A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Use of TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum L) and TOBACCO PRODUCTS.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.
Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
The deliberate attempt to influence attitudes and beliefs for furthering one's cause or damaging an opponent's cause.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Diseases of plants.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. Members contain ARECOLINE and CATECHIN. The leaves and nuts have been used as masticatories, stimulants, and astringents in traditional medicine. The common name of betel is also used for PIPER BETLE. The common name of catechu is sometimes used for ACACIA CATECHU.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The contamination of indoor air.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
Educational institutions.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An icosahedral RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory Tobacco necrosis virus (see NECROVIRUS) for its replication.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.

Activation of systemic acquired silencing by localised introduction of DNA. (1/6986)

BACKGROUND: In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing results in RNA degradation after transcription. Among tobacco transformants carrying a nitrate reductase (Nia) construct under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-Nia2), one class of transformants spontaneously triggers Nia post-transcriptional gene silencing (class II) whereas another class does not (class I). Non-silenced plants of both classes become silenced when grafted onto silenced stocks, indicating the existence of a systemic silencing signal. Graft-transmitted silencing is maintained in class II but not in class I plants when removed from silenced stocks, indicating similar requirements for spontaneous triggering and maintenance. RESULTS: Introduction of 35S-Nia2 DNA by the gene transfer method called biolistics led to localised acquired silencing (LAS) in bombarded leaves of wild-type, class I and class II plants, and to systemic acquired silencing (SAS) in class II plants. SAS occurred even if the targeted leaf was removed 2 days after bombardment, indicating that the systemic signal is produced, transmitted and amplified rapidly. SAS was activated by sense, antisense and promoterless Nia2 DNA constructs, indicating that transcription is not required although it does stimulate SAS. CONCLUSIONS: SAS was activated by biolistic introduction of promoterless constructs, indicating that the DNA itself is a potent activator of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The systemic silencing signal invaded the whole plant by cell-to-cell and long-distance propagation, and reamplification of the signal.  (+info)

Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry. (2/6986)

This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of a designed TMV coat protein mutant, R46G, that elicits a moderate hypersensitivity response in Nicotiana sylvestris. (3/6986)

The hypersensitivity resistance response directed by the N' gene in Nicotiana sylvestris is elicited by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein R46G, but not by the U1 wild-type TMV coat protein. In this study, the structural and hydrodynamic properties of R46G and wild-type coat proteins were compared for variations that may explain N' gene elicitation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals no significant secondary or tertiary structural differences between the elicitor and nonelicitor coat proteins. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies, however, do show different concentration dependencies of the weight average sedimentation coefficients at 4 degrees C. Viral reconstitution kinetics at 20 degrees C were used to determine viral assembly rates and as an initial assay of the rate of 20S formation, the obligate species for viral reconstitution. These kinetic results reveal a decreased lag time for reconstitution performed with R46G that initially lack the 20S aggregate. However, experiments performed with 20S initially present reveal no detectable differences indicating that the mechanism of viral assembly is similar for the two coat protein species. Therefore, an increased rate of 20S formation from R46G subunits may explain the differences in the viral reconstitution lag times. The inferred increase in the rate of 20S formation is verified by direct measurement of the 20S boundary as a function of time at 20 degrees C using velocity sedimentation analysis. These results are consistent with the interpretation that there may be an altered size distribution and/or lifetime of the small coat protein aggregates in elicitors that allows N. sylvestris to recognize the invading virus.  (+info)

Rational analyses of organelle trajectories in tobacco pollen tubes reveal characteristics of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. (4/6986)

To gain insight into the characteristics of organelle movement and the underlying actomyosin motility system in tobacco pollen tubes, we collected data points representing sequential organelle positions in control and cytochalasin-treated cells, and in a sample of extruded cytoplasm. These data were utilized to reconstruct approximately 900 tracks, representing individual organelle movements, and to produce a quantitative analysis of the movement properties, supported by statistical tests. Each reconstructed track appeared to be unique and to show irregularities in velocity and direction of movement. The regularity quotient was near 2 at the tip and above 3 elsewhere in the cell, indicating that movement is more vectorial in the tube area. Similarly, the progressiveness ratio showed that there were relatively more straight trajectories in the tube region than at the tip. Consistent with these data, arithmetical dissection revealed a high degree of randomlike movement in the apex, lanes with tip-directed movement along the flanks, and grain-directed movement in the center of the tube. Intercalated lanes with bidirectional movement had lower organelle velocity, suggesting that steric hindrance plays a role. The results from the movement analysis indicate that the axial arrangement of the actin filaments and performance of the actomyosin system increases from tip to base, and that the opposite polarity of the actin filaments in the peripheral (+-ends of acting filaments toward the tip) versus the central cytoplasm (+-ends of actin filaments toward to the grain) is installed within a few minutes in these tip-growing cells.  (+info)

Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect. (5/6986)

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (6/6986)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Mg-chelatase of tobacco: the role of the subunit CHL D in the chelation step of protoporphyrin IX. (7/6986)

The Mg-chelation is found to be a prerequisite to direct protoporphyrin IX into the chlorophyll (Chl)-synthesizing branch of the tetrapyrrol pathway. The ATP-dependent insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX is catalyzed by the enzyme Mg-chelatase, which consists of three protein subunits (CHL D, CHL I, and CHL H). We have chosen the Mg-chelatase from tobacco to obtain more information about the mode of molecular action of this complex enzyme by elucidating the interactions in vitro and in vivo between the central subunit CHL D and subunits CHL I and CHL H. We dissected CHL D in defined peptide fragments and assayed for the essential part of CHL D for protein-protein interaction and enzyme activity. Surprisingly, only a small part of CHL D, i.e., 110 aa, was required for interaction with the partner subunits and maintenance of the enzyme activity. In addition, it could be demonstrated that CHL D is capable of forming homodimers. Moreover, it interacted with both CHL I and CHL H. Our data led to the outline of a two-step model based on the cooperation of the subunits for the chelation process.  (+info)

Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) deficient in the production of its native coat protein supports long-distance movement of a chimeric TMV. (8/6986)

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) coat protein is involved in systemic infection of host plants, and a specific mutation in this gene prevents the virus from moving into the upper uninoculated leaves. The coat protein also is required for different viral functions during early and late infection. To study the role of the coat protein in long-distance movement of AlMV independent of other vital functions during virus infection, we cloned the gene encoding the coat protein of AlMV into a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector Av. This vector is deficient in long-distance movement and is limited to locally inoculated leaves because of the lack of native TMV coat protein. Expression of AlMV coat protein, directed by the subgenomic promoter of TMV coat protein in Av, supported systemic infection with the chimeric virus in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum MD609, and Spinacia oleracea. The host range of TMV was extended to include spinach as a permissive host. Here we report the alteration of a host range by incorporating genetic determinants from another virus.  (+info)

Woodland tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) grows naturally in the Andes from Bolivia to Argentina and is largely cultivated nowadays as an ornamental plant. Nicotiana tomentosiformis also grows naturally in the Andes but over a wider range, from Peru to Argentina [1]. N. sylvestris (2n = 24) and N. tomentosiformis (2n = 24) belong to clades of the Nicotiana sections Sylvestres and Tomentosae, respectively, of the Solanaceae family, which have diverged about 15 million years ago [2]. Other members of this family include many agriculturally important species such as tomato, potato, eggplant and pepper. N. sylvestris is considered to be the maternal donor, which about 200,000 years ago merged through interspecific hybridization with N. tomentosiformis (most likely paternal donor) to form an allotetraploid N. tabacum (2n = 4x = 48), the common tobacco [3]. Thus, the N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis genome sequences are expected to have high identity to the S-genome and T-genome of N. tabacum, ...
The cell line of tobacco cultivar BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow No.2) is one of the most commonly used in plant cell biology. The purpose of this study was to follow the intracellular localization of protein of unknown function from maize (ZmMAB1) during the cell cycle. Synchronization of the cell cycle of tobacco BY-2 cells in the liquid medium was achieved by careful selection of initial dilution, degree of differentiation and subculturing period. In the cell culture which was left two weeks without subculturing, cells became differentiated and mature but after resubculturing in fresh medium, they began to divide, and the third day they reach the highest mitotic index. Visualization of microtubules allowed the identification of particular stages of mitosis, and that was achieved by flourescently labeled protein MAP-4. The maize protein ZmMAB1 labeled with red fluorescent protein showed its colocalization with the microtubules during division ...
Read Manipulation of the napin primary structure alters its packaging and deposition in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seeds, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
After tobacco is harvested, it is cured (dried), and then aged to improve its flavor. There are four common methods of curing tobacco: air curing, fire curing, flue curing, and sun curing. The curing method used depends on the type of tobacco and its intended use. Air-cured tobacco is sheltered from wind and sun in a well-ventilated barn, where it air dries for six to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are air cured. In fire curing, smoke from a low-burning fire on the barn floor permeates the leaves. This gives the leaves a distinctive smoky aroma and flavor. Fire curing takes three to ten weeks and produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured. Flue-cured tobacco is kept in an enclosed barn heated by flues (pipes) of hot air, but the tobacco is not directly exposed to smoke. This method produces cigarette tobacco that ...
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Spit tobacco, also known as chewing tobacco and snuff, are forms of tobacco that are put between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco can be in the form of leaf tobacco (which is packaged in pouches), or plug tobacco (which are packaged in brick form). Snuff is a powdered form of tobacco, usually sold in cans. The nicotine is released from the tobacco as the user chews. Although chewing tobacco and snuff are considered smokeless tobacco products, harmful chemicals including nicotine are ingested. More than 28 cancer-causing chemicals have been found in smokeless tobacco.. Chewing tobacco and snuff can cause cancer in the cheek, gums, and lips. Like a pipe, cancer often occurs where the tobacco is held in the mouth. Cancer caused by smokeless tobacco often begins as leukoplakia (a condition characterized by a whitish patch that develops inside the mouth or throat) or erythroplakia (a condition characterized by a red, raised patch that develops inside the mouth). Other problems associated ...
Spit tobacco, also known as chewing tobacco and snuff, are forms of tobacco that are put between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco can be in the form of leaf tobacco (which is packaged in pouches), or plug tobacco (which are packaged in brick form). Snuff is a powdered form of tobacco, usually sold in cans. The nicotine is released from the tobacco as the user chews. Although chewing tobacco and snuff are considered smokeless tobacco products, harmful chemicals including nicotine are ingested. More than 28 cancer-causing chemicals have been found in smokeless tobacco.. Chewing tobacco and snuff can cause cancer in the cheek, gums, and lips. Like a pipe, cancer often occurs where the tobacco is held in the mouth. Cancer caused by smokeless tobacco often begins as leukoplakia (a condition characterized by a whitish patch that develops inside the mouth or throat) or erythroplakia (a condition characterized by a red, raised patch that develops inside the mouth). Other problems associated ...
Interaction of sulfur and nitrogen nutrition in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants: significance of nitrogen source and root nitrate reductase ...
Adenosine diaminase deficiency is a heritable disorder caused by the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), an important enzyme in purine salvage pathway. The absence of ADA results in a dysfunctional immune system due to the build-up of toxic metabolites. This led Sanjeewa Singhabahu and colleagues at University of East London to produce functional human ADA in tobacco plants. They inserted a human ADA cDNA into a plant expression vector and transformed the tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Analyses confirmed the integration of the construct into the plant nuclear genome and expression of the recombinant ADA in transgenic tobacco leaves. Further analysis have revealed that the size of the recombinant ADA is similar with the human ADA. ADA-specific activities of between 0.001 and 0.003 units per mg total soluble protein were measured in crude extracts collected from transgenic tobacco plant leaves.. Read the research article at ...
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Sеnеscеnciја listа prеdstаvlја kоmplеksnu, gеnеtički kоntrоlisаnu pоslеdnju fаzu оntоgеnеzе listа kоја rеzultirа kооrdinisаnоm rаzgrаdnjоm mаkrоmоlеkulа i mоbilizаciјоm njеgоvih kоmpоnеnti u drugе dеlоvе bilјkе. Nа ćеliјskоm nivоu, оnа оbuhvаtа prоmеnе strukturе, mеtаbоlizmа i gеnskе еksprеsiје kоје dоvоdе dо smrti, čiјi sе tip оznаčаvа kао prоgrаmirаnа ćеliјskа smrt (PCD). Kао еkspеrimеntаlni mоdеl u оvоm rаdu kоrišćеnе su in vitro gајеnе bilјkе duvаnа (Nicotiana tabacum L.) kоје оbеzbеđuјu sеt listоvа u kојimа pоstојi grаdаciја sеnеscеnciје. Istrаživаnjе је оbuhvаtilо citоhistоlоšku i imunоhistоhеmiјsku аnаlizu dinаmikе strukturnih prоmеnа mеzоfilа listоvа, kао i ispitivаnjе mеtаbоličkih, biоhеmiјskih i mоlеkulаrnih prоcеsа tоkоm sеnеscеnciје listа. Utvrđеn је rеdоslеd ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nicolas Amelot, Audrey Carrouche, Saïda Danoun, Stéphane Bourque, Jacques Haiech, Alain Pugin, Raoul Ranjeva, Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati, Christian Mazars, Christian Briere].
Burley tobacco is a genotype of chloroplast-deficient mutant with accumulates high levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) which would induce malignant tumors in animals. Nitrate is a principle precursor of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Nitrate content in burley tobacco was significantly higher than that in flue-cured tobacco. The present study investigated differences between the two tobacco types to explore the mechanisms of nitrate accumulation in burley tobacco. transcripts (3079) related to the nitrogen and carbon metabolism were observed. Expression of genes involved in carbon fixation, glucose and starch biosynthesis, nitrate translocation and assimilation were significantly low in burley tobacco than flue-cured tobacco. Being relative to flue-cured tobacco, burley tobacco was significantly lower at total nitrogen and carbohydrate content, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate (Pn), but higher nitrate content. Burley tobacco
우리나라 잎담배에 발생하고 있는 바이러스의 종류와 감염상을 조사하기 위하여 전주지방에서 Burley종 (Burley-21) 20개체, 부천연초시험장 포장에시 황색종(Hicks) 20개체를 병징별로 채집하여 혈청학적인 방법에 의해 실시했다. 검정대상 바이러스는 Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Potato virus X(PVX) 및 Potato virus Y(PVY)등 5종으로 TMV, AMV, CMV는 한천내확산법으로 PVX, PVY는 미량침강법으로 실시하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 공시이병개체중에서 TMV, CMV, AMV, P X 및 PVY 등 5종의 바이러스가 검출되었다. 2. 조사된 40개체중 각 바이러스의 감염율은 AMV |TEX|$67.5\%$|/TEX|, CMV |TEX|$60.0\%$|/TEX|, TMV|TEX|$47.5\%$|/TEX|PVY|TEX|$17.5\%$|/TEX|, PVX|TEX|$10.0\%$|/TEX|의 순이었다. 3. Burley종에서는 TMV감염율이 |TEX|$15.0\%$|/TEX|로 황색종의 |TEX|$80.0\%$|/TEX|보다 현저히 낮았다. 4.
Proteinase inhibitors and thionins are among the many proteins thought to have a role in plant defence against pests and pathogens. Complementary DNA clones encoding the precursors of a multi-domain proteinase inhibitor from Nicotiana alata Link et Otto (NA-PI) (Mr approximately 43 000) and a β-hordothionin (β-HTH) (Mr approximately 13 000) from barley, were linked to constitutive promoters and subsequently transferred by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into tobacco. The NA-PI and β-HTH precursor proteins were synthesised and post-translationally processed in transgenic tobacco and accumulated as polypeptides of apparent size Mr approximately 6000 and Mr approximately 8500, respectively. The na-pi and β-hth genes were stably inherited for at least two generations. Transgenic tobacco plants containing the highest amounts of NA-PI and β-HTH were crossed to produce plants containing both genes. Helicoverpa armigera (tobacco budworm) larvae that ingested transgenic tobacco leaves ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Main Strategies of Plant Expression System Glycoengineering for Producing Humanized Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Objectives: Sugars in tobacco products enhance the taste and smoke characteristics of the blend. Sugars are often added to processed tobacco, particularly air-cured Burley tobacco leaves that contain virtually no sugars. The most commonly used sugars were systematically added to Burley tobacco to study the effect on aldehyde emissions in mainstream smoke. Methods: Two levels of sucrose, glucose, and fructose were added to Burley tobacco. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butanal in mainstream smoke were sampled on Carboxen 572 cartridges and determined by HPLC-DAD. Results: The addition of sugars to Burley tobacco resulted in an increase of the aldehydes acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butanal in the mainstream tobacco smoke. This increase is specific, as much lower increases in tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide levels were observed. The observed aldehyde level increases ranged from 5% to 40%. The increase was higher ...
The Santa Barbara County Board of Supervisors are meeting Tuesday to discuss a ban on flavored tobacco.. The ban will only be effective in the unincorporated areas of the county.. The proposed ordinance or County Code Chapter 37A - Licensure to Tobacco Retailers will include language that provides strengthened public health requirements for tobacco retailers in an effort to prevent youth exposure to tobacco, including electronic smoking devices and flavored tobacco products.. The amendment provides a multi-pronged approach to address underage nicotine use and regulate businesses to prevent youth access to nicotine and tobacco products. The amendment includes language to prohibit the sale of flavored tobacco products, prohibit small and inexpensive pack sizes, prohibit coupons that allow a consumer to purchase a tobacco product for less than the full retail price, prohibit the sale of any tobacco product to a consumer through a multiple-package discount or otherwise provide any such product to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Faithful editing of a tomato-specific mRNA editing site in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. AU - Karcher, D.. AU - Kahlau, Sabine. AU - Bock, R.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - RNA editing sites and their site-specific trans-acting recognition factors are thought to have coevolved. Hence, evolutionary loss of an editing site by a genomic mutation is normally followed by the loss of the specific recognition factor for this site, due to the absence of selective pressure for its maintenance. Here, we have tested this scenario for the only tomato-specific plastid RNA editing site. A single C-to-U editing site in the tomato rps12 gene is absent from the tobacco and nightshade plastid genomes, where the presence of a genomic T nucleotide obviates the need for editing of the rps12 mRNA. We have introduced the tomato editing site into the tobacco rps12 gene by plastid transformation and find that, surprisingly, this heterologous site is efficiently edited in the transplastomic plants. This ...
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Sabetta W, Vannini C, Sgobba A, Marsoni M, Paradiso A, Ortolani F, Bracale M, Viggiano L, Blanco E, de Pinto MC. 2016. Cyclic AMP deficiency negatively affects cell growth and enhances stress-related responses in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells. Plant Mol Biol.,90(4-5):467-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-016-0431-5. ...
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A draft research plan was posted on the USPSTF Web site for public comment from March 14 through April 11, 2018. In response, the USPSTF made the following changes to the research plan. First, reviews focused on relapse prevention interventions will now be included. Second, the USPSTF clarified that the target condition includes use of any tobacco product, as regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, dissolvables, smoking tobacco through a hookah or waterpipe, and e-cigarettes and other ENDS. Reviews limited to or including cessation of any of these tobacco products will be included. Third, reviews limited to specific subpopulations of adults with high prevalence of tobacco use or at risk of tobacco use-related morbidity will be included, as will results from credible subgroup analyses. Lastly, reviews of medications that are not approved as first-line tobacco cessation medications but are used ...
Tobacco control policy is one of the primary areas of emphasis in Propels tobacco control program area. Tobacco control policies help smokers quit, help change populations attitudes about tobacco, and protect non-smokers. Our experience in tobacco control policy includes involvement and influence in key policy initiatives, evaluation and advocacy. For example, results from the Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Survey (CSTADS) on flavoured tobacco use among youth has played an influential part in federal and provincial bans of flavoured tobacco.
This briefing sets out the facts relating to the change in the law which are due to come into effect next week.. Legal Background. From Monday 1 October it will be illegal to sell any tobacco product to any person under the age of 18 throughout Great Britain. In January, the Government announced that the minimum age for the purchase of tobacco would be raised from 16 to 18 in England and Wales and the Scottish Parliament subsequently made a similar announcement to raise the minimum age to 18 in Scotland. [1].. The legal age for the purchase of tobacco has been 16 since 1908. The law prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors is set out in the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (1937 in Scotland) as amended by the Children and Young Persons (Protection from Tobacco) Act 1991.. The change in the law will bring tobacco sales in line with alcohol, simplifying the procedure for checking the age of purchasers of alcohol or tobacco. All tobacco retailers will be required to display a notice stating ...
Tobacco clearances data (including excise and customs duty) are an indicator of tobacco volumes in the Australian market, and provide a useful approximation of tobacco consumption over time. Treasury has advised that tobacco clearances fell by 3.4% in the 2013 calendar year relative to the 2012 calendar year, and fell by a further 7.9% in 2014, 3.5% in 2015 and 2.8% in 2016. As at the end of 2016, tobacco clearances had fallen a total of 16.5% since 2012.. These tobacco clearance rates do not take into account refunds of excise equivalent customs duty made under Customs plain packaging related Tobacco Refund Scheme between December 2012 and May 2013. These refunds cannot be related to annual net clearances on a comparable basis to other data used to derive tobacco clearance rates.. ...
When is World No Tobacco Day?. World No Tobacco Day is a holiday dedicated to the cessation of smoking. It was founded by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987, and has been held every May 31st since 1989. The goal of the holiday is to increase the awareness of the adverse health effects of tobacco products, which kill an estimated 6 million people worldwide every year.. Tobacco Dangers. The fact that tobacco products are dangerous to health is not breaking news to anyone in the United States. However, the troubling news is that people continue to smoke and chew tobacco, despite knowing the potential repercussions. Smoking can lead to numerous diseases, such as lung cancer, hypertension and heart disease, while chewing tobacco can also cause gum disease and oral cancer. People with underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, may find that using tobacco exacerbates their symptoms.. Another danger is second-hand smoke. WHO estimates a worldwide death toll of 600,000 from second-hand ...
Pipes and tobaccos magazine pdf, The author also discusses how to taste pipe tobaccos and there is an Pipes & Tobacco Magazine: A quarterly magazine with articles about pipes, pipe We have recently obtained searchable PDF versions of two issues thanks to Leo. Pipes and tobaccos magazine pdf. He then ran the numbers to calculate pipe tobacco usage. in, mac baren agreed to purchase sutliff tobacco, the pipe tobacco.
All forms of tobacco lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. During the past few decades, the number of people who consume tobacco has increased worldwide because of an overall increase in the global population. It is estimated that close to 80% of the ,1.3 billion people who smoke tobacco in the world are in low- and middle-income countries. Smokeless forms of tobacco are also widely consumed in low- and middle-income countries, including chewable and snuffed forms. Lack of targeted and effective strategies to control tobacco consumption contributes to a large burden of cardiovascular disorders in low- and middle-income countries, where cardiovascular disorders have become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we evaluate the epidemiology of tobacco use in low- and middle-income countries and assess the public health policies needed to control tobacco use in such regions for the prevention of cardiovascular disorders and other tobacco-related morbidities ...
The potential of tobacco waste as a viable source of medicinally important flavonoids like rutin has been investigated. Three flavonoids, apigenin, quercetin and rutin, have been isolated from waste tobacco leaves, and their identities have been confirmed by UV-visible, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. By using analytical HPLC, the amount of rutin present in the tobacco leaves, before and after fermentation, and also in waste tobacco leaves, has been determined as 1.5, 0.5 and 0.6%, respectively.
TY - GEN. T1 - Expression of oryzacystatin I in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. Samsun) modifies photosynthesis and responses. AU - Prins, A.. AU - Van Heerden, P. D. R.. AU - Kunert, K. J.. AU - Foyer, Christine. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Conference paper. SN - 10956433. VL - 141. SP - S298-S298. BT - COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR & INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY. T2 - Expression of oryzacystatin I in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L. Samsun) modifies photosynthesis and responses. Y2 - 1 January 2005. ER - ...
The glycoprotein APA (Alanine- and Proline-rich Antigen, a 45/47 kDa antigen complex, Rv1860) is considered as a major immunodominant antigen secreted by M. tuberculosis. This antigen has proved to be highly immunogenic in experimental models and humans, presenting a significant potential for further development of a new vaccine for tuberculosis. Glycosylation plays a key role in the immunogenicity of the APA protein. Because plants are known to promote post-translational modification such as glycosylation and to be one of the most economic and safe hosts for recombinant protein expression, we have over expressed the APA protein in transgenic tobacco plants aiming to produce a glycosylated version of the protein. Seeds are known to be a well-suited organ to accumulate recombinant proteins, due to low protease activity and higher protein stability. We used a seed-specific promoter from sorghum, a signal peptide to target the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum and ultimately in the protein storage
OPINION - Tobacco policy is back again on the main stage of political discourse, thanks to the rise in youth usage of vaping and e-cigarettes. We recognize the need to address adolescent nicotine addiction prompted by this new popularity and the public health effects.. However, not all tobacco products are the same. Unequivocally, premium cigars are not part of this youth access issue. Data recorded by the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration in their Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health, or PATH, study asserts that the average age of people enjoying their first premium cigar is 30.. Nonetheless, anti-tobacco groups are seizing the moment to put further restrictions on all tobacco products. That includes premium cigars, which do not have addictive qualities and do not pose the same health risks as other tobacco products. In fact, the PATH study acknowledges that the average premium cigar enthusiast is on the same health risk continuum as a nonsmoker.. Tobacco ...
Enforcement of tobacco laws can deter violators and sends a message that community leaders believe these policies are important for protecting Indianas youth. Enforcement of Indianas tobacco laws deters youth from trying to obtain tobacco products and retailers from illegally selling tobacco products to minors.. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act became law in June 2009. It gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate the manufacturing distribution and marketing of tobacco products to protect public health.. Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Resources for Retailers ...
Tobacco By-2 Cells: From Cellular Dynamics to Omics by Nagata, Toshiyuki available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. It is our utmost pleasure to present a new book on tobacco BY-2 cells, Tobacco BY-2 Cells: From...
Tobacco use is one of the most important preventable causes of premature death in the world. More than 6 million people per year die from tobacco use across the globe. There is no question that limiting tobacco use is one of the most effective ways to save lives and improve overall well-being.. Smoking tobacco causes exposure to a lethal mixture of more than 7000 toxic chemicals, including at least 70 known carcinogens that can damage nearly every organ system in the human body. Harms from tobacco begin before birth, as pregnant women who smoke give birth to infants at higher risk of congenital disorders, cancer, lung diseases, and sudden death. Newly identified risks from smoking include renal failure, intestinal ischemia, and hypertensive heart disease. The risk of death and disease from tobacco rises with the number of cigarettes smoked, but damage begins with use of a very small number of cigarettes. A regular life-long smoker loses at least 10-11 years of life to tobacco on average. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of stress-induced Ca2+ pulses in single aequorin-transformed tobacco cells. AU - Cessna, S. G.. AU - Messerli, M. A.. AU - Robinson, K. R.. AU - Low, Philip. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Signaling patterns measured in large cell populations are the sum of differing signals from separate cells, and thus, the detailed kinetics of Ca2+ pulses can often be masked. In an effort to evaluate whether the cytosolic Ca2+ pulses previously reported in populations of elicitor- and stress-stimulated tobacco cells accurately represent the pulses that occur in individual cells, a study of single cell Ca2+ fluxes in stress-stimulated tobacco cells was undertaken. Individual aequorin-transformed cells were isolated from a tobacco suspension culture and placed directly on a sensitive photo-multiplier tube mounted in a dark chamber. Ca2+-dependent luminescence was then monitored after stimulation with hypo- or hyper-osmotic shock, cold shock, or defense elicitors ...
By Carolyn Crist(Reuters Health) - Nearly 50 alcohol-flavored tobacco product lines are marketed by more than 400 tobacco brands in the United States and these products may especially attract teens, luring them into tobacco addiction, according to a new study.Adolescent drinking and smoking tend to go hand in hand, the authors write in the journal Tobacco Control, and the combination of alcohol flavors in tobacco products is sure to appeal to teen users.So-called characterizing flavors in cigarettes, except for menthol, are banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and these restrictions should be extended to the many flavored tobaccos for cigars, cigarillos and hookahs, as well as e-cigarette liquids, they add.
Tobacco: Tobacco, common name of the plant Nicotiana tabacum and, to a limited extent, Aztec tobacco (N. rustica) and the cured leaf that is used, usually after aging and processing in various ways, for smoking, chewing, snuffing, and extraction of nicotine. Various other species in the genus Nicotiana are
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to discuss current insights on the influence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke in lower and upper respiratory inflammatory illnesses. RECENT FINDINGS: Insight has been gained on the effect of tobacco smoking on the development of asthma from the womb to adolescence. Secondhand tobacco exposure and active smoking play a major role not only in the inception of asthma epidemiological community studies but also in patients already suffering from allergic rhinitis. Tobacco seems to influence innate immunity predisposing to Th2-associated respiratory diseases and increasing the risk for IgE-mediated sensitization. Tobacco smoking is related to worst outcomes in both asthma and rhinitis. SUMMARY: Several deleterious effects have been described in asthma because of smoking: accelerated decline in lung function, more severe symptoms, impairment in quality of life and diminished therapeutic response to steroids. The harmful effect of tobacco smoking is not only on ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to discuss current insights on the influence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke in lower and upper respiratory inflammatory illnesses. RECENT FINDINGS: Insight has been gained on the effect of tobacco smoking on the development of asthma from the womb to adolescence. Secondhand tobacco exposure and active smoking play a major role not only in the inception of asthma epidemiological community studies but also in patients already suffering from allergic rhinitis. Tobacco seems to influence innate immunity predisposing to Th2-associated respiratory diseases and increasing the risk for IgE-mediated sensitization. Tobacco smoking is related to worst outcomes in both asthma and rhinitis. SUMMARY: Several deleterious effects have been described in asthma because of smoking: accelerated decline in lung function, more severe symptoms, impairment in quality of life and diminished therapeutic response to steroids. The harmful effect of tobacco smoking is not only on ...
North Carolina tobacco growers will vote Nov. 19 on whether to continue the self-assessment to support tobacco research and education. The check-off assessment is 10 cents per 100 pounds of flue-cured and burley tobacco sold.. The Tobacco Research Check-off, which started in 1991, has allocated about $300,000 annually to tobacco-related projects at N.C. State University. The previous referendum passed with more than 92 percent support.. Funds from the check-off are allocated by the N.C. Tobacco Research Commission, which includes the N.C. Agriculture Commissioner, the chairman of the N.C. Tobacco Foundation, and the presidents of the N.C. Farm Bureau Federation, the N.C. State Grange and the Tobacco Growers Association of North Carolina.. If two-thirds of growers vote in favor of the referendum, the N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services will continue to collect the check-off funds at the points of sale at all North Carolina leaf receiving stations and auctions. Any person eligible ...
Cultivation of tobacco raises concerns about detrimental health and social consequences for youth, but tobacco producing countries only highlight economic benefits. We compared sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of school-age youth who worked and did not work in tobacco farming and assessed the effects on smoking behavior and health at 1 year. We used existing data collected in the province of Jujuy, Argentina where 3188 youth 13 to 17 years of age from a random middle school sample responded to longitudinal questionnaires in 2005 and 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models predicted association of tobacco farming work with health status and smoking behavior at 1 year. 22.8% of youth in the tobacco growing areas of the province were involved in tobacco farming. The mean age of initiation to tobacco farming was 12.6 years. Youth working in farming had higher rates of fair or poor versus good or excellent self-perceived health (30.3% vs. 19.0%), having a serious injury (48.5% vs. 38
Cultivation of tobacco raises concerns about detrimental health and social consequences for youth, but tobacco producing countries only highlight economic benefits. We compared sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of school-age youth who worked and did not work in tobacco farming and assessed the effects on smoking behavior and health at 1 year. We used existing data collected in the province of Jujuy, Argentina where 3188 youth 13 to 17 years of age from a random middle school sample responded to longitudinal questionnaires in 2005 and 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models predicted association of tobacco farming work with health status and smoking behavior at 1 year. 22.8% of youth in the tobacco growing areas of the province were involved in tobacco farming. The mean age of initiation to tobacco farming was 12.6 years. Youth working in farming had higher rates of fair or poor versus good or excellent self-perceived health (30.3% vs. 19.0%), having a serious injury (48.5% vs. 38
Tobacco has a predominantly negative history with human health. Smoking tobacco causes exposure to a lethal mixture that can damage nearly every organ in the human body. More than 6 million people per year die across the globe from the use of tobacco. Most tobacco related deaths occur in middle and low income countries. Tobacco is a common name used for several plants and it has long been grown and used by humans. The most important and dangerous constituents of tobacco are Nicotine, Carbon Monoxide and Tar. Most commonly used forms of tobacco are cigarette, bidi (most commonly used in India), cigar, hookah, snuff, tobacco chewing and E-cigarette. Diseases such as cancer, heart disease, respiratory disease are the leading cause of deaths associated to use of tobacco and affects all age groups. One person dies every 6 second due to use of tobacco.. Effects of tobacco on health. Physiology - Brain: Use of tobacco causes headaches and dizziness. Nicotine makes a person feel good when smoking but ...
DAM again launched bus campaigning in Dhaka City with the support of Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) under Bloomberg Global Initiative to reduce tobacco use and follow the existing tobacco control law. The buses are covered colorfully by pictures and information on tobacco control law and harmful effects of active and passive smoking. It is estimated that these buses will run five times from Mohammedpur to Postogola via Shaymoli, Ashadgate, Sukrabad, kalabagan, Science Lab , Shahbagh, Kakrail, Fokirapul, Motijhel, Saydabd, Doyagong, Gandaria, Jurain, Postagola) in the city and covering 25 kilometers each time and total 125 kilometers every day by each bus. This initiative will help people to know about the penalty for smoking in public place as well as transports and will make them aware about the public places and transports according to the tobacco control law. People will also be informed about the adverse effects of direct and indirect smoking as well as other tobacco products ...
With fewer farmers growing tobacco, it can be hard for the farmers who are still in the business to find the resources they need.. According to the UGA Farm Gate Value, tobacco raked in $53.7 million in 2011. It was an improvement from the $46.3 million generated in 2010 but far less than the $69.5 million generated in 2008.. Weve come from 20 years ago when we were at 48,000 acres, now down to 11,000 or so this year, said J. Michael Moore, University of Georgia tobacco agronomist. Were down to 150 or less tobacco growers, but we have some young growers. We have some returning growers that are coming in and adding to our numbers and to our production.. Moore helped to organize the Tobacco Tour, held June 10-12, to showcase the latest tobacco research for Georgia and Florida tobacco agribusiness supporters and included a stop at the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Tifton campus.. It has always been an opportunity to showcase the work of Extension ...
A smoking article having one or more reconstituted tobacco split inner wrap strips is described. One or more split inner wrap strips extend coaxially along the tobacco column between the inner surface of an outer wrap of cigarette paper and the tobacco column. The tobacco blend includes burley and a second tobacco, such as flue-cured, oriental, Maryland, or rare and exotic tobaccos, and combinations thereof. This blend improves burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels, especially tobacco-specific nitrosamines (i.e., TNSAs). A cigarette with an improved burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels is also described.
A smoking article having one or more reconstituted tobacco split inner wrap strips is described. One or more split inner wrap strips extend coaxially along the tobacco column between the inner surface of an outer wrap of cigarette paper and the tobacco column. The tobacco blend includes burley and a second tobacco, such as flue-cured, oriental, Maryland, or rare and exotic tobaccos, and combinations thereof. This blend improves burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels, especially tobacco-specific nitrosamines (i.e., TNSAs). A cigarette with an improved burley smoke character without increasing Hoffman analyte levels is also described.
Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection
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TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro translation products of mrnas derived from TMV-infected tobacco exhibiting a hypersensitive response. AU - Smart, Thomas E.. AU - Dunigan, David D.. AU - Zaitlin, Milton. PY - 1987/6. Y1 - 1987/6. N2 - Expression of the hypersensitive response (HSR) to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) is controlled by the single dominant N gene and is temperature sensitive. TMV-infected Xanthi-nc tobacco plants grown at the HSR-restrictive temperature of 31° for 3 days postinoculation show necrosis approximately 8 hr after the temperature shift to the HSR-permissive temperature of 25°. Both polyribosomal and total cytoplasmic poly(A)-containing RNAs were isolated at various times after the temperature shift from leaves of TMV-infected and mock-infected Xanthi-nc tobacco plants and from TMV-infected Turkish Samsun tobacco plants (genotype nn; systemic for TMV infection). The RNAs were translated in vitro and the products were ...
DARVISHZADEH, Reza et al. Genetic variation in oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by agro-morphological traits and simple sequence repeat markers. Rev. Ciênc. Agron. [online]. 2013, vol.44, n.2, pp.347-355. ISSN 1806-6690. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-66902013000200018.. The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity and determine differences between several oriental tobacco genotypes by examining both agro-morphological traits and molecular markers. Simple lattice design with two replications was used to evaluate 100 oriental tobacco genotypes. Analysis of variance manifested that there is high level of genetic diversity in oriental-type tobaccos based on morphological traits including number of leaf, days to 50% flowering, leaf length, leaf width, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem height and stem girth. Classification of genotypes using agro-morphological data by means of un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm based on squared ...
KEY MESSAGE: Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines with constitutive expression of an Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase gene (LecRK - I.9 or LecRK - IX.1) show enhanced resistance to Phytophthora pathogens, demonstrating conserved gene functionality after interfamily transfer. In plants, cell surface receptors mediate the first layer of innate immunity against pathogenic ... read more microbes. In Arabidopsis several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) were previously found to function as Phytophthora resistance components. In this study, we determined the functionality of Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 or LecRK-IX.1 in Phytophthora resistance when transferred into the Solanaceous plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Multiple transgenic lines were generated for each LecRK gene and molecular analyses revealed variation in transgene copy number, transgene expression levels and LecRK protein accumulation. Infection assays showed that transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing either Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 or ...
Previous research has shown that elevated CO2 reduces plant resistance against insects and enhances the water use efficiency of C3 plants, which improves the feeding efficiency of aphids. Although plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to regulate water relations and phytohormone-mediated resistance, little is known about the effect of elevated CO2 on MAPKs and the cascading effects on aphids. By using stably transformed Nicotiana attenuataplants silenced in MPK4, wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), or salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK), we determined the functions of MAPKs in plant-aphid interactions and their responses to elevated CO2. The results showed that among all plant genotypes, inverted repeat MPK4 plants had the largest stomatal apertures, the lowest water content, the strongest jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent resistance, and the lowest aphid numbers, suggesting that MPK4 affects plant responses to aphids by regulating stomatal aperture and JA-dependent ...
We report the production of hGM-CSF cytokine in leaves of industrial tobacco cultivars DH-17 and DH-27 by using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. We prove the concept that very high biomass industrial tobacco plants are suitable platforms for rapid, low cost production of foreign proteins. Successful transient expression of the GM-CSF was achieved in less than three months, opening the possibility for future applications of this approach in rapid response production of various proteins of non-plant origin in industrial tobacco.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic activation of m-phenylenediamine to products mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium by medium isolated from tobacco suspension cell cultures. AU - Gichner, Tomáš. AU - Stavreva, Diana A.. AU - Čeřovská, Noemi. AU - Wagner, Elizabeth D.. AU - Plewa, Michael J.. PY - 1995/9. Y1 - 1995/9. N2 - Both tobacco cells in suspension and the medium recovered from the suspension cultures (TX1MX) activated the aromatic amine m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) into a product that was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and YG1024. Medium recovered from stationary-phase tobacco cell cultures exhibited the highest level of m-PDA activation. No cytochrome P-450 was detected in the activating medium. A high molecular weight matrix having the highest m-PDA activating capacity and associated with a substantial fraction of the total peroxidase activity was isolated by Centricon-100 ultrafiltration of TX1MX. The data suggest that the peroxidases present in the recovered cell culture medium or ...
This is the tobacco industrys favourite economic myth. Conveyed to legislators and cabinet ministers (and journalists), its intent is to encourage the development of an indigenous tobacco industry within a given country, or to discourage the adoption of tobacco control policies likely to decrease tobacco product consumption.. The half truth in this myth resides in the fact that tobacco farming and product manufacture, distribution, and sale do constitute significant economic activities in many economies, and in the world as a whole. Globally, according to tobacco industry estimates, 33 million people farm tobacco, albeit many of them part time and most in addition to other crops.1 Approximately half that number work in tobacco product manufacture, distribution, and retailing. In addition, another 10 million or so are employed in supplier industries providing materials and services to the tobacco industry (for example, harvesting tools and cigarette papers, insurance coverage, and transportation ...
Best Tobacco Seeds Dealers. Find the list of best Tambaku Seeds suppliers & Manufacturers. Yellow Pages Directory of Tambaku Seeds, Tobacco Seeds manufacturers, Traders, and Tambaku Seeds, Tobacco Seeds Suppliers & Dealers in India.
The Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Counter Tobacco, and the American Heart Association today released Deadly Alliance: How Big Tobacco and Convenience Stores Partner to Market Tobacco Products and Fight Life-Saving Policies. This report details the concentration of tobacco marketing at the point-of-sale and its impact on tobacco use, especially among kids. It also shows how tobacco companies enlist convenience stores and other tobacco retailers in opposing policy changes, such as tobacco taxes and point-of-sale remedies (e.g., warning labels, restrictions on placement, flavors, and discounts, etc.). If you are working on funding for tobacco prevention, tobacco taxes, or point-of-sale issues, these groups recommend this report ...
Oligochitosan was applied by spraying it on tobacco leaves for inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The maximum inhibition of TMV by oligochitosan was observed when inoculation occurred at 24 h after spraying 50 mu g ml(-1) oligochitosan. The production of H(2)O(2) and NO in epidermal tobacco cells induced by oligochitosan was investigated by epidermal strip bioassay and LSCM, using cell permeable fluorophore diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2D) and 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H(2)DCF-DA), respectively. Epidermal tobacco cells treated with oligochitosan resulted in a strong increase of intracellular NO and H(2)O(2). Oligochitosan and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the defense reaction against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and increased phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. Co-treatment of the tobacco cells with oligochitosan and NO scavenger CPTIO blocked the inducing resistance. The results indicated that the defense response induced by oligochitosan was connected ...
René A. Arrazola, MPH1, Linda J. Neff, PhD1, Sara M. Kennedy, MPH2, Enver Holder-Hayes, MPH3, Christopher D. Jones, PhD1 (Author affiliations at end of text). Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, and nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood (1,2). Among U.S. youths, cigarette smoking has declined in recent years; however, the use of some other tobacco products has increased (3), and nearly half of tobacco users use two or more tobacco products (4). CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey* to determine the prevalence of ever (at least once) and current (at least 1 day in the past 30 days) use of one or more of 10 tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], pipes, snus, bidis, kreteks, and dissolvable tobacco) among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2013, 22.9% of high school students reported current ...
Previous studies clearly demonstrated the involvement of exocyst in plant cell polarity regulation, including polar tip growth (Cole et al., 2005; Synek et al., 2006; Hála et al., 2008). The significance of EXO70 family diversity in angiosperms (Eliáš et al., 2003; Cvrčková et al., 2012) has become one of the key topics in understanding plant cell polarity regulation (Žárský et al., 2009). However, most studies carried out to date were limited to Arabidopsis and none involved expression, localization, and functional study of EXO70 family diversity within a single cell. Here, we attempted to overcome these shortcomings by systematic investigation of tobacco EXO70 isoforms in tobacco pollen tubes, a cell type particularly favorable for analyses of genes regulating cell morphogenesis and membrane traffic.. First, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the EXO70 family in Solanaceae and studied it in the context of previous findings (Eliáš et al., 2003; Cvrčková et al., 2012). All nine ...
Smokeless tobacco has several health risks including cancer, and its not a safe substitute for cigarette smoking. There are no safe forms of tobacco. The National Cancer Institute states there are approximately 28 chemicals in smokeless tobacco that can cause cancer. Also, according to the American Cancer Society, people who use smokeless tobacco have a higher chance of developing oral and throat cancer than people who dont use tobacco. Users of smokeless tobacco are also at higher risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Smokeless tobacco can also cause white sores called leukoplakia to develop in the mouth (these may eventually lead to cancer).. Apart from cancer, dipping has several other health consequences. Tobacco contains nicotine, an addictive substance which can cause chemical dependence. Chemical dependence makes it difficult for folks to quit using tobacco even when they are aware of the possible health consequences. Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and the levels of ...
Background and aims: India has a high burden of tobacco usage and its related morbidity and mortality. Almost 30% of the above 15 years of age of the Indian population use some forms of tobacco. Men usually use smoked tobacco, while women more likely use smokeless (chewed) tobacco. Tobacco usage has been identified as a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among slum dwellers in urban cities. This study explored the tobacco consumption patterns and its determinants in an urban slum community of New Mumbai. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Study methods included review of secondary literature and policy documents on tobacco control. Primary data were collected from the Turbhe slum community in New Mumbai using semi-structured interview schedules. Cluster sampling followed by simple random sampling technique was used to achieve the sample size of 300 households. Results: The prevalence of tobacco consumption in Turbhe slums was very high. Twenty five percent of tobacco
The launching of the latest incarnation of HTPs is a reprise55 of similar efforts in the past to use similar products to undermine tobacco control, particularly efforts that present the tobacco industry as a harm reduction partner.. As early as the 1960s, the tobacco companies developed alternative tobacco products with the goal of supplementing the cigarette market with products. A few of these products, such as RJ Reynolds (now Reynolds America, part of BAT) Premier and Eclipse and Philip Morris Accord and HeatBar were marketed but received poor ratings from customers, were commercial failures and were withdrawn.55 It is possible the companies were not more aggressive in making reduced harm claims on new products because of legal concerns: Claiming that the new products were safer would amount to an admission that cigarettes were dangerous, opening the door for litigation and political difficulties for the tobacco industry, including FDA regulation of new products and cigarettes in the ...
The use of tobacco in any form is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease. Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in developing countries (1). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, is a school-based survey that includes questions on prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use; attitudes toward tobacco; access to tobacco products; exposure to secondhand smoke, school curricula on tobacco, media, and advertising; and smoking cessation. This report presents estimates of self-reported cigarette and other tobacco-product use during 1999--2005 in 132 different countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank. The data are aggregated within each of the six WHO regions. GYTS data indicate that nearly two of every 10 students reported currently using a tobacco product, with no statistically ...
Many locals, in a state like Meghalaya, chew the tobacco leaf in its raw form. Rubbed with lime, a small piece is handed over to a friend or an acquaintance one meets across the streets or when there is a visitor at home. I was surprised that something, which I was often witness to, as a child, still continues. I asked Rosaline about the pictorial warnings on packed tobacco products and if that had brought down the consumption of tobacco to some extent. She said that most people there still eat the raw form of the leaf and they do not prefer the packed product. While tobacco activists may pat their backs for having succeeded in getting more effective pictorial health warnings occupying larger areas of the packs, how does one warn/educate the users of unpacked tobacco leaves? Even as steps are taken by the government to deter people from using tobacco, there is a constant tussle between the policy makers and tobacco producers. There needs to be some kind of policy for those tobacco users who are ...
The tobacco industrys point of view is nurtured and protected by the Tobacco Institute, a nonprofit corporation founded in 1958. Its membership includes major U.S. manufacturers of cigarettes, smoking and chewing tobacco, and snuff: The Bloch Brothers Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, Conwood Corporation, G. A. Georgopulo & Company, Helme Products, Larus & Brother Company, Liggett & Myers, Lorillard, Philip Morris Incorporated, R. J. Reynolds Industries, Scotten-Dillion Company, and United States Tobacco Company. The Institute is financed by contributions from the large corporations according to their share of the market. The institute reports on the pro-tobacco side of the medical story, attempting to discredit antismoking publicity, and publishes information on the historical role of tobacco, its place in the national economy, the industry itself, and the publics use of tobacco products. The Council for Tobacco Research, created in 1953 in response to medical bulletins ...
Results: Ninety-six percent (n = 770) of tobacco users had previously attempted to quit tobacco and 95.7% were willing to quit. Sixteen percent (n = 132) of respondents reported that they currently used tobacco. About 83% of tobacco users agreed that the student dentist should ask patients whether or not they use tobacco, 79.4% agreed that the student dentist should advise tobacco users to quit, and 81.4% agreed that student dentists should offer information on quitting tobacco to patients who want to quit. Only 12.5% (n = 100) of the patients who use tobacco were aware of the community resources available to quit tobacco ...
We found an inverse relationship between product-specific perceived harm and nonidentification as a tobacco product user. Most exclusive users of e-cigarettes or hookah thought that all tobacco products and any specific tobacco product they did not use were harmful; in contrast, the tobacco product they used was thought of by many as not being harmful. These findings reveal that these exclusive users may not consider their products to be part of the universe of all tobacco products. Recent Internet search patterns reveal that some of the top search queries in the United States in relation to e-cigarettes include Are electronic cigarettes safe? and Are electronic cigarettes harmful?15 Similarly, the top queries in relation to hookah include Is hookah tobacco? and Is there tobacco in hookah?15 These search patterns reveal that despite significant efforts by the public health community to educate people about the risks of tobacco products, particularly among youth, there is confusion about ...
Both marketing and health education messages should include the information that all tobacco products are harmful and that abstinence from all tobacco products is the most healthful choice. At the same time, simply saying that smokeless tobacco is not safe is not a sufficient stance for public health communications. There is a recognized continuum of risk along which various tobacco products can be placed, with low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products much lower on the risk continuum than combustible tobacco, although it is not harmless. Devising an effective way to inform the public about the continuum should be an important research priority, as currently consumers are woefully incorrect in their assessments of relative risk of various tobacco products. This state of affairs could result in people deciding not to give up smoking in favor of a product lower on the risk continuum because they assume that all tobacco products are equally harmful ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 1 267 650, based on international application PCT/GB2001/000945, published as WO 2001/065954 and having the application No. 01 908 002.7 at the EPO, was granted with 47 claims.. Independent claim 1 as granted read as follows:. A tobacco treatment process wherein tobacco having a pH of less than 6.5 is subjected to treatment with a supercritical fluid extraction medium to extract nitrosamines from said tobacco, said tobacco being one or more of cut tobacco, whole leaf tobacco, tobacco dust and reconstituted tobacco.. II. Opposition was filed against the granted patent under Article 100(a) EPC, lack of novelty and inventive step, and Article 100(b) EPC, insufficiency of disclosure.. The opposition division held that the patent as granted lacked inventive step. The set of claims of the first auxiliary request, however, met the requirements of the Convention.. III. The documents cited during the proceedings before the opposition division and ...
CHATHAM - Taking action ahead of a new state law set to go into effect June 1, the board of health last week approved regulations banning the retail sale of all flavored tobacco products in town.. Last summer the board banned flavored tobacco sales in regular retail stores, but allowed the sales in adult-only smoke shops. The latest revision of the towns tobacco control regulations, slated to go into effect Jan. 1, prohibits all flavored tobacco sales, including in adult smoke shops.. The ban applies to all menthol and mint cigarettes, including brands such as Newport and Kool, as well as flavored cigars, chewing tobacco and vaping products.. This means that we can have as many tobacco shops in town as people want to apply for, but none of them will be able to sell any flavored tobacco products of any type, cigarettes or vaping products or cigars, anything with mint, Chairman John Beckley said at the boards Dec. 2 meeting.. Were a little ahead on this, but its the same as what the states ...
In the wake of unassailable medical research proving commercial tobaccos lethal effects, tobacco control policies have proliferated. Tobacco exacts a staggering toll on the world population - not just in mortality (approximately 5 million deaths a year) but in billions of dollars in tobacco-related health care costs and expenditures due to active and passive smoking. U.S. legal and regulatory policies related to tobacco have included state and local laws prohibiting smoking in public places and workplaces, restrictions on the sale and marketing of tobacco products (particularly to children), and federal legislation giving the Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco.. In addition to legislation and regulation, commercial tobacco control strategies have also included litigation. Evidence of the tobacco industrys long history of deception and suppression of information about the health hazards of its products has led to several waves of civil and class action lawsuits. The ...
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In large-scale field trials, scientists from North Carolina State University have shown that silencing a specific gene in burley tobacco plants significantly reduces harmful carcinogens in cured tobacco leaves.. The finding could lead to tobacco products †especially smokeless products †with reduced amounts of cancer-causing agents.. NC States Dr. Ralph Dewey, professor of crop science, and Dr. Ramsey Lewis, assistant professor of crop science, teamed with colleagues from the University of Kentucky to knock out a gene known to turn nicotine into nornicotine. Nornicotine is a precursor to the carcinogen N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). Varying percentages of nicotine are turned into nornicotine while the plant ages; nornicotine converts to NNN as the tobacco is cured, processed and stored.. The field tests in Kentucky, Virginia and North Carolina compared cured burley tobacco plants with the troublesome gene silenced and control plant lines with normal levels of gene expression. The ...
Objective: Patients with first-episode psychosis have a high prevalence of tobacco use. We aimed to examine the prevalence and course of tobacco use during early psychosis using meta-analysis.. Data Sources: Systematic search of MEDLINE (1948-2011), Embase (1947-2011), CINAHL (1984-2011), PsycINFO (1967-2011), and ISI Web of Science (1900-2011) using the search terms [psychosis OR schizophrenia] AND [tobacco OR smoking OR nicotine].. Study Selection: We located 10 studies reporting the age at initiation of daily tobacco use and the age at onset of psychosis, 31 studies reporting prevalence of tobacco use in patients with first-episode psychosis, 10 studies comparing smoking to age-/gender-matched controls, and 7 studies reporting prevalence of tobacco use at intervals after treatment.. Data Extraction: The following data were extracted: age at initiation of daily tobacco use and at onset of psychosis, the proportion of patients with first-episode psychosis who used tobacco, the proportion of the ...
Governor Lolo Matalasi Moliga is urging all smokers to refrain from smoking today, in hope that it is a beginning of a life as a non-smoker. He also urges all local residents to support all activities planned by the Department of Health, Tobacco/Diabetes Prevention Control Programs, Tobacco/Diabetes Prevention Coalition Board, and various government agencies, as the territory observes World No Tobacco Day.. This years theme is: Tobacco - A Threat to Development.. Every year on May 31st, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and their partners, mark World No Tobacco Day (WNTD), highlighting the health and additional risks associated with tobacco use, and advocating for effective policies to reduce tobacco consumption.. Samoa News asked several storeowners if they would be willing to hold off on selling tobacco products today - in observance of WNTD - and all of them said no.. Even with the recent increase in the price of cigarettes ...
Mumbai, India: Bharat book announces a report on 20 % Discount on Tobacco in Thailand Vaild Upto 11 Aug 2017, this report At the same time, cigars, cigarillos and smoking tobacco continued to see steady demand, further contributing to the strong value performance of tobacco.. In 2016, tobacco registered strong growth in retail value sales. Due to a tax rise for cigarettes in the first half of the year, the price of cigarettes rose by an average of 20%. The increase in unit price more than compensated for the negligible decline in retail volume sales of cigarettes, and boosted retail value sales in 2016. At the same time, cigars, cigarillos and smoking tobacco continued to see steady demand, further contributing to the strong value performance of tobacco.. ...
Prof Prakit Vathesatogkit himself has lived by example of how health professionals can contribute to tobacco control in their lifetime. In his 40 years as a lung disease specialist, he spent first 10 years in clinical management of lung diseases, of which smoking was the major and common cause! He was left aghast not only with late diagnosis of lung cancer but also to see abysmally low cure rates for lung cancer cases. Also available treatment was within reach to only a few of his patients. He finally decided to join the brewing tobacco control movement 30 years ago and learnt by doing. He has indeed set an example for others to imbibe. He has contributed on tobacco control related policy advocacy and then engaged with legislative processes in Thailand. His leadership in tobacco control in strengthening the global tobacco treaty (formally called the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control or WHO FCTC) is well acknowledged ...
When Congress gave the FDA regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009, it provided a pathway for companies to obtain approval for modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs)…, sold or distributed for use to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease… (here). While decades of epidemiologic studies prove that non-combustible tobacco products are vastly safer than those involving inhaled smoke laced with thousands of toxins, the legislation required proof from manufacturers that MRTPs must benefit the health of the population as a whole taking into account both users of tobacco products and persons who do not currently use tobacco products. (here) In other words, MRTPs must benefit the 60 million Americans who smoke as well as 250 million American non-smokers. ...
The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted ...
Flavonoids are major secondary metabolites in plants, which play important roles in maintaining the cellular redox balance in cells. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway, and has been proved to monitor the changes to drought stress tolerance. In this work, we overexpressed a CHS gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The transgenic tobacco plants were more tolerant than the control plants to drought stress. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in the flavonoids pathway and the contents of seven flavonoids were also significantly raised in the transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, overexpression of the CHS gene lead to a lower concentration of the oxidative stress product malondialdehyde. Overall, the NtCHS gene studied in this work was considered as a candidate gene for genetic engineering to enhance drought tolerance of plants and improve response to oxidative stress.
Case opinion for US 1st Circuit NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TOBACCO OUTLETS INC USA LLC v. CITY OF PROVIDENCE RHODE ISLAND. Read the Courts full decision on FindLaw.
Tobacco is a uniquely dangerous consumer product that is addictive and harmful to human health when used as intended. Smokeless tobacco practices are common in some parts of the world, especially in India (Pershagen, 1996). Nicotine exposure is similar in smokeless tobacco users and smokers (Ebbert et al., 2006) often leading to strong physical dependence. As a rule, smokeless tobacco products contain high levels of nitrosamines with carcinogenic potency in experimental animals (Phillips et al., 2004). Habitual use of oral tobacco can increase the risk of oral cancer, but the data are insufficient to assess in detail the risks associated with many types of smokeless tobacco. Tobacco induces DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage in human tissues. Formation of carcinogen- DNA adducts in critical genes can lead to mutations that alter protein function and that cause the carcinogenic progression of cells from normality to neoplasias (Hainaut et al., 2001; Cooper, 2002). Goran Pershagen suggested that
Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured. Flue-cured tobacco is kept in an enclosed barn heated by flues (pipes ... Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavour, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley ... Virginia tobacco that has been flue cured is also called bright tobacco, because flue curing turns its leaves gold, orange, or ... Natural tobacco polysaccharides, including cellulose, have been shown to be the primary precursors of acetaldehyde in tobacco ...
Protect people from tobacco smoke. Offer help to quit. Warn about the dangers of tobacco use. Enforce bans on tobacco ... Not start, if you arent already using tobacco.. Employers can:. *Establish a policy banning the use of any tobacco product ... Consider the World Health Organizations MPOWER strategies in efforts to prevent and control tobacco use. Monitor tobacco use ... Learn the new FDA restrictions on youth access to tobacco products and tobacco marketing to youth, and closely follow them. ...
Council for Tobacco Research. 900 Third Avenue. New York, NY 10022. External links. *"Council for Tobacco Research" documents. ... According to a tobacco industry memo titled "The Roper Proposal", written in 1972 by Fred Panzer of the Tobacco Institute, the ... the Tobacco Cartel:. As a result of these efforts, the Tobacco Institute Research Committee (TIRC), an entity later known as ... The Council for Tobacco Research and the Tobacco Institute both quietly closed their doors in 1999, disbanding as part of the ...
Tobacco Use by Geographic Region. *Tobacco Use and Quitting Among Individuals With Behavioral Health Conditionsplus icon*What ... Tobacco use can lead to tobacco dependence and serious health problems. Quitting smoking greatly reduces the risk of developing ... In 2019, 57.5% of youth who currently used tobacco products (3.3 million) reported that they had stopped using all tobacco ... Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons and Tobacco Use. *Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Among People of Low ...
Tobacco Control is a leading international peer-review medical journal covering the nature and consequences of tobacco use ... Tobacco Control is an international peer review journal covering the nature and consequences of tobacco use worldwide; ... Conclusions Transnational tobacco companies are using Twitter to oppose tobacco control policy and shape their public identity ... Read the full article here: linkBackground: The tobacco industry has a long history of opposing tobacco control policy and ...
Changes include a new name for the Act, which is now called the Tobacco Control Act. ... Changes to the Tobacco Act were enacted on November 26, 2015. ... The sale of tobacco. *The promotion and advertising of tobacco ... Tobacco shops are prohibited from selling tobacco products with aromas and flavours other than those of tobacco. ... Bans on tobacco products with aromas and flavours other than those of tobacco *Manufacturers and distributors are prohibited ...
Listen to Tobacco Nation via SoundCloud h​ere. ​​​ ​​ ​First Nations Health Benefits. FNHA Quitting Tobacco Product Info Sheet​ ... Season Two: Tobacco Nation. ​. ​Tobacco Nation is hosted by Wawmeesh Hamilton, award-winning ​reporter and member of the ... Long term commercial tobacco use can do immense damage to your body, mind, and spirit. The long list of diseases that tobacco ... Tobacco Nation is a four-part podcast series featuring candid and moving stories about tobacco. All stories are told by First ...
CONSUMER, Pleasure and Tobacco. Professional as well as working men enjoyed chewing tobacco, snuff, and pipe smoking, and by ... SHOWING DISEASES CAUSED BY THE USE OF TOBACCO.. 1 HEALTHY BRAIN.. 2 BRAIN DISEASED BY TOBACCO, SHOWING CONGESTED PATCHES AND ... 12 CONTRACTED KIDNEY DISEASED BY TOBACCO.. 13 CANCER OF THE THORAT, CAUSED BY EXCESSIVE USE OF TOBACCO, USUALLY BY SMOKING.. 14 ... The negative health effects of tobacco were noted early on. Physicians became increasingly cautious about tobacco as a medicine ...
Protect people from tobacco smoke. Offer help to quit tobacco use. Warn about the dangers of tobacco. Enforce bans on tobacco ... World No Tobacco Day. Notes[edit]. *^ Davis, Ronald (March 1992). "The slow growth of a movement" (PDF). Tobacco Control. 1 (1) ... and sale of tobacco and tobacco products in Bhutan.. International collaboration[edit]. The tobacco control community is ... passed the Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan 2010 to regulate tobacco and tobacco products, banning the cultivation, harvesting, ...
Williamson Tobacco Corp. to give a sworn deposition in the state's $940-million lawsuit against the tobacco industry. The ... Tobacco Firm's PR Man Ordered to Testify: A Mississippi judge ordered a New York public relations consultant for Brown & ... Williamson Tobacco Corp. to give a sworn deposition in the states $940-million lawsuit against the tobacco industry. The ... Tobacco Firms PR Man Ordered to Testify: A Mississippi judge ordered a New York public relations consultant for Brown & ...
Anti-tobacco efforts have been hampered by the countrys powerful tobacco monopoly, health campaigners say, which pays hundreds ... the latest step in a government drive to kick the countrys pervasive tobacco habit.. Despite years of campaigning by health ...
tobacco (third-person singular simple present tobaccos, present participle tobaccoing, simple past and past participle ... intransitive) To indulge in tobacco; to smoke.. *(transitive) To treat with tobacco. *1918, Tropical Diseases Bulletin (volume ... countable) A variety of tobacco. Tobaccos from the Connecticut Valley were used for wrapping cigars. ... "roll of tobacco leaves"[1] or "a pipe for smoking tobacco".[2] ... Italian: tabacco (it) m. *Japanese: タバコ (ja) (tabako), たばこ (ja) ...
Long descriptions of sample Tobacco 21 logic model images for Figures 1, 2, and 3. ... Long-term outcomes for this model involve increased age of tobacco use initiation, decreased tobacco use initiation and tobacco ... Long-term outcomes can include reduction of the following: tobacco use initiation, tobacco use prevalence, and tobacco-related ... decreased tobacco product exposure among youth, decreased health effects of tobacco use, decreased tobacco-related health ...
Please provide more information on data to enter into the TakeAPart map of tobacco industry activity. We will review ...
Article 14 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Measures relating to the reduction of the supply of tobacco. * ... Measures relating to the reduction of demand for tobacco. * Price and tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco. Article 6 ... Article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control * Regulation of the contents and disclosures of tobacco products. ... Article 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control * Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Article 13 of ...
The baccalaureate and DNP programs at the University of Kentucky College of Nursing are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, One Dupont Circle, NW. Suite 530, Washington, DC 20036, (202) 887-6791 ...
But smokeless tobacco can also cause dangerous risks. Read about them. ... Those who enjoy chewing tobacco think its safer than smoking. ... Smokeless Tobacco Also called: Chewing tobacco, Dip, Oral ... Health Risks of Smokeless Tobacco (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish * Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer (National Cancer ... Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think its safer than smoking. But you dont have to smoke tobacco for it to be ...
The online extension of Billboard magazine, www.billboard.com/biz is the essential online destination for the music business.. Learn more ...
... from cigars and cigarettes to smokeless tobacco and dissolvable nicotine products. FDA works to reduce the use of these ... Tobacco comes in many forms, from cigars and cigarettes to smokeless tobacco and dissolvable nicotine products. FDA works to ... Tobacco Products. FDA works to reduce the use of these products. To learn more read these Consumer Updates. ... Problems with E-Cigarettes, Vape Products, Hookah, Cigarettes or Other Tobacco Products? Tell FDA ...
The money in question is part of Big Tobaccos obligation to 46 states under a landmark 1998 legal settlement that ended a raft ... But in recent years, a string of victories in major smoker lawsuits, along with soaring stock prices, has given the tobacco ... When the deal was struck, the tobacco industry was under siege, facing lawsuits from state governments as well as numerous ...
http://www.mediafire.com/file/uqgbl29bcn0iptn/alchohol_tobacco_screening.pdf/file. .header { position: absolute; width: 230px; ...
... tobacco industry until it was broken up under antitrust laws in 1911. American Tobacco continued to sell such brands as Lucky ... which grew out of the tobacco business established in North Carolina by the Duke family (see James B. Duke) and which ... Other articles where Tobacco industry is discussed: Fortune Brands, Inc.: … ... Warfare between tobacco growers and tobacco trusts brought on an era of barn burning and similar attempts to keep tobacco ...
Tobacco, divine, rare, superexcellent tobacco, which goes far beyond all the panaceas, potable gold and philosophers stones, a ... and damned tobacco, the ruin and overthrow of body and soul! -BURTON. Anatomy of Melancholy. ... Tobacco. "Tobacco, divine, rare, superexcellent tobacco, which goes far beyond all the panaceas, potable gold and philosophers ... We have before observed that tobacco is a very exhausting crop to the soil. The worn-out tobacco-plantations of the South are ...
Current: Tobacco User. Tobacco User. Congratulations! Quitting smoking is the biggest step you can take toward improving your ... The Indiana Tobacco Quitline is here to help! This FREE telephone-based quit tobacco resource is available to all Hoosiers. ... When you call the Indiana Tobacco Quitline, you will talk with a trained Quit Coach who has helped hundreds of people quit and ... By quitting smoking, you will dramatically reduce your risk of cancer, lung disease, emphysema and other tobacco-related ...
Big Tobaccos Global Reach: A Post Series. Part One: U.S. Aided Cigarette Firms in Conquests Across Asia. Part Two: Thailand ... Kuchmas decree had left tobacco firms and their advertisers in legal limbo. The ban did not define advertising, so tobacco ... Reynolds Tobacco Co. and Reemtsma, the giant German tobacco conglomerate, moved in quickly, buying up shares in the new ... When the tobacco companies went to the thriving but closed markets of East Asia in the 1980s, they went as invaders, using the ...
Raising the tobacco sale age to 21 is an effective strategy to fight tobacco use and it is gaining momentum nationwide. ... Now is the time for you to join the movement to raise the age of sale of tobacco products in Texas!. YES! I support raising the ... California, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Oregon have raised their tobacco sale age to 21, along with at least ... email my local policymakers to discuss my support of raising the age of purchase of tobacco products to 21 years old in Texas. ...
The EUs main policy measures related to tobacco and tobacco consumption aim to protect people from the hazardous effects of ... the regulation of tobacco products, for example in terms of packaging, labelling, and ingredients, through the 2014 tobacco ... tobacco advertising restrictions, for example through the 2003 tobacco advertising Directive (2003/33); ... Tobacco consumption (hlth_smok) Daily smokers of cigarettes by sex, age and educational attainment level (%) (hlth_ehis_de3) ...
Smoking cigarettes kills millions every year and the WHO established the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2005 ... Meanwhile the illicit tobacco market is flourishing. Without assistance from international security experts and tobacco ... Meanwhile the illicit tobacco market is flourishing. Without assistance from international security experts and tobacco ... Anti-tobacco policymakers seem to ignore that smokers are human actors. Many smokers may be addicts but that doesnt mean they ...
Tobacco threatens us all. The brochure "Tobacco threatens us all", published for World No Tobacco Day 2017, describes how ... Second-hand tobacco smoke. Involuntary (or passive) smoking is the exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) which is a ... Tobacco and its environmental impact: an overview This overview assembles existing evidence on the ways in which tobacco ... Second-hand tobacco smoke is also referred to as "environmental" tobacco smoke (ETS). Involuntary smoking involves inhaling ...
Fundamental » All languages » Japanese » All sets » Lifeforms » Plants » Nightshades » Tobacco. Japanese terms related to ... Pages in category "ja:Tobacco". The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:ja:Tobacco&oldid=25134265" ...
  • Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Smokeless tobacco contains more nicotine than cigarettes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tobacco comes in many forms, from cigars and cigarettes to smokeless tobacco and dissolvable nicotine products. (fda.gov)
  • The use of any tobacco product including cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and e-cigarette/vapes are prohibited indoors and outdoors on the UMass Amherst campus grounds. (umass.edu)
  • A recent CDC study found that one in four people use some form of tobacco, such as cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco. (healthfinder.gov)
  • In some regions of the world, the use of smokeless tobacco products is a major health concern. (britannica.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently regulates your traditional forms of tobacco-cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, and smokeless tobacco. (webpronews.com)
  • What Is Smokeless Tobacco? (kidshealth.org)
  • Smokeless tobacco users place snuff or chewing tobacco between their inner cheek and gums on the lower part of their jaw and suck on the tobacco juices. (kidshealth.org)
  • Why Do People Use Smokeless Tobacco? (kidshealth.org)
  • Smokeless tobacco has been around for hundreds of years. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many people still believe that smokeless tobacco is a safer alternative to smoking, but this isn't true. (kidshealth.org)
  • Using smokeless tobacco is as dangerous as smoking cigarettes, and can cause serious damage to the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Why Is Smokeless Tobacco Dangerous? (kidshealth.org)
  • Oral cancer (cancer of the mouth) is the cancer most often linked to smokeless tobacco use. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the most severe cases, problems caused by smokeless tobacco can lead to permanent disfigurement, such as the loss of teeth and even bones in the face. (kidshealth.org)
  • Smokeless tobacco also causes bad breath, yellowish-brown stains on the teeth, and mouth sores in most users. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Do I Quit Smokeless Tobacco? (kidshealth.org)
  • Quitting is hard, and using smokeless tobacco while trying to quit is common. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and spit and other types of smokeless tobacco all cause cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Including smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes, tobacco use is banned in many areas of Powder Springs now and beginning March 21. (ajc.com)
  • That tobacco use includes e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco "at or on any city-owned or operated indoor and/or outdoor recreational facilities, including but not limited to the restrooms, athletic fields, aquatic areas, parks, walking/hiking trails, agency-owned vehicles and spectator and concession areas 24 hours per day, seven days per week. (ajc.com)
  • Tobacco leaves contain 2 to 8% nicotine combined as malate or citrate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Are you ready to quit using tobacco and/or nicotine forever? (ou.edu)
  • Nicotine is a highly addictive drug that makes it hard to stop using tobacco once you start. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The legislation stops short of allowing the FDA to prohibit tobacco or to eliminate nicotine, the addictive drug in tobacco. (washingtonpost.com)
  • 21 years old, studies that involve significant increases over the participants' usual exposure to nicotine, studies that modify the tobacco product in a manner different from that described by the manufacturer or study of a novel product for which there is limited experience and knowledge. (fda.gov)
  • About 12 percent of young adults surveyed were aware of new products that heat-but do not burn-tobacco to produce a nicotine-containing aerosol that is inhaled. (rand.org)
  • More than a third of young adults report using both cannabis and tobacco or nicotine products, providing a unique challenge to public health officials as cannabis is legalized in more jurisdictions. (rand.org)
  • Tobacco contains nicotine , an alkaloid that is addictive and can have both stimulating and tranquilizing psychoactive effects. (britannica.com)
  • Tobacco products are manufactured with various additives to preserve the tobacco's shelf life, alter its burning characteristics, control its moisture content, inhibit the hatching of insect eggs that may be present in the plant material, mask the irritative effects of nicotine, and provide any of a wide array of flavours and aromas. (britannica.com)
  • The primary constituents of tobacco smoke are nicotine , tar (the particulate residue from combustion ), and gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide . (britannica.com)
  • Although nicotine can be poisonous at very high dosages, its toxic effect as a component of tobacco smoke is generally considered modest compared with that of many other toxins in the smoke. (britannica.com)
  • BOSTON (AP) - Massachusetts became the first state to ban flavored tobacco and nicotine vaping products, including menthol cigarettes, after Republican Gov. Charlie Baker signed into law on Wednesday a bill that's meant to reduce the appeal of the products to young people amid a rash of illnesses. (ap.org)
  • Nicotine replacement products provide nicotine without using tobacco. (familydoctor.org)
  • Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. (familydoctor.org)
  • These children are especially vulnerable to "green tobacco sickness", which is caused by the nicotine that is absorbed through the skin from the handling of wet tobacco leaves. (who.int)
  • Legalizing marijuana opens the market to major corporations, including tobacco companies, which have the financial resources, product design technology to optimize puff-by-puff delivery of a psychoactive drug (nicotine), marketing muscle, and political clout to transform the marijuana market. (usatoday.com)
  • This sucking and chewing allows nicotine to get into the bloodstream through the gums, without the need to swallow the tobacco juices. (kidshealth.org)
  • Blatnick bristles as the testimony, the first ever presented to federal lawmakers on the relationship of smoking to health, reveals that the new filtered brands use stronger tobaccos, and so yield about as much tar and nicotine as the old unfiltered brands-a fact never noted in the industry's advertising. (motherjones.com)
  • In the aftermath of the hearings, Blatnick introduces a bill in the House to limit the tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes and grant the FTC injunctive powers against deceptive tobacco advertising. (motherjones.com)
  • Just be aware that doing this may adversely affect both the flavor and aroma of the tobacco, as well as develop a harsh taste, which comes from high nicotine levels when it is used. (ehow.com)
  • A s a result of lawsuits across the country, tobacco companies have been forced to release an ever-increasing number of documents which show that they were aware of the deadly effects and addictive nature of nicotine. (motherjones.com)
  • Christopher Columbus brought a few tobacco leaves and seeds with him back to Europe, but most Europeans didn't get their first taste of tobacco until the mid-16th century, when adventurers and diplomats like France's Jean Nicot -- for whom nicotine is named -- began to popularize its use. (cnn.com)
  • Glaxo Wellcome, Novartis Consumer Health, and Pharmacia & Upjohn all manufacture treatment products for tobacco dependence, ranging from nicotine gum to inhalers. (rferl.org)
  • Tobacco is an annual or bi-annual growing 1-3 meters tall with large sticky leaves that contain nicotine. (erowid.org)
  • Is there nicotine in tobacco products other than cigarettes? (erowid.org)
  • Tobacco contains the highly addictive stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to allege that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was considered a decorative plant at first, then a panacea , before it became a common snuff and tobacco plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • When tobacco is used in a non-traditional manner, like smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco/snuff, it causes lung diseases, ​lung cancer, heart disease, cancers of the upper respiratory tract, and pregnancy risks. (fnha.ca)
  • Professional as well as working men enjoyed chewing tobacco, snuff, and pipe smoking, and by the nineteenth century, cigars were a symbol of wealth and power for the upper class. (nih.gov)
  • If you purchase unstamped cigarettes or little cigars or untaxed tobacco products including but not limited to cigars, manufactured tobacco and snuff, then you are subject to Tennessee's tobacco products tax. (tn.us)
  • Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The negative health consequences of using spit tobacco, snuff, clove cigarettes, bidis and hookahs (water pipes) are discussed as well. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Snuff is finer-grain tobacco that sometimes comes in pouches that look like teabags. (kidshealth.org)
  • They can also be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This law, known as a tobacco free generation (TFG) law, is the first of its kind in the United States and is designed to prevent future generations from using any type of commercial tobacco product, including e-cigarettes. (cdc.gov)
  • According to a tobacco industry memo titled "The Roper Proposal" , written in 1972 by Fred Panzer of the Tobacco Institute, the CTR actually worked at "promoting cigarettes and protecting them from these and other attacks," by "creating doubt about the health charge without actually denying it, and advocating the public's right to smoke, without actually urging them to take up the practice. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Electronic cigarettes and all other similar devices, including their components and accessories, are now subject to the same regulations as tobacco products. (quebec.ca)
  • However, the ban on aromas or flavours other than those of tobacco does not apply to electronic cigarettes or associated accessories, such as liquids. (quebec.ca)
  • Secondhand smoke is the smoke that comes from the burning end of commercial cigarettes or tobacco. (fnha.ca)
  • They also make note that references to tobacco products and use include that of e-cigarettes and other electronic smoking devices. (cdc.gov)
  • businessman who became the first tobacco executive to publicly admit to the dangers of cigarettes. (britannica.com)
  • The tobacco companies have had to come forward with an inconceivably large number of major concessions-committing to change everything about the way they advertise and market cigarettes. (slate.com)
  • The $89 billion tobacco industry will be required to disclose the ingredients in cigarettes and other tobacco products and will face severe limitations on how they are advertised and promoted. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In return for cash and barter goods, the American tobacco giants agreed to deliver 34 billion cigarettes -- the single biggest export order in their history. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Smoking cigarettes kills millions every year and the WHO established the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2005 to lower the death toll. (forbes.com)
  • The apparent lower overall risk of addiction for cigars and pipes may be because use of these products generally begins at a later age than does use of cigarettes and oral nonsmoked tobacco. (britannica.com)
  • BOSTON (AP) - The Latest on Massachusetts becoming the first state to ban flavored tobacco and vaping products, including menthol cigarettes (all times local): 5:15p.m. (ap.org)
  • BOSTON (AP) - Massachusetts lawmakers passed a groundbreaking ban Thursday on the sale of flavored tobacco and vaping products, including menthol cigarettes. (ap.org)
  • While Indiana's youth smoking rate has significantly declined since 2000, numbers from the Youth Tobacco Survey show that 18 percent of Indiana high school students smoke cigarettes. (in.gov)
  • The federal government's ban on free samples of tobacco products and requirement that e-cigarettes go through a federal review before hitting the market do not violate the First Amendment, an appeals court in Washington D.C. ruled . (courthousenews.com)
  • Across the country, cities and county governments have banned e-cigarettes and flavored tobacco products marketed toward children. (courthousenews.com)
  • Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn tobacco products such as cigarettes, bidis and water-pipes. (who.int)
  • In many ways, the marijuana market of 2014 resembles the tobacco market before 1880, before cigarettes were mass produced using mechanization and marketed using national brands and modern mass media," they wrote. (usatoday.com)
  • The practice dates back to the Jenkins Act, a federal law passed in 1949 that requires anyone who sells cigarettes across a state line to an individual or unlicensed distributor to report the transaction to the state's tobacco tax administrator. (wired.com)
  • But because the state has the highest tobacco excise taxes in the nation, many residents continue to buy cigarettes online. (wired.com)
  • Users put tobacco leaves into their mouth and suck on them instead of smoking them in cigarettes. (kidshealth.org)
  • The American Tobacco Company was thus a five-firm merger-W. Duke, Sons & Co., Allen & Ginter, Kinney Tobacco Co., William S. Kimball & Co., and Goodwin & Co.-that created a manufacturing concern with a virtual monopoly of production over machine-made cigarettes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lead prosecutor Maryam Uwais says Nigeria plans to introduce stringent laws to protect children from exposure to cigarettes and a life of tobacco addiction. (voanews.com)
  • Cigarettes, which had been around in crude form since the early 1600s, didn't become widely popular in the United States until after the Civil War, with the spread of "Bright" tobacco, a uniquely cured yellow leaf grown in Virginia and North Carolina. (cnn.com)
  • With counsel from TIRC, tobacco companies began mass-marketing filtered cigarettes and low-tar formulations that promised a "healthier" smoke. (cnn.com)
  • So why has it taken so long for the tobacco industry to be forced to settle lawsuits over the dangers of cigarettes? (cnn.com)
  • In the 1970s, Nordic countries were among the first to adopt policies against tobacco, like bans on cigarette advertising, health warning labels and smoke-free laws, but U.S.-owned tobacco companies, and particularly Philip Morris , makers of Marlboro, became concerned such polices could spread to America and other developed countries where they sold cigarettes. (prwatch.org)
  • Dried tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes and cigars, as well as pipes and shishas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco's Big Four transnational companies - British American Tobacco, Imperial Brands, Japan Tobacco and Philip Morris - make extensive use of the entire range of common tax avoidance methods. (bath.ac.uk)
  • NAIROBI, Kenya (AP) - Kenya's Supreme Court on Tuesday dismissed a British American Tobacco challenge to regulations that charge the tobacco industry a fee to help compensate people affected by smoking. (ap.org)
  • Ironically, however, American Tobacco's ultimate legacy has proved to be the London-based British-American Tobacco Company (now British American Tobacco), a joint venture that it formed in conjunction with the Imperial Tobacco Company in 1902, which eventually bought out its American founder for $1 billion in 1994. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lawyers representing British-American Tobacco Nigeria say the allegations were unsubstantiated and the litigation cannot be sustained. (voanews.com)
  • British American Tobacco Documents Archive - Previously secret documents from the British American Tobacco Company, all searchable by keyword. (sourcewatch.org)
  • It was then known as the Tobacco Industry Research Committee and promoted as an attempt to find alternative reasons why tobacco smokers frequently got lung cancer (other than the obvious) but it operated mainly as a propaganda generator, giving grants to friendly scientists who knew which side of the bread was to be buttered. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The goal of the QuitSmart program is to help smokers and tobacco users break the addiction while making healthy, long-term, lifestyle changes. (ou.edu)
  • When the deal was struck, the tobacco industry was under siege, facing lawsuits from state governments as well as numerous smokers sick with tobacco-related illnesses. (wsj.com)
  • Faced with mass shortages of Soviet-made brands, angry smokers in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and other Soviet cities staged the protests that became known as the tobacco rebellion. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Anti-tobacco policymakers seem to ignore that smokers are human actors. (forbes.com)
  • The start of the next phase of the Florida smokers class-action suit is in jeopardy because of continued maneuvering by the tobacco industry and the untimely death of a plaintiff who was scheduled to have her claim tried first. (law.com)
  • More than 6 million of those deaths are the result of direct tobacco use while around 890 000 are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke. (who.int)
  • Around 80% of the 1.1 billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of tobacco-related illness and death is heaviest. (who.int)
  • Among smokers who are aware of the dangers of tobacco, most want to quit. (who.int)
  • Hard-hitting anti-tobacco advertisements and graphic pack warnings - especially those that include pictures - reduce the number of children who begin smoking and increase the number of smokers who quit. (who.int)
  • Mass media campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption by influencing people to protect non-smokers and convincing youths to stop using tobacco. (who.int)
  • Nowadays, as more smokers head online to avoid hefty state levies on tobacco sales, tax collectors are getting aggressive about seeking payments from Web sales. (wired.com)
  • With 17 states recently passing tobacco tax increases, along with New York City, smokers are beginning to feel victimized. (wired.com)
  • In 1994, Mississippi filed the first of 22 state lawsuits seeking to recoup millions of dollars from tobacco companies for smokers' Medicaid bills. (cnn.com)
  • Retailers and consumers purchasing untaxed tobacco products from out-of-state are required to pay the tax. (tn.us)
  • The brochure "Tobacco threatens us all", published for World No Tobacco Day 2017, describes how tobacco use has devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences. (who.int)
  • The precursor to the Council for Tobacco Research was created by the tobacco industry in January 1954, mainly through the efforts of Philip Morris , following the infamous Frank Statement formulate at the Plaza Hotel meeting in New York by the companies in 1953. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The original name of Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC), changed (with a internal restructure) exactly ten years later to the Council for Tobacco Research in January 1964. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Neither the Advisory Board nor the Tobacco Industry Research Committee makes any effort to direct the administration of a research project or to influence its course. (sourcewatch.org)
  • But the] CTR is best and cheapest insurance the tobacco industry can buy, and without it the industry would have to invent CTR or it would be dead. (sourcewatch.org)
  • and the activities of the tobacco industry and its allies. (bmj.com)
  • Tobacco Control accepts submissions of a wide range of article types, including research papers, review articles and industry watch articles. (bmj.com)
  • Brussels Declaration: a vehicle for the advancement of tobacco and alcohol industry interests at the science/policy interface? (bmj.com)
  • link Background: The tobacco industry has a long history of opposing tobacco control policy and promoting socially responsible business practices. (bmj.com)
  • With the rise of social media platforms, like Twitter, the tobacco industry is enabled to readily and easily communicate these messages. (bmj.com)
  • The tobacco control movement has also been referred to as an anti-smoking movement by some who disagree with the movement, as documented in internal tobacco industry memoranda. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco Firm's PR Man Ordered to Testify: A Mississippi judge ordered a New York public relations consultant for Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. to give a sworn deposition in the state's $940-million lawsuit against the tobacco industry. (latimes.com)
  • Attorneys for Mississippi claim Scanlon waged a smear campaign against Jeffrey Wigand, the BAT Industries subsidiary's former research director who has agreed to testify against the tobacco industry. (latimes.com)
  • Please provide more information on data to enter into the TakeAPart map of tobacco industry activity. (google.com)
  • But in recent years, a string of victories in major smoker lawsuits, along with soaring stock prices, has given the tobacco industry a new swagger. (wsj.com)
  • was responsible for establishing the tobacco industry in Sumatra (now part of Indonesia). (britannica.com)
  • which grew out of the tobacco business established in North Carolina by the Duke family ( see James B. Duke) and which controlled the U.S. tobacco industry until it was broken up under antitrust laws in 1911. (britannica.com)
  • McPherson's heavily Democratic Washington law firm of Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson & Hand is being paid about $200,000 a month by the tobacco industry, according to the National Journal . (slate.com)
  • In the process, they have laid the foundation for a Western-owned tobacco industry in a vast market that may someday surpass the shrinking markets of the United States and Western Europe. (washingtonpost.com)
  • And when the country's small but active anti-smoking movement persuaded parliament to pass a ban on tobacco ads, the industry responded with a well-financed lobbying campaign that recently overturned the ban. (washingtonpost.com)
  • We have enormous opportunities to use the tobacco industry as a powerful force for improving the economic and social well-being of this part of the world," said James W. Johnston, then chairman of Reynolds, in a Moscow speech last year that captured the spirit the industry is trying to project. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The American tobacco industry operates abroad in many different forms. (washingtonpost.com)
  • One sector that has lucrative revenue and profits is the tobacco industry. (bath.ac.uk)
  • He admits he downplayed Sullum, in part, because taking money from the tobacco industry detracts from one's credibility. (villagevoice.com)
  • The vaping industry is criticizing Massachusetts' new statewide ban on flavored tobacco and vaping products as the wrong approach. (ap.org)
  • DENVER - While federal law makes their entire industry illegal, many marijuana store owners, growers and retailers fear something completely different: Big Tobacco. (usatoday.com)
  • This past summer, researchers poring through more than 80 million pages of previously secret tobacco industry documents found that Big Tobacco has long had interest in pot. (usatoday.com)
  • The researchers entitled their paper "Waiting for the Opportune Moment: The Tobacco Industry and Marijuana Legalization. (usatoday.com)
  • The Senate bill that promised to curb teen smoking and tightly regulate the tobacco industry failed, thanks to mounting opposition from some Republicans and an advertising offensive by cigarette makers. (csmonitor.com)
  • These standards are respected worldwide, and the ability to effectively apply these standards for the marketing of tobacco is a desired skill sought by participants in the international tobacco industry. (usda.gov)
  • Popular documents from the UCSF Truth Tobacco Industry Documents that demonstrate the industry's marketing tactics towards women. (slideshare.net)
  • So powerful is the tobacco industry, however, that the House not only denies the Blatnick bill a hearing but strips its sponsor of his subcommittee chairmanship and dissolves the subcommittee itself. (motherjones.com)
  • You must either be working or related to someone in the tobacco industry. (fastweb.com)
  • In United States v. American Tobacco Co. the company was found guilty under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 of monopolizing the cigarette industry through "unreasonable" business practices, among them buying out competitors, excluding competitors from access to wholesalers, and rapacious pricing. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The case was inspired by U.S lawsuits in the 1990s that led to multibillion-dollar settlements with the tobacco industry. (voanews.com)
  • The tobacco industry responded swiftly. (cnn.com)
  • By 1954 the major U.S. tobacco companies had formed the Tobacco Industry Research Council to counter the growing health concerns. (cnn.com)
  • The next big blow to the tobacco industry came in the early 1960s, with the formation of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health. (cnn.com)
  • The tobacco industry has been on the run -- albeit profitably -- ever since. (cnn.com)
  • And the reason they are n-o-t being applied, according to Yack, is that there are few people, as he put it, with sufficient courage to push ahead in the face of the tobacco industry and associated pressures. (rferl.org)
  • But the pharmaceutical industry, much like big tobacco, is also accused of being driven by the quest for profits. (rferl.org)
  • However, the tobacco industry uses its enormous resources to derail or weaken laws and agreements in various countries and regions. (globalissues.org)
  • We need your help to mine the millions of pages of previously-secret, internal tobacco industry documents now posted on the Internet. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The purpose of Tobaccowiki is to make it easier to find information about tobacco industry behavior, and to reveal what has been learned about the industry through its documents. (sourcewatch.org)
  • We need you to help us search through the tobacco industry documents now available online and enter information here about what you find. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Everyone is invited to join in this project to facilitate access to information in the tobacco industry documents. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Bibliography of published tobacco document research articles List of all published journal articles that have studied, or that cite tobacco industry documents. (sourcewatch.org)
  • UCSF Tobacco Industry Videos -Free, online archive of a wide range of videos produced for internal and external consumption by tobacco companies. (sourcewatch.org)
  • UCSF Tobacco Industry Audio Recordings -Online archive of audio recordings produced by tobacco companies. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Tobacco Documents Online -the first online database of tobacco industry documents to hit the Internet. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Images from the Campaign by the Tobacco Industry to Hide the Hazards of Smoking - Extensive, annotated collection of advertisements (11,000 high resolution images) from SRITA (Stanford Research Into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising). (sourcewatch.org)
  • UK Tobacco Industry Advertising Documents Database -Search, view and download over 650 documents from the United Kingdom tobacco industry's main advertising agencies ranging from 1994 to 1999. (sourcewatch.org)
  • We need help making sure that all tobacco industry projects and operations listed in TobaccoWiki appear on this clickable, alphabetical list of such projects. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Help us by going through the industry Projects and Operations page and making sure that the category "Tobacco industry projects and operations" appears at the bottom of each article. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The strategies, propaganda tactics and corporate behaviors employed by the tobacco industry can give insight into the behavior of other multinational industries and corporations. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Examines transnational tobacco control issues, including the following: the interpretation and packaging of epidemiologic evidence for policy makers, the determinants of tobacco addiction, the economics of global tobacco control, tobacco industry strategies, legal foundations for regulation, and basic surveillance and evaluation methods using lectures, case-studies, and discussion. (merlot.org)
  • The tobacco industry is particularly significant for those seeking to understand modern public relations techniques and the operations of specific companies for two reasons. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The tobacco industry pioneered strategies to take the focus off of the health, safety and environmental hazards posed by detrimental products, and shift attention onto topics considered more favorable to the industry. (sourcewatch.org)
  • A new study by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco found that the tobacco industry "recruited and managed an international network of more than 80 scientific and medical experts in Europe, Asia and elsewhere in a bid to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The program's goal was "to influence policy makers, media and the public" by having industry consultants attend conferences, present papers and lobby, all while hiding or obscuring the tobacco industry's role. (sourcewatch.org)
  • was a tobacco industry consultant. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Americans for Nonsmokers Rights What to Expect from the Tobacco Industry Report. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Americans for Nonsmokers Rights Tobacco Industry Sound Bites and Responses Report. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Norris J, University of California San Francisco News Office New Tobacco Industry Strategy is to Appear Anti-Tobacco, Study b UCSF Health Policy Researchers Concludes News release. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Before the Heartland Institute became famous for its leading role in climate change denial, the group spent many years working to defend the tobacco industry. (prwatch.org)
  • The State Policy Network (SPN), a web of right-wing "think tanks" in every state across the country, has close ties with the tobacco industry. (prwatch.org)
  • Also, Europe's first product liability case against the tobacco industry occurred in Finland in 1988, when a smoker sued several companies claiming their products caused his illness, causing even more concern for global tobacco companies. (prwatch.org)
  • The ad highlights Cain's connections to the tobacco industry, and Block's position in the campaign belies Cain's connections to David Koch. (prwatch.org)
  • Production of tobacco for smoking, chewing, and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the efforts of public health advocates, scientists, and those affected by smoking, both Congress and courts favored the tobacco industry in policy and litigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, these tobacco industries formed the Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC), which challenged the science of smoking's relation to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lobbying was generally successful, as the tobacco industry was well-funded and southern states relied on tobacco revenues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learn the new FDA restrictions on youth access to tobacco products and tobacco marketing to youth, and closely follow them. (cdc.gov)
  • Check the photo ID of any customer trying to buy tobacco products who appears to be 26 years of age or younger, and never sell any tobacco product to customers younger than 18 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • The recently updated fact sheet, Minimum Legal Sales Age (MLSA) Laws for Tobacco Products , is now available on the STATE system website here . (cdc.gov)
  • It includes information regarding the federal Synar regulation (which requires states to enforce laws to reduce the illegal sale of tobacco products to individuals under the age of 21), an overview of the federal T21 law, and an interactive map of states/territories that have raised their MLSA to 21 to align with the federal law. (cdc.gov)
  • As highlighted in the fact sheet , the federal T21 law does not preclude state, local, tribal, or territorial governments from passing a law that that is more restrictive than the federal law, including raising the MLSA for tobacco products above 21 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Notably, the town of Brookline, Massachusetts recently passed a law to prohibit the sale of all tobacco-related products to anyone born after Jan. 1, 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • we owe it not only to ourselves but to the smoking public to avoid making radical changes in tobacco products merely as gestures of good faith, or in response to current discoveries. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Manufacturers and distributors are prohibited from selling, offering for sale or distributing tobacco products with aromas and flavours other than those of tobacco. (quebec.ca)
  • Tobacco shops are prohibited from selling tobacco products with aromas and flavours other than those of tobacco. (quebec.ca)
  • Intermediate outcomes can be an increase in support for T21 law, increased change in social norms for underage tobacco use, increased compliance with T21 law, decreased availability of tobacco products to youth under 21, and decreased sales of tobacco products. (cdc.gov)
  • Intermediate outcomes in this model include decreased illegal sales and ability to obtain tobacco products for youth under 21, decreased sales of tobacco products, decreased susceptibility of experimentation of tobacco products, increased quit attempts for all tobacco users, and increased number of tribal compacts or policies with age of sale as 21. (cdc.gov)
  • California utilized the environmental context section and highlighted state excise tax rates, rates of tobacco use, national media campaigns, state tobacco control funding, utilization of quitline services including cessation insurance coverage, and spending on tobacco products. (cdc.gov)
  • Litigation and the threat of litigation played a major role in shaping the environment for tobacco products at the end of the 20th century. (britannica.com)
  • We've known for years, even decades, about the harmful, addictive and often deadly effects of tobacco products,' he said. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The legislation gives the Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate the advertising, marketing and manufacturing of tobacco products. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Tobacco is used by one in five Americans, yet it is one of the least-regulated consumer products. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Now is the time for you to join the movement to raise the age of sale of tobacco products in Texas! (google.com)
  • I support raising the minimum legal sale age of tobacco products to 21 years old. (google.com)
  • I would be available to meet with and/or call, email my local policymakers to discuss my support of raising the age of purchase of tobacco products to 21 years old in Texas. (google.com)
  • The FCTC encourages developing nations to copy mature market policies of raising taxes and introducing and then expanding regulation on tobacco products. (forbes.com)
  • It has established the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products (ITP) under the FCTC in 2012. (forbes.com)
  • The primary objective of the ITP is to control the supply chain of tobacco products. (forbes.com)
  • If you plan to study tobacco products that do not have marketing authorization or that do not comply with an applicable tobacco product standard, you may submit your proposed protocol to FDA for review. (fda.gov)
  • FDA intends to evaluate specific uses of investigational tobacco products on a case-by-case basis according to potential human subject protection concerns or other impacts on public health. (fda.gov)
  • Investigators who are designing a protocol involving administration of a tobacco product to humans should review the information below regarding the need for submitting their protocol to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) for review. (fda.gov)
  • Investigators are encouraged to work with tobacco product manufacturers to ensure availability of products to complete planned studies. (fda.gov)
  • FDA is committed to furthering scientific research on tobacco products and has a major investment in regulatory science. (fda.gov)
  • Individuals who use other tobacco products or marijuana are those most likely to use them. (rand.org)
  • At the dawn of the 20th century, the most common tobacco products were cigars, pipe tobacco, and chewing tobacco . (britannica.com)
  • According to the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1888), tobacco products were suspected of producing some adverse health effects, yet tobacco was also considered to have medicinal properties. (britannica.com)
  • Nonetheless, all tobacco products are toxic and addictive. (britannica.com)
  • TEG is an alternative to suspension for those caught using tobacco products on school property. (in.gov)
  • That's the main ingredient in tobacco products. (familydoctor.org)
  • The changes in the way you act developed over time as you bought tobacco smoke products, lit them, and smoked them, or started using chewing tobacco. (familydoctor.org)
  • You also may be facing pressures from friends who use tobacco products. (familydoctor.org)
  • You may also want to plan what you'll say to people who pressure you to use tobacco products. (familydoctor.org)
  • For example, with the money you save by not buying tobacco products, buy yourself something special. (familydoctor.org)
  • Mister E-Liquid sued Michigan in federal court, claiming its recent ban on sales of vaporized tobacco products violates the Interstate Commerce Clause and the federal Tobacco Control Act. (courthousenews.com)
  • After years of bruising litigation and regulation, Altria is now paying for messages urging people not to buy its tobacco products. (latimes.com)
  • We continually evaluate opportunities for portfolio enhancement but focus our efforts on companies and products designed to meet the preferences of adult tobacco consumers and companies where we feel we could add value," said Richard Smith of RJR. (usatoday.com)
  • Walgreen Co. has asked a San Francisco state court to block implementation of a recently passed city ordinance banning sales of tobacco products at pharmacies, set to take effect Oct. 1. (wsj.com)
  • Of most interest to convenience store operators were two comments by Eduardo Castro-Wright, vice chairman, concerning the retailer's sale of tobacco products and its Marketside convenience/grocery hybrid concept, currently being tested in the Southwestern U.S. (adweek.com)
  • Castro-Wright said the world's largest retailer has considered - and would continue to consider - eliminating tobacco products from its stores. (adweek.com)
  • C&T facilitates marketing by providing standardization, grading, and market news services for cotton, cotton related products, and tobacco while also administering the Cotton Research and Promotion program. (usda.gov)
  • First, there seems to be a correlation between the increased import and promotion of foreign tobacco products and tobacco addiction among adolescents in Taiwan. (csmonitor.com)
  • Also, city employees, who use tobacco products, will be offered cessation programs and services. (ajc.com)
  • Visitors will be asked to refrain from using tobacco products while on parks/recreation property or leave the premises. (ajc.com)
  • We are trying to make the tobacco companies aware of the devastating effect of their own products. (voanews.com)
  • Graham stressed that tobacco-dependence products are currently available in 60 countries, including those of the program's target area. (rferl.org)
  • As part of the enrollment process for health care benefits, a Johns Hopkins Health System employee may voluntarily consent that they do not use tobacco products and agree to be tested for tobacco use. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the many lawsuits by the U.S. states in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 1 July 2009, Ireland prohibited the advertising and display of tobacco products in all retail outlets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past five years, JJ Demshock, a New Jersey resident who appreciates a good cigar, frequently patronized online tobacco sites in search of new smokes. (wired.com)
  • As evidence of the health risks of smoking mounted, tobacco companies cast doubts on medical data and advertised smoother and lighter blends as safer versions of the standard cigarette. (nih.gov)
  • He says the proposed deal serves the public interest by restricting cigarette advertising and marketing, and by requiring the tobacco companies to cough up billions if youth smoking fails to decline dramatically. (slate.com)
  • While other Western industries hung back, scared off by Ukraine's formidable bureaucracy, chaotic laws and unstable currency, Philip Morris Inc., R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. and Reemtsma, the giant German tobacco conglomerate, moved in quickly, buying up shares in the new nation's five largest cigarette factories and capturing 75 percent of its manufacturing capacity. (washingtonpost.com)
  • It is likely that only with the cooperation of the entire supply chain (including the major cigarette companies) will illicit tobacco be limited. (forbes.com)
  • Involuntary (or passive) smoking is the exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) which is a mixture of exhaled mainstream smoke and side stream smoke released from a smouldering cigarette or other smoking device (cigar, pipe, bidi, etc.) and diluted with ambient air. (who.int)
  • A variety of plant materials are smoked, including marijuana and hashish , but the act is most commonly associated with tobacco as smoked in a cigarette , cigar , or pipe . (britannica.com)
  • The primary cause of the escalation in the number of deaths and incidents of disease from tobacco is the large increase in cigarette smoking during the 20th century. (britannica.com)
  • During that time cigarette smoking grew to account for approximately 80 percent of the world's tobacco market. (britannica.com)
  • The City Council voted Tuesday to ban all e-cigarette and e-liquid flavors except tobacco. (ap.org)
  • When you have a tobacco habit, many things seem to go along with having a cigarette or a dip or chew. (familydoctor.org)
  • Rhiannon Griffith-Bowman smokes an e-cigarette in San Rafael, Calif. Some pot entrepreneurs worry that tobacco companies want to make moves on their turf. (usatoday.com)
  • Duke used American Tobacco's strength in the cigarette segment to extend its control across the market for tobacco goods as a whole, setting up a network of distribution facilities under the company's own management. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cigarette sales surged again with the introduction of the "White Burley" tobacco leaf and the invention of the first practical cigarette-making machine, sponsored by tobacco baron James Buchanan "Buck" Duke, in the late 1880s. (cnn.com)
  • Well, tobacco companies spent even more to defeat the ballot measure to raise California's cigarette taxes. (prwatch.org)
  • Although public opinion in the United States on cigarette smoking is more unfavorable, many large tobacco companies continue to find success internationally. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, after the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) mandated warning labels on cigarette packages, tobacco companies successfully requested Congressional regulation in place of FTC regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-tobacco" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-tobacco efforts have been hampered by the country's powerful tobacco monopoly, health campaigners say, which pays hundreds of billions of yuan in taxes every year. (yahoo.com)
  • And WHO praises Turkmenistan for its anti-tobacco policies and holds meetings in that country, which is one of the most oppressive on the planet. (forbes.com)
  • Around 44% of the world's population live in the 43 countries that have aired at least 1 strong anti-tobacco mass media campaign within the last 2 years. (who.int)
  • Wrongful-obesity suits aimed at McDonald's, unlike anti-tobacco litigation, have gone nowhere. (latimes.com)
  • Although tobacco companies had considerable influence throughout the twentieth century, anti-tobacco advocates also had some successes. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the dawn of the 21st century, in stark contrast, tobacco had become recognized as being highly addictive and one of the world's most-devastating causes of death and disease. (britannica.com)
  • That may be due to the addictive nature of smoking or chewing tobacco. (familydoctor.org)
  • Just last month, some tobacco company CEOs finally admitted that tobacco is addictive. (motherjones.com)
  • Speaking to Congress immediately after Bible, Nicholas G. Brooks, chairman of Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co., disagreed with his use of the word "addictive"-"I personally would not use that term. (motherjones.com)
  • Conclusions Transnational tobacco companies are using Twitter to oppose tobacco control policy and shape their public identity by promoting corporate social responsibility initiatives in violation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. (bmj.com)
  • Tobacco control is a priority area for the World Health Organization ( WHO ), through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control . (wikipedia.org)
  • These took time to coalesce into a sufficiently organised coalition to advance such measures as the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control , and the first article of the first edition of the Tobacco Control journal suggested that developing as a diffusely organised movement was indeed necessary in order to bring about effective action to address the health effects of tobacco use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Governments reduce the harms caused by tobacco by adopting and implementing the tobacco control provisions of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). (who.int)
  • Applying a gender perspective to each component could enhance implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. (who.int)
  • As of 2018, 169 states have signed the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which governs international tobacco control. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are more than 4000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, of which at least 250 are known to be harmful and more than 50 are known to cause cancer. (who.int)
  • California's inputs are the statewide implementation of their T21 law and cessation quitline, as well as surveillance of the public's attitudes/behaviors of the law and surveillance of tobacco sales to youth. (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco Awareness Program (TAP) is a comprehensive tobacco cessation curriculum addressing smoking and spit tobacco. (in.gov)
  • For more information on youth programs available in your area, contact the Indiana Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Agency local coordinator for your county. (in.gov)
  • National comprehensive cessation services with full or partial cost-coverage are available to assist tobacco users to quit in only 26 countries, representing 33% of the world's population. (who.int)
  • Tobacco cessation programs are available to those employees who are not able to test, but would like to quit tobacco use. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • As the largest group of health care professionals, nurses have tremendous potential to effectively implement smoking cessation interventions and advance tobacco use reduction goals proposed by Healthy People 2020. (nursingworld.org)
  • Nurses must be equipped to assist with smoking cessation, prevent tobacco use, and promote strategies to decrease exposure to second hand smoke. (nursingworld.org)
  • The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today announced that they have partnered to fund 14 new "Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science. (webpronews.com)
  • It was not until the 1990s when public health advocates had more success in litigating against tobacco industries, including the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement between major tobacco companies and 46 state attorneys general. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth and adult surveys at least once every 5 years. (who.int)
  • Only 37 countries, representing 15% of the world's population, have completely banned all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. (who.int)
  • In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco use as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death, disease, and disability in the US. (cdc.gov)
  • This article is part of the Tobacco portal on Sourcewatch funded from 2006 - 2009 by the American Legacy Foundation . (sourcewatch.org)
  • Natural tobacco polysaccharides , including cellulose , have been shown to be the primary precursors of acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke . (wikipedia.org)
  • Two new CDC reports indicate that, despite the dangers of tobacco use, about 46.6 million adults in the US smoke, and 88 million nonsmokers are exposed to secondhand smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • We know that most people who smoke or chew commercial tobacco want to quit, but the trouble is often finding the motivation to pick a date and go for it. (fnha.ca)
  • In Britain, the still-new habit of smoking met royal opposition in 1604, when King James I wrote A Counterblaste to Tobacco , describing smoking as: "A custome loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmeful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomeless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term outcomes for this model involve increased age of tobacco use initiation, decreased tobacco use initiation and tobacco use prevalence for youth and adults, decreased tobacco consumption, decreased exposure to secondhand smoke, decreased tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, and minimized tobacco-related disparities among American Indian population. (cdc.gov)
  • But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Second-hand tobacco smoke is also referred to as "environmental" tobacco smoke (ETS). (who.int)
  • Involuntary smoking involves inhaling carcinogens and other toxic components that are present in second-hand tobacco smoke. (who.int)
  • 1. Parties recognise that scientific evidence has unequivocally established that exposure to tobacco smoke causes death, disease and disability. (who.int)
  • 2. Each Party shall adopt and implement in areas of existing national jurisdiction as determined by national law and actively promote at other jurisdictional levels the adoption and implementation of effective legislative, executive, administrative and/or other measures, providing for protection from exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, public transport, indoor public places and, as appropriate, other public places. (who.int)
  • The Amherst campus joins over 1,500 colleges and universities nationwide in being a smoke- or tobacco-free campus. (umass.edu)
  • Is there any connection between $60,000 worth of tobacco ads in the December issue of Brill's Content and a six-page article in the same issue that bashes the media for overstating the link between secondhand smoke and lung cancer? (villagevoice.com)
  • Brill denies that anyone from his advertising department tried to solicit ads by tipping off tobacco companies to the secondhand smoke article. (villagevoice.com)
  • The smoke produced when tobacco and these additives are burned consists of more than 4,000 chemical compounds . (britannica.com)
  • As the tobacco habit spread throughout the world, few people practiced tobacco chewing, but one major exception was, for example, sailors who could not safely smoke onboard ship. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There is no safe level of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. (who.int)
  • Almost half of children regularly breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke in public places. (who.int)
  • Every person should be able to breathe tobacco-smoke-free air. (who.int)
  • Though tobacco use has declined significantly over the past couple of decades, there are still many students who smoke. (nyu.edu)
  • Tobacco legislation seemed to go up in smoke this week. (csmonitor.com)
  • For thousands of years, people from all around the world have used tobacco to smoke, chew, and even brew as a form of tea to alleviate certain ailments. (ehow.com)
  • Tobacco has been proven to cause multiple forms of cancer, developmental problems with unborn babies, as well as a vast variety of other health problems, which can affect both you and the people around you when you smoke. (ehow.com)
  • 10% of the economic costs related to tobacco use are attributable to second-hand smoke. (globalissues.org)
  • In Taíno, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolomé de las Casas, 1552), or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo, with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba). (wikipedia.org)
  • In some Native cultures, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the tobacco industry's global online activities is required. (bmj.com)
  • At current trends up to one billion will die in the 21st century from tobacco. (globalissues.org)
  • Among the WHO FCTC's tobacco control provisions are those that reduce the demand for tobacco as well as others that reduce tobacco production, distribution, availability and supply. (who.int)
  • As of April 2015, UK joins over 1,000 Tobacco-free Campuses in the U.S. We want you to be a part of our ongoing effort to reduce tobacco exposure on college campuses across the U.S. Go Tobacco-free. (uky.edu)
  • Bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship can reduce tobacco consumption. (who.int)
  • Changes in demand, resulting from increased health awareness and policy action to reduce tobacco consumption, as well as the adoption of new technologies will continue driving developments in the labour market in this sector in the next decades. (ilo.org)
  • Rothmans was also a member of the International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI), a secret group formed by the multinational tobacco companies in 1977 to unify and coordinate their efforts to counter global public health authorities' efforts to reduce tobacco use around the world. (sourcewatch.org)
  • FDA supports science and research to help us better understand tobacco use and associated risks so that we can reduce the public health burden of tobacco in the United States. (fda.gov)
  • Studies show that few people understand the specific health risks of tobacco use. (who.int)
  • Always use caution and research all of the health risks that can be caused by tobacco before you decide to use it. (ehow.com)
  • In the United States, from the 1950s until the 1990s, tobacco industries wielded great influence in shaping public opinion on the health risks of tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today Harry McPherson is a tobacco lobbyist representing Philip Morris, RJR Nabisco, and the three other tobacco companies that have been negotiating a global settlement with the attorneys general of 40 states. (slate.com)
  • I t is hard to say precisely what all these big-name Democrats are doing on behalf of the tobacco companies. (slate.com)
  • McPherson says that his own work involves advising the tobacco companies and lobbying the White House and Congress to support the deal. (slate.com)
  • Mitchell was the one who brought the tobacco companies in as clients, and who participated in some of the early negotiating sessions. (slate.com)
  • But while Dole's agreement with the firm is that he won't lobby for the tobacco companies, Mitchell is likely to ply the corridors of the Capitol for them this autumn. (slate.com)
  • M cPherson argues that lobbying on behalf of the tobacco settlement is not the same as working for the tobacco companies under ordinary circumstances, something he suggests his firm would not have done. (slate.com)
  • When the tobacco companies went to the thriving but closed markets of East Asia in the 1980s, they went as invaders, using the full weight of the U.S. government and the threat of trade sanctions as a weapon to force their way in. (washingtonpost.com)
  • These critics argue that the companies are using their advertising and marketing skills to addict a new generation of young people while riding roughshod over the fledgling tobacco control movements that are struggling to take root throughout the region. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The agreement would require tobacco companies to pay $368 billion Over the next 25 years to compensate states for the costs of Treating smoking related diseases, and finance nationwide anti-Smoking programs. (democracynow.org)
  • He says he requested information from several tobacco companies, including Philip Morris. (villagevoice.com)
  • One paragraph credits Sullum as an early dissenter, the next repeats uncritically the charge that he is "a shill for the tobacco companies. (villagevoice.com)
  • And many fear that tobacco companies, with their deep pockets, longstanding experience dealing with heavy government regulation, and relationships with generations of farmers will jump into the burgeoning marijuana market. (usatoday.com)
  • It's not just paranoia: Tobacco companies for generations have talked privately about getting into the weed business. (usatoday.com)
  • Since at least the 1970s, tobacco companies have been interested in marijuana and marijuana legalization as both a potential and a rival product," researchers Rachel Ann Barry, Heikki Hiilamo and Stanton Glantz wrote in a June 2014 paper published in the Milbank Quarterly, which focuses on population health and health policy. (usatoday.com)
  • As public opinion shifted and governments began relaxing laws pertaining to marijuana criminalization, the tobacco companies modified their corporate planning strategies to prepare for future consumer demand. (usatoday.com)
  • Tobacco grading services are offered to producers, companies, and researchers on a voluntary basis. (usda.gov)
  • The decision was finalized on 29 May 1911, and American Tobacco was split into sixteen successor companies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A $44 billion lawsuit brought by the Nigerian government against three tobacco companies has resumed at the Abuja federal court. (voanews.com)
  • She insists tobacco companies should take responsibility for public health costs for treating smoking-related diseases. (voanews.com)
  • It's taken over 70 years and a lot of hedging for tobacco companies to admit the truth. (motherjones.com)
  • Tobacco companies are trying a bold new strategy-it's called the truth. (motherjones.com)
  • Tobacco companies spend tens of billions of dollars each year on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. (globalissues.org)
  • Final conclusions of the judge in the 1999-2006 federal legal case in which tobacco companies were found guilty of conspiracy, racketeering and defrauding the public. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Secondly, as a result of legal actions against the major tobacco companies, there are now over 40 million pages of internal company documents publicly available on searchable websites that provide a fascinating insight into the inner workings of past and still running campaigns. (sourcewatch.org)
  • When tobacco companies like Reynolds American or Altria/Philip Morris want to avoid tobacco taxes and health regulations, reports by SPN groups in many states can help inspire local resistance. (prwatch.org)
  • Rothmans was a participant in the multinational tobacco companies' 1980 Project Mayfly , a widespread effort discredit public health authorities and preserve smoking behavior. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Major tobacco lobbying companies include Altria Group (the parent company of Philip Morris USA), Philip Morris International, and Reynolds American. (wikipedia.org)
  • Worried that these studies would negatively impact tobacco consumption, tobacco companies met together and hired the public relations firm Hill & Knowlton. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1954, tobacco companies published a joint press release called "A Frank Statement", which cast doubt on studies linking smoking and cancer and called for more research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Indiana Tobacco Quitline is here to help! (in.gov)
  • When you call the Indiana Tobacco Quitline, you will talk with a trained Quit Coach who has helped hundreds of people quit and understands what you're going through. (in.gov)
  • The Indiana Tobacco Quitline services are for adults age 18 and older. (in.gov)
  • Native to the Americas, tobacco has a long history of use as a shamanic inebriant and stimulant. (erowid.org)
  • Tobaccos from the Connecticut Valley were used for wrapping cigars. (wiktionary.org)
  • The practice of smoking tobacco has spread over the whol-habitable globe, and the consumption of this narcotic, enor. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In particular, tobacco chewing was the preferred method of tobacco consumption in Sweden well into the twentieth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Not until the 1920s did oral consumption of tobacco begin to decline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tobacco Control 2020;29. (fda.gov)
  • To illustrate the point, Dr. Brundtland noted that by 2020, the burden of disease attributable to tobacco is expected to outweigh that caused by any single other disease -- most notably in Europe. (rferl.org)
  • We should also be very careful not to confuse traditional tobacco and its sacred uses with commercial tobacco and the addiction epidemic we see today. (fnha.ca)
  • Failure to treat tobacco use in mental health and addiction treatment settings: A form of harm reduction? (erowid.org)
  • The December issue not only represents a doubling of tobacco ads, it introduces the first Marlboro ad-suggesting increased interest from Philip Morris. (villagevoice.com)
  • Kraft is owned by tobacco company Altria, previously known as Philip Morris. (latimes.com)
  • Joseph Cullman, Philip Morris and chairman of the Tobacco Institute executive committee, responding to the infamous beagle study in 1971 on CBS' "Face the Nation. (motherjones.com)
  • Geoffrey Bible, CEO and Chairman of the Board of Philip Morris Co., August 21, 1997 in a deposition in the Florida state tobacco lawsuit. (motherjones.com)
  • The Belgian count Hippolyte Visart de Bocarmé had poisoned his brother-in-law with tobacco leaf extract in order to acquire some urgently needed money. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] The main Polyphenols contained in the tobacco leaf are rutin and chlorogenic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco chewing was especially prevalent in the vicinity of the Andes Mountains where coca leaf was also chewed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In its earliest form, chewing tobacco was just a leaf torn from the plant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Navy plug, so called because it was originally produced for sale to the U.S. Navy, was made with heavily sweetened Burley tobacco with a Bright tobacco wrapper leaf. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These trends call for actions aimed at developing socially and economically viable farm and off-farm employment alternatives particularly for tobacco growers and leaf production workers. (ilo.org)
  • Form the tobacco leaf piles. (ehow.com)
  • Ensure that the tobacco leaf stacks always retain a core temperature between 110 to 115 degrees Fahrenheit and the tobacco barn stays at around 75 percent humidity. (ehow.com)
  • The program addresses both smoking and spit tobacco use. (in.gov)
  • American Tobacco continued to sell such brands as Lucky Strike and Pall Mall. (britannica.com)
  • T he formation of the American Tobacco Company in New Jersey in 1890 and its forced dissolution by legal decree in 1911 stand as landmark events in the business history of the United States . (encyclopedia.com)
  • During this twenty-one year period, the company created by James Buchanan (Buck) Duke utterly dominated the American tobacco market. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the mid-1890s the American Tobacco Company made substantial inroads into the market for chewing tobacco ( plug ), acquiring in the process control of firms such as R.J. Reynolds and Liggett & Myers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On 19 July 1907 the Justice Department filed a petition against the tobacco trust American Tobacco Company for violating the Sherman Act. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After 1900, however, American Tobacco began to experience a number of difficulties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tobacco caused 100 million deaths in the 20th century. (globalissues.org)
  • Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco was condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became recognized as a cause of cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presents the health and economic burden of tobacco use worldwide and highlights practical approaches to tobacco prevention, control, surveillance, and evaluation. (merlot.org)
  • Burley Tobacco, as I first knew it, was produced with an intensity of care and a refinement of skill that far exceeded that given to any food crop that I know about. (jhu.edu)
  • The second variety, flat plug, was produced entirely with Bright tobacco, which did not absorb as much sweetening as the Burley tobacco used in navy plug. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This put producers using Burley tobacco at an advantage because of its greater ability to absorb flavoring. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Activities in this model involve distribution of warning signs and educational materials to retailers and employees about T21 law, promoting quitline to youth tobacco users, educate public about T21 law and quitline, conduct compliance checks, and educating American Indian communities about age of sale disparity. (cdc.gov)
  • Outputs in this model include warning signs posted in all tobacco retailers, distribution of training materials to retailers, promotion of quitline to underage tobacco users, advertisements notifying the public of T21 law, demand letters to retailers who violate the law, and educational materials to American Indian communities. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term outcomes in this model cover increased awareness and support for the T21 law among the public and underage tobacco users, increased perception to youth that tobacco use is dangerous and difficult to obtain, increased awareness and compliance of T21 law to retailers, increased call volume to quitline for tobacco users, and increased awareness among American Indians of disparity in age of sale and health consequences. (cdc.gov)
  • The negative health effects of tobacco were noted early on. (nih.gov)
  • Establish a policy banning the use of any tobacco product indoors or outdoors on company property by anyone at any time. (cdc.gov)
  • Adults are prohibited from purchasing tobacco for minors. (quebec.ca)
  • In this podcast, Dr. Stacy Thorne discusses different forms of tobacco being used by adults. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Consider the World Health Organization's MPOWER strategies in efforts to prevent and control tobacco use. (cdc.gov)
  • Establish comprehensive tobacco control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels and sustain them over time. (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco Control is a leading international peer-review medical journal covering the nature and consequences of tobacco use worldwide. (bmj.com)
  • Essential reading for everyone with an interest in tobacco control, including public health professionals, researchers, policy makers and educators. (bmj.com)
  • The Author Information section provides specific article requirements to help you turn your research into an article suitable for Tobacco Control. (bmj.com)
  • To cite: Watts C, Hefler M, Freeman B. Tobacco Control. (bmj.com)
  • Changes include a new name for the Act, which is now called the Tobacco Control Act. (quebec.ca)
  • Hereinafter, "the Act" refers to the Tobacco Control Act. (quebec.ca)
  • For the medical journal, see Tobacco Control (journal) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality it causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • References to a tobacco control movement may have either positive or negative connotations, both briefly covered here. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tobacco control field comprises the activity of disparate health, policy and legal research and reform advocacy bodies across the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The WHO Syria representative recently suggested that Syria should prioritize tobacco control at a time of total chaos in the country. (forbes.com)
  • Control the environment of the tobacco fermentation barn. (ehow.com)
  • Yack told RFE/RL that interventions for tobacco control are among the most cost-effective measures currently available in public health and yet he says they are n-o-t being applied. (rferl.org)
  • It is an EU accession country with very good advanced tobacco control legislation. (rferl.org)
  • This site provides an introduction to global tobacco control. (merlot.org)
  • You just viewed Global Tobacco Control . (merlot.org)
  • R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, N.C. (nih.gov)
  • According to a recent Taiwan newspaper article, the smoking rate among 15- to 18-year-olds increased from less than 20 percent in 1985 (before the liberalization of foreign tobacco imports), to 33 percent in 1991. (csmonitor.com)
  • Absolutely not, says Steve Brill, editor of Brill's Content , who claims the infusion of tobacco money and his publication of a protobacco article are "a total coincidence. (villagevoice.com)
  • 1999)‎. Tobacco Free Initiative. (who.int)
  • It's no secret that smoking or chewing tobacco is dangerous for your health. (familydoctor.org)
  • Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers and anything else you used. (familydoctor.org)
  • Find other things to do with them besides smoking or using chewing tobacco. (familydoctor.org)
  • It is difficult to ascertain exactly how much tobacco was consumed by chewing because prior to the 1800s most tobacco was manufactured in the same form, regardless of how it was consumed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During the nineteenth century, tobacco chewing was particularly prevalent in the United States. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Exactly why this happened is not certain, but it became widespread and, in 1880, 55 percent of tobacco produced in the country was plug tobacco, a form of chewing tobacco. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Throughout most of the twentieth century, chewing tobacco usage declined in the United States. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the country became more urban and spent more time indoors, tobacco chewing and the accompanying expectoration came to be looked upon as unsanitary and unseemly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chewing tobacco in the United States was for a long time associated with baseball players. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The R.J. Reynolds Company, a major producer of flat plug, looking for a way to compete with navy plug producers, pioneered the use of saccharine as a sweetener in chewing tobacco. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chewing tobacco is larger-grain tobacco leaves that are twisted or shredded and come loose in paper packets or small cans. (kidshealth.org)
  • The World Health Organization has noted that policy measures such as complete bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and its sponsorship do decrease tobacco use. (globalissues.org)
  • If passed by Congress as is, the deal would put an end to class action lawsuits against the tobacco giants. (democracynow.org)
  • What many people don't know is that much of this damage can be undone by quitting tobacco. (fnha.ca)
  • All stories are told by First Nations people living in BC and each of the four episodes of Tobacco Nation explores tobacco through a unique lens: cancer, community, tradition and youth. (fnha.ca)
  • In richer cities, where customs and police prevent easy access to illicit whites, people are buying more raw tobacco and rolling their own. (forbes.com)
  • The tobacco production technology in use today was originally derived from that used by native people. (jhu.edu)
  • According to the Surgeon General's Report, programs are critical in preventing young people from starting to use tobacco in the first place, and more than pay for themselves in lives and health care dollars saved. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Tobacco kills more than 7 million people each year. (who.int)
  • The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced, killing more than 7 million people a year. (who.int)
  • Each year more than 480,000 people in the United States die from illnesses related to tobacco use. (cancer.org)
  • Nigeria's most populous state, Lagos, says at least two people die each day from tobacco-related diseases in the state. (voanews.com)
  • Historically, people from the Northeast Woodlands cultures have carried tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long list of diseases that tobacco use causes - including deadly cancers, lung and heart disease - is well known and well documented. (fnha.ca)
  • By quitting smoking, you will dramatically reduce your risk of cancer, lung disease, emphysema and other tobacco-related diseases. (in.gov)
  • This document provides Information on diseases caused by tobacco use, such as cancer, heart disease, and respiratory diseases. (healthfinder.gov)
  • David Graham is the Director of Product Development for Tobacco Dependence at Pharmacia & Upjohn in Helsingbord, Sweden. (rferl.org)

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