The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
The deliberate attempt to influence attitudes and beliefs for furthering one's cause or damaging an opponent's cause.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures and regulations implemented to ensure household items, toys, and other consumer products are designed, manufactured, and distributed in a manner that minimizes risks of harm, injury, or death to consumers during normal use or foreseeable misuse.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.
Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
Financial support of research activities.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Organized groups of users of goods and services.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)
Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term or concept, but a regional organization that consists of post-Soviet states, and therefore, it does not have a medical definition.
Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
The contamination of indoor air.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
*My apologies, but "Restaurants" are not a medical term and do not have a medical definition.*
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Use of TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum L) and TOBACCO PRODUCTS.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.
All organized methods of funding.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Argentina" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. Argentina is actually the second largest country in South America, and is known for its rich cultural history, diverse landscapes, and significant contributions to fields such as science, arts, and sports. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is a state located in the Midwestern United States and not a term with a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)

Decline in cigarette consumption following implementation of a comprehensive tobacco prevention and education program--Oregon, 1996-1998. (1/764)

In November 1996, residents of Oregon approved a ballot measure increasing the cigarette tax by 30 cents (to 68 cents per pack). The measure stipulated that 10% of the additional tax revenue be allocated to the Oregon Health Division (OHD) to develop and implement a tobacco-use prevention program. In 1997, OHD created Oregon's Tobacco Prevention and Education Program (TPEP), a comprehensive, community-based program modeled on the successful tobacco-use prevention programs in California and Massachusetts. To assess the effects of the tax increase and TPEP in Oregon, OHD evaluated data on the number of packs of cigarettes taxed before (1993-1996) and after (1997-1998) the ballot initiative and implementation of the program. Oregon's results also were compared with national data. This report summarizes the results of the analysis, which indicate that consumption of cigarettes in Oregon declined substantially after implementation of the excise tax and TPEP and exceeded the national rate of decline.  (+info)

Settling for less? Tobacco industry. (2/764)

In November 1998, a coalition of state negotiators and five tobacco companies reached an agreement in which the cigarette makers would pay out the biggest financial settlement in history, $206 billion over the next 25 years to 46 states, to compensate for the medical treatment of patients suffering from tobacco-related health problems. Critics of the settlement say the tobacco companies are getting off the hook too easily, and that the deal's public health provisions are unacceptably riddled with loopholes. But the attorneys general who negotiated the settlement defended it as a good deal-but clearly not as a panacea. Ultimately, they feel, Congress should pass legislation to provide essential reforms, including full Food and Drug Administration authority over tobacco.  (+info)

Turning over a new leaf. Tobacco. (3/764)

Anticipating a diminishing market for cigarettes and other tobacco products in the future, researchers around the country are studying alternative uses for tobacco plants. The most promising field of research for tobacco involves the genetic engineering of tobacco plants to produce various substances such as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and consumer product ingredients. Tobacco has been called the "fruit fly of the plant kingdom" because of the ease with which it can be genetically engineered. There are countless possibilities for the use of tobacco, but current efforts are concentrating on engineering tobacco to produce vaccines, human enzymes, and plastics. Tobacco researchers have been successful in expressing bovine lysozyme, an enzyme with antibacterial properties, and insulin.  (+info)

Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience. (4/764)

OBJECTIVE: To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments. RESULTS: In 1988 california voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign. CONCLUSION: Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by nongovernmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns.  (+info)

Features of sales promotion in cigarette magazine advertisements, 1980-1993: an analysis of youth exposure in the United States. (5/764)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the presence of features of sales promotion in cigarette advertising in United States magazines, and to describe trends in youth (ages 12-17) exposure to such advertising (termed "promotional advertising"). DESIGN: Analysis of 1980-1993 annual data on: (a) total pages and expenditures for "promotional advertising" (advertising that contains features of sales promotion) in 36 popular magazines (all magazines for which data were available), by cigarette brand; and (b) readership characteristics for each magazine. We defined promotional advertising as advertisements that go beyond the simple advertising of the product and its features to include one or more features of sales promotion, such as coupons, "retail value added" promotions, contests, sweepstakes, catalogues, specialty item distribution, and sponsorship of public entertainment or sporting events. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total pages of, and expenditures for promotional advertising in magazines; and gross impressions (number of readers multiplied by the number of pages of promotional advertising) among youth and total readership. RESULTS: During the period 1980-1993, tobacco companies spent $90.2 million on promotional advertising in the 36 magazines. The proportion of promotional advertising appearing in "youth" magazines (defined as magazines with a greater than average proportion of youth readers) increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 100% in 1987. Although youth readers represented only 19% of magazine readers, the proportion of youth gross impressions to total gross impressions of tobacco promotional advertising exceeded this value throughout the entire period 1985-1993, peaking at 33% in 1987. The five "youth" cigarette brands (defined as brands smoked by at least 2.5% of smokers aged 10-15 years in 1993) accounted for 59% of promotional advertising in all magazines, but for 83% of promotional advertising in youth magazines during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: In their magazine advertising, cigarette companies are preferentially exposing young people to advertisements that contain sales promotional features.  (+info)

Sharing the blame: smoking experimentation and future smoking-attributable mortality due to Joe Camel and Marlboro advertising and promotions. (6/764)

BACKGROUND: Despite public denials, internal tobacco company documents indicate that adolescents have long been the target of cigarette advertising and promotional activities. Recent longitudinal evidence suggests that 34% of new experimentation occurs because of advertising and promotions. OBJECTIVE: To apportion responsibility for smoking experimentation and future smoking-attributable mortality among major cigarette brands attractive to young people (Camel and Marlboro). DATA SOURCES, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were from confirmed never-smoking adolescents (12-17 years old) responding to the 1993 (n = 2659) and 1996 (n = 2779) population-based California Tobacco Surveys. MAIN OUTCOMES: Adolescents named the brand of their favourite cigarette advertisements and tobacco promotional items. Using these "market shares" and the relative importance of advertising and promotions in encouraging smoking, we estimated how many new experimenters from 1988 to 1998 in the United States can be attributed to Camel and Marlboro. From other data on the natural history of smoking, we projected how many future deaths in the United States can be attributed to each brand. RESULTS: Although Camel advertisements were favoured more than Marlboro and other brands in 1993 and 1996, the "market share" for promotional items shifted markedly during this period from Camel and other brands towards Marlboro. We estimated that between 1988 and 1998, there will be 7.9 million new experimenters because of tobacco advertising and promotions. This will result in 4.7 million new established smokers: 2.1, 1.2, and 1.4 million due to Camel, Marlboro, and other brands' advertising and promotions, respectively. Of these, 1.2 million will eventually die from smoking-attributable diseases: 520,000 from Camel, 300,000 from Marlboro, and the remainder from other brands. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides a reasonable first estimate at sharing the blame for the long-term health consequences of smoking among the major brands that encourage adolescents to start smoking.  (+info)

Consensus for tobacco policy among former state legislators using the policy Delphi method. (7/764)

OBJECTIVE: To test a novel approach for building consensus about tobacco control policies among legislators. DESIGN: A pilot study was conducted using a two-round, face-to-face policy Delphi method. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly selected sample of 30 former Kentucky legislators (60% participation rate). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Consensus on tobacco control and tobacco farming policies. RESULTS: Former state legislators were more supportive of tobacco control policies than expected, and highly supportive of lessening the state's dependence on tobacco. Former state legislators were in agreement with 43% of the second-round items for which there was no agreement at the first round, demonstrating a striking increase in consensus. With new information from their colleagues, former lawmakers became more supportive of workplace smoking restrictions, limitations on tobacco promotional items, and modest excise tax increases. CONCLUSIONS: The policy Delphi method has the potential for building consensus for tobacco control and tobacco farming policies among state legislators. Tobacco control advocates in other states might consider using the policy Delphi method with policymakers in public and private sectors.  (+info)

Arizona's tobacco control initiative illustrates the need for continuing oversight by tobacco control advocates. (8/764)

BACKGROUND: In 1994, Arizona voters approved Proposition 200 which increased the tobacco tax and earmarked 23% of the new revenues for tobacco education programmes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the campaign to pass Proposition 200, the legislative debate that followed the passage of the initiative, and the development and implementation of the tobacco control programme. DESIGN: This is a case study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key players in the initiative campaign and in the tobacco education programme, and written records (campaign material, newspapers, memoranda, public records). RESULTS: Despite opposition from the tobacco industry, Arizonans approved an increase in the tobacco tax. At the legislature, health advocates in Arizona successfully fought the tobacco industry attempts to divert the health education funds and pass preemptive legislation. The executive branch limited the scope of the programme to adolescents and pregnant women. It also prevented the programme from attacking the tobacco industry or focusing on secondhand smoke. Health advocates did not put enough pressure at the executive branch to force it to develop a comprehensive tobacco education programme. CONCLUSIONS: It is not enough for health advocates to campaign for an increase in tobacco tax and to protect the funds at the legislature. Tobacco control advocates must closely monitor the development and implementation of tax-funded tobacco education programmes at the administrative level and be willing to press the executive to implement effective programmes.  (+info)

A Tobacco Industry is a commercial sector involved in the cultivation, production, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. This can include growers who produce tobacco leaves, manufacturers who process the leaves into various forms (such as cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or snuff), and companies that market and distribute these products to consumers. It is important to note that the tobacco industry has been associated with significant health risks, as the use of tobacco products can lead to a range of serious health problems, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lobbying" is not a term that has a medical definition. Lobbying refers to the act of attempting to influence decisions made by legislators or other officials in favor of specific causes or outcomes. It is commonly used to describe advocacy efforts by various interest groups, including healthcare organizations and pharmaceutical companies, to shape health policy and regulations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

I apologize, but "Public Relations" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public relations is a field of study and practice that focuses on managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization and the public. It involves building and maintaining a positive reputation, handling crises, and fostering relationships with various stakeholders.

If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help. Just let me know!

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "marketing." In general, marketing refers to the activities involved in promoting, selling, and distributing a product or service. This can include market research, product development, advertising, public relations, sales, and customer service. Marketing is used in many industries, including healthcare, to connect with and engage customers, build brand awareness, and increase sales.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "propaganda" is not typically used as a medical definition. Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of a population. It often presents a biased or misleading view of information in order to further an agenda or promote a particular point of view.

However, in the context of public health and medical communications, propaganda can refer to the dissemination of misinformation or manipulated information about health-related topics with the intention of shaping public opinion or behavior. This can be particularly problematic in the field of medicine, where accurate and unbiased information is critical for making informed decisions about healthcare and treatment options.

It's important to note that while propaganda can be used to promote positive messages and behaviors, such as encouraging people to get vaccinated or practice safe sex, it can also be used to spread misinformation and fear, leading to harmful consequences for individuals and communities.

Advertising is a form of communication used to promote or sell products, services, or ideas. In the medical field, advertising is often used by healthcare providers, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies to reach potential patients or customers. Advertisements may appear in various media formats, such as television, radio, print, online platforms, and outdoor displays.

In the context of medical advertising, it is essential to ensure that all information presented is accurate, balanced, and not misleading. The advertising of prescription medications directly to consumers is regulated by government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, to ensure that the benefits and risks of the medication are clearly communicated.

Healthcare providers may also engage in advertising to promote their services or expertise. This can include listing their qualifications, areas of specialization, and patient testimonials. However, healthcare providers must adhere to ethical guidelines and avoid making exaggerated claims about their abilities or the outcomes that patients can expect.

Overall, medical advertising plays an essential role in informing the public about available healthcare options and promoting healthy behaviors. Still, it is crucial to ensure that all advertisements are truthful, transparent, and adhere to ethical standards.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Industry" is a general term that refers to a specific branch of economic activity, or a particular way of producing goods or services. It is not a medical term with a defined meaning within the field of medicine.

However, if you are referring to the term "industrious," which can be used to describe someone who is diligent and hard-working, it could be applied in a medical context to describe a patient's level of engagement and effort in their own care. For example, a patient who is conscientious about taking their medications as prescribed, following through with recommended treatments, and making necessary lifestyle changes to manage their condition might be described as "industrious" by their healthcare provider.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Deception is not a medical term, but it is a concept that can be studied and applied in various fields including psychology, sociology, and forensics. In the context of medicine and healthcare, deception may refer to the act of misleading or providing false information to patients, research subjects, or healthcare providers. This can include situations where a patient is not fully informed about their medical condition or treatment options, or where researchers manipulate data or results in clinical trials. Deception can have serious ethical and legal implications, and it is generally considered unacceptable in medical practice and research.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Persuasive Communication" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Persuasive communication is a broader term used in various fields including psychology, sociology, and communications to refer to the process of using communication to influence or persuade others to adopt a particular viewpoint or course of action.

However, in a medical context, communication is a crucial aspect of healthcare delivery, and effective communication skills are essential for healthcare professionals to build trust, ensure informed consent, and promote patient engagement and adherence to treatment plans. This includes being able to effectively communicate complex medical information in a clear and understandable way, as well as being sensitive to patients' emotions, values, and cultural backgrounds.

If you have any specific questions about communication in a medical context or any other healthcare-related topic, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Consumer advocacy in a medical context refers to the process of representing and supporting the rights and interests of patients and healthcare consumers. Consumer advocates work to ensure that individuals receive safe, effective, and affordable healthcare services, and that they are empowered to make informed decisions about their own care. This may involve promoting transparency and accountability in the healthcare system, advocating for policies that protect patient rights, and providing education and support to help consumers navigate the complex world of healthcare. Consumer advocacy can take many forms, including individual case advocacy, class action lawsuits, policy reform efforts, and public awareness campaigns.

Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures taken to ensure that products intended for consumer use are free from unreasonable risks of injury or illness. This is typically overseen by regulatory bodies, such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in the United States, which establishes safety standards, tests products, and recalls dangerous ones.

The definition of 'Consumer Product' can vary but generally refers to any article, or component part thereof, produced or distributed (i) for sale to a consumer for use in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (ii) for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (iii) for sensory evaluation and direct physical contact by a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise.

The safety measures can include various aspects such as design, manufacturing, packaging, and labeling of the product to ensure that it is safe for its intended use. This includes ensuring that the product does not contain any harmful substances, that it functions as intended, and that it comes with clear instructions for use and any necessary warnings.

It's important to note that even with these safety measures in place, it is still possible for products to cause injury or illness if they are used improperly or if they malfunction. Therefore, it is also important for consumers to be aware of the risks associated with the products they use and to take appropriate precautions.

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization has dual loyalties or is in a position to exploit their professional or personal relationships for personal or institutional gain. In the medical field, COIs can arise when healthcare providers, researchers, or institutions have financial or other interests that may influence their judgment or actions in providing care, conducting research, or making recommendations.

Examples of conflicts of interest in medicine include:

* A physician who has a financial relationship with a pharmaceutical company and receives compensation for promoting the company's products to patients or colleagues.
* A researcher who owns stock in a company that is funding their study and may stand to benefit financially from positive results.
* An institution that accepts funding from industry partners for research or educational programs, which could potentially influence the outcomes of the research or bias the education provided.

COIs can compromise the integrity of medical research, patient care, and professional judgment. Therefore, it is essential to disclose and manage COIs transparently to maintain trust in the healthcare system and ensure that decisions are made in the best interests of patients and society as a whole.

Smokeless tobacco is a type of tobacco that is not burned or smoked. It's often called "spit" or "chewing" tobacco. The most common forms of smokeless tobacco in the United States are snuff and chewing tobacco. Snuff is a finely ground tobacco that can be dry or moist. Dry snuff is sniffed or taken through the nose, while moist snuff is placed between the lower lip or cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is plugs, leaves, or twists of tobacco that are chewed or sucked on.

Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which is addictive. When you use smokeless tobacco, the nicotine is absorbed through the lining of your mouth and goes directly into your bloodstream. This can lead to a rapid increase in nicotine levels in your body, which can make it harder to quit using tobacco.

Smokeless tobacco also contains harmful chemicals that can cause cancer of the mouth, esophagus, and pancreas. It can also cause other health problems, such as gum disease, tooth decay, and precancerous lesions in the mouth. Using smokeless tobacco can also increase your risk of developing heart disease and having a stroke.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taxes" is not a medical term. It refers to a compulsory financial charge or levy imposed on individuals or entities by a governmental authority to fund various public expenditures and services. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Tobacco Use Disorder is a clinical diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by healthcare professionals to diagnose mental health conditions. It is defined as a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Tobacco is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control tobacco use.
3. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain or use tobacco, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use tobacco, occurs.
5. Recurrent tobacco use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of tobacco use.
7. Tobacco use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by tobacco.
8. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of tobacco to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of tobacco.
9. Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for tobacco, or tobacco is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis excludes nicotine withdrawal that is a normal response to the cessation of tobacco use, intoxication, or substance/medication-induced disorders. Tobacco Use Disorder can be further specified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Product Packaging" is not a medical term. Product packaging generally refers to the process of designing and producing containers or wrapping for a product. This is typically a term used in the context of consumer goods, retail, and industrial manufacturing, rather than in medicine. In medicine, terms like "medication packaging" or "pharmaceutical packaging" might be used to refer to the specific ways that medications are packaged for distribution and use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Labor Unions" are not a medical term or concept. They fall under the domain of sociology and labor economics.

A labor union is an organized group of workers who collectively use their strength to have a voice in their workplace. Through unions, workers have the ability to negotiate with employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions. The membership is typically made up of employees from various fields and industries, but most unions are dedicated to specific occupations or groups of workers (like teachers, actors, or construction workers).

If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide a different term.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "government" is a political or administrative concept and does not have a medical definition. In general, it refers to the group of people who govern a community or country, or the system by which they govern. This could include elected officials, appointed leaders, and bureaucracies that oversee various functions such as public health, education, and infrastructure. However, in the context of your question, I assume you may be interested in how government policies and systems can impact health and healthcare. If you have any specific questions related to this or another topic, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mass Media" is not a term that has a medical definition. Mass media refers to the means of communication that reach large numbers of people simultaneously, such as television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet. It may be used in a public health context to discuss how information about health-related topics is disseminated to the general population. However, it is not a term that is typically used within the field of medicine to describe a specific medical concept or condition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Financial Support" is not a medical term. It generally refers to the provision of money or other financial resources to help meet expenses or needs. In a healthcare context, it might refer to assistance provided to patients who are unable to afford their medical costs, such as through insurance, government programs, or charitable organizations. However, there is no specific medical definition for this term.

I believe you may have mixed up the terms "medicine" and "commerce." Commerce is a broad term that refers to the buying and selling of goods and services. It is not typically used in a medical context, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with some related terms that might be helpful:

1. Medical commerce: This term generally refers to the business aspects of healthcare, such as the buying and selling of medical supplies, equipment, and services. It may also refer to the economic relationships between various stakeholders in the healthcare system, including providers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and patients.
2. Telemedicine commerce: This term specifically refers to the use of technology to facilitate remote consultations and transactions between healthcare providers and patients. Examples include online appointment scheduling, virtual consultations, and electronic prescribing.
3. Medical tourism: This is a form of commerce where people travel to other countries to receive medical treatment or procedures that may be less expensive or more accessible than in their home country. It can also refer to the business of providing medical services to international patients.
4. Healthcare marketing: This term refers to the activities and strategies used by healthcare organizations to promote their products, services, and brands to potential customers. It includes advertising, public relations, social media, content marketing, and other tactics designed to build awareness, generate leads, and drive sales.

I hope this information is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions or concerns.

Tobacco products are defined as any items that contain tobacco, including but not limited to cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, snuff, chewing tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes). These products can be smoked, smokeless, or heated and involve the inhalation or ingestion of tobacco or its derivatives. They are known to cause addiction due to their nicotine content and can lead to a variety of serious health problems, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease.

In a medical context, documentation refers to the process of recording and maintaining written or electronic records of a patient's health status, medical history, treatment plans, medications, and other relevant information. The purpose of medical documentation is to provide clear and accurate communication among healthcare providers, to support clinical decision-making, to ensure continuity of care, to meet legal and regulatory requirements, and to facilitate research and quality improvement initiatives.

Medical documentation typically includes various types of records such as:

1. Patient's demographic information, including name, date of birth, gender, and contact details.
2. Medical history, including past illnesses, surgeries, allergies, and family medical history.
3. Physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic test results, and diagnoses.
4. Treatment plans, including medications, therapies, procedures, and follow-up care.
5. Progress notes, which document the patient's response to treatment and any changes in their condition over time.
6. Consultation notes, which record communication between healthcare providers regarding a patient's care.
7. Discharge summaries, which provide an overview of the patient's hospital stay, including diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up plans.

Medical documentation must be clear, concise, accurate, and timely, and it should adhere to legal and ethical standards. Healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of patients' medical records and ensuring that they are accessible only to authorized personnel.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "public opinion" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a group or society about a particular issue or topic. It is typically formed through interaction, discussion, and various forms of communication within a community or population. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Business ethics refers to the principles and values that guide the conduct of individuals and organizations in the business community. It involves making decisions and taking actions based on moral and ethical considerations, such as honesty, fairness, respect, and integrity. The goal of business ethics is to create a positive and responsible culture within an organization that promotes trust, reputation, and long-term success.

Business ethics covers a wide range of topics, including corporate social responsibility, environmental sustainability, employee rights and treatment, financial reporting and transparency, and marketing practices. It also involves addressing ethical dilemmas and conflicts that may arise in the workplace, such as discrimination, harassment, and conflicts of interest.

Having a strong foundation in business ethics is essential for any organization that wants to maintain a positive reputation, build trust with stakeholders, and comply with legal and regulatory requirements. It can also help attract and retain talented employees, improve financial performance, and foster a positive work culture.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Industry" is not a term that has a medical definition. The food industry is a broad category that includes businesses involved in the production, processing, packaging, distribution, and sale of food products. This can include farms, fisheries, manufacturers of food products, grocery stores, restaurants, and more.

If you have any questions related to nutrition or dietary habits and their impact on health, I would be happy to help provide information based on medical knowledge.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States Government Agencies" is not a medical term. It refers to administrative units within the US government that are responsible for carrying out specific functions and policies. These agencies can be involved in various areas, including public health and healthcare regulation, but they are not medical terms per se.

However, I can provide a brief overview of some US government agencies that play significant roles in healthcare and public health:

1. **Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)**: This is the primary federal agency responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It includes various operating divisions like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and more.

2. **Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)**: The CDC is the nation's leading public health agency, dedicated to protecting America from health, safety, and security threats, both foreign and in the domestic landscape.

3. **National Institutes of Health (NIH)**: NIH is the nation's medical research agency, conducting and supporting research that leads to healthier lives.

4. **Food and Drug Administration (FDA)**: The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, and products that emit chemical emissions.

5. **Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)**: HRSA is the primary federal agency for improving health care to people who are geographically isolated, economically or medically vulnerable.

6. **Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)**: CMS administers Medicare, Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and the Health Insurance Marketplace.

These agencies play crucial roles in shaping healthcare policies, conducting medical research, ensuring food and drug safety, providing health services, and more.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

Legal liability, in the context of medical law, refers to a legal obligation or responsibility that a healthcare professional or facility may have for their actions or negligence that results in harm or injury to a patient. This can include failure to provide appropriate care, misdiagnosis, medication errors, or other breaches of the standard of care. If a healthcare provider is found to be legally liable, they may be required to pay damages to the injured party. It's important to note that legal liability is different from medical malpractice, which refers to a specific type of negligence committed by a healthcare professional.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

Expert testimony is a type of evidence presented in court by a qualified expert who has specialized knowledge, education, training, or experience in a particular field that is relevant to the case. The expert's role is to provide an objective and unbiased opinion based on their expertise to assist the judge or jury in understanding complex issues that are beyond the knowledge of the average person.

In medical cases, expert testimony may be presented by healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, or other medical experts who have specialized knowledge about the medical condition or treatment at issue. The expert's testimony can help establish the standard of care, diagnose a medical condition, evaluate the cause of an injury, or assess the damages suffered by the plaintiff.

Expert testimony must meet certain legal standards to be admissible in court. The expert must be qualified to testify based on their education, training, and experience, and their opinion must be based on reliable methods and data. Additionally, the expert's testimony must be relevant to the case and not unduly prejudicial or misleading.

Overall, expert testimony plays a critical role in medical cases by providing objective and unbiased evidence that can help judges and juries make informed decisions about complex medical issues.

The "drug industry" is also commonly referred to as the "pharmaceutical industry." It is a segment of the healthcare sector that involves the research, development, production, and marketing of medications or drugs. This includes both prescription and over-the-counter medicines used to treat, cure, or prevent diseases and medical conditions in humans and animals.

The drug industry comprises various types of organizations, such as:

1. Research-based pharmaceutical companies: These are large corporations that focus on the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing, and marketing their products globally. Examples include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, and Merck.

2. Generic drug manufacturers: After the patent for a brand-name drug expires, generic drug manufacturers can produce and sell a similar version of the drug at a lower cost. These companies must demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to the brand-name drug in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy.

3. Biotechnology companies: These firms specialize in developing drugs using biotechnological methods, such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, or monoclonal antibodies. Many biotech companies focus on specific therapeutic areas, like oncology, immunology, or neurology.

4. Contract research organizations (CROs): CROs provide various services to the drug industry, including clinical trial management, data analysis, regulatory affairs support, and pharmacovigilance. They work with both large pharmaceutical companies and smaller biotech firms to help streamline the drug development process.

5. Drug delivery system companies: These organizations focus on developing innovative technologies for delivering drugs more effectively and safely to patients. Examples include transdermal patches, inhalers, or long-acting injectables.

6. Wholesalers and distributors: Companies that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them to pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers.

The drug industry plays a crucial role in improving public health by discovering, developing, and delivering new treatments for various diseases and medical conditions. However, it is also subject to criticism and regulation due to concerns about high drug prices, marketing practices, and the potential for conflicts of interest between industry and healthcare professionals.

Tobacco use cessation is the process of discontinuing the use of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarettes. This is often a critical component of treatment for tobacco-related diseases and conditions, as well as a key strategy for preventing tobacco-related illnesses and premature death.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a combination of behavioral support and medication as the most effective approach to tobacco use cessation. Behavioral support may include counseling, group therapy, and self-help materials, while medication can include nicotine replacement therapies (such as gum, lozenges, patches, inhalers, or nasal sprays), as well as prescription medications such as bupropion and varenicline.

Tobacco use cessation is a challenging process that often requires multiple attempts before successful long-term abstinence is achieved. However, with the right support and resources, many tobacco users are able to quit successfully and improve their health outcomes.

Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. This can be achieved through various methods such as behavioral modifications, counseling, and medication. The goal of smoking cessation is to improve overall health, reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases, and enhance quality of life. It is a significant step towards preventing lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other serious health conditions.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as it's primarily known for its impact on plants rather than humans or animals. However, I will provide the botanical definition for your interest.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, including tobacco, tomatoes, cucumbers, and many ornamental plants. The virus is named after its initial discovery in tobacco plants, which exhibit symptoms such as mosaic patterns of light and dark green on the leaves, leaf curling, and stunted growth. TMV is highly contagious and can be spread through mechanical means, such as touching infected plants or using contaminated tools. It's also one of the most well-studied viruses due to its impact on agriculture and its historical significance in early virology research.

Product labeling, in the context of medicine or healthcare, refers to the information that is required by law to be present on the packaging of a pharmaceutical product or medical device. This information typically includes:

1. The name of the product, often with an active ingredient listed separately.
2. A description of what the product is used for (indications).
3. Dosage instructions and route of administration.
4. Warnings about potential side effects, contraindications, and precautions.
5. The name and address of the manufacturer or distributor.
6. The expiration date or storage conditions, if applicable.
7. Any other relevant information, such as whether the product is subject to additional monitoring.

The purpose of product labeling is to provide accurate and standardized information to healthcare professionals and patients about the safe and effective use of a medical product. It helps to ensure that the product is used appropriately, reducing the risk of adverse events or misuse.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Menthol is a compound obtained from the crystals of the mint plant (Mentha arvensis). It is a white, crystalline substance that is solid at room temperature but becomes a clear, colorless, oily liquid when heated. Menthol has a cooling and soothing effect on mucous membranes, which makes it a common ingredient in over-the-counter products used to relieve symptoms of congestion, coughs, and sore throats. It is also used as a topical analgesic for its pain-relieving properties and as a flavoring agent in various products such as toothpaste, mouthwashes, and candies.

Economic competition in the context of healthcare and medicine generally refers to the rivalry among healthcare providers, organizations, or pharmaceutical companies competing for patients, resources, market share, or funding. This competition can drive innovation, improve quality of care, and increase efficiency. However, it can also lead to cost-containment measures that may negatively impact patient care and safety.

In the pharmaceutical industry, economic competition exists between different companies developing and marketing similar drugs. This competition can result in lower prices for consumers and incentives for innovation, but it can also lead to unethical practices such as price gouging or misleading advertising.

Regulation and oversight are crucial to ensure that economic competition in healthcare and medicine promotes the well-being of patients and the public while discouraging harmful practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational policy" is not a medical term. It falls under the broader category of management or administrative terminology.

An organizational policy generally refers to a formal statement or set of guidelines that outline an organization's approved course of action or conduct regarding various matters. These policies guide decision-making and help ensure consistent action across the organization. They can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to) employee behavior, data security, patient care standards, and operational procedures.

In a healthcare setting, organizational policies play a crucial role in maintaining quality of care, ensuring patient safety, and complying with relevant laws and regulations.

Consumer organizations are groups that advocate for the rights and interests of consumers. These organizations may focus on a specific product, service, or industry, such as healthcare, food safety, or consumer electronics. They often engage in activities such as education, advocacy, research, and policy analysis to promote fair treatment and safe practices for consumers. Some consumer organizations also provide resources and support to help individuals make informed decisions about the products and services they use. Examples of well-known consumer organizations include Consumer Reports, which provides independent product testing and ratings, and Public Citizen, which advocates for consumer safety and regulatory reform.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizations" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you are referring to "organs" in the body, here is a definition:

Organs: In human anatomy, a part of the body that performs a specialized function. Organs are composed of several types of tissues, which are groups of cells that perform a similar function. Examples of organs include the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys. Each organ's tissue has a specific structure that allows it to carry out its function in a highly efficient manner.

If you were asking about organizations in the context of medical institutions or healthcare systems, here is a definition:

Healthcare Organization: An entity that provides healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, physician practices, and long-term care facilities. These organizations can be public, private, or nonprofit and are responsible for delivering medical care to patients, managing health information, conducting research, and promoting public health. They may also provide education and training to healthcare professionals. Healthcare organizations must comply with various regulations and accreditation standards to ensure the quality and safety of patient care.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Scientific misconduct is defined by the US Department of Health and Human Services as "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." Fabrication means making up data or results that never occurred. Falsification means manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.

Scientific misconduct also includes other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research. It does not include honest error or differences of opinion.

It is important to note that scientific misconduct can have serious consequences for the individuals involved and for the integrity of the scientific enterprise as a whole. It is essential that researchers adhere to the highest standards of integrity in order to maintain public trust in science and to ensure that research results are reliable and reproducible.

"Social control policies" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, social control policies refer to the strategies and measures implemented by society or its institutions to regulate, manage, and shape the behavior of individuals or groups in order to maintain social order, conformity, and cohesion.

In the field of public health, social control policies may refer to interventions aimed at changing behaviors that pose risks to individual or community health, such as tobacco control policies, alcohol regulation measures, or food safety regulations. These policies are designed to promote healthy behaviors, prevent disease and injury, and protect vulnerable populations from harm.

It's worth noting that the concept of social control can be controversial, as it raises questions about individual autonomy, privacy, and social justice. Therefore, the development and implementation of social control policies should involve careful consideration of ethical principles and community engagement to ensure that they are fair, effective, and respectful of human rights.

Civil rights are a group of rights and protections that guarantee equal treatment to all individuals, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or other characteristics. These rights are enshrined in the laws and constitutions of various countries and include freedoms such as the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to equal protection under the law, and the right to freedom of speech, religion, and assembly.

In the United States, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark piece of legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment, education, and access to public accommodations. Other important civil rights laws in the U.S. include the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which protects the right to vote, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities.

Violations of civil rights can take many forms, including discrimination, harassment, intimidation, and violence. Those whose civil rights have been violated may be entitled to legal remedies, such as damages, injunctions, or orders for relief.

In the context of medical field, a consultant is a physician who has completed specialty training and offers expert advice to general practitioners and other healthcare professionals. They typically work in hospitals or private practice and provide specialized services for specific medical conditions or diseases. Consultants play a crucial role in diagnosing complex medical cases, developing treatment plans, and managing patient care. They may also conduct research, teach medical students and residents, and write articles for professional publications. Some consultants are also involved in administrative tasks such as hospital management and policy-making.

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term, but rather a political and geographical term. It refers to a regional organization that was established in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The CIS comprises 10 post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Therefore, there is no medical definition associated with the term "Commonwealth of Independent States." However, it is important to note that public health and healthcare systems in CIS countries have undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, with varying degrees of success and challenges.

The term "charities" in the medical context generally refers to organizations that provide assistance, support, and resources to individuals facing various health challenges or disabilities. These organizations are typically dedicated to improving the quality of life for these individuals, advancing medical research, and providing education about specific diseases or conditions. Charities may offer a range of services such as financial assistance, support groups, counseling, educational materials, and advocacy efforts on behalf of patients and their families. Some charities focus on a specific disease or condition, while others address a broader range of health issues. Examples include the American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association, and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Interinstitutional Relations" is not a commonly used medical term. Instead, it is more frequently used in the context of social sciences, particularly in relation to organizations and their interactions with each other. In this context, interinstitutional relations refers to the relationships, cooperative arrangements, and communication between different organizations or institutions.

However, if you are looking for a term related to medical institutions or healthcare organizations, you might be interested in "Interprofessional Relations" or "Interdisciplinary Collaboration." These terms describe the interactions, coordination, and cooperation among various healthcare professionals and disciplines to provide comprehensive and high-quality patient care.

Ventilation, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process of breathing, which is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment. It involves both inspiration (inhaling) and expiration (exhaling). During inspiration, air moves into the lungs, delivering oxygen to the alveoli (air sacs) where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported to the body's cells, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is expelled from the body during expiration.

In a medical setting, ventilation may also refer to the use of mechanical devices, such as ventilators or respirators, which assist or replace the breathing process for patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions like respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or injuries. These machines help maintain adequate gas exchange and prevent complications associated with inadequate ventilation, such as hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motion Pictures as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually a subject heading used in library and information sciences to categorize materials related to the study or analysis of motion pictures as a medium or art form. This could include books, articles, and other resources about film theory, film history, film criticism, and so on.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "State Government" is not a medical term. It refers to the level of government in the United States that is responsible for governing each of the individual states. This includes executives (such as governors), legislative bodies (like state senates and houses of representatives), and courts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Societies" is a broad term that generally refers to organized groups of individuals who share common interests, goals, or characteristics. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, if you're referring to "society" in the context of social determinants of health, it relates to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the systems put in place to deal with illness. These factors can greatly influence health outcomes. If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "policy making" is not a medical term per se. It refers to the process of formulating or establishing official guidelines or rules, such as public policies or organizational policies, that govern decisions and actions. In the context of healthcare, policy making can refer to the development of guidelines, laws, regulations, and procedures that govern the delivery, financing, and accessibility of medical care and health promotion activities.

Examples of policy making in healthcare include:

* Developing clinical practice guidelines for the management of specific medical conditions
* Establishing reimbursement policies for medical procedures or treatments
* Implementing regulations to ensure patient safety and quality of care
* Creating public health policies to address population health issues, such as tobacco control or obesity prevention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

"Harm reduction" is a public health strategy and philosophy that seeks to minimize the negative health, social, and economic consequences associated with various human behaviors, including the use of substances such as drugs and alcohol. The goal of harm reduction is not necessarily to eliminate these behaviors but rather to reduce the potential harm that can come from them.

Examples of harm reduction strategies include providing access to clean needles for people who inject drugs, in order to prevent the spread of bloodborne diseases like HIV and hepatitis C; offering supervised consumption sites where people can use drugs under medical supervision, reducing the risk of overdose; and providing opioid agonist therapy (such as methadone or buprenorphine) to help individuals manage their dependence on opioids and reduce the risks associated with illicit drug use.

Harm reduction recognizes that abstinence may not be a realistic goal for everyone, and seeks to meet people where they are at in terms of their substance use, while still providing them with the support and resources they need to improve their health and well-being.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Interprofessional relations, in the context of healthcare, refers to the interactions and collaborative practices between different healthcare professionals (such as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, social workers, etc.) when providing care for patients. It involves developing and maintaining positive and effective communication, respect, trust, and collaboration among various healthcare disciplines to ensure coordinated, safe, and high-quality patient care. The goal of interprofessional relations is to enhance collaborative practice, improve patient outcomes, and promote a supportive work environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Objectives" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general management and business concept. Organizational objectives are the goals or targets that an organization aims to achieve through its operations and functions. These can include financial objectives like profitability and growth, as well as non-financial objectives related to areas like quality, innovation, social responsibility, and employee satisfaction.

In a healthcare setting, organizational objectives might include improving patient outcomes, increasing patient satisfaction, reducing costs, implementing new treatments or technologies, enhancing community health, and maintaining ethical standards.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Product Line Management" is not a medical term. It is a business and marketing concept that refers to the strategic alignment, planning, and execution of a product portfolio's development, introduction, and management within an organization. This function typically involves market research, competitive analysis, product development, launch, and eventual phase-out or revision.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

"Tars" is not a recognized medical term. However, "tarso-" is a prefix in anatomy that refers to the ankle or hind part of an organ. For example, the tarsal bones are the bones that make up the ankle and the rear part of the foot. Additionally, tarsus can refer to the thickened portion of the eyelid which contains the eyelashes. It is important to ensure you have the correct term when seeking medical information.

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Restaurants" are establishments where food and drinks are prepared and served to customers for a profit. They are part of the hospitality industry, not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

"Marketing of Health Services" refers to the application of marketing principles and strategies to promote, sell, and deliver health care services to individuals, families, or communities. This can include activities such as advertising, public relations, promotions, and sales to increase awareness and demand for health services, as well as researching and analyzing consumer needs and preferences to tailor health services to better meet those needs. The ultimate goal of marketing in health services is to improve access to and utilization of high-quality health care while maintaining ethical standards and ensuring patient satisfaction.

Public health practice is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to prevent disease, promote health, and protect communities from harmful environmental and social conditions through evidence-based strategies, programs, policies, and interventions. It involves the application of epidemiological, biostatistical, social, environmental, and behavioral sciences to improve the health of populations, reduce health disparities, and ensure equity in health outcomes. Public health practice includes a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, health promotion, community engagement, program planning and evaluation, policy analysis and development, and research translation. It is a collaborative and systems-based approach that involves partnerships with various stakeholders, including communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations to achieve population-level health goals.

Nicotine is defined as a highly addictive psychoactive alkaloid and stimulant found in the nightshade family of plants, primarily in tobacco leaves. It is the primary component responsible for the addiction to cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. Nicotine can also be produced synthetically.

When nicotine enters the body, it activates the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, leading to feelings of pleasure, stimulation, and relaxation. However, with regular use, tolerance develops, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effects, which can contribute to the development of nicotine dependence.

Nicotine has both short-term and long-term health effects. Short-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased alertness and concentration, and arousal. Long-term use can lead to addiction, lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive problems. It is important to note that nicotine itself is not the primary cause of many tobacco-related diseases, but rather the result of other harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke.

Tobacco use is the act of consuming or ingesting tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, and snuff. The primary active chemical in tobacco is nicotine, which is highly addictive and can have serious health consequences.

When tobacco is smoked, nicotine is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and travels to the brain, where it activates the release of neurotransmitters like dopamine, leading to feelings of pleasure and relaxation. However, smoking also exposes the user to a range of harmful chemicals and toxins that can cause serious health problems, including cancer, heart disease, lung disease, and stroke.

Chewing tobacco and snuff can also lead to nicotine addiction and are associated with an increased risk of oral cancer, gum disease, and other health issues. Overall, tobacco use is a major public health concern and is responsible for millions of preventable deaths each year worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Marketing" is not a term typically used in the field of medicine. Instead, it is a marketing strategy that uses commercial marketing techniques and principles to influence the behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal well-being and that of their communities. This approach has been applied to various public health and healthcare initiatives, such as promoting healthy lifestyles, preventing substance abuse, and increasing vaccination rates.

However, if you're looking for a medical definition related to social aspects or interactions, there might be some confusion. In that case, I would need more context to provide an accurate definition. Could you please clarify your question?

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

Aerospace medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the health and safety of pilots, astronauts, and passengers during space travel or aircraft flight. It involves studying the effects of various factors such as altitude, weightlessness, radiation, noise, vibration, and temperature extremes on the human body, and developing measures to prevent or mitigate any adverse effects.

Aerospace medicine also encompasses the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions that occur during space travel or aircraft flight, as well as the development of medical standards and guidelines for pilot and astronaut selection, training, and fitness for duty. Additionally, it includes research into the physiological and psychological challenges of long-duration space missions and the development of countermeasures to maintain crew health and performance during such missions.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

The Extraction and Processing Industry, also known as the extraction industry or the mining sector, is a major category of businesses and economic activities involved in the removal of minerals and other natural resources from the earth. This industry includes several types of extraction operations, such as:

1. Oil and gas extraction: This involves the exploration, drilling, and pumping of crude oil and natural gas from underground reservoirs.
2. Mining: This includes the extraction of various minerals like coal, iron ore, copper, gold, silver, and other metals and non-metallic minerals. There are different methods used for mining, such as surface mining (open-pit or strip mining) and underground mining.
3. Support activities for mining: This category includes services and supplies needed for the extraction of minerals, like drilling, exploration, and mining support services.

After the extraction process, these raw materials undergo further processing to transform them into usable forms, such as refining crude oil into various petroleum products or smelting metals for manufacturing purposes. This processing stage is often included in the definition of the Extraction and Processing Industry.

The medical definition of this industry may not be explicitly stated; however, it indirectly impacts public health and the environment. For instance, mining activities can lead to air and water pollution, exposure to harmful substances, and increased risk of accidents and injuries for workers. Therefore, understanding the Extraction and Processing Industry is essential in addressing potential health hazards associated with these operations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "newspapers" and "medical" are not related. A newspaper is a periodically published printed or online publication that reports news and provides information on politics, local events, sports, arts, and entertainment, as well as advertising. If you have any medical questions or concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

The chemical industry is a broad term that refers to the companies and organizations involved in the production or transformation of raw materials or intermediates into various chemical products. These products can be used for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and consumer goods. The chemical industry includes businesses that produce basic chemicals, such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers, and industrial gases, as well as those that manufacture specialty chemicals, such as dyestuffs, flavors, fragrances, and advanced materials. Additionally, the chemical industry encompasses companies that provide services related to the research, development, testing, and distribution of chemical products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "foundations" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the context of healthcare or medicine. It might refer to basic concepts or principles in a medical field, or it could be used more generally to describe the underlying structures or components of something related to health and medicine. If you have more context or information about how this term is being used, I'd be happy to help further!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Latin America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical and cultural region that includes parts of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean where Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, and French) are predominantly spoken. The term does not have a specific medical relevance or definition.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "investments" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an economic and financial term that refers to the allocation of resources, usually money, with the expectation of receiving future returns or benefits. This could include purchasing stocks, bonds, real estate, or other assets with the goal of generating income or appreciating in value over time.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related concepts, I'd be happy to help!

Health Care Coalitions (HCCs) are multi-disciplinary, multi-agency partnerships that are organized at the local or regional level to enhance emergency preparedness and response capabilities for the healthcare system. The primary goal of HCCs is to facilitate communication, coordination, and collaboration among healthcare organizations and other key stakeholders, such as emergency management agencies, public health departments, and community organizations.

HCCs typically focus on preparing for and responding to emergencies that can impact the healthcare system, including natural disasters, mass casualty incidents, infectious disease outbreaks, and cyber attacks. They may develop plans and procedures for addressing these threats, provide training and education to members, and conduct exercises to test their capabilities.

The membership of HCCs can vary but typically includes hospitals, long-term care facilities, home health agencies, emergency medical services providers, public health departments, mental/behavioral health organizations, and other stakeholders involved in healthcare delivery and emergency response. By working together, these organizations can help ensure that the healthcare system is better prepared to meet the needs of their communities during emergencies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

Professional misconduct, in the context of medical law, refers to any behavior or action by a healthcare professional that fails to meet the expected standards of conduct and violates professional regulations and ethical guidelines. This can include various forms of unethical or illegal behavior, such as:

1. Engaging in sexual relationships with patients or engaging in any form of sexual harassment.
2. Practicing medicine while impaired by drugs, alcohol, or mental illness.
3. Failing to maintain accurate and complete medical records.
4. Performing unnecessary medical procedures or treatments for financial gain.
5. Engaging in fraudulent activities related to medical practice, such as billing fraud.
6. Abandoning patients without providing appropriate care or notification.
7. Discriminating against patients based on race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or other protected characteristics.
8. Failing to obtain informed consent from patients before performing medical procedures.
9. Violating patient confidentiality and privacy.
10. Engaging in unprofessional behavior that harms the reputation of the medical profession.

Professional misconduct can result in disciplinary action by a state medical board or licensing authority, including fines, license suspension or revocation, and mandatory education or treatment.

Consumer satisfaction in a medical context refers to the degree to which a patient or their family is content with the healthcare services, products, or experiences they have received. It is a measure of how well the healthcare delivery aligns with the patient's expectations, needs, and preferences. Factors that contribute to consumer satisfaction may include the quality of care, communication and interpersonal skills of healthcare providers, accessibility and convenience, affordability, and outcomes. High consumer satisfaction is associated with better adherence to treatment plans, improved health outcomes, and higher patient loyalty.

A Code of Ethics is a set of principles and guidelines that outline appropriate behavior and conduct for individuals within a particular profession or organization. In the medical field, Codes of Ethics are designed to uphold the values of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice, which are fundamental to the practice of ethical medicine.

The Code of Ethics for medical professionals may include guidelines on issues such as patient confidentiality, informed consent, conflicts of interest, and professional competence. These codes serve as a framework for decision-making and help to ensure that healthcare providers maintain high standards of conduct and behavior in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and the broader community.

The American Medical Association (AMA) and other medical organizations have developed Codes of Ethics that provide specific guidance for medical professionals on ethical issues that may arise in the course of their work. These codes are regularly reviewed and updated to reflect changes in medical practice and societal values.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Science" is a broad field that refers to a systematic and logical process used to discover how things in the universe work. It's not typically used as a medical term. However, within the context of medicine, "science" often refers to evidence-based practices, which are treatments and preventions that have been scientifically researched and proven to be effective. This could include areas like pharmacology (the study of drugs), pathophysiology (the study of changes in the body due to disease), or clinical trials (studies used to test new treatments). If you're looking for a specific medical term, could you please provide more context?

Flavoring agents are substances added to foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and sometimes even medical devices to enhance or modify their taste and aroma. They can be natural, derived from plants or animals, or synthetic, created in a laboratory. Flavoring agents do not necessarily provide any nutritional value and are typically used in small quantities.

In a medical context, flavoring agents may be added to medications to improve patient compliance, especially for children or individuals who have difficulty swallowing pills. These agents can help mask the unpleasant taste of certain medicines, making them more palatable and easier to consume. However, it is essential to ensure that the use of flavoring agents does not interfere with the medication's effectiveness or safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "privatization" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Privatization generally refers to the process of transferring ownership, control, or management of a previously publicly owned or controlled entity, industry, or service to private hands. This concept can apply to various sectors, including healthcare services and institutions, but it does not have a unique medical meaning.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

Facility regulation and control in a medical context refers to the laws, rules, and guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure that healthcare facilities are operating safely, effectively, and in compliance with standards set forth to protect patients and healthcare providers. This can include regulations related to building design and construction, infection control, staffing ratios, medication management, quality improvement, and patient rights.

Regulatory bodies such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in the United States or the Care Quality Commission (CQC) in the United Kingdom establish these regulations and conduct regular inspections to ensure compliance. Non-compliance with facility regulations can result in fines, sanctions, or loss of licensure for the facility.

Facility control, on the other hand, refers to the internal processes and procedures that a healthcare facility implements to ensure ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements. This may include policies and procedures related to staff training, quality improvement, infection control, medication management, and patient safety. Effective facility regulation and control are critical for ensuring high-quality care and maintaining the trust of patients and the wider community.

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational affiliation" is not a medical term per se. It is a more general term used in various fields, including healthcare, to describe a relationship or connection between an individual and an organization. In the context of healthcare, it might refer to a physician's membership in a specific hospital staff or medical society. However, a precise definition may vary depending on the context.

Organized financing in a medical context generally refers to the planning and coordination of financial resources and arrangements to support healthcare programs, services, or research. This can involve various funding sources, such as governmental agencies, private insurance, charitable organizations, and individual donors. The goal of organized financing is to ensure sustainable and equitable access to high-quality healthcare for all individuals, while also promoting cost-effective and efficient use of resources. Organized financing may also include efforts to address financial barriers to care, such as high out-of-pocket costs or lack of insurance coverage, and to promote transparency and accountability in the use of healthcare funds.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. The "food processing industry" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe the branch of manufacturing that involves transforming raw agricultural ingredients into food products for commercial sale.

The food-processing industry includes activities such as:

1. Cleaning and grading raw food materials
2. Preservation through canning, freezing, refrigeration, or dehydration
3. Preparation of food by chopping, cooking, baking, or mixing
4. Packaging and labeling of the final food product

While not a medical term, it is still relevant to the medical field as processed foods can impact human health, both positively and negatively. For example, processing can help preserve nutrients, increase food safety, and make certain foods more accessible and convenient. However, overly processed foods often contain high levels of added sugars, sodium, and unhealthy fats, which can contribute to various health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "History" is a subject that refers to events, ideas, and developments of the past. It's not something that has a medical definition. However, if you're referring to the "21st century" in a historical context, it relates to the period from 2001 to the present. It's an era marked by significant advancements in technology, medicine, and society at large. But again, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you meant something else, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

The term "Congresses as Topic" refers to large, formal meetings that are held to discuss and exchange information on a specific topic or field, usually academic or professional in nature. In the context of medical science, a congress is an event where healthcare professionals, researchers, and experts gather to present and discuss the latest research, developments, and innovations in their field. Medical congresses can cover a wide range of topics, including specific diseases, treatments, medical specialties, public health issues, or healthcare policies. These events often include keynote speeches, panel discussions, workshops, poster sessions, and networking opportunities for attendees. Examples of well-known medical congresses are the annual meetings of the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, and the European Society of Cardiology.

"Compensation and redress" are terms often used in the context of medical law and ethics to refer to the process of addressing harm or injury caused to a patient as a result of medical negligence or malpractice.

Compensation refers to the financial reparation awarded to the victim or their family to cover damages such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. The aim of compensation is to restore the victim to the position they were in before the harm occurred, to the extent that money can.

Redress, on the other hand, refers to the broader process of addressing and remedying the harm caused. This may include an apology, changes to hospital policies or procedures, or disciplinary action against the healthcare provider responsible for the negligence. The goal of redress is to acknowledge the harm that was caused and to take steps to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.

Together, compensation and redress aim to provide a measure of justice and closure for victims of medical harm, while also promoting accountability and transparency within the healthcare system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "negotiating" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Negotiation is a process in which different parties come together to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement on a particular matter. It is often used in various contexts such as business, politics, and law, but it is not typically used in the context of medical terminology.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Textile Industry" and "medical definition" are not related. The textile industry is the overall system of designing, producing, and distributing clothing and their raw materials, which include fiber, yarn, and cloth. It involves several processes such as spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, and finishing.

If you're looking for a medical term or definition, please provide me with the term so I can assist you better.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Argentina" is a country in South America and not a medical term or concept. The term "argyria" may be what you're looking for, which is a rare condition resulting from the accumulation of silver compounds in the body, causing the skin to turn blue-gray. However, Argentina and argyria are two distinct terms with different meanings.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "workplace" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "workplace" generally refers to a place where people work or carry out their jobs. It could be an office, a factory, a construction site, a retail store, or any other location where work-related activities take place.

If you're looking for a term related to health or medicine that describes a physical location, some examples might include "healthcare facility," "clinic," "hospital," "operating room," or "examination room." If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "publishing" is not a term that has a medical definition. Publishing typically refers to the process of preparing and disseminating information, such as books, journals, or articles, to the public or a specific audience. It could involve both print and digital media. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Air conditioning is the process of controlling and maintaining a comfortable indoor environment through the regulation of temperature, humidity, air movement, and cleanliness. It typically involves the use of mechanical systems that circulate and treat air to meet specific comfort requirements. The goal of air conditioning is to provide a comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environment while also saving energy and reducing environmental impact.

In medical terms, air conditioning can be particularly important in healthcare settings such as hospitals and clinics, where maintaining proper temperature and humidity levels is essential for the health and well-being of patients and staff. Proper air conditioning can help prevent the growth of bacteria, viruses, and mold, reduce the spread of airborne particles, and minimize the risk of infection and illness.

Air conditioning systems in healthcare facilities may include specialized components such as HEPA filters, UV germicidal irradiation, and humidity control to provide a higher level of air quality and protection against infectious diseases. Regular maintenance and testing of these systems is also critical to ensure their proper functioning and to maintain a safe and healthy indoor environment.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Case Studies" is not a medical term. It is a term that is used in various fields including business, management, and social sciences to describe the analysis of a specific organization or a particular aspect of its functioning. An organizational case study typically involves an in-depth examination of an organization, including its structure, culture, processes, and outcomes, with the aim of understanding its performance, challenges, and opportunities for improvement.

In healthcare, case studies are often used to examine specific clinical scenarios or patient cases. However, "Organizational Case Studies" in a medical context might refer to the study of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals or clinics, to analyze their management practices, quality of care, financial performance, and other factors that can impact patient outcomes and overall organizational success.

In medical terms, disclosure generally refers to the act of revealing or sharing confidential or sensitive information with another person or entity. This can include disclosing a patient's medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan, or other personal health information to the patient themselves, their family members, or other healthcare providers involved in their care.

Disclosure is an important aspect of informed consent, as patients have the right to know their medical condition and the risks and benefits of various treatment options. Healthcare providers are required to disclose relevant information to their patients in a clear and understandable manner, so that they can make informed decisions about their healthcare.

In some cases, disclosure may also be required by law or professional ethical standards, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of injuries or illnesses, or when there is a concern for patient safety. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of disclosure in each individual case, and to ensure that they are acting in the best interests of their patients while also protecting their privacy and confidentiality.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Minnesota" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Midwestern United States, known for its cold winters, beautiful lakes, and friendly people. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help!

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Research personnel, in the context of medical and scientific research, refers to individuals who are involved in the design, conduct, or reporting of research studies. This can include, but is not limited to, principal investigators, co-investigators, research assistants, research coordinators, data managers, biostatisticians, and laboratory technicians. These individuals may have various levels of education, training, and expertise, and their roles and responsibilities will depend on the specific research study and their individual qualifications. It is important for research personnel to adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations in order to ensure the integrity and validity of research findings.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not a medical term or concept. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

The EPA is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States, responsible for protecting public health and the environment by enforcing regulations based on federal laws. The agency conducts environmental assessment, education, research, and regulation of various voluntary and compulsory programs in the US to address issues related to toxic substances, air and water quality, solid waste management, radiation protection, and hazardous waste management.

I must apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. The term "internationality" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is a more general term that can refer to the quality or state of being international or global in scope, relevance, or application. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

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The Swedish Tobacco Industry Workers' Union (Swedish: Svenska Tobaksindustriarbetareförbundet, Tobaks) was a trade union ... Tobacco industry trade unions, Trade unions in Sweden, Trade unions established in 1889, Trade unions disestablished in 1964). ... It became the International Tobacco Workers' Union of Sweden in 1899, around the time that it affiliated to the Swedish Trade ... The union was founded in Stockholm on 1 December 1889, as the Scandinavian Tobacco Workers' Union of Sweden with about 1,000 ...
The General Dutch Industrial Union of the Tobacco Industry (Dutch: Algemene Nederlandse Bedrijfsbond voor de Tabakverwerking ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles containing Dutch-language text, Tobacco industry ... From the 1930s, mechanisation led to job loses in the industry. The union campaigned for a law against the use of machinery, ... New, local, unions of tobacco workers were established, and on 25 December 1887, they formed the Dutch Cigar Makers' and ...
Food Industry and Tobacco Workers (Italian: Federazione Italiana Lavoratori Zuccheriero Industria Alimentare e Tabacco, FILZIAT ... when the Italian Federation of Food Industry Workers merged with the Italian Federation of Sugar and Alcohol Industry Employees ... and the National Union of Tobacco. Like all its predecessors, it affiliated to the Italian General Confederation of Labour. By ...
Tobacco and Hotel Industries (French: Fédération mondiale de travailleurs des industries alimentaires, du tabac et hôtelière, ... "World Federation of Workers in Food, Tobacco and Hotel Industries - WCL (WFFTH-WCL)". UIA Open Yearbook. Retrieved 9 April 2020 ... Initially named the International Christian Federation of Food, Drink, Tobacco and Hotel Workers, the federation was a merger ... FMATH) was a global union federation bringing together unions representing workers in food and service industries. The ...
Its original name was the Trade Union International of Food, Tobacco and Beverage Industries, and Hotel, Cafe and Restaurant ... The Trade Union International of Food, Tobacco, Hotel and Allied Industries Workers was a trade union international affiliated ... Tobacco, Hotel and Allied Industries Workers, Trade Union International of Workers in Commerce, Trade Union International of ... In 1997 the Trade Union International of Agroalimentary, Food, Commerce, Textile & Allied Industries was formed by the merger ...
The National Committee of the Chinese Financial, Commercial, Light Industry, Textile and Tobacco Workers' Union is a national ...
The expansion of the tobacco industry gave rise to the need for a cotton industry and tobacco bag making companies, such as the ... Tobacco History Corporation Inc. Roberts, Ben. "Inventions in the Tobacco Industry." Tar Heel Junior Historian. Pg. 46. Fall ... Bull Durham Smoking Tobacco, also known as "Genuine Bull Durham Smoking Tobacco", was a brand of loose-leaf tobacco ... Blackwell's Durham Tobacco / American Tobacco Co. March 24, 2008. Accessed November 4, 2013. Cameron, JD. A Sketch of Tobacco ...
... is a name used to refer to the largest companies in the tobacco industry. According to the World Medical Journal, ... the five largest tobacco companies are: Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Imperial Brands, Japan Tobacco ... Lee, Ruth (January 2020). "The FCTC and Tobacco Industry". World Medical Journal. 66 (1): 11-13. Further reading Estes, Jim (6 ... External links Big Tobacco Manufacturers Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids Master Settlement Agreement v t e ( ...
They also wished to entirely disrupt the tobacco industry because the colonists used the tobacco trade to fund their war effort ... "1730 - 1985 Petersburg's Tobacco Industry". Historic Petersburg Foundation. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2020. ... tobacco. About 10,000 hogsheads of cured tobacco leaf were destroyed by the British. Each hogshead weighed about 1,000 lb (450 ... The Tobacco War (1780-1781) occurred during the American Revolutionary War in Virginia when the British forces commanded by ...
Tobacco industries formed the Tobacco Institute, a trade association that acted as a lobby for tobacco industries in Congress. ... The tobacco industry and some bureaucratic institutions oppose anti-smoking measures. In China, the tobacco industry is heavily ... In addition, these tobacco industries formed the Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC), which challenged the science of ... Tobacco Institute Documents-Part of Master Settlement Agreement UCSF Tobacco Industry Videos Collection UCSF Tobacco Industry ...
Growing up without tobacco, The Industry Response. PDF Version The Environmental Action Network. 2002. Tobacco Industry Tactics ... 2018 Tobacco Breaks Hearts brochure World No Tobacco Day 2019 World No Tobacco Day 2020 World No Tobacco Day 2021 According to ... World No Tobacco Days have not induced a positive vocal response from the tobacco industry. For example, a memo made publicly ... In 2019, the focus was on "Tobacco and lung health". In 2020, the focus was on "Tobacco and related industry tactics to attract ...
... another tobacco industry global strategy to slow progress in tobacco control". Tobacco Control. 27 (Suppl 1): s111-s117. doi: ... increased tobacco control measures have directed the tobacco industry to develop alternative tobacco products, such as HTPs. ... tobacco stick product, loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer (LLTV), tobacco vaporizer, or T-vapor. "WHO Report on the Global Tobacco ... electrically heated tobacco system, non-combusted cigarette, non-combusted tobacco product, tobacco heating cigarette, tobacco ...
International Tobacco Growers' Association TobReg - WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation UCSF Tobacco Industry Videos ... Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire-cured. Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which ... Major tobacco companies have encouraged global tobacco production. Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco ... Tobacco dust can be used similarly. It is produced by boiling strong tobacco in water, or by steeping the tobacco in water for ...
... from tobacco use per year outnumber the number of workers employed in the tobacco industry by 4 to 1. According to a 2014 ... had a close affiliation to the tobacco industry. Researchers without tobacco lobby influence have concluded the complete ... 2014 Types of bans on tobacco advertising, 2014 Support to help quit tobacco use, 2014 Though tobacco may be consumed by either ... The tobacco industry spends up to $12.5 billion annually on advertising, which is increasingly geared towards adolescents in ...
"Tobacco" is a segment of the HBO news satire television series Last Week Tonight with John Oliver about the tobacco industry. ... "Tobacco", an eighteen-minute segment about the tobacco industry, was delivered by John Oliver on February 15, 2015, during the ... Tobacco (HBO) on YouTube Banks, Alicia (February 16, 2015). "John Oliver Smokes the Tobacco Industry with Diseased-Lung Mascot ... Australia Prevalence of tobacco consumption Tobacco in the United States Tobacco marketing targeting African Americans Tobacco ...
Jacobstein, Meyer (1907). The Tobacco Industry in the United States. Columbia University. p. 371. Bureau of Labor Annual Report ... Tobacco Leaf (Vol XL No. 38 ed.). 30 September 1903. p. 22. New Cigar Factory for Detroit (Vol XXXI No. 4 ed.). The Tobacco ... "Will fight the tobacco trust". Benton Harbor, MI. News-Palladium. 8 January 1903. Tobacco Leaf (Vol 44. No 2,200 ed.). 24 April ... The American Tobacco Company and the Continental Tobacco Company forged a business arrangement with Powell, Smith and Company ...
Tobacco industry in the Philippines, Tobacco industry associations, Trade associations based in the Philippines, Tobacco in the ... Alechnowicz, K.; Chapman, S. (2004). "The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"". Tobacco Control ... It represents, expresses and effects the opinions of the tobacco industry in the Philippines. The Philippine Tobacco Institute ... Since 2007, eleven legal cases have been filed by the tobacco industry against proposed government oversight; the courts have ...
truth produces television and digital content to encourage teens to reject tobacco and to unite against the tobacco industry. ... The underlying theme is one of tobacco industry manipulation. With advertisements featuring youths confronting the tobacco ... tobacco] industry and portrayed its executives as predatory, profit hungry, and manipulative." The ads re-framed tobacco as an ... truth was the only national youth tobacco prevention campaign not sponsored by the tobacco industry. In August 2014, truth ...
Tobacco Advertising and Marketing: As the tobacco industry grew, so did advertising and marketing efforts. Tobacco companies ... Present status of the tobacco industry (1910) online Werner, Carl Avery. Tobaccoland: A book about tobacco; its history, ... The high European demand for tobacco led to a rise in the value of tobacco. The rise of value of tobacco accelerated the ... Anti-Tobacco Movements: As awareness of tobacco-related health issues increased, various anti-tobacco movements emerged, ...
SRNT does not accept funding from the tobacco industry. The organization does accept funding from pharmaceutical companies that ... SRNT has been particularly active in work on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the Tobacco Master Settlement ... Tobacco Research and related professions." The society and its members have also been involved in the current debate on tobacco ... Work from SRNT members was noted in public discussion leading up to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in ...
Southerners dominated the tobacco industry in the United States. So much so that a concern as large as the Helme Tobacco ... teen use of smokeless tobacco has increased and it is more harmful and dangerous to tobacco user, while use of all tobacco ... Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product that is placed between the cheek and lower gum to draw out its flavor. ... Plug chewing tobacco is tobacco leaves pressed into a square, brick-like mass called a plug. From this, pieces are bitten off ...
... a review of tobacco industry activity". Tobacco Control. 18 (3): 206-211. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.030601. PMC 2679188. PMID ... The three largest Canadian tobacco companies, Imperial Tobacco Canada (a division of British American Tobacco), JTI-Macdonald ... Tobacco companies of the United Kingdom, American Tobacco Company, Formula One team owners, Tobacco brands). ... Industry documents from the 1970s to the late 1990s shows that tobacco companies were seriously concerned about fatwas against ...
... deals with the cultivation of tobacco, the tobacco industry (especially cigars and cigarattes), ... "Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina." Tobacco Control 14.5 (2005): e2-e2. online ... Argentina : Overview of Tobacco Use, Tobacco Control Legislation, and Taxation (English) (WBG Global Tobacco Control Program ... T Tobacco causes 40,000 deaths per year, 6,000 due to secondhand smoke. The cost of the treatment of tobacco-related diseases ...
"The Toll of Tobacco in Alabama". Tobacco Free Kids. "Letter: Youth remain targets of tobacco industry -smokeless or not". oanow ... "New Frontiers For Tobacco Control". State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation System. "The Toll of Tobacco in Alabama". ... Simpson, David (2003). "Tobacco: Public Perceptions and the Role of the Industry". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. ... "Letter: Youth remain targets of tobacco industry- smokeless or not". Wolfson, Hannah. "American Lung Association: ...
Data and statistical information on how the tobacco industry markets their products. ... Women are also targeted by the tobacco industry, and tobacco companies continue to produce brands specifically for women. ... The tobacco industry has targeted African American communities in its advertisements and promotional efforts for menthol ... Menthol Tobacco Productsplus icon*Menthol Tobacco Products are a Public Health Problem ...
... online Wikiquote has quotations related to Tobacco industry. UCSF Tobacco Industry Videos Collection UCSF Tobacco Industry ... According to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the "tobacco industry" encompasses tobacco manufacturers, ... of commercial tobacco in the United States Nicotine marketing Smoking bans Snus Tobacco industry in Argentina Tobacco industry ... and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. It is a global industry; tobacco can grow in any warm, moist ...
... and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the ... Parties to the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, or the Secretariat of the WHO FCTC. ...
... highlight fresh evidence on smuggled tobacco and industry-funded studies that routinely overestimate its scale. ... and reports on illicit tobacco that the tobacco industry has funded and raises further concerns about the tobacco industrys ... 20 million global tobacco industry watchdog which aims to counter the negative influences of the tobacco industry on public ... New research uncovers one of the tobacco industrys greatest scams. Parallel studies published in Tobacco Control, highlight ...
The tobacco industry aims to defeat or weaken evidence-based tobacco control policies. When it fails to succeed, the tobacco ... Selling addiction: The Tobacco industrys transition to new products. *The tobacco industry: decades of deception and duplicity ... Tobacco industry tactics. Whether selling its new products or traditional cigarettes, the tobacco industry uses the same ... Tobacco industry interference has been particularly strong against efforts to increase tobacco taxes. The industry aims to ...
... the health insurance industry has been learning well from Big Tobacco, ... one might not think that the health insurance industry has much in common with the tobacco industry. After all, one sells a ... This article uses the same tactics as the tobacco industry This article uses the same tactics as the tobacco industry that it ... Insurance Industry vs. Health Care Industry The problem with referring to the insurance industry as the health care industry is ...
Smoking and Tobacco. We excluded apps that were not tobacco-related and then assessed the tobacco-related apps against our ... Pro-smoking apps for smartphones: the latest vehicle for the tobacco industry? ... Pro-smoking apps for smartphones: the latest vehicle for the tobacco industry? ... Conclusions Tobacco products are being promoted in the new smartphone app medium which has global reach, a huge consumer base ...
Industry Circulars 2020-1. February 12, 2020. Number: 2020 - 1. Updates to TTB Guidance 2016-2: Pre-COLA Product Evaluations ... This industry circular announces updates to two TTB public guidance documents pertaining to formula and laboratory sample ... In accordance with TTB regulations, industry members are required to submit formulas for review by TTB prior to the production ... If you have any questions concerning this industry circular, please contact the Alcohol Labeling and Formulation Division at 1- ...
"Tobacco industry". The "McGill conference" is today cited as a model for the manipulation of science and the "industry of doubt ... The leading French newspaper, Le Monde, has published a major report on how the tobacco industry recruited scientists to be ... Asbestos orphans urge govt to stop industry support - Global National - Videos , Global News ... part of a vast propaganda campaign to deny the clear scientific evidence that tobacco smoke causes harm to health (Le Monde, ...
Zimbabwe Tobacco industry. Zimbabwe has become the worlds biggest tobacco exporter, and tobacco is the countrys biggest ... The Executive Officer from Tobacco Industry Marketing Board, Andrew Matibiri said optimistic that traditionally tobacco ... 2 responses to "Zimbabwe Tobacco industry" * Frank Carnefix. , April 10, 2012 at 8:01 pm , ... In addition, after U.S. tobacco industries lost market in their country they started to seek new markets especially in ...
the State is the senior partner in the tobacco business.  Just ask the vapers.... ... Hawaii Scores $54M Windfall as Senior Partner in Tobacco Industry By News Release @ 3:34 AM :: 4863 Views :: Ethics, Health ... Twenty-five other States, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia have previously settled with the tobacco industry. The ... The settlement resolves an ongoing dispute between the tobacco companies and Hawaii, relating to compliance with the Tobacco ...
... promotion and packaging of traditional tobacco products and electronic delivery systems ... The government is currently considering the Tobacco Products and Electronic Delivery Systems Control Bill, which will regulate ... The Tobacco Bill takes the regulation of advertising and promotion of tobacco products a step further than the current Tobacco ... You are here: Webber Wentzel , News , Tobacco Bill will have far-reaching consequences for the industry and economy ...
Truth Tobacco Industry Documents (formerly known as Legacy Tobacco Documents Library) was created in 2002 by the UCSF Library. ... tobacco industry internal corporate documents produced during litigation between US States and the seven major tobacco industry ... These internal documents give a view into the workings of one of the largest and most influential industries in the United ... An archive of 14 million documents created by tobacco companies about their advertising, manufacturing, marketing, scientific ...
... and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the ... Parties to the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, or the Secretariat of the WHO FCTC. ...
Adolescent Adult Construction Industry Female Health Surveys Humans Male Middle Aged Tobacco Products Tobacco Use Young Adult ... were smokeless tobacco users, 4.4% were e-cigarette users, and 7.6% used ≥2 tobacco product users. Tobacco use varied by worker ... "Tobacco product use among workers in the construction industry, United States, 2014-2016" vol. 61, no. 11, 2018. Export RIS ... 2018). Tobacco product use among workers in the construction industry, United States, 2014-2016. 61(11). Syamlal, Girija and ...
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids tackles tobacco industry racism, Tobacco Tactics, updated 24 February 2021, accessed 24 April ... Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids tackles tobacco industry racism. 24 February 2021,. at 16:27.. * ... CTFK and partners have also launched a new report that reveals how the tobacco industry targets Black communities: STOPPING ... For more on this topic see the TobaccoTactics Long Read: Racism and the Tobacco Industry ...
Tobacco industry -- History Category. Text. EBook-No.. 24471. Release Date. Jan 31, 2008. ... Tobacco; Its History, Varieties, Culture, Manufacture and Commerce Credits. Produced by Ted Garvin, Christine P. Travers and ...
Youth misunderstand such claims, and misperceptions of harm are known to lead to tobacco-use initiation. ... regulators must use caution when considering allowing claims of reduced risk or reduced exposure to appear on retail tobacco ... Keywords: non-cigarette tobacco products; packaging and labelling; tobacco industry. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. ... PMIs heated tobacco products marketing claims of reduced risk and reduced exposure may entice youth to try and continue using ...
... report of the Committee of Experts on Tobacco Industry Documents. by World Health Organization. Committee of Experts on Tobacco ... Smoke screen : the truth behind the tobacco industry cover-up / Philip J. Hilts. by Hilts, Philip J. ... Tobacco control country profiles / editors: Marlo Ann Corrao. by Corrao, Marlo Ann , World Conference on Tobacco or Health ( ... Tobacco company strategies to undermine tobacco control activities at the World Health Organization : ...
2023: Gamechanger: Shifting from Tobacco Control to Ending the Industrys Influence for Good. 2023: How the tobacco industry ... 4.5 2023: How the tobacco industry can accelerate transformation. *4.6 2023: Karl Fagerström: A tobacco-free society is a ... 4.3 Yearly: The Tobacco Transformation Index. *4.4 2023: Gamechanger: Shifting from Tobacco Control to Ending the Industrys ... Evaluating tobacco industry transformation: a proposed rubric and analysis. 2021: E-Cigarettes, Harm Reduction, and Tobacco ...
For years, the tobacco industry appeared to be invincible, that is until people began dying left and right from lung cancer. ... Then, in 1994, Diane Castano, whose husband died of lung cancer, sued the tobacco industry in potentially the largest class ... The food industry is big business and big money, and as long as we allow it, they will continue to make these products and ... Todays tobacco problem is a distant memory. Now the serious health issue affecting American adults and children is obesity. ...
BIG TOBACCO & THE SUGAR INDUSTRY. More than half a century ago, big tobacco used science as a weapon to convince the naive and ... Image credit: Tobacco Exhibits Notice the key persuading phrase in the above advertisement; "…the final results, published in ... Similarly, the sugar industry hired a group of Harvard scientists to hide the link between sugar and heart disease in the 1960s ... were indeed on the payroll of Big Tobacco and helped to promote their agenda through the promotion of flawed "science". ...
... and tobacco shops industries with BMVaping. Explore a wide range of e-cig liquid flavors at wholesale prices. ... One of the key factors that differentiate successful businesses in the electronics, vape shops, and tobacco shops industries is ... Similarly, the vape shops and tobacco shops industries have experienced a surge in popularity, with customers seeking high- ... In conclusion, success in the electronics, vape shops, and tobacco shops industries requires a blend of market understanding, ...
and United States Tobacco Company; the non-profit organizations supported by the tobacco-industry: the Tobacco Institute, Inc ... Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corporation; B.A.T. Industries; Lorillard Tobacco Company Inc.; The American Tobacco Company; ... Williamson Tobacco Corporation, B.A.T. Industries, the American Tobacco Company, Lorillard Tobacco Company, Inc., Liggett & ... United States Tobacco Company; The Council for Tobacco Research U.S.A., Inc.; The Tobacco Institute, Inc.; Smokeless Tobacco ...
The report also sheds light on the tobacco industrys exploitative practices, which perpetuate farmers reliance on tobacco ... Home»News»WHO report urges governments: prioritize food security over tobacco industry ... WHO report urges governments: prioritize food security over tobacco industry. May 27, 2023. ... In anticipation of World No Tobacco Day on Wednesday, May 31st, the WHO expressed concern that 3.2 million hectares of arable ...
The industry has claimed that e cigarettes are safer than conventional cigarettes. There is also an industry claim that ... The industry has claimed that e cigarettes are safer than conventional cigarettes. There is also an industry claim that ... Is it better to die from a higher class product? The tobacco companies are playing a new game with e cigarettes and alternative ... You can read more details of the New York Times article, and the CDC discussion of how nicotine and tobacco smoke produces ...
Pharmaceuticalisation as the tobacco industrys endgame. BMJ global health. Yogi Hale Hendlin, Elieen Le Han, Pamela M. Ling ... Tobacco, nicotine and counter-marketing promotions using Instagrams branded content tool. Tobacco control ... She will focus on how the public discussions on major social media platforms about new tobacco products and personal ... She would also like to study various forms of texts related to tobacco marketing and control. ...
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... chewing tobacco, tobacco equipment, tobacco machinery, tobacco packaging machinery, make-pack machines, news, Indonesia and ... Home News Reports on the Demise of the Tobacco Industry Have Been Greatly Exaggerated ... 2015-2024 October Multimedia Co., Ltd - Tobacco Industry magazine reporting on cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, RYO, bidis, ... Reports on the Demise of the Tobacco Industry Have Been Greatly Exaggerated. ...
  • Cigarette and smokeless tobacco companies spend billions of dollars each year to market their products. (
  • In 2019, the largest cigarette and smokeless tobacco companies spent $8.2 billion on advertising and promotional expenses in the United States alone. (
  • Method In February 2012, we searched the Apple App Store and Android Market for pro-smoking apps, using the keywords Smoke, Cigarette, Cigar, Smoking and Tobacco. (
  • Beside all these, there has recently been a genuine decline in the Burley tobacco production that is use in a lot of cigarette because of its pleasant, soft and good flavor. (
  • This offers tobacco companies a significant opportunity to shape regulatory debates surrounding their core cigarette businesses, potentially undermining effective tobacco control policies which have driven declining smoking rates in Australia and elsewhere. (
  • In 2022, the cigarette sector held the largest tobacco and tobacco products packaging market share. (
  • The primary strategy used to influence the formulation and delay the implementation of GHWs was direct lobbying by the Bangladesh Cigarette Manufacturers' Association and British American Tobacco Bangladesh . (
  • Tensions between government bodies were identified, one of which (National Board of Revenue)-seemingly close to cigarette companies and representing their arguments-sought to influence others to adopt industry -preferred positions. (
  • The strategies cigarette companies used closely resemble key techniques from the well-evidenced tobacco industry playbook. (
  • This disease entity is caused by inhalation of tobacco molds and is encountered in persons who work in tobacco fields and in cigarette manufacturing plants. (
  • Following extensive merger and acquisition activity in the 1990s and 2000s as well as the spinoff of Altria's international tobacco holdings as Philip Morris International in 2008, five firms dominate international markets - in alphabetical order: Altria British American Tobacco Imperial Tobacco Japan Tobacco Philip Morris International Altria still owns the Philip Morris tobacco business in the United States, but Philip Morris International has been fully independent since 2008. (
  • India has its own major player, ITC Limited (25.4%-owned by British American Tobacco). (
  • For example, the study reveals how a supposedly independent company fronted for British American Tobacco (BAT) in a tender for a track and trace system in Kenya. (
  • In the UK, British American Tobacco is the only company so far to have obtained a medical licence for an electronic nicotine delivery device, although its Voke brand is not yet on the market. (
  • In 2013, British American Tobacco subsidiary Nicovations applied to the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) to have Voke licensed as part of its " medicines-based approach " to reduce the harms from smoking. (
  • Another British American Tobacco brand, Vype, which is not regulated as a medical device, is sold in UK pharmacies alongside nicotine replacement products. (
  • British American Tobacco (BAT) is attempting to deliver the nicotine using technology developed for asthma inhalers. (
  • The five major U.S. smokeless tobacco manufacturers spent $576.1 million on smokeless tobacco advertising and promotion in 2019. (
  • Smokeless Tobacco Council, Inc. (
  • the non-profit organizations supported by the tobacco-industry: the Tobacco Institute, Inc., the Council for Tobacco Research-U.S.A., Inc., and Smokeless Tobacco Council, Inc. (
  • Some kids have turned to smokeless tobacco or electronic cigarettes . (
  • Smokeless tobacco ("chew") is addictive and has almost 30 cancer-causing chemicals. (
  • Since 1964, substantial changes have occurred in scientific knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and smokeless tobacco use. (
  • The onset of tobacco use occurs primarily in early adolescence, a developmental stage that is several decades removed from the death and disability that are associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use in adulthood. (
  • Preventing smoking and smokeless tobacco use among young people is critical to ending the epidemic of tobacco use in the United States. (
  • The Tobacco Bill is rooted in the government's aim of strengthening public health measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and nicotine dependence. (
  • Even with universal implementation of clinic-based augmented smoking cessation interventions for all pregnant smokers, the overall reduction of the US prenatal smoking prevalence is estimated to be modest, approximately 1.4 percentage points (10).To further reduce prenatal smoking prevalence, tobacco control efforts focused on preventing initiation and increasing smoking cessation before a woman becomes pregnant are needed. (
  • At best, the authors suggest, this shows the tobacco industry's failure to control its supply chain, but they point to growing evidence from government investigations, whistle-blowers and leaked tobacco industry documents all suggesting ongoing industry involvement. (
  • TCRG Director, Professor Anna Gilmore , explains: "This has to be one of the tobacco industry's greatest scams: not only is it still involved in tobacco smuggling, but big tobacco is positioning itself to control the very system governments around the world have designed to stop it from doing so. (
  • The second study, published today examines the quality of the data and reports on illicit tobacco that the tobacco industry has funded and raises further concerns about the tobacco industry's conduct. (
  • 17 countries in the world, including Saudi Arabia, have passed plain packaging laws despite the tobacco industry's resistance. (
  • The tobacco industry's key strategy to challenge anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) policy is arguing against comprehensive bans. (
  • Tobacco tax increases are considered progressive, because poorer smokers are more price-sensitive. (
  • and the public relations firm Hill & Knowlton, Inc. Black Smokers contend that each of the defendants has unlawfully engaged in targeted marketing and sales of mentholated tobacco products to African-Americans on the basis of their race in violation of the civil rights statutes codified at 42 U.S.C. §§ 1981, 1982, 1983 and 1985(3). (
  • The processes of nicotine addiction further ensure that many of today's adolescent smokers will regularly use tobacco when they are adults. (
  • These current and future smokers are new recruits in the continuing epidemic of disease, disability, and death attributable to tobacco use. (
  • Guidelines for controlling and monitoring the tobacco epidemic. (
  • The tobacco epidemic adds to the double burden of disease in the Region. (
  • Africa is currently grappling with HIV/AIDS and malaria and needs to counter the entirely preventable tobacco epidemic. (
  • 4. The economic costs of the tobacco epidemic are devastating for Africa where 10 countries are net tobacco exporters and the rest net importers,6 trading scarce resources for tobacco products. (
  • The resulting examination of the advertising and promotional activities of the tobacco industry, as well as the review of research on the effects of these activities on young people, marks an important contribution to our understanding of the epidemic of tobacco use in the United States and elsewhere. (
  • According to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the "tobacco industry" encompasses tobacco manufacturers, wholesale distributors and importers of tobacco products. (
  • Disclaimer: The information and views set out on this website are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the Parties to the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, or the Secretariat of the WHO FCTC. (
  • Part of a global treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the ITP aims to root out tobacco industry smuggling through an effective track and trace system - a system in which tobacco packs are marked so they can be tracked through their distribution route and, if found on the illicit market, can be traced back to see where they originated. (
  • Prioritising the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3 is crucial for advancing tobacco control , particularly in places like Bangladesh , where close government - industry links exist. (
  • 1. On 27 February 2005, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control entered into force and became legally binding for the first 40 countries--including five African countries--that became Contracting Parties before 30 November 2004. (
  • 6. It is for the above reasons that the World Health Assembly mandated the first public health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.7 The Convention was adopted in May 2003 and opened for signature from 16 June 2003 to 29 June 2004. (
  • This evidence-based treaty expects its 181 ratified member states to implement public health policies with respect to tobacco control "to protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. (
  • Parallel studies published in Tobacco Control, highlight fresh evidence on smuggled tobacco and industry-funded studies that routinely overestimate its scale. (
  • Two new studies from our Tobacco Control Research Group , published in the BMJ journal, Tobacco Control , expose evidence that big tobacco companies are still facilitating tobacco smuggling, while attempting to control a global system designed to prevent it and funding studies that routinely overestimate levels of tobacco smuggling. (
  • The findings come off the back of a major announcement last week from Bloomberg Philanthropies which makes the Tobacco Control Research Group one of the leaders of an all-new $20 million global tobacco industry watchdog which aims to counter the negative influences of the tobacco industry on public health. (
  • The first study , which draws on leaked documents, highlights the elaborate lengths the industry has gone to control a global track and trace system and to undermine a major international agreement - the Illicit Trade Protocol - designed to stop the tobacco industry from smuggling tobacco. (
  • Whether selling its new products or traditional cigarettes, the tobacco industry uses the same tactics to create barriers to life-saving tobacco control measures. (
  • The tobacco industry aims to defeat or weaken evidence-based tobacco control policies. (
  • The government is currently considering the Tobacco Products and Electronic Delivery Systems Control Bill, which will regulate the display, promotion and packaging of traditional tobacco products and electronic delivery systems. (
  • The Tobacco Products and Electronic Delivery Systems Control Bill (the Tobacco Bill) was tabled at the National Assembly by the Minister of Health on 9 December 2022. (
  • The Tobacco Bill takes the regulation of advertising and promotion of tobacco products a step further than the current Tobacco Products Control Act, 1993. (
  • This is currently permitted in terms of the Tobacco Products Control Act, although with certain restrictions. (
  • TobaccoTactics is produced by the Tobacco Control Research Group in the Department for Health at the University of Bath and is overseen by managing editor Dr. Raouf Alebshehy . (
  • Tobacco control laws : implementation and enforcement / Peter D. Jacobson, Jeffrey Wasserman. (
  • Tobacco control in developing countries / editors Prabhat Jha and Frank J. Chaloupka. (
  • The Swiss Association for Tobacco Control is the center of competence for tobacco prevention in Switzerland. (
  • AT Switzerland offers its members a broad network of experts and provides expertise on tobacco control and prevention. (
  • She would also like to study various forms of texts related to tobacco marketing and control. (
  • In Bangladesh , the 2013 Amendment of the Tobacco Control Act made graphic health warnings (GHWs) on the upper 50% of all tobacco packs obligatory. (
  • Finally, although tobacco control advocates were partially successful in counteracting TII, one self -proclaimed tobacco control group, whose nature remains unclear, threatened the otherwise united approach. (
  • 3. The tobacco industry continues aggressive expansion into the developing world, obstructing effective tobacco control by influencing sales and corporate social responsibility programmes. (
  • Besides challenges in communicating the current evidence, no established method exists to help vapers quit, according to Nigar Nargis, PhD, senior scientific director of tobacco control research at the American Cancer Society. (
  • Age-appropriate and culturally specific tobacco control interventions should be integrated into reproductive health settings to reach younger non-Hispanic white, Alaska Native, and American Indian women before they become pregnant. (
  • Our study findings will help to identify groups of women most likely to benefit from targeted tobacco control efforts designed to decrease prepregnancy smoking. (
  • Advertisement and promotion of certain tobacco products appear to be targeted to members of racial/minority communities. (
  • The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies who are engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. (
  • The industry aims to ensure that tobacco products remain affordable, while protecting their own profits - at the expense of public health. (
  • Conclusions Tobacco products are being promoted in the new 'smartphone app' medium which has global reach, a huge consumer base of various age groups and underdeveloped regulation. (
  • It leaves no room for any form of display of tobacco and electronic delivery systems, including both nicotine and non-nicotine products. (
  • Clause 4(1) provides that the Minister must prescribe, by way of regulation, standardised packaging and labelling of tobacco products. (
  • An important field of action is the denormalization of the consumption of tobacco and nicotine products. (
  • So far tobacco companies are the only actors to successfully gain medical licences for such products, although none have yet come to market. (
  • The European Union, for example, allows e-cigarettes to be sold as licensed medical devices or as non-medical products if they meet certain criteria set out in the 2014 Tobacco Products Directive . (
  • This opens the possibility that UK patients could be prescribed tobacco industry products on the National Health Service. (
  • While some companies have invested in developing medical devices, the vast majority of tobacco companies' "next generation" products, including e-cigarettes, are carefully differentiated from existing nicotine replacement therapies. (
  • The tobacco and tobacco products packaging market size was 227.5 billion units in 2022. (
  • The tobacco and tobacco products packaging market report brings together multiple data sources to provide a comprehensive overview of the tobacco and tobacco products packaging industry. (
  • The key sectors in the tobacco and tobacco products packaging market are cigarettes, cigarillos, cigars, and loose tobacco. (
  • The key regions in the tobacco and tobacco products packaging market are Asia-Pacific, the Middle East & Africa, the Americas, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe. (
  • Paper & board packaging was the most consumed packaging material in the Asia-Pacific tobacco and tobacco products industry in 2022. (
  • The key packaging materials in the tobacco and tobacco products packaging market are flexible packaging, rigid plastics, paper & board, and rigid metal, among others. (
  • An overview of the usage of different pack materials across the tobacco and tobacco products industry in terms of the number of units, packaging share, and growth rates during 2017-2027, in addition to key packaging innovations for pack materials analyzed. (
  • If another country were hurting our children the way the food industry does, we would go to war to protect them, rather than purchasing these products and feeding them to our children. (
  • The food industry is big business and big money, and as long as we allow it, they will continue to make these products and aggressively market to our children. (
  • In Marion Nestle's book Food Politics, How The Food Industry Influences Nutrition And Health , she writes, "Marketers will do whatever they can to encourage even the youngest children to ask for advertised products in the hope of enticing young people to become lifetime consumers. (
  • She will focus on how the public discussions on major social media platforms about new tobacco products and personal experiences could inform policymaking and regulation. (
  • The electronics industry is constantly evolving, with new innovations and products hitting the market every day. (
  • Similarly, the vape shops and tobacco shops industries have experienced a surge in popularity, with customers seeking high-quality products and unique flavors. (
  • One of the key factors that differentiate successful businesses in the electronics, vape shops, and tobacco shops industries is the variety of products they offer. (
  • Mentholated tobacco products apparently pose greater health risks than non-mentholated ones. (
  • Plaintiffs, a group of African-Americans, brought a civil rights action, contending that, with this knowledge, defendant tobacco companies have targeted the marketing of mentholated tobacco products at African-Americans. (
  • Welcome to BMVaping, your ultimate destination for all things related to electronics, vape shops, and tobacco shops. (
  • In the competitive world of electronics, vape shops, and tobacco shops, exceptional customer service is paramount. (
  • Policy and law restricting tobacco smoking has increased globally, but almost 6 trillion cigarettes are still produced each year, representing an increase of over 12% since the year 2000. (
  • Regional action plan on tobacco or health, 2000-2004. (
  • Country profiles on tobacco or health 2000. (
  • Philip Morris International (PMI) is seeking Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) authorisation to market IQOS as a modified risk tobacco product and to make marketing claims of reduced risk and reduced exposure. (
  • American tobacco firm Philip Morris knew exactly how to market their poison to appeal to the largest audience. (
  • Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids tackles tobacco industry racism , Tobacco Tactics, updated 24 February 2021, accessed 24 April 2024. (
  • Women are also targeted by the tobacco industry, and tobacco companies continue to produce brands specifically for women. (
  • The phrase "tobacco industry" generally refers to the companies involved in the manufacture of cigarettes, cigars, snuff, chewing tobacco and pipe tobacco. (
  • The suits claimed that tobacco causes cancer, that companies in the industry knew this, and that they deliberately understated the significance of their findings, contributing to the illness and death of many citizens in those states. (
  • The suit resulted in a large cash settlement being paid by a group of tobacco companies to the states that sued. (
  • In 2012, off the back of a string of inquiries, court cases and fines all aiming to hold the major tobacco companies to account for their involvement in global tobacco smuggling operations aimed to avoid paying taxes, governments around the world adopted the Illicit Trade Protocol (ITP). (
  • Simultaneously the major tobacco companies developed their own track and trace system, 'Codentify', lobbying governments around the world to see it adopted as the global track and trace system of choice. (
  • Leaked documents show the four major transnational tobacco companies hatched a joint plan to use front groups and third parties to promote 'Codentify' to governments and have them believe it was independent of industry and how these plans were operationalised. (
  • Tobacco companies use this argument despite being complicit in illicit trade. (
  • The introduction of acquire and develop agriculture through tobacco companies and tobacco buyers have insured inputs and a lot of trainings to farmers, that has been a big motive and stimulant for the recuperation. (
  • The settlement resolves an ongoing dispute between the tobacco companies and Hawaii, relating to compliance with the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) from 2004 - 2017. (
  • An archive of 14 million documents created by tobacco companies about their advertising, manufacturing, marketing, scientific research and political activities, hosted by the UCSF Library. (
  • It may allow the industry to reclaim a role in health policy, part of a wider strategy by tobacco companies to rebrand themselves as nicotine companies with a key role in the fight against smoking. (
  • Policy makers who would shun overtures from Big Tobacco may nonetheless be prepared to meet with "nicotine companies" and producers of smoking cessation devices. (
  • Tobacco companies' investment in e-cigarettes builds on the medicalisation of smoking cessation. (
  • The tobacco companies are playing a new game with e cigarettes and alternative delivery systems. (
  • I do not want tobacco companies making money off of me. (
  • Avoidance of exposure to tobacco leaves is the best prevention. (
  • Monica Hanna, MPH, assistant director of the Nicotine and Tobacco Recovery Program at RWJBarnabas Health's Institute for Prevention and Recovery in New Jersey, said she has witnessed a higher level of nicotine addiction in the vapers with whom she has worked. (
  • 3. The situation is moving from bad to worse as the tobacco industry relocates to the poor south, fleeing harsh regulation in the developed countries. (
  • Tobacco industry interference has been particularly strong against efforts to increase tobacco taxes. (
  • Tobacco industry interference to undermine the development and implementation of graphic health warnings in Bangladesh. (
  • This paper seeks to explore how the tobacco industry undermined the development and implementation of GHWs in Bangladesh , a country known for a high level of tobacco industry interference (TII) that has rarely been examined in the peer-reviewed literature . (
  • Tobacco, one of the most widely used addictive substances in the world, is a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the most important crops grown by American farmers. (
  • Large-scale commercial (LSC) farmers dominate tobacco production. (
  • A significant number of natives farmers were beginning to demonstrate their harvest of tobaccos golden leafs from theirs allocated lands under the improvement in agricultural industry. (
  • 5. In tobacco-producing communities, many farmers are trapped in debt, earning barely enough to service the loans for farm input. (
  • Tobacco growing harms our health, the health of farmers and the planet's health. (
  • Since 1964, conclusive medical evidence of the deadly effects of tobacco consumption has led to a sharp decline in official support for producers and manufacturers of tobacco, although it contributes to the agricultural, fiscal, manufacturing, and exporting sectors of the economy. (
  • In nearly all cases, courts have upheld the government's right to impose packaging restrictions, recognizing them as a public health measure to protect against the adverse effects of tobacco use. (
  • In addition, smoking can potentiate the effects of tobacco dust. (
  • The main treatment strategy consists of removal of exposure to tobacco dust and molds, and the main aim of corticosteroid therapy is to reduce morbidity and prevent complications-namely, the development of pulmonary fibrosis and permanent lung dysfunction. (
  • It contains a number of amendments that significantly impact on, and will have far-reaching consequences for, the tobacco and electronic delivery systems industry, as well as the South African economy. (
  • When it fails to succeed, the tobacco industry will work to either delay implementation. (
  • In 2017, countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) agreed on significant increases in excise taxes on tobacco, and are now in different stages of implementation. (
  • Through litigation, or threat of litigation, the industry seeks to delay implementation of packaging and labelling restrictions. (
  • it is also cut to form chewing tobacco or ground to make snuff or dipping tobacco, as well as other less common preparations. (
  • Tobacco Product Use and Cessation Indicators Among Adults - United States, 2018. (
  • Tobacco is an agricultural commodity product, similar in economic terms to agricultural foodstuffs: the price is in part determined by crop yields, which vary depending on local weather conditions. (
  • Title : Tobacco product use among workers in the construction industry, United States, 2014-2016 Personal Author(s) : Syamlal, Girija;King, Brian A.;Mazurek, Jacek M. (
  • Smoking status and tobacco product use data are provided by industry and occupation. (
  • Natalie, a member of the nicotine addiction support group at the University of California San Francisco's Fontana Tobacco Treatment Center, switched from traditional cigarettes to vaping but found the electronic version just as addictive and eventually decided to quit using nicotine completely. (
  • It was built to house and provide permanent access to tobacco industry internal corporate documents produced during litigation between US States and the seven major tobacco industry organizations and other sources. (
  • The leading French newspaper, Le Monde, has published a major report on how the tobacco industry recruited scientists to be part of a vast propaganda campaign to deny the clear scientific evidence that tobacco smoke causes harm to health (Le Monde, May 25, 2012). (
  • Youth misunderstand such claims, and misperceptions of harm are known to lead to tobacco-use initiation. (
  • Such claims may be misunderstood by youth, thereby increasing their risk for tobacco initiation. (
  • But when it comes to deceitful public relations techniques, the health insurance industry has been learning well from Big Tobacco, which employed a panoply of shady but highly successful public relations tactics to fend off changes to its business for generations. (
  • Tobacco Tactics is a registered trademark. (
  • Much more is also known about programs and policies that encourage nonsmoking behavior among adults and protect nonsmokers from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. (
  • Dr. Han is very excited to join the fellowship program at CTCRE, where she would like to combine her qualitative and computational skills to explore promising topics in the tobacco regulatory field. (
  • 1999, 29 L.Ed.2d 619 (1971), and the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, arguing that defendants should be considered federal actors by virtue of the federal regulatory scheme to which the tobacco industry is subject. (
  • The tobacco industry has targeted African American communities in its advertisements and promotional efforts for menthol cigarettes. (
  • These X-Freeze varieties are claimed to be tobacco-free and made from eucalyptus and pine fibers. (
  • Tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving nations of a healthy workforce and furthering the cycle of ill-health, poverty and death. (
  • For years, the tobacco industry appeared to be invincible, that is until people began dying left and right from lung cancer. (
  • Then, in 1994, Diane Castano, whose husband died of lung cancer, sued the tobacco industry in potentially the largest class action suit in history. (
  • Tobacco is a major risk factor for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. (
  • It underscores the seriousness of tobacco use, its relationship to other adolescent problem behaviors, and the responsibility of all citizens to protect the health of our children. (
  • To better understand adolescent tobacco use, this report draws not only on medical and epidemiologic research but also on behavioral and social investigations. (
  • The first study to systematically identify and review literature that assesses industry-funded data on the illicit tobacco trade, it identifies widespread concerns with the quality, accuracy and transparency of tobacco-industry funded research. (
  • In particular, this research on the social environment of young people identifies key risk factors that encourage tobacco use. (
  • The tobacco industry challenges large, graphic warnings and pack size/colour restrictions using intellectual property and "slippery slope" arguments. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Tobacco industry. (
  • This study investigates how a state-owned enterprise, the Swedish Tobacco Monopoly, reduced its labour inputs because of changed consumer preferences and mechanization in the 1920s and 1930s. (
  • Similarly, the sugar industry hired a group of Harvard scientists to hide the link between sugar and heart disease in the 1960s, and the International Sugar Research Foundation (ISRF) suppressed a study that showed sugar could potentially increase the risk of bladder cancer . (
  • Scientific evidence shows that tobacco company advertising and promotion influences young people to start using tobacco. (
  • You can read more details of the New York Times article, and the CDC discussion of how nicotine and tobacco smoke produces chronic diseases. (
  • Both the duration and the amount of tobacco use are related to eventual chronic health problems. (
  • Tobacco is often heavily taxed to gain revenues for governments and as an incentive for people not to smoke. (
  • Tobacco advertising is becoming increasingly restricted by the governments of countries around the world citing health issues as a reason to restrict tobaccos appeal[citation needed] The tobacco industry in the United States has suffered greatly since the mid-1990s, when it was successfully sued by several U.S. states. (
  • The industry was found to have decades of internal memos confirming in detail that tobacco (which contains nicotine) is both addictive and carcinogenic (cancer-causing). (
  • The industry had long denied that nicotine is addictive. (
  • The global partnership aims in particular to highlight tobacco industry activity across low and middle income countries. (
  • tobacco can grow in any warm, moist environment, which means it can be farmed on all continents except Antarctica. (
  • The earlier young people begin using tobacco, the more heavily they are likely to use it as adults, and the longer potential time they have to be users. (
  • China National Tobacco Co. has become the largest tobacco company in the world by volume. (
  • The average export revenue during the same period was US$7 875 million, and tobacco has been the largest single export crop in recent decades. (
  • These internal documents give a view into the workings of one of the largest and most influential industries in the United States. (
  • 1. Tobacco use is the largest cause of preventable death globally, estimated to kill 4.9 million people annually compared to 3 million annual deaths due to HIV/AIDS. (
  • Embrace the opportunities and challenges of these industries and position your business for long-term success. (
  • citation needed] The tobacco industry has historically been largely successful in this litigation process, with the majority of cases being won by the industry. (
  • The public health benefits and net economic gain from tobacco tax increases are far more significant than any potential business loss. (
  • One of the things I said in my testimony before the Senate Commerce Committee on June 24 is that the health insurance industry engages in duplicitous public relations campaigns to influence public opinion and the debate on health care reform. (
  • When you read or hear someone other than an insurance company executive -- including members of Congress -- trash some aspect of reform the industry doesn't like, such as the creation of a public health insurance option, there's a better-than-even chance that person is shilling for the industry. (
  • The public relations and lobbying firms that work for the industry plan and carry out those deception-based campaigns, and supply the shills with talking points. (
  • This industry circular announces updates to two TTB public guidance documents pertaining to formula and laboratory sample analysis requirements for beverage and nonbeverage wines. (
  • The public health movement against tobacco use will be successful when young people no longer want to smoke. (
  • HONOLULU - Acting Attorney General Russell Suzuki today announced that the State of Hawaii has agreed to a multi-million dollar arbitration settlement with the Tobacco Industry. (
  • Price and tax increases remain the single most effective means to reduce tobacco use. (
  • Increases in both planting areas and yields have contributed to a significant increase in output of tobacco over the past decades. (
  • 200 000 tobacco-related deaths.2 Studies also indicate that tobacco is an important cause of oral cancer.3 Smoking increases the risk of infections. (