws OR smoke free OR smokefree) AND (cardiac OR cardiovascular OR myocardial OR coronary). (bmj.com)
  • The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on children's birth weight has been recognized since 1957, 1 and the first report concerning the adverse effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's health was published in 1967. (aappublications.org)
  • Baccarelli is the senior author of a study published in Lancet Planetary Health that found that air pollution increases the risk for osteoporosis and bone fractures. (tobaccoreporter.com)
  • Wood smoke particle taken from a human lung enlarged. (burningissues.org)
  • This is one of the first studies to link particle pollution to this particular outcome of pregnancy so in that sense it's very important. (nytimes.com)
  • 4 Fine particle pollution or PM2.5 describes particulate matter that is 2.5 micrometres in diameter and smaller (about 1/30th the diameter of a human hair). (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines air pollution as "any visible or invisible particle or gas found in the air that is not part of the natural composition of air. (aafa.org)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke (‎ETS)‎ poses a significant risk to health. (who.int)
  • The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. (aaem.pl)
  • Office on Smoking and Health and United States. (nih.gov)
  • National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health and United States. (nih.gov)
  • Towards a smoke-free health service : report of a seminar, London, UK, on World's 2nd No-Tobacco Day, 31 May 1989. (who.int)
  • Towards a smoke-free health service : the 2nd report : report of a seminar, London, UK, 1 October 1991. (who.int)
  • Towards a smoke-free health service : the 3rd report : report of a seminar, London, UK, 24 May 1993. (who.int)
  • Effects of smoking on the fetus, neonate, and child : proceedings of a symposium held on 9-11 July 1990 at the Ciba Foundation and sponsored by the UK Department of Health / edited by David Poswillo and Eva Alberman. (who.int)
  • When the scientific community was focused on research into the adverse health effects of active smoking, the industry's focus was on creating a false dichotomy in that area. (wordpress.com)
  • However, indoor air pollution has been shown to have considerable effects on both long and short term health and is thought to be responsible for 4.3 million deaths each year. (justenergy.com)
  • How Does Indoor Air Pollution Affect Human Health? (justenergy.com)
  • Following the advice given will not necessarily provide complete protection in all situations or against all health hazards that may be caused by indoor air pollution. (epa.gov)
  • While pollutant levels from individual sources may not pose a significant health risk by themselves, most homes have more than one source that contributes to indoor air pollution. (epa.gov)
  • Tobacco-Free MO - Greater St. Louis Coalition is hosting its 4th annual trivia night at DePaul Health Center in the May Community Center. (wordpress.com)
  • Measuring and valuing the health impacts of pollution are very complex and available methods of economic analysis are often rudimentary. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Infants born to women exposed to high levels of air pollution in the week before delivery are more likely to be admitted to a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (news-medical.net)
  • The benefits of living in a walkable neighborhood could be diminished by increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution, suggests a study led by St. Michael's Hospital and ICES, a non-profit research institute that uses population-based health information to produce knowledge on a broad range of health care issues. (news-medical.net)
  • A new study soon to appear in the Journal of Public Health suggests that air pollution and living in apartment buildings may be associated with an increased risk for dangerous conditions like heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Indoor air pollution can pose a serious health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • An introduction to how wood smoke hurts your health. (burningissues.org)
  • 1. Smoking-Health aspects. (nap.edu)
  • Nevertheless, outside experts agreed that the findings add to the growing body of evidence about the negative effect of air pollution on the health of pregnant women and their fetuses. (nytimes.com)
  • Health concerns about air pollution have grown rapidly in China over the past decade. (nytimes.com)
  • in other words, researchers used statistical techniques that attempted to allow for the adverse health effects of this exposure when estimating the risk from air pollution. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • It also called for better prevention, mainly by tackling smoking, and more 'timely and accurate' diagnosis, including routine lung health and allergy tests. (tobacco.org)
  • At Hardin Memorial Health, although we have long been smoke-free, we recently had to tighten policies. (tobacco.org)
  • As of October 2007, Law 3309, which mandates 100% smoke-free environments in Guatemala, has been approved by the Congress's Health Commission and is still pending discussion in Congress for its approval. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A quantitative comparison of the effects of these interventions would enable public health policy makers to make maximum use of the (usually limited) funds available for tobacco control. (bmj.com)
  • Indoor air pollution can pose a health risk. (aafa.org)
  • The latest studies on human exposure to indoor pollution, released today by the European Commission at its Joint Research Centre (JRC) facilities in Ispra (Italy), reveal that indoor environments pose their own threats to health and, in some cases, can be at least twice as polluting as outdoor environments. (innovations-report.com)
  • According to European Research Commissioner Philippe Busquin: "Traffic and smog are of course major causes of pollution, and we are studying and analysing their impact on human health. (innovations-report.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Smoking is recognized today as one of the major health problems worldwide. (usp.br)
  • The evidence points to PM2.5 as the most satisfactory index of particulate air pollution for quantitative assessments of the effects of policy interventions. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • Household air pollution from solid fuel burning is a leading contributor to disease burden globally. (nih.gov)
  • The goal was to evaluate the validity of exposure to CO as a surrogate of exposure to PM 2.5 in studies of household air pollution and the consistency of the PM 2.5 -CO relationship across different study settings and conditions. (nih.gov)
  • 12 Household smoking increases the frequency of attacks, 27 the number of emergency department visits, 28 and the risk of intubation. (aappublications.org)
  • People with a history of smoking are more likely to develop chronic bronchitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • COPD includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and most deaths, around 80 percent, result from smoking. (drugs.com)
  • Thirdhand Smoke: What Are the Dangers to Nonsmokers? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thirdhand smoke (THS) is the persistent residue resulting from secondhand smoke (SHS) that accumulates in dust, objects, and on surfaces in homes where tobacco has been used, and is reemitted into air. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 450K epigenome-wide scan identifies differential DNA methylation in newborns related to maternal smoking during pregnancy. (arctichealth.org)
  • We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in cord blood of newborns in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy. (arctichealth.org)
  • 6. Smoke-adverse effects. (nap.edu)
  • There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. (epa.gov)
  • The content in this section focuses on the above potential sources of indoor air pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • In particular, gas stove use, wood burning in fireplaces or stoves, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are the principal indoor combustion sources. (bmj.com)
  • Of particular concern are the solid chunks of pollution that come from products of combustion, such as car and truck exhaust. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In the home, combustion is a major source of indoor air pollution. (bmj.com)
  • Even at pollution levels the Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable, there is still an increased risk. (tobaccoreporter.com)
  • The study … found that the risk for bone fractures among people over 65 increased steadily as levels of air pollution - specifically, particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers, or PM 2.5 - went up. (tobaccoreporter.com)
  • Conclusions: There is consistent evidence that tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of TB. (harvard.edu)
  • [2] The elderly are another at-risk group-as we age, our bodies are less able to overcome the effects of pollution. (justenergy.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is one risk that you can do something about. (epa.gov)
  • The longitudinal birth cohort study, conducted on mothers and infants in Paarl, South Africa, also revealed that newborns who were exposed to smoke - either from their mothers or a family member - before birth are also associated with an increased risk of wheezing. (pollution.news)
  • Being around secondhand smoke increases your risk of emphysema. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This risk is even greater if you smoke. (mayoclinic.org)
  • in China have found a significant link between air pollution and the risk of miscarriage, according to a new scientific paper released on Monday. (nytimes.com)
  • Tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, using the voice in certain professions such as actors and singers, and environmental issues such as pollution and low humidity can all increase a person's risk of developing hoarseness. (express.co.uk)
  • 21 Smoking during pregnancy seems to add an additional risk to that associated with postnatal exposure to ETS. (aappublications.org)
  • But unfortunately smoking and chemical substances sometimes follow us even behind closed doors - at home, at the office, in restaurants and bars. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chemical exposure is often a result of indoor air pollution. (encyclopedia.com)