Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.SmokeAir Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Tobacco, Smokeless: Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Respiratory Tract DiseasesTobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.RestaurantsPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Tobacco Use: Use of TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum L) and TOBACCO PRODUCTS.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Housing: Living facilities for humans.AcroleinPublic Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.United StatesSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.FiresQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Leukoplakia: A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.CaliforniaSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)PolandPolycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Tobacco Use Cessation Products: Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.CarboxyhemoglobinSaliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)IndiaMeteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.

The effect of cotinine or cigarette smoke co-administration on the formation of O6-methylguanine adducts in the lung and liver of A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (1/2289)

4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, induces lung adenomas in A/J mice, following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. However, inhalation of tobacco smoke has not induced or promoted tumors in these mice. NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis is thought to involve O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) formation, leading to GC-->AT transitional mispairing and an activation of the K-ras proto-oncogene in the A/J mouse. NNK can be metabolized by several different cytochromes P450, resulting in a number of metabolites. Formation of the promutagenic DNA adduct O6MeG is believed to require metabolic activation of NNK by cytochrome P450-mediated alpha-hydroxylation of the methylene group adjacent to the N-nitroso nitrogen to yield the unstable intermediate, methanediazohydroxide. Nicotine, cotinine (the major metabolite of nicotine), and aqueous cigarette tar extract (ACTE) have all been shown to effectively inhibit metabolic activation of NNK to its mutagenic form, most likely due to competitive inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in alpha-hydroxylation of NNK. The objective of the current study was to monitor the effects of cotinine and cigarette smoke (CS) on the formation of O6MeG in target tissues of mice during the acute phase of NNK treatment. To test the effect of cotinine, mature female A/J mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of NNK (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mumole/mouse) with cotinine administered at a total dose of 50 mumole/mouse in 3 separate i.p. injections, administered 30 min before, immediately after, and 30 min after NNK treatment. To test the effect of whole smoke exposure on NNK-related O6MeG formation, mice were exposed to smoke generated from Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarettes at 0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 mg wet total particulate matter/liter (WTPM/L) for 2 h, with a single i.p. injection of NNK (0, 3.75, or 7.5 mumole/mouse) midway through the exposure. Cigarette smoke alone failed to yield detectable levels of O6MeG. The number of O6MeG adducts following i.p. injection of NNK was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in both lung and liver by cotinine and by cigarette smoke exposure. Our results demonstrate that NNK-induced O6MeG DNA adducts in A/J mice are significantly reduced when NNK is administered together with either cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, or the parental complex mixture, cigarette smoke.  (+info)

Evaluation of passive smoking by measuring urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. (2/2289)

No method has yet been established to evaluate the exposure to tobacco smoke in passive smoking (PS). We therefore conducted a study on the possibility that the levels of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) could be indices of the passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The moderate correlation was observed between urinary MA levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. The mean urinary MA level of the PS (+) group was significantly higher than that with the PS (-) group. Among the PS (+) group, the mean MA level in the urine obtained in the afternoon was higher than that obtained in the morning. A high correlation was observed between the exhaled CO levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. Like the urinary MA level, the mean exhaled CO level in the PS (+) group, too, gave a significantly higher level than in the PS (-) group. Because the biological half life of MA (7.5 +/- 0.85 h) was longer than that of CO (3.0 +/- 0.36 h), the measurement of urinary MA level is recommended for evaluating the exposure of passive smoking. The measurement of exhaled CO levels is useful only for chain smokers and nonsmokers with PS just before measurement.  (+info)

The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children. (3/2289)

The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors.  (+info)

Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease--a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. (4/2289)

BACKGROUND: The effect of passive smoking on the risk of coronary heart disease is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of the risk of coronary heart disease associated with passive smoking among nonsmokers. METHODS: We searched the Medline and Dissertation Abstracts Online data bases and reviewed citations in relevant articles to identify 18 epidemiologic (10 cohort and 8 case-control) studies that met prestated inclusion criteria. Information on the designs of the studies, the characteristics of the study subjects, exposure and outcome measures, control for potential confounding factors, and risk estimates was abstracted independently by three investigators using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: Overall, nonsmokers exposed to environmental smoke had a relative risk of coronary heart disease of 1.25 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.32) as compared with nonsmokers not exposed to smoke. Passive smoking was consistently associated with an increased relative risk of coronary heart disease in cohort studies (relative risk, 1.21; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.30), in case-control studies (relative risk, 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.81), in men (relative risk, 1.22; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.35), in women (relative risk, 1.24; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.34), and in those exposed to smoking at home (relative risk, 1.17; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.24) or in the workplace (relative risk, 1.11; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.23). A significant dose-response relation was identified, with respective relative risks of 1.23 and 1.31 for nonsmokers who were exposed to the smoke of 1 to 19 cigarettes per day and those who were exposed to the smoke of 20 or more cigarettes per day, as compared with nonsmokers not exposed to smoke (P=0.006 for linear trend). CONCLUSIONS: Passive smoking is associated with a small increase in the risk of coronary heart disease. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking, the public health consequences of passive smoking with regard to coronary heart disease may be important.  (+info)

Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke. (5/2289)

One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios.  (+info)

Health effects of passive smoking-10: Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. (6/2289)

BACKGROUND: Two recent reviews have assessed the effect of parental smoking on respiratory disease in children. METHODS: The results of the systematic quantitative review published as a series in Thorax are summarised and brought up to date by considering papers appearing on Embase or Medline up to June 1998. The findings are compared with those of the review published recently by the Californian Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Areas requiring further research are identified. RESULTS: Overall there is a very consistent picture with odds ratios for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and middle ear disease of between 1.2 and 1.6 for either parent smoking, the odds usually being higher in pre-school than in school aged children. For sudden infant death syndrome the odds ratio for maternal smoking is about 2. Significant effects from paternal smoking suggest a role for postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recent publications do not lead us to alter the conclusions of our earlier reviews. While essentially narrative rather than systematic and quantitative, the findings of the Californian EPA review are broadly similar. In addition they have reviewed studies of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke on children with cystic fibrosis and conclude from the limited evidence that there is a strong case for a relationship between parental smoking and admissions to hospital. They also review data from adults of the effects of acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke under laboratory conditions which suggest acute effects on spirometric parameters rather than on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It seems likely that such effects are also present in children. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial benefits to children would arise if parents stopped smoking after birth, even if the mother smoked during pregnancy. Policies need to be developed which reduce smoking amongst parents and protect infants and young children from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The weight of evidence is such that new prevalence studies are no longer justified. What are needed are studies which allow comparison of the effects of critical periods of exposure to cigarette smoke, particularly in utero, early infancy, and later childhood. Where longitudinal studies are carried out they should be analysed to look at the way in which changes in exposure are related to changes in outcome. Better still would be studies demonstrating reversibility of adverse effects, especially in asthmatic subjects or children with cystic fibrosis.  (+info)

Urinary cotinine and exposure to parental smoking in a population of children with asthma. (7/2289)

BACKGROUND: Studies of the effects of tobacco smoke often rely on reported exposure to cigarette smoke, a measure that is subject to bias. We describe here the relationship between parental smoking exposure as assessed by urinary cotinine excretion and lung function in children with asthma. METHODS: We studied 90 children 4-14 years of age, who reported a confirmed diagnosis or symptoms of asthma. In each child, we assessed baseline pulmonary function (spirometry) and bronchial responsiveness to carbachol stimulation. Urinary cotinine was measured by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. RESULTS: Urinary cotinine concentrations in the children were significantly correlated (P <0.001) with the number of cigarettes the parents, especially the mothers, smoked. Bronchial responsiveness to carbachol (but not spirometry test results) was correlated (P <0.03) with urinary cotinine in the children. CONCLUSION: Passive smoke exposure increases the bronchial responsiveness to carbachol in asthmatic children.  (+info)

Ischemic stroke risk and passive exposure to spouses' cigarette smoking. Melbourne Stroke Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group. (8/2289)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between ischemic stroke risk and passive exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS: Risk factors among 452 hospitalized cases of first-episode ischemic stroke were compared with 452 age- and sex-matched "neighbor-hood" controls. RESULTS: The risk of stroke was twice as high for subjects whose spouses smoked as for those whose spouses did not smoke (95% confidence interval = 1.3, 3.1), after adjustment for the subject's own smoking, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and education level. These results were confirmed when analysis was limited to those who never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that spousal smoking may be a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke.  (+info)

  • 19 There are many potential elements of such a programme, including increased taxes, legislation on smoke-free workplaces and public places, mass media education programmes, youth access laws, school based programmes, community programmes, and cessation assistance. (bmj.com)
  • To quantify the effects of smoke-free workplaces on smoking in employees and compare these effects to those achieved through tax increases. (bmj.com)
  • American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation, local ordinance database), and many businesses implemented voluntary policies creating smoke-free workplaces. (bmj.com)
  • By 1998-9,69% of US workers employed indoors outside the home had smoke-free workplaces. (bmj.com)
  • Since as early as the 1980s the tobacco industry has recognised that smoke-free workplaces have a major effect on cigaretteconsumption. (bmj.com)
  • 7 In 1992 Phillip Morris Tobacco Company privately estimated that if all workplaces were smoke-free, total consumption would drop about 10%, through a combination of quitting and cutting down. (bmj.com)
  • Intervention Comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces, including bars, restaurants, and cafes. (bmj.com)
  • On 26 March 2006 comprehensive legislation was implemented in Scotland to prohibit smoking in virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces, including bars, restaurants, and cafes. (bmj.com)
  • 11 These immediate effects on the cardiovascular system provide a plausible explanation for the observed reductions in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction in areas in the United States and Italy after implementation of smoke-free legislation. (bmj.com)
  • A quantitative comparison of the effects of these interventions would enable public health policy makers to make maximum use of the (usually limited) funds available for tobacco control. (bmj.com)
  • We found substantial evidence that tobacco smoking is positively associated with TB, regardless of the specific TB outcomes. (harvard.edu)
  • The purpose of this review was to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with adverse birth outcomes including fetal growth, prematurity and miscarriage. (mdpi.com)
  • There has been a lot of evidence suggesting a link between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes in general, particularly the risk of a premature birth and a low weight baby," said Tom Clemens , a lecturer at the University of Edinburgh who has researched the subject and was not involved in the study. (nytimes.com)
  • METHODS: Logistic regressions were estimated for a variety of smoking outcomes, controlling for individual demographic characteristics, state economic characteristics, and state, year, and month fixed effects, using data on 1380 bartenders from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey combined with data on SCIALs from ImpacTeen. (cdc.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 2006. (aaem.pl)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Global Tobacco Surveillance System. (aaem.pl)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke (‎ETS)‎ poses a significant risk to health. (who.int)
  • The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. (aaem.pl)
  • Office on Smoking and Health and United States. (nih.gov)
  • National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health and United States. (nih.gov)
  • Towards a smoke-free health service : report of a seminar, London, UK, on World's 2nd No-Tobacco Day, 31 May 1989. (who.int)
  • Towards a smoke-free health service : the 2nd report : report of a seminar, London, UK, 1 October 1991. (who.int)
  • Towards a smoke-free health service : the 3rd report : report of a seminar, London, UK, 24 May 1993. (who.int)
  • Effects of smoking on the fetus, neonate, and child : proceedings of a symposium held on 9-11 July 1990 at the Ciba Foundation and sponsored by the UK Department of Health / edited by David Poswillo and Eva Alberman. (who.int)
  • When the scientific community was focused on research into the adverse health effects of active smoking, the industry's focus was on creating a false dichotomy in that area. (wordpress.com)
  • Following the advice given will not necessarily provide complete protection in all situations or against all health hazards that may be caused by indoor air pollution. (epa.gov)
  • While pollutant levels from individual sources may not pose a significant health risk by themselves, most homes have more than one source that contributes to indoor air pollution. (epa.gov)
  • Tobacco-Free MO - Greater St. Louis Coalition is hosting its 4th annual trivia night at DePaul Health Center in the May Community Center. (wordpress.com)
  • Measuring and valuing the health impacts of pollution are very complex and available methods of economic analysis are often rudimentary. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Infants born to women exposed to high levels of air pollution in the week before delivery are more likely to be admitted to a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (news-medical.net)
  • The benefits of living in a walkable neighborhood could be diminished by increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution, suggests a study led by St. Michael's Hospital and ICES, a non-profit research institute that uses population-based health information to produce knowledge on a broad range of health care issues. (news-medical.net)
  • A new study soon to appear in the Journal of Public Health suggests that air pollution and living in apartment buildings may be associated with an increased risk for dangerous conditions like heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Indoor air pollution can pose a serious health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • 1. Smoking-Health aspects. (nap.edu)
  • A new study published on Monday adds to growing evidence of the negative health effects of air pollution on pregnant women and their fetuses. (nytimes.com)
  • Nevertheless, outside experts agreed that the findings add to the growing body of evidence about the negative effect of air pollution on the health of pregnant women and their fetuses. (nytimes.com)
  • Health concerns about air pollution have grown rapidly in China over the past decade. (nytimes.com)
  • in other words, researchers used statistical techniques that attempted to allow for the adverse health effects of this exposure when estimating the risk from air pollution. (tobaccoinaustralia.org.au)
  • It also called for better prevention, mainly by tackling smoking, and more 'timely and accurate' diagnosis, including routine lung health and allergy tests. (tobacco.org)
  • At Hardin Memorial Health, although we have long been smoke-free, we recently had to tighten policies. (tobacco.org)
  • As of October 2007, Law 3309, which mandates 100% smoke-free environments in Guatemala, has been approved by the Congress's Health Commission and is still pending discussion in Congress for its approval. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A quantitative comparison of the effects of these interventions would enable public health policy makers to make maximum use of the (usually limited) funds available for tobacco control. (bmj.com)
  • Introduction: annually, many people die due to being exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) which they experience at a number of premises that include health institutions. (who.int)
  • Indoor air pollution can pose a health risk. (aafa.org)
  • The latest studies on human exposure to indoor pollution, released today by the European Commission at its Joint Research Centre (JRC) facilities in Ispra (Italy), reveal that indoor environments pose their own threats to health and, in some cases, can be at least twice as polluting as outdoor environments. (innovations-report.com)
  • According to European Research Commissioner Philippe Busquin: "Traffic and smog are of course major causes of pollution, and we are studying and analysing their impact on human health. (innovations-report.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Smoking is recognized today as one of the major health problems worldwide. (usp.br)
  • And stopping smoking will have benefits for both your health and others. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Such laws may nonetheless be an important public health tool for reducing secondhand smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • A 2004 series of monographs released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a part of the World Health Organisation, summarized research from the 1960s onwards about the carcinogenicity of tobacco on various laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1960s, the animal most used in testing the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke has been the Syrian Golden Hamster due to its resistance to pulmonary infections and the infrequency with which it spontaneously develops pulmonary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study indicates that prenatal exposure to air pollution impacts development of self-regulation and as such may underlie the development of many childhood psychopathologies that derive from deficits in self-regulation, such as ADHD, OCD, substance use disorders, and eating disorders," says Margolis. (junkscience.com)
  • NIEHS currently funds research projects that look at how exposure to pesticides, pollution, and other contaminants, alone and in combination with specific genes, affects neurodegeneration. (nih.gov)
  • We collected information prospectively on smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke based on questionnaires and biochemical findings from all patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome to nine Scottish hospitals during the 10-month period preceding the passage of the legislation and during the same period the next year. (nih.gov)