The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.
Diseases of plants.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A plant species in the genus SAMBUCUS, known for the elderberry fruit. The plant is also a source of Sambucus nigra lectins and ribosome-inactivating protein.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
An enzyme that activates histidine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.21.
A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) deficient in the production of its native coat protein supports long-distance movement of a chimeric TMV. (1/702)

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) coat protein is involved in systemic infection of host plants, and a specific mutation in this gene prevents the virus from moving into the upper uninoculated leaves. The coat protein also is required for different viral functions during early and late infection. To study the role of the coat protein in long-distance movement of AlMV independent of other vital functions during virus infection, we cloned the gene encoding the coat protein of AlMV into a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector Av. This vector is deficient in long-distance movement and is limited to locally inoculated leaves because of the lack of native TMV coat protein. Expression of AlMV coat protein, directed by the subgenomic promoter of TMV coat protein in Av, supported systemic infection with the chimeric virus in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum MD609, and Spinacia oleracea. The host range of TMV was extended to include spinach as a permissive host. Here we report the alteration of a host range by incorporating genetic determinants from another virus.  (+info)

Heterologous sequences greatly affect foreign gene expression in tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors. (2/702)

A series of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based hybrid vectors for transient gene expression were constructed with similar designs but differing in the source of heterologous tobamovirus sequence: Odontoglossum ringspot virus, tobacco mild green mosaic virus variants U2 and U5, tomato mosaic virus, and sunn-hemp mosaic virus. These vectors contained a heterologous coat protein subgenomic mRNA promoter and coat protein open reading frame (ORF) and either TMV or heterologous 3' nontranslated region. The foreign ORF, from the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, was transcribed from the native TMV coat protein subgenomic mRNA promoter, which extended into the coat protein ORF. The presence of an in-frame stop codon within the GFP mRNA leader and the choice of sequence of GFP ORFs substantially affected translational efficiency. However, the major regulatory component of gene expression in these vectors appeared to be transcriptional rather than translational. There was an inverse relationship between expression of GFP and the heterologous coat protein genes that was reflected in accumulation of the respective mRNAs and proteins. The most effective vector in this series (30B) contained sequences encoding the coat protein subgenomic mRNA promoter, coat protein ORF, and 3' nontranslated region from tobacco mild green mosaic virus U5. Expressed from 30B, GFP accumulated up to 10% of total soluble protein in leaves.  (+info)

Isolation from tobacco mosaic virus-infected tobacco of a solubilized template-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase containing a 126K/183K protein heterodimer. (3/702)

The complete nucleotide sequence was determined for the putative RNA polymerase (183K protein) gene of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) OM strain, which differed from the related strain, vulgare, by 51 positions in its nucleotide sequence and 6 residues in its amino acid sequence. Three segments of this 183K protein, each containing the sequence motif of methyltransferase (M), helicase (H), or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (P), were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with hexahistidine tags, and domain-specific antibodies were raised against purified His-tagged M and P polypeptides. By immunoaffinity purification, a template-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase containing a heterodimer of the full-length 183K and 126K (an amino-terminal-proximal portion of the 183K protein) viral proteins was isolated. We propose that the TMV RNA polymerase for minus-strand RNA synthesis is composed of one molecule each of the 183- and 126-kDa proteins, possibly together with two or more host proteins.  (+info)

Homogenization-resistant and -susceptible components of tobacco mosaic virus replicative form RNA. (4/702)

When prepared from tissue frozen with liquid nitrogen, tobacco mosaic virus replicative form RNA (TMV RF) was uniform in size but when prepared by high-speed homogenization, or when TMV RF prepared with liquid nitrogen was homogenized, 80 to 90% of the RF broke into relatively discrete pieces. The unbroken RF was not fragmented by additional homogenization. The TMV RF components susceptible and resistant to breakage, respectively, were synthesized with similar kinetics in relation to length of labelling period, but the slightly more resistant component was synthesized during the early infection period. Both components were produced by different strains of TMV but leaves infected with cowpea chlorotic mottle or southern bean mosaic viruses yielded only RF resistant to breakage. TMV replicative intermediate RNA was also broken by homogenization. The occurrence of the two RF components may be of significance in the replication of RNA viruses.  (+info)

Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory. (5/702)

Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack [1]. The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR [2] [3]. A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory [4] [5]. There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores [6] [7]. This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding [8] [9] [10], although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance.  (+info)

Milestones in the research on tobacco mosaic virus. (6/702)

Beijerinck's (1898) recognition that the cause of tobacco mosaic disease was a novel kind of pathogen became the breakthrough which eventually led to the establishment of virology as a science. Research on this agent, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), has continued to be at the forefront of virology for the past century. After an initial phase, in which numerous biological properties of TMV were discovered, its particles were the first shown to consist of RNA and protein, and X-ray diffraction analysis of their structure was the first of a helical nucleoprotein. In the molecular biological phase of research, TMV RNA was the first plant virus genome to be sequenced completely, its genes were found to be expressed by cotranslational particle disassembly and the use of subgenomic mRNA, and the mechanism of assembly of progeny particles from their separate parts was discovered. Molecular genetical and cell biological techniques were then used to clarify the roles and modes of action of the TMV non-structural proteins: the 126 kDa and 183 kDa replicase components and the 30 kDa cell-to-cell movement protein. Three different TMV genes were found to act as avirulence genes, eliciting hypersensitive responses controlled by specific, but different, plant genes. One of these (the N gene) was the first plant gene controlling virus resistance to be isolated and sequenced. In the biotechnological sphere, TMV has found several applications: as the first source of transgene sequences conferring virus resistance, in vaccines consisting of TMV particles genetically engineered to carry foreign epitopes, and in systems for expressing foreign genes. TMV owes much of its popularity as a research mode to the great stability and high yield of its particles. Although modern methods have much decreased the need for such properties, and TMV may have a less dominant role in the future, it continues to occupy a prominent position in both fundamental and applied research.  (+info)

The tobacco mosaic virus particle: structure and assembly. (7/702)

A short account is given of the physical and chemical studies that have led to an understanding of the structure of the tobacco mosaic virus particle and how it is assembled from its constituent coat protein and RNA. The assembly is a much more complex process than might have been expected from the simplicity of the helical design of the particle. The protein forms an obligatory intermediate (a cylindrical disk composed of two layers of protein units), which recognizes a specific RNA hairpin sequence. This extraordinary mechanism simultaneously fulfils the physical requirement for nucleating the growth of the helical particle and the biological requirement for specific recognition of the viral DNA.  (+info)

Self-assembly of tobacco mosaic virus: the role of an intermediate aggregate in generating both specificity and speed. (8/702)

The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particle was the first macromolecular structure to be shown to self-assemble in vitro, allowing detailed studies of the mechanism. Nucleation of TMV self-assembly is by the binding of a specific stem-loop of the single-stranded viral RNA into the central hole of a two-ring sub-assembly of the coat protein, known as the 'disk'. Binding of the loop onto its specific binding site, between the two rings of the disk, leads to melting of the stem so more RNA is available to bind. The interaction of the RNA with the protein subunits in the disk cause this to dislocate into a proto-helix, rearranging the protein subunits in such a way that the axial gap between the rings at inner radii closes, entrapping the RNA. Assembly starts at an internal site on TMV RNA, about 1 kb from its 3'-terminus, and the elongation in the two directions is different. Elongation of the nucleated rods towards the 5'-terminus occurs on a 'travelling loop' of the RNA and, predominantly, still uses the disk sub-assembly of protein subunits, consequently incorporating approximately 100 further nucleotides as each disk is added, while elongation towards the 3'-terminus uses smaller protein aggregates and does not show this 'quantized' incorporation.  (+info)

Bevan, M.W.; Mason, S.E.; Goelet, P., 1985: Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium
Microtubules in crane-fly spermatids appeared altered when the glutaraldehyde-fixed cells were not postfixed with osmium tetroxide. The cytoplasmic microtubules were altered more than the doublet microtubules. Addition of osmium tetroxide after dehydration did not produce appearances identical with those of microtubules postfixed directly after glutaraldehyde, and thus at least some alterations occurred during dehydration, possibly due to extraction of microtubule-associated lipid. The omission of osmium tetroxide postfixation did not cause drastic alterations in the appearances of either tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), or polymerized tobacco mosaic virus protein (without RNA), suggesting that microtubule stability is different from TMV stability (with respect to the embedment procedure). The electron-dense stain associated with embedded-sectioned TMV is predominantly outside the TMV protein, as demonstrated by the known distribution of TMV protein compared with the dimensions of sectioned TMV and ...
Plant positive-strand RNA viruses require association with plant cell endomembranes for viral translation and replication, as well as for intra- and intercellular movement of the viral progeny. The membrane association and RNA binding of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) are vital for orchestrating the macromolecular network required for virus movement. A previously proposed topological model suggests that TMV MP is an integral membrane protein with two putative α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. Here we tested this model using an experimental system that measured the efficiency with which natural polypeptide segments were inserted into the ER membrane under conditions approximating the in vivo situation, as well as in planta. Our results demonstrated that the two hydrophobic regions (HRs) of TMV MP do not span biological membranes. We further found that mutations to alter the hydrophobicity of the first HR modified membrane association and precluded virus movement. We ...
The p30 movement protein (MP) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of tobacco mosaic virus in planta. We used anion-exchange chromatography and preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to obtain highly purified 30-kDa MP, which migrated as a single band in native PAGE. Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that the protein was monodisperse and dimeric in the nonionic detergent n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that the detergent-solubilized protein contained significant alpha-helical secondary structure. Proteolysis of the C-tail generated a trypsin-resistant core that was a mixture of primarily monomers and some dimers. We propose that MP dimers are stabilized by electrostatic interactions in the C terminus as well as hydrophobic interactions between putative transmembrane alpha-helical coiled coils ...
Oligonucleotide primers have been used to generate a cDNA library covering the entire tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA sequence. Analysis of these clones has enabled us to complete the viral RNA sequence and to study its variability within a viral population. The positive strand coding sequence starts 69 nucleotides from the 5 end with a reading frame for a protein of Mr 125,941 and terminates with UAG. Readthrough of this terminator would give rise to a protein of Mr 183,253. Overlapping the terminal five codons of this readthrough reading frame is a second reading frame coding for a protein of Mr 29,987. This gene terminates two nucleotides before the initiator codon of the coat protein gene. Potential signal sequences responsible for the capping and synthesis of the coat protein and Mr 29,987 protein mRNAs have been identified. Similar sequences within these reading frames may be used in the expression of sets of proteins that share COOH-terminal sequences.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro translation products of mrnas derived from TMV-infected tobacco exhibiting a hypersensitive response. AU - Smart, Thomas E.. AU - Dunigan, David D.. AU - Zaitlin, Milton. PY - 1987/6. Y1 - 1987/6. N2 - Expression of the hypersensitive response (HSR) to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) is controlled by the single dominant N gene and is temperature sensitive. TMV-infected Xanthi-nc tobacco plants grown at the HSR-restrictive temperature of 31° for 3 days postinoculation show necrosis approximately 8 hr after the temperature shift to the HSR-permissive temperature of 25°. Both polyribosomal and total cytoplasmic poly(A)-containing RNAs were isolated at various times after the temperature shift from leaves of TMV-infected and mock-infected Xanthi-nc tobacco plants and from TMV-infected Turkish Samsun tobacco plants (genotype nn; systemic for TMV infection). The RNAs were translated in vitro and the products were ...
TMV or Tobacco Mosaic Virus is a rod shape virus. It is an elongated virus with a helical symmetry. It causes tobacco mosaic disease. ...
Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) differs from the type strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in producing local lesions instead of systemic infection on Nicotiana sylvestris. An isolate collected from Kolar district of Karnataka which produced this differential host reaction was propagated in the greenhouse on N. tabacum cp. Samsun and purified. The virus is a rigid rod shaped particle with a coat protein of molecular weight 18 kDa and genomic RNA of size 6.3 kb. A cDNA library was constructed using a specific primer designed based on the conserved nucleotide sequence at the 3 non coding region of tobamoviruses. The cDNA library was screened for recombinant Clones and, the recombinant clone 82 with an insert of size 1.04 kb was sequenced in both directions. This sequence was compared with the genomic sequence of TMV and ToMV which showed 93.1 and 73.7 per cent identity, respectively. The sequence encompassed the 3 non coding region, the complete coat protein ORF and 467 nucleotides of the, ...
See on Scoop.it - Virology News Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to…
Viruses are obligatory parasites that depend on host Hula o for their replication as el as for their local and syst movement to establish infection. Although myosin motors are hought to contribute to plant virus infection, their exact role in the specific infection steps have not been addressed. Here we investigated the replication, cell-to-cell and systemic spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using dominant negative inhibition of myosin activity. We found that interference with the functions of three class VIII myosins and two class XI myosins significantly reduced the local and long-distance transport o virus. We further determined that the inactivation of myosins XI-2 and XI-K affected the structure and dynamic behavior of th ER leading to aggregation of he viral movement protein (MP) and to a delay in the MP accumulation in plasmodesmata (PD) The inactivation of myosin XI-2 but not of myosin XI-K affected the localization pattern of the 126k replicase subunit and the level of TMV ...
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) causes significant losses in many economically important crops. Contaminated soils may play roles as reservoirs and sources of transmission for TMV. In this study we report the development of an immunocapture real-time RT-PCR (IC-real-time RT-PCR) assay for direct detection of TMV in soils without RNA isolation. A series of TMV infected leaf sap dilutions of 1:101, 1:102, 1:103, 1:104, 1:105 and 1:106 (w/v, g/mL) were added to one gram of soil. The reactivity of DAS-ELISA and conventional RT-PCR was in the range of 1:102 and 1:103 dilution in TMV-infested soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the detection limit of IC-real-time RT-PCR sensitivity was up to 1:106 dilution. However, in plant sap infected by TMV, both IC-real-time RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR were up to 1:106 dilution, DAS-ELISA could detect at least 1:103 dilution. IC-real-time RT-PCR method can use either plant sample extracts or cultivated soils, and show higher sensitivity than RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA for detection of
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an intensely studied model of viruses. This paper reports an investigation into the dissociation of TMV by pH and pressure up to 220 MPa. The viral solution (0.25 mg/ml) incubated at 277 K showed a significant decrease in light scattering with increasing pH, suggesting dissociation. This observation was confirmed by HPLC gel filtration and electron microscopy. The calculated volume change of dissociation (AV) decreased (absolute value) from - 49.7 ml/mol of subunit at pH 3.8 to - 21.7 ml/mol of subunit at pH 9.0. The decrease from pH 9.0 to 3.8 caused a stabilization of 14.1 kJ/mol of TMV subunit. The estimated proton release calculated from pressure-induced dissociation curves was 0.584 mol H+/mol of TMV subunit. These results suggest that the degree of virus inactivation by pressure and the immunogenicity of the inactivated structures can be optimized by modulating the surrounding pH, (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been at the center of virus research since its discovery over a hundred years ago. TMV was the first virus to be discovered. Late in the 19th century, researchers found that a tiny infectious agent, too small to be a bacterium, was the cause of a disease of tobacco plants. It then took 30 years of work before the nature of this mysterious agent became apparent. In a Nobel-prize-winning study, Wendell Stanley coaxed the virus to form crystals, and discovered that it was composed primarily of protein. Others quickly discovered that there was also RNA in the virus. Then, many prominent structural researchers (including J. D. Bernal, Rosalind Franklin, Ken Holmes, Aaron Klug, Don Caspar, and Gerald Stubbs) used X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy to probe the structure of the virus ...
Abstract: Transition metal nanoparticles possess valuable specific size dependent properties that arise at the nanoscale, and differ significantly from their bulk properties. However, the fabrication of these nanoparticles is often difficult to predict and control due to harsh reaction conditions and effects of capping agents or surfactants. Therefore, there is a critical need for facile routes to... read moreward controllable nanoparticle fabrication. Biological supramolecules, such as viruses, offer attractive templates for nanoparticle synthesis, due to their precise size and shape. In addition, simple genetic modifications can be employed to confer additional functionality with a high number of precisely spaced functional groups. In this work we exploit the specificity of genetically modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV1cys) for readily controllable palladium (Pd) nanoparticle synthesis via simple electroless deposition. TMV1cys, engineered to display one cysteine residue on the surface of ...
The formation of ordered aggregates of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in the presence of divalent metal ions has been studied in concentrated (1-25 mg/ml) solutions of the virus. The divalent metal cations Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ have been found
In this project I explored two different methods for utilizing genetically modified tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) to robustly create tunable and functional nano-scale surfaces and structures. As highly stable nano-scale rods, TMVs provide for excellent nanotemplates that are programmable via nucleic acid hybridization and functionalizable with genetically inserted thiol groups in cysteine residues... read more. Utilizing gold-thiol binding and functionalization with fluorescein, fluorescence and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results clearly demonstrate the capacity for TMVs to specifically and tunably self-assemble onto gold surfaces while retaining thiol functionality. Utilizing the hybridization-based assembly of TMVs to DNA miniarrays, AFM results should also clearly demonstrate the capacity for TMVs to be selectively linked to form TMV dimers, trimers, and other arbitrarily complex geometries, although no conclusive results were obtained prior to the submission of this document. Either of ...
Page contains details about doxorubicin-conjugated tobacco mosaic virus capsid protein mutant assemblies . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Protein of the Year: Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Welcome to viralinfections.info, we recommend viral infections related blog articles and classify them by tag.
Tobacco Mosaic virus is a highly contagious disease that can attack marijuana plants. In some cases entire crops can be lost. Prevention is the best cure
Abel, P. P., Nelson, R. S., De, B., Hoffmann, N., Rogers, S. G., Fraley, R. T., and Beachy, R. N. 1986. Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Science 232:738-743. Almeida, A. M. R., Piuga, F. F., Marin, S. R. R., Kitajima, E. W., Gaspar, J. O., Oliveira, T. G., and Moraes, T. G. 2005. Detection and partial characterization of a carlavirus causing stem necrosis of soybean in Brazil. Fitopatol. Bras. 30:191-194.. Almeida, A. M. R., Piuga, F. F., Kitajima, E. W., Gaspar, J. O., Valentin, N., Benato, L. C., Marin, S. R. R., Binneck, E., Oliveira, T. G., Belintani, P., Guerzoni, R. A., Nunes, J., Hoffmann, L., Nora, P. S., Nepomuceno, A. L., Meyer, M. C., and Almeida, L. A. 2003. Necrose da haste da soja. Embrapa Soja: Londrina, PR, Brazil. Aragão, F. J. L., and Faria, J. C. 2009. First transgenic geminivirus-resistant plant in the field. Nat. Biotechnol. 27:1086-1088.. Aragão, F. J. L., and Faria, J. C. 2010. Proposta de ...
Abel, P. P., Nelson, R. S., De, B., Hoffmann, N., Rogers, S. G., Fraley, R. T., and Beachy, R. N. 1986. Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Science 232:738-743. Almeida, A. M. R., Piuga, F. F., Marin, S. R. R., Kitajima, E. W., Gaspar, J. O., Oliveira, T. G., and Moraes, T. G. 2005. Detection and partial characterization of a carlavirus causing stem necrosis of soybean in Brazil. Fitopatol. Bras. 30:191-194.. Almeida, A. M. R., Piuga, F. F., Kitajima, E. W., Gaspar, J. O., Valentin, N., Benato, L. C., Marin, S. R. R., Binneck, E., Oliveira, T. G., Belintani, P., Guerzoni, R. A., Nunes, J., Hoffmann, L., Nora, P. S., Nepomuceno, A. L., Meyer, M. C., and Almeida, L. A. 2003. Necrose da haste da soja. Embrapa Soja: Londrina, PR, Brazil. Aragão, F. J. L., and Faria, J. C. 2009. First transgenic geminivirus-resistant plant in the field. Nat. Biotechnol. 27:1086-1088.. Aragão, F. J. L., and Faria, J. C. 2010. Proposta de ...
Citation: Lewandowski, D., Hayes, A.J., Adkins, S.T. 2010. Surprising results from a search for effective disinfectants for Tobacco mosaic virus-contaminated tools. Plant Disease. 94:5:542-550. Interpretive Summary: More than 100 years after its discovery, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) remains an economically important pathogen for producers of many vegetatively propaged crops including petunias. We have developed a robust system to determine efficacy of disinfectants for treating TMV-contaminated cutting tools. Technical Abstract: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and four other tobamoviruses infected multiple petunia cultivars without producing obvious viral symptoms. A single cutting event on a TMV-infected plant was sufficient for transmission to many plants subsequently cut with the same clippers. A number of old standbys and new products were tested for their efficacy in treating TMV-contaminated cutting tools. ...
A comparison of the DNA metabolisms of uninfected and TMV infected excised tobacco leaves, using p(32)-orthophosphate incorporation into the DNA as a measure of its metabolism, indicated that the DNA metabolism is not affected by TMV infection. This result was corroborated by the results of studies on the effect of 5-fluorouracil, a specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, on the multiplication of TMV in tobacco-leaf discs. Although partial inhibition of TMV multiplication was observed, the absence of inhibition reversal thymidine, indicated that the mechanism of TMV inhibition probably did not involve a specific block of DNA synthesis. Finally unsuccessful attempts were made to see if intact host DNA was necessary for TMV infection by treating tobacco-leaf discs with DNAase ...
Oligochitosan was applied by spraying it on tobacco leaves for inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The maximum inhibition of TMV by oligochitosan was observed when inoculation occurred at 24 h after spraying 50 mu g ml(-1) oligochitosan. The production of H(2)O(2) and NO in epidermal tobacco cells induced by oligochitosan was investigated by epidermal strip bioassay and LSCM, using cell permeable fluorophore diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2D) and 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H(2)DCF-DA), respectively. Epidermal tobacco cells treated with oligochitosan resulted in a strong increase of intracellular NO and H(2)O(2). Oligochitosan and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the defense reaction against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and increased phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. Co-treatment of the tobacco cells with oligochitosan and NO scavenger CPTIO blocked the inducing resistance. The results indicated that the defense response induced by oligochitosan was connected ...
Mumbai, India: Bharat book announces a report on 20 % Discount on Tobacco in Thailand Vaild Upto 11 Aug 2017, this report At the same time, cigars, cigarillos and smoking tobacco continued to see steady demand, further contributing to the strong value performance of tobacco.. In 2016, tobacco registered strong growth in retail value sales. Due to a tax rise for cigarettes in the first half of the year, the price of cigarettes rose by an average of 20%. The increase in unit price more than compensated for the negligible decline in retail volume sales of cigarettes, and boosted retail value sales in 2016. At the same time, cigars, cigarillos and smoking tobacco continued to see steady demand, further contributing to the strong value performance of tobacco.. ...
Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. In addition, vacuolar PPase transcripts are implicated in the response of plants to various abiotic stresses, including low nutrient, drought, cold, heat, heavy metal and salinity stresses. Tobamovirus is a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Virgaviridae. The members of the genus are bipartite soil-borne viruses transmitted by nematodes to dicot plants. The RNAs are capped and possess a t-RNA structure at the 3′ end. Many plants, including tobacco, potato, tomato, and squash, serve as natural hosts. (see Section 2.2.5) (Fig. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of the codon-aligned nucleotide sequences of the replication proteins of plant-infecting viruses in the family Virgaviridae. For SBCMV and CWMV, the 24 kDa extended CP, but not CP itself, has been shown to interact with the CWMV 19 kDa RNA silencing suppressor. In the case of SBWMV, both CP forms were able to interact with CWMV P19. Questions ...
Q: I know that the letters on tomato labels mean that they are resistant to certain diseases, but I have no idea what these diseases look like and whether I need to pay attention to these labels.. A: I think tomatoes can be more demanding than roses in some cases. It seems that theres always a bug or disease ready to ruin your plans for homemade salsa.. Tomatoes are susceptible to several viruses and soil fungi, and, once infected, cannot be effectively treated. The best way to avoid this issue is to grow resistant varieties.. Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) causes an irregular light green/dark green pattern on leaves and spindly, scraggly growth at the tips. Leaves can become wrinkled and sometimes frilly in appearance. The fruit from an infected plant is edible but will have low quality and poor yield. Dont handle plants after smoking because the virus can be transmitted from tobacco to tomatoes. Look for T on the plant label, which indicates resistance to Tobacco Mosaic Virus.. ...
Large batches of tobacco plants infected with tobacco mosaic virus and ground up while frozen were thawed in buffer solution containing alkaline sodium phosphate, and the solution was filtered. The filtrate at lowered pH was treated with concentrated ammonium sulfate. The precipitate contained virus, which was extracted and reprecipitated (by acidification in the presence of 20 percent saturated ammonium sulfate) as small needles. Stanleys achievement was soon reproduced in England by Frederick Bawden and Norman Pirie, who were also able to show that the tobacco mosaic virus and other plant viruses contained ribonucleic acid (RNA). Stanley initially considered the RNA to be a contaminant, but later investigations by Seymour Cohen showed RNA to be a very large molecule having a molecular mass of up to 2 million daltons. Surprisingly, the thought that the viral RNA might be the genetic element of the virus was not tested until 1956. Wendell Meredith Stanley was born in Ridgeville, Indiana, in ...
The primary images of viruses were being obtained on the invention of electron microscopy in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll.[32] In 1935, American biochemist and virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley examined the tobacco mosaic virus and found it absolutely was mainly manufactured from protein.[33] A brief time later, this virus was separated into protein and RNA components.[34] The tobacco mosaic virus was the primary to generally be crystallised and its construction could thus be elucidated intimately ...
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Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[1] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland (1851-1931) invented a filter - known today as the Chamberland filter - that had pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[2] In 1876, Adolf Mayer, who directed the Agricultural Experimental Station in Wageningen was the first to show that what he called Tobacco Mosaic Disease was infectious, he thought that it was caused by either a toxin or a very small bacterium. Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection ...
The results presented here represent the highest reported level of plant-based protein production without the use of viral replication. We report the creation of an expression system based on a version of CPMV RNA-2 that is hypertranslatable relative to the wild-type version. By the removal of an upstream AUG that appears to inhibit translation, the system allows a variety of proteins to be produced to levels similar to that from state-of-the-art viral vectors in a matter of days, and without concomitant shortcomings of viral replication of transcripts. A recent study (Lindbo, 2007) showed 100-fold better expression for a single protein, GFP, from a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector than when P19 was coinfiltrated with a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-driven construct. The HT constructs used in this study produced GFP levels in the same order of magnitude as the highest achieved with the TMV vector used in that study.. A significant disadvantage of vectors based on monopartite ...
Sucking insects such as spider mites, aphids and plant-hoppers transmit plant viruses. Do chewing insects such as Australian cockroaches, which relish orchids, feeding on the succulent young growing shoots and aerial roots?. Thats the problem being studied by Carol D. Allen, the winner of the 2009 Francis R. Gouin Undergraduate Research Grant.. Allen is a senior at the University of Maryland Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture. In controlled atmospheric growth chambers, Allen will grow virus-free Onicidium Sweet Sugar Kalender orchids next to the virus-infested plants of the same cultivar. In the same chamber will be growing Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi, which also caries the tobacco mosaic virus. Once the plants are acclimated, she will release Australian cockroaches. After feeding injury is visible on all orchids, the virus-free orchid will be tested for nine viral agents.. Allen receives $1,000 for conducting her research and an additional $1,000 to cover her expenses if she ...
Penetration follows attachment: Virions enter the host mobile by receptor-mediated endocytosis or membrane fusion. This is frequently identified as viral entry. The infection of plant and fungal cells differs from that of animal cells. Crops have a rigid cell wall made from cellulose, and fungi considered one of chitin, so most viruses could get inside of these cells only following trauma to your mobile wall.[109] Having said that, nearly all plant viruses (which include tobacco mosaic virus) may go straight from cell to mobile, in the shape of one-stranded nucleoprotein complexes, through pores called plasmodesmata ...
At Birkbeck College, Franklin was once more in a professional environment in which she felt respected and supported. Unlike Kings, Birkbeck originated as a workingmens college devoted to adult education, which gave it a much more egalitarian atmosphere. Moreover, the director of Biomolecular Research Laboratory was a scientist she had long admired, John Desmond Bernal. Bernal was a pioneer in x-ray crystallography and one of the first to recognize its application to biology. Along with Dorothy Hodgkin and others, he developed or refined many of the techniques and analytical methods that Franklin learned during her time in Paris. In 1934 he took the first ever x-ray diffraction pictures of a crystalline protein (pepsin), and in the late 1930s he and Isidore Fankuchen applied the technique to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), producing a landmark study. Bernal had moved from Cambridge to Birkbeck in 1937, to chair the physics department, and established a lab devoted to problems in molecular biology ...
In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter, (known today as the Chamberland filter or Chamberland-Pasteur filter), that has pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[8] Russian biologist Dimitri Ivanovski used this filter to study what is now known to be the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that the crushed leaf extracts of infected tobacco plants are still infectious after filtration.. At the same time several other scientists proved that, although these agents (later called viruses) were different from bacteria, they could still cause disease, and they were about a hundred times smaller than bacteria. In 1899 The Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck observed that the agent multiplied only in dividing cells. Having failed to demonstrate its particulate nature he called it a contagium vivum fluidum to mean soluble living germ.[9] In the early ...
The generation of viral mutants in vitro was demonstrated by treatment of the isolated RNA of Tobacco Mosaic Virus by nitrous acid. This agent causes deaminations converting cytosine into uracil, and adenine into hypoxanthine. Our assay for mutagenesis was the production of local lesions on a tobacco variety on which the untreated strain produces systemic infections only. A variety of different mutants are generated in this way. Quantitative analysis of the kinetics of mutagenesis leads to the conclusion that alteration of a single out of the 6000 nucleotides of the viral RNA is sufficient for causing a mutation ...
Published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Volume 52, Issue 26, 2013, pages 6638-6642. © Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2013, Wiley-VCH Verlag. Li, T., Zan, X., Winans, R. E., Wang, Q., & Lee, B. (2013). Biomolecular assembly of thermoresponsive superlattices of the tobacco mosaic virus with large tunable interparticle distances. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 52(26), 6638-6642.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201209299. ...
The Caspar and Klug quasi-equivalence theory of icosahedral virus construction was based on the recognition that structural proteins are adaptable molecules that can self-assemble by bonding together in different ways within a highly ordered structure. Studies on the DNA containing tumor viruses have demonstrated that the molecular adaptability goes beyond the modest conformational adjustments anticipated in the quasi-equivalence theory; nevertheless essential bonding specificity is conserved in the contacts that tie the coat protein molecules together. As yet, there is no coherent picture of the switching mechanisms involved in the formation of any macromolecular biological assembly. Tobacco mosaic virus, which is the paradigm of a self-assembly structure, is the focus of renewed studies to investigate such structural switching. High resolution data on the coat protein structure in different assemblies is being obtained by diffraction methods with synchrotron radiation and by cryoelectron ...
Scientist have created a transistor by coating a 30-nanometre-long chunks of tobacco mosaic virus with platinum nanoparticles. The team built a
The hundreds of tomatoes available to gardeners base their distinction on several factors, including disease resistance. Common diseases that infect tomatoes include verticillium and fusarium wilts that spread through the soil causing yellow leaves, wilt and death. Other diseases include tobacco mosaic virus, ...
Enchantment (F1 hybrid, Indeterminate, 72 days, resistant to verticilium and fusarium wilts 1 and 2, nematodes, and tobacco mosaic virus) is a 3 (7.5cm), oval salad tomato that grows in fat clusters spiraling around the vine. One of the most versatile tomatoes you can grow, it has great flavor, but is not so juicy that you cant make a quick sauce without having to cook off a lot of water.. Marketing system ...
For example, diseases like powdery mildew and tobacco mosaic virus are often systemic, meaning that pathogens have spread to almost every tissue in the plant. Once infected, it is impossible to completely eliminate pathogens from tissues. Therefore any cuttings made from a diseased mother plant, even if they look perfectly healthy, will also be infected and can eventually present disease symptoms like reduced productivity and/or plant death, according to Dr. Jones.. How does tissue culture get around this problem? Remember that explants (small tissue samples used as starting material) can be extracted from any part of the plant. Meristematic cells in shoot tips and leaves are the source of new plant growth. Dr. Jones explains that these cells, and the first set of primordial leaves are not connected directly to the vascular tissue, the plants transport system by which pathogens spread. Therefore, meristematic cells tend to be disease-free, whatever the condition of the mother. It takes a sharp ...
Speaker: Prof Bert Klumperman - Stellenbosch University. In order to design and synthesize complex materials with advanced functionalities, scientists very often take inspiration from Nature. In this lecture, a few examples will be shown of such developments. One example is the use of self-assembly to create a synthetic mimic of the tobacco mosaic virus. This example just serves to demonstrate how we can make use of simple principles to manipulate the organization of molecules. Other examples will show how we can use hybrids of natural and synthetic systems to make functional assemblies that are responsive to their environment. Such hybrid systems show great promise for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to specific sites in the body. The lecture will end with an outlook on new developments in the field of nanomedicine, i.e. the application of nanotechnology in health care.. ...
From the recognition by Ivanovski in 1892 that tobacco mosaic disease is caused and transmitted by fine pore filtrates [1], viruses have been isolated, characterized, identified and studied from animals, plants, protists, bacteria and even other viruses [2,3]. As human and global public health pathogens that can be highly contagious and have devastating morbidity and mortality consequences, viruses are the focus of much research. The difficult challenge has been to define and study a miniscule
Infectivity of TMV RNA reported by H.Frankel-Conrat (J.Am.Chem.Soc 78:882-883, 1956) and A. Gierer G. Schramm (Nature177:702-703, 1956). Interferon discovered by Isaacs and Lindenmann (Proc Roy Soc B[London] 147:258-267,1957 ...
While it is always difficult, perhaps impossible, to determine or clearly define the starting point in any area of science, the idea that genes make proteins was an important step and this concept was brought into sharp focus by the specific one gene-one enzyme hypothesis of Beadle and Tatum. The field of biochemical genetics was thus born. The next step was taken when it was established that genes are nucleic acids. The transformation experiments of Avery and coworkers followed by the bacteriophage experiments of Hershey and Chase established this for DNA and the work with TMV-RNA a few years later established the same for RNA. By the early 1950s it was, therefore, clear that genes are nucleic acids and that nucleic acids direct protein synthesis, the direct involvement of RNA in this process being suggested by the early work of Caspersson and of Brachet. ...
Blue Dream needs to be much safer to use without the side results. It is one of the most common strains on the market today. It is one of the clone-only strains that does not belong to particular ...
Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus : Icosahedral Capsid and RNA Structure By
Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus : Icosahedral Capsid and RNA Structure By
Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. Yet little is known about this process and the mechanisms that control it. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading. Promoter expression studies show TMV 126/183 kDa interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CC). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus but not during infection with a non-interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows the inability of TMV variants to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA ...
Read Can Salicylic Acid Affect the Intercellular Transport of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Changing Plasmodesmal Permeability?, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Unlike some of the other common viruses of ornamentals, TMV is not vectored by insects. The virus can be spread by sap, through vegetative plant production and through mechanical means. Smoking should not be permitted in production areas because tobacco products can carry TMV. Fungicides are not helpful in controlling plant diseases. Once plants are infected with a virus, they can not be treated to eradicate the virus. Infected plants should be removed and destroyed. Identifying infected plants can sometimes be challenging. MSUs Diagnostic Services lab can test samples for TMV with ELISA testing. Samples should be submitted with next day delivery and should not be mailed on a Friday. Overnight delivery is recommended because several samples mailed recently with slower delivery options were frozen when they arrived at the lab.. Click here (www.pestid.msu.edu) to learn how to submit a sample, or contact me (517-355-3504) if you have any questions about submitting samples or the testing ...
Protein Feature View Expand: Reference Sequence; Experimental Data & Validation. Local infections are produced on mechanically inoculated Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, and N. clevelandii. The members of the genus are all bipartite soil-borne viruses transmitted by the plasmodiophorid Polymyxa graminis to graminaceous plants (monocots). Resistance to SBCMV is controlled by a single locus Sbm on 5DL chromosome. Over-expression experiments using fluorescent protein tagged CWMV replicase showed that it localized to membrane-associated inclusions leading to the hypothesis that virus replication might occur on these host membranes. Method: ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; Resolution: 1.92 Å; Aggregation State: HELICAL ARRAY ; Reconstruction Method: HELICAL ; … Additionally, twenty-seven unassigned species in the family Virgaviridae have been recognized and include only two plant-infecting viruses: Cucumis melo virga-like virus and Soil-borne barley mosaic virus. You may not use this work for commercial ...
Many infectious diseases are caused by viruses - very small biological particles. They are far too small to be visible under a microscope and could only be identified with the help of the symptoms they cause. Wendell Stanley studied the tobacco mosaic virus, which attacks the leaves of tobacco plants. From considerable quantities of infected tobacco leaves, he succeeded in extracting the virus in the form of pure crystals in 1935. Through further research, Wendell Stanley was able to show that the tobacco mosaic virus is composed of protein and ribonucleic acid, or RNA.. ...
Las Cruces, NM 88003. Maccabi (HA-1005) - Vendor: Hazera Quality Seed. Characteristics: F1 hybrid Lamuyo bell pepper type, green maturing to red, 160 · 80 mm fruit size, large elongated fruit, medium thick fruit walls, 3 lobed, pendant, tall upright plant habit. Resistance: Tobacco Mosaic Virus pathotype 0. Adaptation: Open field and tunnel production.. Maestro - Vendor: Enza Zaden B.V. Parentage: F1 hybrid. Characteristics: blocky, uniform, green ripening to red bell pepper, thick walls, very early, well formed plants, not too many side shoots. Resistance: tobacco mosaic virus race 0, 1 and 2. 1995.. Magic Red - Vendor: Johnnys Selected Seeds. Parentage: F1 hybrid. Characteristics: mid-size fruit, 127 x 19 mm, smooth, tapered, pointed, medium hot pungency, 60 days green, 85 days red ripe, tall plants, good yield. Adaptation: wide. 1999.. Malan - Vendor: Daehnfeldt Seed Co. Parentage: F1 hybrid. Characteristics: bell pepper, dark green to red fruit, 115 x 100 mm fruit size, 3- to 4-lobes, ...
2013年. 80. N. N. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Peng, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, Z. Su, W. K. Zhang, H. B. Li, J. C. Shen, Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy Study on the Mechanism of RNA Disassembly in Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Biophys. Chem. 2013, 105(12), 2790-2800. ,Full Paper in PDF,. 79. Y. Guo, Y. Han, Z. Su*, Ordering of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) in Solution and on Substrates Induced by Concentrated Sulfuric Acid, J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 14842-14848. ,Full Paper in PDF,. 78.J. Wei, L. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Ma, H. Wang, Z. Su*, Coarsening of silver nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte multilayers, Langmuir 2013,29(36), 11413-11419. ,Full Paper in PDF,. 77. Y. Guo, L. Jiang, X. J. Ma, W. P. Hu, Z. H. Su*, Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Monolayer Nanowhiskers, Polym. Chem.2013, 4, 4308-4311.. ,Full Paper in PDF, 76. M. Su, H. Y. Huang, X. J. Ma, Q. Wang, Z. H. Su*, Poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-polycaprolactone) Single Crystals in Micellar Solution. Macromol. Rapid Commun.2013, 34(13), 1067-1071. ,Full Paper in PDF, 75. Y. M. Wang, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive analysis of wound-inducible genes from the Nicotiana glutinosa leaves using a full-length cDNA microarray. AU - Kouzuma, Yoshiaki. AU - Tsutsumi, Yusuke. AU - Abe, Masumi. AU - Hayashi, Takeshi. AU - Hada, Kazumasa. AU - Uehashi, Keigo. AU - Shimada, Yukiko. AU - Tashiro, Kosuke. AU - Kuhara, Satoru. AU - Kimura, Makoto. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Wound-inducible gene expression in the the Nicotiana glutinosa leaves was studied by using a microarray with 9600 full-length cDNAs. As a result, 86 genes were identified as wound-inducible genes in the N. glutinosa leaves, including those encoding defense related proteins, such as heat shock proteins, glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase and non-specific lipid-transfer proteins. Among 86 genes, 15 genes including 11 hypothetical protein genes and 1 unknown protein genes encode unknown functional proteins. Although the translational ...
My research is aimed at understanding macromolecular structure-function relationships in a variety of biological systems. We incorporate experimental data from collaborations and from the literature into the development of structural and dynamic models. Current areas of interest include:. Virus Structure and Assembly: Understanding how small, icosahedral RNA and DNA viruses assemble should lead to new approaches for the design of antiviral drugs.. My group published a detailed model for satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV), using a previously proposed secondary structure model for the genomic RNA. This was the first all-atom model for any virus and represented a significant technical advance. We are now applying those methods to hepatitis B virus (HBV), an extremely important human pathogen. My lab is carrying out experiments to determine the secondary structure of the HBV pregenomic RNA, and we are collaborating with Adam Zlotnick (University of Indiana) in the development of both ...
Viruses, the cause of many diseases, are the smallest natural organisms known. They are extremely primitive and parasitic such that biologists refer to them as particles, rather than organisms. Viruses contain in a protein shell, the capsid, their own building plan, the genome, in the form of DNA or RNA. Viruses hijack a biological cell and make it produce from one virus many new ones. Viruses have evolved elaborate mechanisms to infect host cells, to to produce and assemble their own components, and to leave the host cell when it bursts from viral overcrowding. Because of their simplicity and small size, computational biologists selected a virus for their first attempt to reverse-engineer in a computer program, NAMD, an entire life form, choosing one of the tiniest viruses for this purpose, the satellite tobacco mosaic virus. As described in a recent report, the researchers simulated the virus in a small drop of salt water, altogether involving over a million atoms. This provided an ...
우리나라 잎담배에 발생하고 있는 바이러스의 종류와 감염상을 조사하기 위하여 전주지방에서 Burley종 (Burley-21) 20개체, 부천연초시험장 포장에시 황색종(Hicks) 20개체를 병징별로 채집하여 혈청학적인 방법에 의해 실시했다. 검정대상 바이러스는 Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Potato virus X(PVX) 및 Potato virus Y(PVY)등 5종으로 TMV, AMV, CMV는 한천내확산법으로 PVX, PVY는 미량침강법으로 실시하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 공시이병개체중에서 TMV, CMV, AMV, P X 및 PVY 등 5종의 바이러스가 검출되었다. 2. 조사된 40개체중 각 바이러스의 감염율은 AMV |TEX|$67.5\%$|/TEX|, CMV |TEX|$60.0\%$|/TEX|, TMV|TEX|$47.5\%$|/TEX|PVY|TEX|$17.5\%$|/TEX|, PVX|TEX|$10.0\%$|/TEX|의 순이었다. 3. Burley종에서는 TMV감염율이 |TEX|$15.0\%$|/TEX|로 황색종의 |TEX|$80.0\%$|/TEX|보다 현저히 낮았다. 4.
Viruses consist of a genome and a capsid; and some viruses are enveloped. Most virus capsids measure between 20-500 nm in diameter. Because of their nanometer size dimensions, viruses have been considered as naturally occurring nanoparticles. Virus nanoparticles have been subject to the nanoscience and nanoengineering disciplines. Viruses can be regarded as prefabricated nanoparticles. Many different viruses have been studies for various applications in nanotechnology: for example, mammalian viruses are being developed as vectors for gene delivery, and bacteriophages and plant viruses have been used in drug delivery and imaging applications as well as in vaccines and immunotherapy intervention. Plant viruses come in many shapes and sizes: for example, the plant virus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) measures 300x18 nm in size; it forms a hollow rod. The plant virus Potato virus X (PVX) forms flexible filaments of 515x13 nm. The following viruses have an icosahedral symmetry and measure between 25-30 ...
A tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector was utilized for expression of a cytosolic form of the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) protein glycoprotein D (gDc). Nicotiana benthamiana plants were harvested 7 days after inoculation with RNA transcripts derived from the TMV-gDc recombinant virus. Recombinant gDc protein of expected electrophoretic mobility accumulated in inoculated leaves to a concentration of about 20 μg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Oil-based vaccines were formulated with crude foliar extracts to immunize mice parentally. After a single injection, animals developed a sustained and specific response to both the isolated gD and native virus particles. Cattle vaccinated with the same gDc containing extracts developed specific humoral and cellular immune responses directed against both the viral gD and BHV-1 particles. Most importantly, animals vaccinated with the plant-produced gDc showed good levels of protection after challenge with the virulent BHV-1. Virus excretion was drastically reduced
FUNCTION: Modulates cell-to-cell trafficking. Has a positive role in innate immunity. Negative regulator of plasmodesmata permeability triggered by salicylic acid during immune responses, through regulation of callose deposition. Delays the trafficking of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) movement protein (MP). SUBUNIT: Interacts with Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) 2B-MP. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Highly expressed in inflorescence nodes and rosette senescent leaves. Mostly expressed in cell wall junctions between leaf epidermal and mesophyl cells, and to a lesser extent at the cross walls between epidermal or cortex cells within the hypocotyl (at protein level). Low vascular expression in seedling and mature leaf, but high expression in senescing leaves (at protein level). INDUCTION: By the Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola effector HopW1-1. By salicylic acid ...
Symptoms on plants infected with cucumoviruses can vary. Generally, plants appear lighter in color and are bushy and stunted. Close up symptoms include a mosaic (alternating light and dark green areas) on at least some leaves, especially on the younger leaves. Leaves may exhibit a shoestringlike appearance. Fruit production is greatly reduced. These symptoms can be confused with those caused by tobacco mosaic virus. ...
One of the worlds most destructive naturally-occuring scourges, the Tobacco mosaic virus (or TMV) could be used in a near future to boost the capacity of Lithium Ion batteries by 10 times and even power Flash memory.
This page contains a phase contrast photomicrograph of a tobacco leaf stained thin section that has been infected with Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
Viral assemblies have attracted substantial attention as templates for materials synthesis due to their precisely controlled dimensions, chemical functionalities and the ability to confer additional modalities through genetic modification. At the nanobiofabrication group of Tufts University, we exploit several unique properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) for facile synthesis of catalytically active palladium (Pd) nanoparticles and fabrication of high capacity biosensing platforms. In the nanocatalysis area, we have examined and demonstrated size-controlled synthesis, high thermal stability and the TMV templates fundamental role in the Pd nanoparticle formation via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We then employed two Pd-catalyzed model reactions, dichromate reduction for environmental cleanup and Suzuki coupling reaction for efficient chemical synthesis, in order to investigate the catalytic activity, stability, and reaction mechanisms. The results show that TMV-templated Pd nanoparticle ...
Plant viral vectors enable the expression of proteins at high levels in a relatively short time. For many purposes (e.g., cell biological interaction studies) it may be desirable to express more than one protein in a single cell but that is often not feasible when using a single virus vector. Such a co-expression strategy requires the simultaneous delivery by two compatible and non-competitive viruses that can co-exist to each express a separate protein. Here, we report on the use of two agro-launchable coat-protein gene substitution GFP-expressing virus vector systems based on Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) referred to as TG, and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) annotated as TRBO-G ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium-this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck repeated the ...
Although we have what seems like a long growing season here in the Valley of the Sun, the truth is that tomatoes wont produce well in the summer heat. So, timing is everything in terms of growing them. We suggest planting tomatoes in February for harvest in May or planting in late September for harvest in December. Larger types of tomatoes require more time for ripening, so its best to plant the small and medium-sized varieties in our desert gardens. Look for tomatoes labeled for 60- to 70-day maturity. Successful varieties include: Yellow Pear, Cherry, Sweet 100, Earlypak, Earlygirl, Small Fry, Patio, Champion, Earliana, and Sunripe. When looking for resistant varieties, the letters VNFT indicate a plants resistance to Verticillium Wilt (V), Nematodes (N), Fusarium Wilt (F), and Tobacco Mosaic Virus (F). Im afraid the large beefsteak type tomatoes just arent very successful here in the desert. Wish I had better news for you ...
Decoupling and Elucidation of Surface-driven Processes during Inorganic Mineralization on Virus Templates, O. Adigun, G. Novikova; E. L Retzlaff-Roberts; B.S. Kim; J. T Miller, L.S. Loesch-Fries, and M. T. Harris, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (Accepted for publication July 2016).. The Importance of Gravity in Droplet Evaporation: A comparison of Pendant and Sessile Drop Evaporation with Particles, N. Devlin, K. Loehr, and M. T. Harris, AIChE J., 62(3), 947-955 (2016).. Mechanistic Study of the Hydrothermal Reduction of Palladium on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, O. Adigun, A. S. Freer, J. T. Miller, B. Kim, L. S Loescsh-Fries, and M. T. Harris, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 450, 1-6 (2015).. A Novel Method to Determine the Resistance of Biotemplated Nanowires, A. Freer, C. Gilpin, L. Mueller and M. T. Harris, Chemical Engineering Communications, 202 (9), DOI: 10.1080/00986445.2014.912637 (2015).. A Novel Microwave Sensor for Real-Time Online Monitoring of Roll Compacts ...
A method was developed for the purpose of determining the size and shape of anisometric colloidal particles and flexible macromolecules. The experimental technique used for this determination is the measurement of the change in the intensity of the light scattered by anisometric colloidal particles (or macromolecules) when oriented (or deformed) by a velocity gradient. Improvements in the system will extend the present range of measurements to rigid colloidal particles whose longest dimension is less than 300 mu and to high molecular weight polymers. The apparatus has been successfully tested with suspensions of tobacco mosaic virus and the experimental results have been compared with the theory of Okano and Wada (J. Chem. Phys., 34: 405, 1961) for thin rod-like particles. Preliminary observations made with flexible macromolecules indicate that the effect of deformability of high molecular weight polymers, subjected to a velocity gradient, is quite small under the conditions of this study, as predicted
Malaria Minute, 31 January 2020. Use of the tobacco mosaic virus platform to administer malaria antigens induces high and durable efficacy in macaques and individuals with an African-centric genetic variation may have an improved response to malaria.. Listen to this Podcast. ...
Viral Diseases TFC, P.346, Blacks 2nd, p. 266- , Alcamo 323-, Campbell 6th: , Blacks 6th: 264-294, tbl: 270 DISCOVERY: Chamberland 1884 developed porcelain filter to remove bacteria Iwanowski 1892 used filter to try to remove tobacco mosaic disease, filterable virus Beijerinck 1898 showed could be diluted out, destroyed by heat Forsh & Loeffler 1898 foot and mouth disease caused…
Our stone mosaics, glass mosaics, ceramic mosaics, wood mosaics, steel mosaics and custom mosaics have been designed using constant feedback from clients. Our development team is also capable of customizing any image of your choice into the perfect feature wall with the customizable mosaics.
Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
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Management to Host Conference Call Today at 4:30 p.m. ET CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
Management to Host Conference Call Today at 4:30 p.m. ET CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
February 26 - Rosalind Franklin publishes her observation that tobacco mosaic virus rods are all of identical length. December ... Franklin, Rosalind E. (1955). "Structure of Tobacco Mosaic Virus". Nature. 175 (4452): 379-381. Bibcode:1955Natur.175..379F. ... Williams assembles a functional tobacco mosaic virus from purified versions of these components. Severo Ochoa develops enzymes ... Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat shows that a virus consists of an infective RNA core and a non-infective protein coat; and with Robley C ...
A common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus ... tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco ... Pfleger, F. L.; Zeyen, R. J. (2008). "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from ...
... these virus particles often organized themselves into highly ordered arrays. Rod-shaped particles in the tobacco mosaic virus ... 1970) Stanley, W.M. (1937). "Crystalline Form of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Protein". American Journal of Botany. 24 (2): 59-68. ... The discovery by W.M. Stanley of the crystalline forms of the tobacco and tomato viruses provided examples of this. Using X-ray ... In 1957, a letter describing the discovery of "A Crystallizable Insect Virus" was published in the journal Nature. Known as the ...
1935 - Wendell Stanley crystallized the tobacco mosaic virus. 1935 - Konrad Lorenz described the imprinting behavior of young ... 1898 - Martinus Beijerinck used filtering experiments to show that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by something smaller than a ... 1978 - Frederick Sanger presented the 5,386 base sequence for the virus PhiX174; first sequencing of an entire genome. 1982 - ... 2001 - Publication of the first drafts of the complete human genome (see Craig Venter). 2002 - First virus produced 'from ...
The plants are resistant to tobacco mosaic virus. The conical, blunt fruits are about 2 in (5.1 cm) long. they ripen from a ...
Tubular virus particles such as the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) can be used as templates to create nanofibers and nanotubes, ... "Organization of Metallic Nanoparticles Using Tobacco Mosaic Virus Templates". Nano Letters. 3 (3): 413-417. Bibcode:2003NanoL ... Most viruses have an outer capsule 20 to 300 nm in diameter. Virus capsules are remarkably robust and capable of withstanding ... Mineralized virus particles have been shown to withstand various pH values by mineralizing the viruses with different materials ...
Williams, R. C.; Wyckoff, R. W. (1945-06-08). "Electron shadow micrography of the tobacco mosaic virus protein". Science. 101 ( ... Florian, P.E.; Rouillé, Y.; Ruta, S.; Nichita, N.; Roseanu, A. (2016). "Recent advances in human viruses imaging studies". ... Negative stain - suspensions containing nanoparticles or fine biological material (such as viruses and bacteria) are briefly ... Adrian, Marc; Dubochet, Jacques; Lepault, Jean; McDowall, Alasdair W. (1984). "Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses". Nature ( ...
These satellite viruses may not be confused with Satellite tobacco mosaic virus, which is also known as Satellite tobacco ... "Satellite tobacco mosaic virus, equivalent: Satellite tobacco necrosis virus". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 12881. SIB: Albetovirus. ... alias Satellite tobacco necrosis virus 1, 2, respectively C). The three virus species included in this genus represent ... The genus name, Albertovirus, is a combination of Al, for Alphanecrovirus, be, for Betanecrovirus, and to for tobacco.. Viruses ...
Larson SB, Day JS, McPherson A (September 2014). "Satellite tobacco mosaic virus refined to 1.4 Å resolution". Acta ... mostly with icosahedral capsid structures and including both RNA viruses and DNA viruses. Many viruses with single jelly roll ... August 2017). "Virus found in a boreal lake links ssDNA and dsDNA viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... These viruses are evolutionarily related to the large group of double jelly-roll viruses known as the PRD1-adenovirus viral ...
In 2006, Schulten's group modeled the satellite tobacco mosaic virus, emulating femtosecond interactions of approximately one ... "Molecular dynamics simulations of the complete satellite tobacco mosaic virus". Structure. 14 (3): 437-49. doi:10.1016/j.str. ... The simulation provided new insights about activities of the virus. One discovery was that the virus, which looks symmetrical ... Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ...
He was particularly influential in the study of tobacco mosaic virus, a model system for the study of viral infections of ... Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.; Shaw, John G.; Zaitlin, Milton (eds.). Tobacco mosaic virus : one hundred years of contributions to ... Mayo, Mike (December 2000). "Tobacco Mosaic Virus: One Hundred Years of Contributions to Virology. Karen-Beth G. Scholthof, ... Zaitlin focused his research on plant viruses, especially on mechanisms of replication, the effects of mutants on the viral ...
Reddi KK, Mauser LJ (March 1965). "Studies on the formation of tobacco mosaic virus ribonucleic acid. VI. Mode of degradation ...
The specificity of the antibody for Tobacco mosaic virus, being unreactive with other viruses, proved to be a useful tool with ... The antibodies were specific to Tobacco mosaic virus, thus identifying and characterizing the virus as a pathogenic agent in ... During her work on Tobacco mosaic virus, Beale invented standard serology tools that are used today in research practices and ... It also allowed for the isolation and characterization of unique strains of Tobacco mosaic virus, making it possible for her ...
Wiley-VCH, 2009, 132 pp) Scholthof, Karen-Beth; Shaw, John G.; Zaitlin, Milton (eds.): Tobacco Mosaic Virus: One Hundred Years ...
Hunter, A.R.; Hunt, T.; Knowland, J.S.; Zimmern, D. (1976). "Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus". ...
Creager, Angela N. H. (2002). The Life of a Virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an Experimental Model, 1930-1965. Chicago: ... Bos, L. (29 March 1999). "Beijerinck's Work on Tobacco Mosaic Virus: Historical Context and Legacy". Philosophical Transactions ... It was not until the first crystals of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) obtained by Wendell Stanley in 1935, the first electron ... Zaitlin, Milton (1998). "The Discovery of the Causal Agent of the Tobacco Mosaic Disease" (PDF). In Kung, S. D.; Yang, S. F. ( ...
... virus causing the mosaic disease in tobacco plants led to the isolation of a nucleoprotein which displayed tobacco mosaic virus ... Pennazio, S; Roggero P (2000). "The discovery of the chemical nature of tobacco mosaic virus". Riv. Biol. 93 (2): 253-81. PMID ... Kay, L E (September 1986). "W. M. Stanley's crystallization of the tobacco mosaic virus, 1930-1940". Isis; an International ... 1946 The Isolation and Properties of Crystalline Tobacco Mosaic Virus Wendell Meredith Stanley and the birth of biochemistry at ...
Franklin consulted with Watson on her tobacco mosaic virus RNA research. Franklin's letters were framed with the normal and ... He was part of a distributed group of researchers who were making use of the viruses that infect bacteria, called ... Watson's research project involved using X-rays to inactivate bacterial viruses. Watson then went to Copenhagen University in ... subsequently presented a paper on the double-helical structure of DNA at the 18th Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Viruses in ...
The Life of a Virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an Experimental Model, 1930-1965, p. 20-27 Feest, Uljana; Steinle, Friedrich (2003 ... Beijerinck discovered what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that ... In 1898 Beijerinck coined the term "virus" to indicate that the causal agent of tobacco mosaic disease was non-bacterial. ... In 1898, he published results on his filtration experiments, demonstrating that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by an ...
One example of a viral movement proteins is the tobacco mosaic virus MP-30. MP-30 is thought to bind to the virus's own genome ... When tobacco leaves are treated with a drug that stabilizes actin filaments, phalloidin, the cucumber mosaic virus movement ... Tobacco plants injected with tobacco movement viruses that were kept in high temperatures there was a strong correlation ... "Movement Protein of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Modifies Plasmodesmatal Size Exclusion Limit". Science. 246 (4928): 377-379. Bibcode: ...
"Electrophoretic Light Scattering on Calf Thymus Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Tobacco Mosaic Virus". Macromolecules. American ... ELS has also been applied to nucleic acids and viruses. The technique can be extended to measure electrophoretic mobilities of ...
... le virus de la mosaïque du tabac: 1892 ou 1898?" [Discovery of the first virus, the tobacco mosaic virus: 1892 or 1898?]. ... Zaitlin, Milton (1998). "The Discovery of the Causal Agent of the Tobacco Mosaic Disease" (PDF). In Kung, S. D.; Yang, S. F. ( ... Three years later, he was assigned to look into a similar disease occurrence of tobacco plants, this time raging in the Crimea ... the discoverer of viruses (1892) and one of the founders of virology. Ivanovsky was born in the village of Nizy, Gdov Uyezd. He ...
Leberman, R.; Finch, J.T.; Gilbert, P.F.C.; Witz, J.; Klug, A. (June 1974). "X-ray analysis of the disk of tobacco mosaic virus ... Finch, J.T.; Gilbert, P.F.C.; Klug, A.; Leberman, R. (June 1974). "X-ray analysis of the disk of tobacco mosaic virus protein: ... Gilbert, P.F.C.; Klug, A. (June 1974). "X-ray analysis of the disk of tobacco mosaic virus protein: III. A low resolution ... researching the structure of tobacco mosaic virus protein. Upon finishing his PhD in 1970, Gilbert continued his research at ...
The technique was first described in the 1940s using tobacco mosaic virus. The technique was not fully exploited until the ... when June Almeida used it to identify viruses including rubella virus and the 1970s when Albert Kapikian discovered noroviruses ... Any aggregated virus particles can be identified if the specificity of the antisera is known. In a technique known as solid ... Viruses are suspended, usually in phosphate buffered saline, and antiserum is added. The mixture is warmed, usually to 37°C, ...
U. Pfl.-schutz 89,612-615,1982 Sarkar, S.: Tobacco mosaic virus: Mutants and strains. In THE PLANT VIRUSES (M.H.V.van ... 15b,778-786, 1960 (See also Caspar, D.L.D.: Assembly and stability of the tobacco mosaic virus particle. Adv. in Protein ... Corp., New York & London, 1986 Gerber, M. & Sarkar, S.: The coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus does not play a significant ... Working with the components of mutants of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) he analysed the behaviour of their coat proteins. ...
... to indicate a non-bacterial nature of the tobacco mosaic disease. In 1935, the tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus to be ... chemist whose work on tobacco mosaic disease played an important role in the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus and viruses in ... Mayer's pioneer work on the tobacco mosaic disease served as an important step in the discovery of viruses and led to the ... yet some years later the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was shown to be the culprit. Mayer employed optical microscopy to seek ...
... the Ebola virus, influenza viruses, the measles virus, and the rabies virus. The first virus to be discovered, tobacco mosaic ... Tobacco mosaic virus was discovered in 1898 and was the first virus to be discovered. Viruses in the kingdom that are ... tobacco, and tomato, and Plum pox virus is the most important virus among stone fruit crops. Brome mosaic virus, while not ... Those three groups are Group III: dsRNA viruses, Group IV: +ssRNA viruses, and Group V: -ssRNA viruses. RNA viruses are ...
1953). The breaking kof tobacco mosaic virus using a new freeze drying method. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11:337-343. Rice, ... Rice, Robert Vernon (1954). Physical Biochemical Studies on Polypeptides, Proteins and Plant Viruses Doctoral Dissertation. ...
The movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been most extensively studied. Plant viruses can also be transported ... Examples of viruses that use this mechanism are cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The second ... Most plant viruses move between plant cells via plasmodesmata, pores between plant cell walls that allow the plant cells to ... Neither virus particles nor viral genomic nucleic acid can pass through plasmodesmata unaided. Movement proteins modify the ...
This includes the N resistance gene of tobacco against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The other subclass does not contain a TIR ...
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). *Genus Tobravirus, mit Species Tabak-Rattle-Virus - en. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ... Tomato black ring virus,; Arabis-Mosaic-Virus - en. Arabis mosaic virus, sowie Beet ringspot virus ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ...
Methods are also available for making 3D reconstructions of helical samples (such as tobacco mosaic virus), taking advantage of ... These viruses infect fish and other aquatic animals. The reconstruction has high enough resolution to have amino acid side ... "3.3 A cryo-EM structure of a nonenveloped virus reveals a priming mechanism for cell entry". Cell. 141 (3): 472-82. doi:10.1016 ... typically proteins or other large biological entities such as viruses. Individual images of stained or unstained particles are ...
Movement Protein of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Modifies Plasmodesmatal Size Exclusion Limit Science 20 October 1989: Vol. 246. no. ...
The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... Sacher, R.; Ahlquist, P. (1989). "Effects of deletions in the N-terminal basic arm of brome mosaic virus coat protein on RNA ... Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from ...
The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) are frequently used in plant molecular biology. Of special ... Examples of viruses that can be transmitted by nematodes include tobacco ringspot virus and tobacco rattle virus. A number of ... Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" stop codon. In TMV 95% of the time the ...
A common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus ... tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco ... "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved ...
... it was not until Wendell Stanley first crystallized tobacco mosaic virus in 1935 that the non-cellular nature of viruses was ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed yet.[7] This virus has not been found ...
In 1952, Watson performed X-ray diffraction on tobacco mosaic virus and found results indicating that it had helical structure ... Bernal's Lab at Birkbeck College with the tobacco mosaic virus extending ideas on helical construction.[35] ... In 1956, Crick and Watson speculated on the structure of small viruses. They suggested that spherical viruses such as Tomato ... Morgan GJ (February 2003). "Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 28 (2): ...
... mosaic virus Potato black ringspot virus Potato virus U Raspberry ringspot virus Tobacco ringspot virus Tomato black ring virus ... mosaic virus Glycine mosaic virus Pea green mottle virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail pea mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red ... virus Bean pod mottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true mosaic virus Cowpea mosaic virus ... Broad bean wilt virus 1 Broad bean wilt virus 2 Cucurbit mild mosaic virus Gentian mosaic virus Lamium mild mosaic virus Genus ...
Pearson H (August 2008). "'Virophage' suggests viruses are alive". Nature 454 (7205): 677. Bibcode:2008Natur.454..677P. PMID ... "Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter - A Recipe for Disaster?". Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 11: 194-7. Vaadatud 09.06 ... "In situ transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from transgenic (transplastomic) tobacco plants to bacteria". Appl. Environ. ... "Interaction among Virus, Cell, and Organism". Nobel Lecture for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ...
Agronomic traits such as resistance to pathogens (viruses, particularly to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV); fungi; bacteria and ... Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire-cured.. *Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which ... Main article: Tobacco advertising. Tobacco advertising of tobacco products by the tobacco industry is through a variety of ... Major tobacco companies have encouraged global tobacco production. Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco ...
... allowing the approximation of the dielectrophoretic response of carbon nanotubes or tobacco mosaic viruses in suspension. These ... Strains of bacteria and viruses[26][27] red and white blood and cells.[citation needed] DEP can also be used to detect ... proteins and viruses. DEP can be used to separate particles with different sign polarizabilities as they move in different ... viruses), that are difficult to count with the previous technique;[30] particle velocity measurements: this technique measures ...
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by bacteria, viruses or, in rare cases, parasites transmitted ... usually through first or second-hand tobacco smoke. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the infant born to a non-smoking ... other karyotypes/mosaics. *Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). *XXYY syndrome (48,XXYY). *XXXY syndrome (48,XXXY) ... The herpes simplex virus can cause microcephaly, microphthalmus (abnormally small eyeballs),[54] retinal dysplasia, ...
a b Watson did enough work on Tobacco mosaic virus to produce the diffraction pattern for a helix, per Crick's work on the ...
This virus is a small, icosahedral plant virus that worsens the symptoms of infection by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Molecular ... MD simulation of the full satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) (2006, Size: 1 million atoms, Simulation time: 50 ns, program: ... "Molecular dynamics simulation of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)". Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. ... a complete virus) or very long simulation times (up to 1.112 milliseconds): ...
In plant engineering, Agrobacterium-like conjugation complements other standard vehicles such as tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). ...
... virus Cauliflower mosaic virus Dahlia mosaic virus Figwort mosaic virus Horseradish latent virus Lamium leaf distortion virus ... Rose yellow vein virus Genus: Solendovirus Sweet potato vein clearing virus Tobacco vein clearing virus Genus: Soymovirus ... vein banding virus Cacao swollen shoot virus Canna yellow mottle virus Citrus yellow mosaic virus Commelina yellow mottle virus ... GF virus Banana streak IM virus Banana streak MY virus Banana streak OL virus Banana streak UA virus Banana streak UI virus ...
... and the Tobacco mosaic virus which caused scientist Martinus Beijerinck to coin the term "virus" in 1898.[20] Bacterial plant ... Vaccines exist for viruses such as the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and the influenza virus.[30] Some viruses such as ... Examples of viruses that undergo this process are herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and vaccinia virus.[44] ... VirusesEdit. Main article: Virus. Viruses are small particles, typically between 20 and 300 nanometers in length,[15] ...
... the discovery of viruses and the development of enrichment culture techniques.[24] While his work on the tobacco mosaic virus ... Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore not considered as microorganisms, although a subfield of ... However, other diseases such as influenza, yellow fever or AIDS are caused by pathogenic viruses, which are not usually ... microbiology is virology, the study of viruses.[27][28][29] Evolution[edit]. Further information: Timeline of evolution and ...
Structure of tobacco mosaic virus: RNA coiled in a helix of repeating protein sub-units ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... cucumber mosaic virus) ৰ আকৃতি ঘূৰণীয়া বা গোলাকাৰ।. *দণ্ডাকাৰ (Rod-shaped):ধঁপাতৰ ম'জেইক ৰোগ,আলুৰ ব্লাইট ৰোগ সৃষ্টিকাৰী ... ভাইৰাছ (ইংৰাজী: Virus) এটি লেটিন শব্দ যাৰ অৰ্থ হ'ল 'বিষ' (প্ৰাণীৰপৰা উৎপন্ন হোৱা বিষ)। নিউক্লিয় প্ৰটিনৰদ্বাৰা গঠিত অকোষীয়, ...
Williams, R. C.; Wyckoff, R. W. (1945-06-08). "Electron shadow micrography of the tobacco mosaic virus protein". Science. 101 ( ... Kruger, DH; Schneck, P; Gelderblom, HR (May 2000). "Helmut Ruska and the visualisation of viruses". The Lancet. 355 (9216): ... Florian, P.E.; Rouillé, Y.; Ruta, S.; Nichita, N.; Roseanu, A. (2016). "Recent advances in human viruses imaging studies". ... Negative stain - suspensions containing nanoparticles or fine biological material (such as viruses and bacteria) are briefly ...
model af tobakmosaikvirus-kapsid, se en:Satellite tobacco mosaic virus. Model af Epstein-Barr virus, prototypen på en dsRNA- ... Sygdomme forårsaget af virus[redigér , redigér wikikode]. Mange sygdomme forårsages af virus.[2][13][14] Nogle virus forårsager ... Samling af virus-komponenterne til komplette virus-partikler.. *Frigivelse af virus-partiklerne fra værtscellen for at inficere ... Revers transkriberende virus *DNA revers transkriberende virus. *RNA revers transkriberende virus Retrovirus *Familie: ...
... dwarf mosaic virus. *Maize streak virus. *Stewart's wilt (Pantoea stewartii). *Goss's wilt (Clavibacter michiganensis) ... In the United States, maize ears along with tobacco leaves are carved into the capitals of columns in the United States Capitol ...
A similar mechanism is thought to occur in tobacco plants, which show a high rate of gene transfer and whose cells contain ... Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ...
Tobacco mosaic virus. Health, medicine and disease (240 articles)[தொகு]. Health and fitness (31 articles)[தொகு]. *. நலம் *. ...
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), tomato mosaic virus (TMV) Nematode. Meloidogyne incognita, Heterodera schachtii ... It was one of several candidates that included maize, petunia, and tobacco.[28] The latter two were attractive, since they were ... tobacco plant that does not recognize EF-Tu, thereby permitting recognition of bacterial EF-Tu[70] thereby confirming EFR as ... Another example of SAR would be the research done with transgenic tobacco plants, which express bacterial salicylate ...
More recently cancer death rates have started to decline as the use of tobacco becomes less common. Between 1991 and 2012, the ... associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), an important sexually transmitted disease. HPV vaccine together with screening ... "Women's health: An Evolving Mosaic". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 15 (8): 600-602. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.00623 ... Behavioral differences also play a role, in which women display lower risk taking including consume less tobacco, alcohol, and ...
A similar mechanism is thought to occur in tobacco plants, which show a high rate of gene transfer and whose cells contain ... such as viruses, retroviruses and bacteriophages), are included in the host's nuclear DNA, changing the host's gene expression ... Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ...
Tubular virus particles such as the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) can be used as templates to create nanofibers and nanotubes, ... Most viruses have an outer capsule 20 to 300 nm in diameter. Virus capsules are remarkably robust and capable of withstanding ... A spherical plant virus called cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has interesting expanding properties when exposed to ... Mineralized virus particles have been shown to withstand various pH values by mineralizing the viruses with different materials ...
... in particular for protein-nucleic acid MAs including the tobacco mosaic virus (a structure containing a 6400 base ssRNA ... Structure of a viral MA, cowpea mosaic virus, with 30 copies of each of its coat proteins, the Small (S, yellow) and the Large ... The term macromolecular assembly (MA) refers to massive chemical structures such as viruses and non-biologic nanoparticles, ... Virus structures were among the first studied MAs; other biologic examples include ribosomes (partial image above), proteasomes ...
Viruses portal Creager AN (2002). The life of a virus: tobacco mosaic virus as an experimental model, 1930-1965. Chicago: ... to indicate that the causal agent of tobacco mosaic disease was of non-bacterial nature. Tobacco mosaic virus was the first ... Tobacco mosaic virus has been known to cause a production loss for flue cured tobacco of up to two percent in North Carolina. ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus species in the genus Tobamovirus that infects a wide ...
Domain: Viruses • Group: Group IV viruses • Familia: Virgaviridae • Genus: Tobamovirus • Species: Tobacco mosaic virus ... Media in category "Tobacco mosaic virus". The following 25 files are in this category, out of 25 total. ... Satellite tobacco mosaic virus rendering produced by VMD and Tachyon.jpg 2,048 × 2,048; 1,005 KB. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Tobacco_mosaic_virus&oldid=152582074" ...
Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. P Goelet, G P Lomonossoff, P J Butler, M E Akam, M J Gait, and J Karn ... Oligonucleotide primers have been used to generate a cDNA library covering the entire tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA sequence. ... Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. P Goelet, G P Lomonossoff, P J Butler, M E Akam, M J Gait, J Karn ... Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. P Goelet, G P Lomonossoff, P J Butler, M E Akam, M J Gait, J Karn ...
a retrovirus causing mosaic disease in members of the nightshade family. Abbr.: TMV ...
Shortly after the first purification of virus by Stanley (1935), structural studies were... ... has become a classical object for studies on the structure and assembly of viruses. ... Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Polymorphic Form Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus These ... Hirth, L., and Richards, K. E., 1981, Tobacco mosaic virus: Model for structure and function of a simple virus, Adv. Virus Res ...
Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive. ... Tobacco plant refuses cowpea mosaic virus. Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Funder. Netherlands Organisation ... Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could not penetrate the vascular system of some tobacco plants. In the ... she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow ...
The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus tobamovirus, the genus that specifically ... Tobacco Mosaic Virus because of its ability to reproduce in the tobacco plants. The tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus ... The tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus to be discovered(1). In 1982, Dmitri Ivanovsky suggested that there was a non- ... The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus tobamovirus, the genus that specifically ...
What are the symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus, how does the disease spread, is there a possiblity of a tobacco chewer starting ... the virus can persist for years in the soil. Mosaic virus is spread by contact -- by gardeners, visitors, or insects. It would ... plants to be infected with the virus after being touched by a person who smokes or chews or by contact with any form of tobacco ... Symptoms of a virus infection include light and dark green mottled areas on the leaves, unusual leaf thickening, stunting, and ...
... Scholthof, K-B.G. 2000. Tobacco mosaic virus. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2000-1010- ... infected with Tobacco mosaic virus.. TMV was the first virus to be discovered over a century ago and was the first virus ever ... APS , Education , Introductory , Plant Disease Lessons , Viruses and Viroids , Tobacco mosaic virus ... Symptoms induced by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are somewhat dependent on the host plant and can include mosaic, mottling ( ...
Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could not penetrate the vascular system of some tobacco plants. In the ... During research carried out in the Netherlands, Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects ... she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow ... Viruses spread more quickly through the vascular system than from cell to cell. Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic ...
Photo 1. Tobacco mosaic lesions on a leaf.. Photos 2 and 3. Tobacco mosaic damage on a petunia plant.. Unlike some of the other ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has a very wide host range including petunia, calibrachoa, lobelia, impatiens, chrysanthemums, ... Once plants are infected with a virus, they can not be treated to eradicate the virus. Infected plants should be removed and ... The virus can be spread by sap, through vegetative plant production and through mechanical means. Smoking should not be ...
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... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, ... Tobacco mosaic virus. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of ... Tobacco mosaic virus. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of ... Mosaic virus. Mosaic viruses are plant viruses that cause the leaves to have a speckled appearance. Mosaic virus is not a taxon ...
Chemical modifications of virus infectivity: Reactions of tobacco mosaic virus and its nucleic acid. ... Nucleic Acid Uracil Tobacco Mosaic Virus Ribonucleic Acid Glyoxal These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... Der Einbau strukturanaloger Basen, wie z.B. des 5-Fluoruracils, führt zu einem Virus, das zwar eine Infektion hervorrufen kann ... Durch Behandlung der isolierten Nukleinsäure und nachherige Rekonstitution mit nativem Eiweiss konnte ein Virus gewonnen werden ...
... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, genus tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants ... Biology Chemistry Enzyme Molecular Biology Molecular Models Mosaic Protein Science TMV Tobacco Tobacco Mosaic Virology Virus ... especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae. The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as mosaic- ...
Mondays Molecule #73 is tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). As its name implies, TMV is a plant virus that infects tobacco and related ... THE COMPLETE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF THE PROTEIN OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.. Tsugita A, Gish DT, Young J, Fraenkel-Conrat H, ... It was one of the first viruses to be identified and one of the first to be purified. A large number of studies have been done ... The virus is composed of 2130 copies of a small coat protein (158 amino acids) wrapped around a single-stranded RNA molecule of ...
This page contains a phase contrast photomicrograph of a tobacco leaf stained thin section that has been infected with Tobacco ... Tobacco mosaic virus is a small rod-shaped RNA virus that infects crops related to tobacco, producing a green or white filiform ... Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The photomicrograph illustrated below is a medium-magnification phase contrast image of a stained thin ... section of a tobacco mosaic virus-infected tobacco leaf. Combining phase contrast microscopy with classical histological ...
Amino acid sequences (1 to 61 and 135 to 158) of proteins of tobacco mosaic virus strain U2.". Wittmann H.G.. Z. Naturforsch. B ... sp,P03579,CAPSD_TMGMV Capsid protein OS=Tobacco mild green mosaic virus OX=12241 GN=CP PE=1 SV=3 ... "Primary protein structure of strains of tobacco mosaic virus. IV. ... Nicotiana glauca (Glaucous tobacco) (Tree tobacco) [TaxID: 4090]. Nicotiana tabacum (Common tobacco) [TaxID: 4097]. ...
The Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) has been well researched since it has been defined a virus in 1898 by Martinus Beijerinck. TMV ... The discovery of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and the mosaic disease it caused can be attributed to three individuals, Adolf ... The tobacco mosaic virus particle: structure and assembly *↑ Tobacco mosaic virus *↑ Tobacco Mosaic Virus Delivery of ... High Aspect Ratio Nanotubes Formed by Tobacco Mosaic Virus for Delivery of Photodynamic Agents Targeting Melanoma ...
... All prints are professionally printed, packaged, and shipped within 3 - 4 ... of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Each virus consists of a protein coat with internal RNA genetic material. Some viruses are ... Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Tem art print by Omikron. Our prints are produced on acid-free papers using archival inks to guarantee ... There are no comments for Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Tem. Click here to post the first comment. ...
What is tobacco mosaic virus? Meaning of tobacco mosaic virus medical term. What does tobacco mosaic virus mean? ... Looking for online definition of tobacco mosaic virus in the Medical Dictionary? tobacco mosaic virus explanation free. ... tobacco mosaic virus. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. tobacco mosaic virus. n.. An RNA ... Virii resistant to the common tobacco mosaic virus.. Use of detached leaves to evaluate tobacco haploids and doubled haploids ...
The P30 movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus is a single-strand nucleic acid binding protein.. Citovsky V1, Knorr D, ... The P30 protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is required for cell to cell movement of viral RNA, which presumably occurs ... We propose that binding of P30 to TMV RNA creates an unfolded protein-RNA complex that functions as an intermediate in virus ...
Tobacco mild green mosaic virus, TMV, Tomato brown rugose fruit virus, Tomato mosaic virus, Tropical soda apple mosaic virus, ... Tobacco mosaic virus - virus de la mosaïque du tabac; Tomato mosaic virus (TMV) - virus de la mosaïque de la tomate; Tomato ... Tobacco mosaic virus. Tobacco mosaic virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus species in the genus Tobamovirus that ... Signs of symptoms of soil-borne cereal mosaic virus of tobacco mosaic virus ( GORSV.... Image 5482580 is of tobacco mosaic ...
... solutions of the virus. The divalent metal cations Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ have been found ... The formation of ordered aggregates of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in the presence of divalent metal ions has been studied in ... The formation of ordered aggregates of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in the presence of divalent metal ions has been studied in ... The experimental data suggest that, apart from two internal metal-binding sites in each TMV subunit, the virus contains metal ...
A strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) that produces mild (attenuated) symptoms on tobacco plants has been molecularly cloned ... Characterization of the masked strain of tobacco mosaic virus: identification of the region responsible for symptom attenuation ...
It can reduce the amount of tobacco grown by 50-70%. In this research of study, we aimed to identify tobacco mosaic virus ... It can reduce the amount of tobacco grown by 50-70%. In this research of study, we aimed to identify tobacco mosaic virus ... is widely distributed in the global tobacco industry and has a significant impact on tobacco production. ... is widely distributed in the global tobacco industry and has a significant impact on tobacco production. ...
RNA or the viral coat protein have been used to localize these proteins within virus-infected tobacco leaf cells by an ... encoded by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA or the viral coat protein have been used to localize these proteins within virus- ... Immunogold localization of the intracellular sites of structural and nonstructural tobacco mosaic virus proteins Virology. 1987 ... in contrast to virus particles in other areas of the cell, which were not. TMV-infected tobacco mesophyll protoplasts cultured ...
Engineered viruses are finding an increasing number of applications in basic, translational research and materials science. ... providing a general platform for virus-acrylate hybrid particles. The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the bacteriophage M13 have ... Biocatalytically induced surface modification of the tobacco mosaic virus and the bacteriophage M13 V. Vignali, B. S. Miranda, ... Biocatalytically induced surface modification of the tobacco mosaic virus and the bacteriophage M13† ...
Exemplified by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and other model viruses, RNA viruses facilitate the spread of their genomes by ... Virus-Cell Interactions. Tobacco Mosaic Virus Movement Protein Functions as a Structural Microtubule-Associated Protein. Jamie ... Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein associates with the cytoskeleton in tobacco plants. Plant Cell 7:2101-2114. ... Replication of tobacco mosaic virus on endoplasmic reticulum and role of the cytoskeleton and virus movement in intracellular ...
  • The investigations of tobacco mosaic disease and subsequent discovery of its viral nature were instrumental in the establishment of the general concepts of virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of viruses is known as virology, a subspeciality of microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, in 1903, Ivanovsky published a paper describing abnormal crystal intracellular inclusions in the host cells of the affected tobacco plants and argued the connection between these inclusions and the infectious agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the first pathogen identified as a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 6,000 virus species have been described in detail of the millions of types of viruses in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus: crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remained infectious even after filtration to remove bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it was known from the late 19th century that a non-bacterial infectious disease was damaging tobacco crops, it was not until 1930 that the infectious agent was determined to be a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1898, Martinus Beijerinck independently replicated Ivanovsky's filtration experiments and then showed that the infectious agent was able to reproduce and multiply in the host cells of the tobacco plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728, long before the discovery of viruses by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV infection, and viral hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as "mosaic"-like mottling and discoloration on the leaves (hence the name). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1955, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley Williams showed that purified TMV RNA and its capsid (coat) protein assemble by themselves to functional viruses, indicating that this is the most stable structure (the one with the lowest free energy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus species in the genus Tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope, as they are one-hundredth the size of most bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray fiber diffraction structure of the intact virus was studied based on an electron density map at 3.6 Å resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are considered by some biologists to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, although they lack the key characteristics, such as cell structure, that are generally considered necessary criteria for life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A. thaliana 12-4 plants maintained the resistance to TuMV when this virus was co-inoculated with Tobacco mosaic virus, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Lettuce mosaic virus , or Plum pox virus . (apsnet.org)
  • These clean-stock clones ('liners,' as they are termed in the horticulture industry) are taken from this mother stock to produce young plants with little or no incidence of genetic defects that are otherwise common in the hemp clone industry today, such as hop latent viroid (HpLVd,) hemp streak virus, cannabis cryptic virus (CanCV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and arabis mosaic virus (ArMV). (meristemfarms.com)
  • Rapid CDIA TM Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) kits are intended for the detection of TMV in infected host plants include vegetable, fruit, and ornamentals. (cd-diatest.com)
  • 1) The four most common tomato diseases are verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt , nematode infestation and tobacco mosaic virus. (english-dictionary.help)
  • For a number of years, Hutton researchers have examined and developed tobacco plants as 'factories' to successfully synthesise many different protein-based products which can have utility in diagnostic kits and as vaccine components as well as creating structures to produce new biomaterials. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • This technology, which does not use genetically modified plants, involves taking the isolated genetic sequences of the protein of interest and introducing it into plants with non-infectious plant virus components, and after a few days, these sequences drive the rapid and high yield synthesis of the candidate proteins which can then be extracted from the plant. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Previously we showed that the polyamine spermine (Spm) specifically leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in tobacco that is followed by the activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and wound-induced protein kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. (elsevier.com)
  • A classic example is the tobacco mosaic virus , which has a protein that binds to other copies of itself, around an RNA helix, to form a hollow tube. (chemistryworld.com)
  • A virus is simply a genome tucked inside a protein coat, too streamlined for biologists to even consider it to be alive. (plos.org)
  • Genetic instructions enable a virus to package itself neatly into a protein coat using very few genes, like building an elaborate greenhouse from assembling identical panes of glass. (plos.org)
  • The entire infectious virus particle, called a virion, consists of the nucleic acid and an outer shell of protein. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Until this day, no known virus has been reported to contain one of the most essential and indispensable protein making machinery of any given living cell… the ribosome! (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Viruses have contributed immensely in the understanding of basic molecular genetics such as DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation, protein transport, immunology and in translational medicine in the form of gene therapy and cancer treatment (oncolytic viruses), just to mention a few [6]. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Trans-heterocomplementation was successful with the movement protein (P30) of tobacco mosaic virus but not with the tubule-forming movement proteins of alfalfa mosaic virus and grapevine fanleaf virus. (cnrs.fr)
  • Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae (nightshade) family , and the general term for any product prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. (worddisk.com)
  • The letter combination "ASC" refers to Alternaria Stem Canker , "N" suggests resistance to nematode attack and "TMV" indicates some resistance to the dreaded Tobacco Mosaic Virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transgenic plants expressing high levels of one or more amiRNAs targeting particular sequences in the genomes of some RNA viruses have shown specific resistance to the corresponding virus. (apsnet.org)
  • In this study, we explored the fate of this resistance when the A. thaliana 12-4 plants are challenged with a second virus in addition to TuMV. (apsnet.org)
  • Therefore, preinfection by another virus jeopardizes the amiRNA-mediated resistance to TuMV. (apsnet.org)
  • High resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. (rainbowharvestfarm.com)
  • The work was performed on tomato hybrids that combine resistance genes to tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) or tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in their genome. (kubsau.ru)
  • The aim of the work was to test a system of hybridization probes designed to identify a gene for resistance to the tobacco mosaic virus. (kubsau.ru)
  • Golden Rave tomato seed plants are resistant to, or tolerant of, the following tomato diseases: Fusarium Wilt (Race 1) and Tomato (Tobacco) Mosaic Virus. (westcoastseeds.com)
  • Viruses can be grown in vivo (within a whole living organism, plant, or animal) or in vitro (outside a living organism in cells in an artificial environment, such as a test tube, cell culture flask, or agar plate). (greenquill-editions.com)
  • From this point of analysis, we reexamine the character of genomic language as the unique, biome-wide acheiropoetic written language that is the ultimate common mother-language of every living organism on earth, the language in which viruses like SARS-CoV-2 act as material texts. (rhetoric.bg)
  • To this end, adopting a deeply transhuman (but not posthuman) stance, we first reexamine the genomic language within which viruses like COVID act as a material text, the unique, biome-wide acheiropoetic (not written by human hands) written language that is the ultimate common mother-language of every living organism on earth. (rhetoric.bg)
  • The first virus to be discovered was the tobacco mosaic virus in 1882 closely followed by the discovery of foot-and-mouth disease virus in 1898. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • In 1898, Beijerinck concluded that tobacco mosaic was caused by a "contagium vivum fluidum" which he called a virus. (udg.edu)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (ktlg.ee)
  • This is the case of the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic line 12-4 expressing a high level of the amiR159-HC-Pro targeting 21 nucleotides in the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) (family Potyviridae ) cistron coding for the viral RNA-silencing suppressor HC-Pro that is highly resistant to TuMV infection. (apsnet.org)
  • Disease Resistant: Tobacco Mosaic Virus. (premierseedsdirect.com)
  • The research used seeds of foreign F1 tomato hybrids recommended by the manufacturer as resistant to the tobacco mosaic virus. (kubsau.ru)
  • Cultivaris employs proprietary non-GMO methods-perfected through decades of experience in horticultural production of ornamental plants-that remove most or all viruses and other pathogens from the mother stock. (meristemfarms.com)
  • Farms planting these liners thus enjoy significantly greater yield and quality of flower production, as a result of the relative infrequency or absence of plants sickened by viruses and other pathogens. (meristemfarms.com)
  • Affiliate, Product Listing Policy Terms of Use Taobao Global [8] Aside from its toxicity, methyl salicylate may also be used by plants as a pheromone to warn other plants of pathogens such as tobacco mosaic virus. (bibliotecadecordoba.com)
  • The inclusion of non-infectious plant virus parts into the sequence greatly enhances the stability and level of production of these proteins in plants. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Viruses are complicated assemblies of molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, but on their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. (lavoropiubellodelmondo.com)
  • The simplest viruses contain only enough RNA or DNA to encode four proteins. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Viruses can be purified away from cellular proteins and organelles using centrifugation techniques. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Employing this new approach of comparing the shape or "folds" of proteins, they were able to demonstrate that both viruses and bacteria descended from the same ancient cellular life form some 3.4 billion years ago. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Cell-to-cell movement of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) requires three proteins encoded by a triple gene block (TGB) on viral RNA 2. (cnrs.fr)
  • A BNYVV RNA 3-derived replicon was used to express movement proteins of other viruses and the ability of these proteins to functionally substitute for the BNYVV TGB proteins was tested by coinoculation of TGB-defective BNYVV with the various replicons to Chenopodium quinoa. (cnrs.fr)
  • Trans-complementation of BNYVV movement was also observed when all three TGB proteins of the distantly related peanut clump virus were supplied together but not when they were substituted for their BNYVV counterparts one by one. (cnrs.fr)
  • In this four-part laboratory exercise, learners investigate properties of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) including (1) symptoms induced by the virus in susceptible plants at the macroscopic and. (howtosmile.org)
  • immunization elicited by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) transgenic plants as antigens. (akjournals.com)
  • In my grow room recently, I spent weeks dealing with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) that would have killed my plants or ruined my harvest completely if I hadn't worked hard to control the virus. (bigbudsmag.com)
  • I didn't see any pests (pests such as aphids are known virus vectors), but I sprayed and root-drenched my plants with Azamax as a precaution. (bigbudsmag.com)
  • And then there's the worst marijuana plants' enemy I've ever seen: tobacco mosaic virus. (bigbudsmag.com)
  • These may have Tobacco Mosaic Virus which can spread to the other plants. (capitalevents.ma)
  • The first viruses to be observed were tobacco mosaic viruses which infect cash bandits 200 free spins tobacco plants see p. (thirdwebdesigns.com)
  • Viruses can be found in animals, plants or microorganisms such as bacteria. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. (ktlg.ee)
  • An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. (elsevier.com)
  • Their model shows that while bacteria evolved to acquire increasing complexity, viruses gradually became simpler, losing genes that were deemed to be non-essential until they could no longer even reproduce on their own [4]. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Plant viruses can be transmitted by contaminated soil, water, or farming machinery as well as by specific insect, nematode and fungus vectors. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Biologists also don't consider a virus to be alive because of what it can't do: it doesn't metabolize, doesn't respond to stimuli, and can't reproduce unaided. (plos.org)
  • Do biologists study viruses? (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. (elsevier.com)
  • For example, candidate vaccine and diagnostic components against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, bovine papillomavirus and sheep scab mite disease have been produced using such systems. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Methods to Study Viruses With the development of gene cloning technologies, virologists are able to clone entire viral genomes, manipulate them in the laboratory (introduce specific mutations) and examine the effects on virus replication or disease. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Dmitry IvanovskyDmitry Ivanovsky was still a student in 1887 when he began his work on the Tobacco Mosaic Disease (later to be renamed Tobacco Mosaic virus) that led to the first discovery of the virus. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Genomic Southern analysis showed that HIN1 constitutes a multi-gene family and this led to the isolation of two novel HIN1-like tobacco cDNAs that we designated as HIN9 and HIN18. (elsevier.com)
  • The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • Cultured cells are often used to study basic steps in virus replication. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Despite all their differences however, most viruses are generally very small in size with a diameter of less than 200 nm and they all require a host cell to undergo replication. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Scientists at the Institute are looking at how plant viruses can be used to develop vaccines and diagnostics. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Tobacco mosaic virusTwo scientists contributed to the discovery of the first virus, Tobacco mosaic virus. (greenquill-editions.com)
  • Quick Answer: How Do Scientists Study Viruses? (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Scientists have been studying viruses for a hundred years, but we've never seen anything like this before," said Joe Pogliano, a professor of molecular biology who headed the research team. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • I got rid of the remaining seeds from the strains that had grown to have the virus. (bigbudsmag.com)
  • Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. (worddisk.com)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) merupakan salah satu virus yang baru dilaporkan dapat menginfeksi tanaman mentimun. (ipb.ac.id)
  • In the first three articles in this series on marijuana viruses and other tough problems you face as a cannabis grower, we talked about serious problems that show up as leaf symptoms, slow growth, poor yields, and even plant death. (bigbudsmag.com)
  • I waited a month before I started another set of cannabis seeds, and only started five seeds to as a test to see if the virus was still present and active in my marijuana grow environment. (bigbudsmag.com)
  • I'm pretty sure the virus came from clones, but viruses can travel in clones and in seeds, so I got rid of suspect seeds. (bigbudsmag.com)
  • Hernández de Boncalo , Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain . (worddisk.com)
  • Plant viruses can be just as devastating for agricultural crops and the security of food supply as some of the world's most notorious viruses, SARS-CoV-2 among them, have been for the human population. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco use as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death. (worddisk.com)
  • Potato virus S (PVS) is of increasing importance in potato. (cd-diatest.com)
  • Wu Flu" isn't correct - it's not a flu virus, nor is "Wuhan SARS" quite right because the new pathogen's genome isn't exactly like that of SARS. (plos.org)
  • But while - like humans - bacteria evolved to become more complex, viruses became simpler. (greenquill-editions.com)
  • Masks might help keep out viruses swimming in exhaled droplets, but the "infectious agents" are small enough to easily penetrate a few layers of gauze or cloth. (plos.org)
  • Plant diseases are caused by environmental stress, genetic or physiological disorders and infectious agents including viroids, viruses, bacteria and fungi. (udg.edu)
  • Even though they definitely replicate and adapt to their environment, viruses are more like androids than real living organisms. (greenquill-editions.com)
  • Organisms smaller than bacteria have been known to exist since the late 19th century (11), but the first EM visualization of a virus came only after the electron microscope was developed. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Electron microscopyElectron microscopy (EM) has long been used in the discovery and description of viruses. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Plant viruses can be useful as well as harmful, however, and new biotechnology research at the James Hutton Institute is pointing the way to how plant viruses can be harnessed to produce vaccines. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Viruses are not alive the way a plant or an animal is alive. (volcabuzz.com)
  • In other words a rose plant can't get tobacco mosaic virus. (volcabuzz.com)
  • In the current pandemic situation we find ourselves in, it is justifiable to associate a virus with death, lockdown, isolation and as an overall burden to humanity. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Having evolved from viruses that infected other animals, they first appeared in humans in Europe and North Africa thousands of years ago. (lavoropiubellodelmondo.com)
  • However, even though viruses have been around for millions of years, it was just a little over 100 years ago that we discovered the first virus in humans. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Hence in 1901, yellow fever virus was the first "filterable agent" to be discovered in humans [5]. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Martinus BeijerinckFather of Virology Sadly, he did not live long enough to actually see his virus particles under the electroIn 1905n microscope or learn how widespread and important they are. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • Well, for those that are involved in the fields of virology or molecular and cellular biology, I don't think it is difficult to comprehend the vast spectrum of tools that viruses provide. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • A scientist that studies viruses is called a virologist. (premiumfakedocuments.com)
  • If I were to ask random people in the city what they think about a virus, I believe most people would have a negative perception about it, some would just accept viruses as being part of nature and probably no one would have anything positive to say about a virus unless he/she is a virologist! (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • Do viruses grow in our food? (greenquill-editions.com)
  • Viruses are not made out of cells, they can't keep themselves in a stable state, they don't grow, and they can't make their own energy. (greenquill-editions.com)
  • [9] Many Native American tribes traditionally grow and use tobacco. (worddisk.com)
  • Virologists at the James Hutton Institute and its forerunner research organisations have studied a wide variety of viruses that infect a range of crops in the UK and around the world. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • "A virus straddles the boundary between the chemical and the biological, a structure that is more than an assembly of macromolecules, yet less than a cell," I wrote in my introductory biology textbook Life . (plos.org)
  • What is the most common way for a virus to kill a cell? (greenquill-editions.com)
  • In their study, they analyzed 5080 completely sequenced proteomes from cells and viruses and grouped them into either fold families (FFs) that share domains with 30% or more sequence composition identity or fold superfamilies (FSFs) that share common 3D structures and biochemical properties but low sequence identity. (immunosensation-blog.de)
  • The virus cannot reproduce itself outside the host because it lacks the complicated machinery that a [host] cell possesses. (greenquill-editions.com)
  • The virus can no longer reproduce itself. (volcabuzz.com)

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