Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.BooksEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Thuja: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Book SelectionUnited States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Libraries, MedicalGeology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Ageratina: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of snakeroot is also used for POLYGALA; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA and others.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.United StatesFood Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.United States Social Security Administration: An independent agency within the Executive Branch of the United States Government. It administers a national social insurance program whereby employees, employers, and the self-employed pay contributions into pooled trust funds. Part of the contributions go into a separate hospital insurance trust fund for workers at age 65 to provide help with medical expenses. Other programs include the supplemental social security income program for the aged, blind, and disabled and the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance Program. It became an independent agency March 31, 1995. It had previously been part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, later the Department of Health and Human Services. (From United States Government Manual, 1994-95)Interlibrary LoansFinancing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Catalogs, UnionDesert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Library Materials: Print and non-print materials collected, processed, and stored by libraries. They comprise books, periodicals, pamphlets, reports, microforms, maps, manuscripts, motion pictures, and all other forms of audiovisual records. (Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary, 4th ed, p497)Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Malta: An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Book PricesState Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Dietary Services: Services provided by dietitians or nutritionists to meet the nutritional needs of individuals, including consultation with other professional personnel.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Atlantic OceanOccupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.HistorySpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Manuscripts, MedicalArctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Libraries, DentalBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.LizardsGenetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Library Administration: Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Grateful Med: A microcomputer-based software package providing a user-friendly interface to the MEDLARS system of the National Library of Medicine.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Cataloging: Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.North AmericaMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Employee Retirement Income Security Act: A 1974 Federal act which preempts states' rights with regard to workers' pension benefits and employee benefits. It does not affect the benefits and rights of employees whose employer is self-insured. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Quinazolinones: Chemicals with two conjoined aromatic rings incorporating two nitrogen atoms and one of the carbons oxidized with a keto oxygen.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Tennessee
  • Before the work described in this thesis, no studies had been done to test the direct effects of increased sediment load on the biota of Lake Tanganyika. (tcd.ie)
  • Multiple USGS science centers are collaborating on a pilot project to conduct reconnaissance-level sampling and analysis of mercury (Hg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in water, sediment, and biota at sites of interest near rail lines. (usgs.gov)
  • The major objectives of the pilot, titled USGS Pilot Study to Assess Ecosystem Effects of Increased Coal Transport Across the Northwest Region, is to evaluate baseline Hg and PAH levels in multiple environmental media (water, sediment, biota), and to determine whether those levels are associated with current coal train traffic. (usgs.gov)
  • This dataset provides baseline concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), other aromatic organic compounds, mercury (Hg), and trace metal concentrations in sediment and biota collected from two sites along an existing rail line used for coal transport in the Columbia River Gorge, Washington. (usgs.gov)
  • The earliest fossil communities of macroscopic organisms are preserved in the Ediacara Biota. (escholarship.org)
  • Exceptional deposits of the Ediacara Member from the Flinders Ranges and surrounding areas of South Australia yield abundant Ediacara Biota fossils ideal for such studies. (escholarship.org)
  • Paleontologist Simon A.F. Darroch, assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences at Vanderbilt University, and Brandt M. Gibson, a Ph.D. student, developed a series of computational fluid dynamics simulations demonstrating that not only were some of the Ediacara biota suspension feeders, trapping nutrients in deep cavities, but that they oriented themselves within flow currents to amplify eddies as water moved around them. (phys.org)
  • Their recent work builds on Darroch's findings last year that Ediacara biota were forming complex communities tens of millions of years before the Cambrian explosion. (phys.org)
  • the magnitude of the event can be understood based on the contrast between the biota and the degree of diversity of the fossils from both sides. (osti.gov)
  • A major challenge in environmental risk assessment of micropollutants (MPs) entering fresh waters via effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is the establishment of a causal relationship between field exposure and observed effects on biotas. (eawag.ch)
  • Epoch-defining processes around the start of the Oligocene appear to have also played a decisive role in reshaping a diverse Southern Hemisphere biota-by both re-setting Gondwanan endemic diversity and opening the way to successful immigration from the north. (datadryad.org)
  • The biogeographic patterns found herein, in which the Andes are the source for biotas of other regions, are consistent with those found for flowerpiercers and tanagers, and do not support the hypothesis of the geologically old Pantepui as a source of Neotropical montain diversity. (blogspot.com)
  • The biota largely disappeared with the rapid increase in biodiversity known as the Cambrian explosion . (wikipedia.org)
  • FAPESP and NSF make public this joint Call for Proposals and invite interested researchers to submit projects for Scientific Cooperation through their programs, BIOTA ( www.fapesp.br/en/4662 ) and Dimensions of Biodiversity ( www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=503446 ), respectively, under the terms and conditions hereinafter set forth. (fapesp.br)
  • The stability of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the aquatic systems influences their eventual interactions with aquatic biota - and subsequently the observed toxic effects. (csir.co.za)
  • Very little is known about the tolerance of these mixed biotic populations to extrinsic toxic substances, and since the biota differs from one lagoon to another, there is a real need for a method of estimating the impact of toxic wastes on a given installation. (purdue.edu)
  • Shortly after the release of Gyromancy in 1984, the group split into two collaborative factions: a visual arts collective, which retained the name Mnemonists, and the musical group, Biota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrian Spalding has studied Loe Bar and its biota for many years since 1984, and the history and biology of the Sandhill Rustic and its environment (based largely on the author's work) is encapsulated in this impressive book. (brill.com)
  • formerly Vendian ) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635-542 Mya ). (wikipedia.org)
  • For macroorganisms, the Cambrian biota appears to have completely replaced the organisms that dominated the Ediacaran fossil record, although relationships are still a matter of debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Written over a period of several decades by a national and international authority on trace metals in living marine organisms, Compendium of Trace Metals and Marine Biota has two main objectives. (nhbs.com)
  • The Kaili Biota contains preserved soft-bodied organisms shared with either the Chengjiang Fauna (Southwest China) or the Burgess Shale Fauna (British Columbia) or with both. (bioone.org)
  • The guidelines focus on the protection of habitats and processes that support the persistence of freshwater biota under a changing climate. (edu.au)
  • The various volumes of the set emphasize the fundamental concepts of environmental processes, taking into account speci﫿c aspects such as physical and chemical heterogeneity, and interaction with the biota. (wiley.com)
  • Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. (peerj.com)
  • Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. (peerj.com)
  • Estimates of radiation dose rates are presented for marine biota in March-May 2011 in the coastal zone near Fukushima NPP, and in the open sea. (chernobyldatabase.com)
  • At a distance 30 km from the NPP, in the open sea the radiation doses for marine biota were much lower than those in the coastal zone near the NPP. (chernobyldatabase.com)
  • The islands contain a variety of biota (the animal and plant life in a particular area), such as the Galápagos giant tortoise, sea lions, the varieties of finches, waved albatrosses, penguins, marine iguanas, and hundreds of native plants. (icr.org)
  • Kahakai to Hohonukai: Environmental Studies of Marine Biota Using Underwater Time-Lapse Photography and Multiple Camera Arrays at Various Depths. (societyforscience.org)
  • Anthropogenic changes are altering the environmental conditions and the biota of ecosystems worldwide. (k-state.edu)
  • The aim of the book series Advances in Polar Ecology is to foster the progress in the scientific knowledge about the polar and sub-polar regions of both hemispheres by contributing to the fast and wide-ranging dissemination of novel scientific information gained from recent studies of sea, freshwater and land biota among polar researchers, environmental managers and policy makers. (springer.com)
  • This paper deals with a method which may prove useful in evaluating the shock-load toxicity of a particular waste to the biota peculiar to a given lagoon. (purdue.edu)
  • Multiple hypotheses exist to explain the disappearance of this biota, including preservation bias , a changing environment, the advent of predators and competition from other life-forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topology tests were applied to compare alternative hypotheses that may explain the current distribution of Aulacorhynchus toucanets, in the context of previous hypotheses of the origin of Pantepui montane biotas. (blogspot.com)
  • For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited. (peerj.com)
  • A wide variety of unique species are normal for environments around the world, but where is evidence for real, demonstrative, vertical evolution that the title of the article alludes to? (icr.org)
  • Perhaps a better, more scientific title of this article could be, "The Galápagos Islands: Laboratory of Creation's Variation. (icr.org)
  • article{Horiguchi2016DeclineII, title={Decline in intertidal biota after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the Fukushima nuclear disaster: field observations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The research is outlined in a paper titled "Gregarious suspension feeding in a modular Ediacaran organism" that appears June 19 in the journal Science Advances . (phys.org)
  • This gives a wonderful spontaneous feel to the music, and Biota have made an art out of accepting and working with freak accidental effects. (forcedexposure.com)
  • Six years in the making, the visual/sonic art group Biota have finally completed their Sixth CD for ReR. (rermegacorp.com)
  • Evaluating the Effect of Industrial Wastes on Lagoon Biota HARDAM S. AZAD, Graduate Research Assistant DARRELL L. KING, Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering University of Missouri Columb ia, M issouri INTRODUCTION Waste-stabilization ponds or lagoons represent one of the most rapidly expanding forms of waste treatment advanced within the past fifty years. (purdue.edu)