A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Relating to the size of solids.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Chemical reaction that occurs when saliva comes into contact with the metals in dental fillings. This reaction can send electric currents through the brain causing negative symptoms.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
An alloy of 60% cobalt, 20% chromium, 5% molybdenum, and traces of other substances. It is used in dentures, certain surgical appliances, prostheses, implants, and instruments.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.

An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids. (1/1876)

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (2/1876)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep. (3/1876)

This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface.  (+info)

Role of the scavenger receptor MARCO in alveolar macrophage binding of unopsonized environmental particles. (4/1876)

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) avidly bind and ingest unopsonized environmental particles and bacteria through scavenger-type receptors (SRs). AMs from mice with a genetic deletion of the major macrophage SR (types AI and AII; SR-/-) showed no decrease in particle binding compared with SR+/+ mice, suggesting that other SRs are involved. To identify these receptors, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), PAL-1, that inhibits hamster AM binding of unopsonized particles (TiO2, Fe2O3, and latex beads; 66 +/- 5, 77 +/- 2, and 85 +/- 2% inhibition, respectively, measured by flow cytometry). This antibody identifies a protein of approximately 70 kD on the AM surface (immunoprecipitation) that is expressed by AMs and other macrophages in situ. A cDNA clone encoding the mAb PAL-1-reactive protein isolated by means of COS cell expression was found to be 84 and 77% homologous to mouse and human scavenger receptor MARCO mRNA, respectively. Transfection of COS cells with MARCO cDNA conferred mAb-inhibitable TiO2 binding. Hamster MARCO also mediates AM binding of unopsonized bacteria (67 +/- 5 and 47 +/- 4% inhibition of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus binding by mAb PAL-1). A polyclonal antibody to human MARCO identified the expected approximately 70-kD band on Western blots of lysates of normal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells (>90% AMs) and showed strong immunolabeling of human AMs in BAL cytocentrifuge preparations and within lung tissue specimens. In normal mouse AMs, the anti-MARCO mAb ED31 also showed immunoreactivity and inhibited binding of unopsonized particles (e.g., TiO2 approximately 40%) and bacteria. The novel function of binding unopsonized environmental dusts and pathogens suggests an important role for MARCO in the lungs' response to inhaled particles.  (+info)

Titanium aneurysm clips: mechanical characteristics and clinical trial. (5/1876)

Titanium clip is well documented to reduce the artifact observed in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and improve the quality of these images. There are, however, some demerits based on metallic characteristics including large spring portions, lack of long and fenestration clips, and difficulties to produce. We examined the mechanical characteristics of Sugita titanium aneurysm clips (product of 6 aluminium-4 vanadium-titanium) and investigate the safety in clinical use and the imaging quality compared with those of cobalt (Co) alloy clips. On mechanical test, Sugita titanium clips showed no significant difference in closing force compared with the conventional Co alloy clips. The closing force reduced about 10% after 100 times repeated opening in titanium clips in contrast with no remarkable changes in Co alloy clips. Sixty-four patients with ruptured or unruptured cerebral aneurysms (total number of 71 aneurysms) were treated with Sugita titanium clips through the microsurgical technique. None of the unfavorable outcome occurred in related to the titanium clips. Neither clip dislocation nor deformation was experienced in this series during the follow-up period. The clip artifacts seen in CT and MR image were markedly reduced, however, MR angiography had less quality to resolve anatomical structures due to an existence of vessel gap. These results indicate that in spite of some disadvantages, Sugita titanium clips allow safe and beneficial use routinely in aneurysm surgery insofar as the complete clipping is obtained.  (+info)

Intra-oral temperature variation over 24 hours. (6/1876)

This study aimed to investigate temperature variation at archwire sites adjacent to the maxillary right central incisor and first premolar, its correlation with ambient temperature, and the influence of inter-racial variation. Twenty young adult male subjects were randomly selected (13 Asian, seven Caucasian). Thermocouples were attached to the labial archwire component of custom-made orthodontic retainers at the two intra-oral sites. A third thermocouple measured ambient temperature. A data-logger recorded temperatures at 5-second intervals over a 24-hour period. Temperatures ranged from 5.6 to 58.5 degrees C at the incisor and from 7.9 to 54 degrees C at the premolar, with medians of 34.9 degrees C and 35.6 degrees C, respectively. Ambient temperature correlated poorly with the intra-oral temperatures. The Asian and Caucasian groups had significantly different temperature distributions. On average during the 24-hour period, temperatures at the incisor site were in the range of 33-37 degrees C for 79 per cent of the time, below it for 20 per cent, and above it for only 1 per cent of the time. Corresponding figures for the premolar site were 92, 6, and 2 per cent. At both archwire sites the most frequent temperatures were in the range of 35-36 degrees C. The data presented demonstrate that the temperature at sites on an archwire in situ varies considerably over a 24-hour period and that racial differences may exist. This information should be considered during the manufacture and use of temperature-sensitive orthodontic materials, in particular nickel-titanium archwires and springs.  (+info)

The effect of hydroxyapatite coating on the bonding of bone to titanium implants in the femora of ovariectomised rats. (7/1876)

We have studied the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating in 15 ovariectomised and 15 normal rats which had had a sham procedure. Twenty-four weeks after operation, HA-coated implants were inserted into the intramedullary canal of the right femur and uncoated implants into the left femur. The prostheses were removed four weeks after implantation. Twelve specimens in each group had mechanical push-out tests. Sagittal sections of the other three were evaluated by SEM. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the dissected left tibia was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The difference in BMD between the control and ovariectomised tibiae was 35.01 mg/cm2 (95% CI, 26.60 to 43.42). The push-out strength of the HA-coated implants was higher than that of the uncoated implants in both groups (p < 0.0001), but the HA-coated implants of the ovariectomised group had a reduction in push-out strength of 40.3% compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that HA-coated implants may improve the fixation of a cementless total hip prosthesis but that the presence of osteoporosis may limit the magnitude of this benefit.  (+info)

Bactericidal activity of photocatalytic TiO(2) reaction: toward an understanding of its killing mechanism. (8/1876)

When titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is irradiated with near-UV light, this semiconductor exhibits strong bactericidal activity. In this paper, we present the first evidence that the lipid peroxidation reaction is the underlying mechanism of death of Escherichia coli K-12 cells that are irradiated in the presence of the TiO(2) photocatalyst. Using production of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index to assess cell membrane damage by lipid peroxidation, we observed that there was an exponential increase in the production of MDA, whose concentration reached 1.1 to 2.4 nmol. mg (dry weight) of cells(-1) after 30 min of illumination, and that the kinetics of this process paralleled cell death. Under these conditions, concomitant losses of 77 to 93% of the cell respiratory activity were also detected, as measured by both oxygen uptake and reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride from succinate as the electron donor. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation and the simultaneous losses of both membrane-dependent respiratory activity and cell viability depended strictly on the presence of both light and TiO(2). We concluded that TiO(2) photocatalysis promoted peroxidation of the polyunsaturated phospholipid component of the lipid membrane initially and induced major disorder in the E. coli cell membrane. Subsequently, essential functions that rely on intact cell membrane architecture, such as respiratory activity, were lost, and cell death was inevitable.  (+info)

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

Dental casting investment is a material used in the production of dental restorations, such as crowns and bridges, through the process of lost-wax casting. It is typically made of a gypsum-based substance that is poured into a mold containing a wax pattern of the desired restoration. Once the investment hardens, the mold is heated in a furnace to melt out the wax, leaving behind a cavity in the shape of the restoration. The molten metal alloy is then introduced into this cavity, and after it cools and solidifies, the investment is removed, revealing the finished restoration.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Experimental implants refer to medical devices that are not yet approved by regulatory authorities for general use in medical practice. These are typically being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The purpose of experimental implants is to determine whether they can be used as a viable treatment option for various medical conditions. They may include, but are not limited to, devices such as artificial joints, heart valves, or spinal cord stimulators that are still in the developmental or testing stage. Participation in clinical trials involving experimental implants is voluntary and usually requires informed consent from the patient.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth or parts of teeth and restores their function and appearance. The design of a dental prosthesis refers to the plan and specifications used to create it, including the materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the artificial teeth and any supporting structures.

The design of a dental prosthesis is typically based on a variety of factors, including:

* The number and location of missing teeth
* The condition of the remaining teeth and gums
* The patient's bite and jaw alignment
* The patient's aesthetic preferences
* The patient's ability to chew and speak properly

There are several types of dental prostheses, including:

* Dentures: A removable appliance that replaces all or most of the upper or lower teeth.
* Fixed partial denture (FPD): Also known as a bridge, this is a fixed (non-removable) appliance that replaces one or more missing teeth by attaching artificial teeth to the remaining natural teeth on either side of the gap.
* Removable partial denture (RPD): A removable appliance that replaces some but not all of the upper or lower teeth.
* Implant-supported prosthesis: An artificial tooth or set of teeth that is supported by dental implants, which are surgically placed in the jawbone.

The design of a dental prosthesis must be carefully planned and executed to ensure a good fit, proper function, and natural appearance. It may involve several appointments with a dentist or dental specialist, such as a prosthodontist, to take impressions, make measurements, and try in the finished prosthesis.

Nanotubes, in the context of nanotechnology and materials science, refer to hollow cylindrical structures with extremely small diameters, measured in nanometers (nm). They are typically composed of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure, similar to graphene. The most common types of nanotubes are single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).

In the field of medicine, nanotubes have been studied for their potential applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical devices. For example, researchers have explored the use of nanotubes as drug carriers, where drugs can be loaded into the hollow interior of the tube and released in a controlled manner at the target site. Additionally, nanotubes have been used to create conductive scaffolds for tissue engineering, which may help promote nerve regeneration or muscle growth.

However, it's important to note that while nanotubes have shown promise in preclinical studies, their potential use in medical applications is still being researched and developed. There are concerns about the potential toxicity of nanotubes, as well as challenges related to their large-scale production and functionalization for specific medical applications.

Dental soldering is a procedure in which two or more metal components are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, creating a strong metallic bond. In dentistry, this technique is primarily used to repair or construct dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

The process typically involves:

1. Cleaning and preparing the surfaces to be soldered by removing any oxides, oils, or contaminants that might interfere with the bond.
2. Applying a flux to the prepared surfaces to prevent further oxidation during heating.
3. Positioning the components accurately so they can be joined correctly.
4. Heating the parts using a soldering torch or other heat source, while simultaneously applying the filler metal (solder) to the joint.
5. Allowing the solder to cool and solidify, creating a strong metallic bond between the components.
6. Finishing and polishing the soldered area for smooth integration with the surrounding dental restoration.

Dental soldering requires precision, skill, and knowledge of various metals and alloys used in dentistry. Proper safety measures, including protective eyewear and a well-ventilated workspace, should be taken during the procedure to minimize potential hazards from heat, flames, or fumes.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Metal Ceramic Alloys" is not a recognized medical term. It is, however, a term used in the field of materials science and engineering. Metal ceramic alloys, also known as cermets, are materials that combine properties of both metals and ceramics. They are typically composed of a metal or alloy matrix with embedded ceramic particles.

In the context of medical devices or dental restorations, the term you might be looking for is "porcelain-fused-to-metal" (PFM). PFM restorations are a type of dental crown or bridge that combines a metal substructure with a ceramic outer layer. The metal provides strength and durability, while the ceramic layer mimics the appearance of natural teeth.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or definitions, please don't hesitate to ask!

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

X-ray emission spectrometry is a technique used to analyze the elements present in a sample by measuring the characteristic X-rays that are emitted when the sample is bombarded with high-energy X-rays or charged particles. The sample is excited to emit X-rays, which have specific energies (wavelengths) that correspond to the energy levels of the electrons in the atoms of the elements present in the sample. These X-ray emissions are then detected and analyzed using a spectrometer, which separates and measures the intensity of the different X-ray energies. The resulting spectrum provides information about the identity and quantity of the elements present in the sample. This technique is widely used in materials analysis, particularly for the identification and quantification of heavy metals and other elements in a variety of samples, including geological, biological, and industrial materials.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Zirconium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a gray-white, strong, corrosion-resistant transition metal that is used primarily in nuclear reactors, as an opacifier in glazes for ceramic cookware, and in surgical implants such as artificial joints due to its biocompatibility.

In the context of medical devices or implants, zirconium alloys may be used for their mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion. For example, zirconia (a form of zirconium dioxide) is a popular material for dental crowns and implants due to its durability, strength, and natural appearance.

However, it's important to note that while zirconium itself is not considered a medical term, there are various medical applications and devices that utilize zirconium-based materials.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "quartz" is not a medical term. Quartz is a mineral that is one of the most common minerals on Earth. It is found in many different types of rocks and is made up of silicon dioxide (SiO2). It is often used in electronics and watches because of its piezoelectric properties, which means it can generate an electric charge when subjected to pressure or stress.

It does not have any direct relation with medical field, although there are some Quartz based equipment like quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors that are used in medical research for the detection of biomolecules and pathogens.

Electrolysis is a medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to permanently remove hair growth. It works by passing a thin, solid metal electrode (called a probe) into the natural opening of the hair follicle and applying an electrical charge to destroy the hair root. This process can be used to remove hair from any part of the body, including the face, legs, arms, underarms, and bikini area.

During electrolysis, a trained professional called an electrologist inserts a small needle into the hair follicle and applies a mild electrical current. The current heats up and destroys the hair root, preventing future growth. Multiple treatments are usually necessary to achieve permanent hair removal, as only one or two hairs can be treated at a time.

Electrolysis is considered a safe and effective method for permanent hair removal, but it can cause some discomfort during and after treatment. Common side effects include redness, swelling, and tenderness in the treated area. These side effects typically resolve within a few hours to a few days after treatment.

It's important to note that electrolysis should only be performed by a licensed and trained electrologist. Improper technique can cause scarring, infection, or other complications. Before undergoing electrolysis, it's recommended to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider to discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Endosseous dental implantation is a medical procedure that involves the placement of an artificial tooth root (dental implant) directly into the jawbone. The term "endosseous" refers to the surgical placement of the implant within the bone (endo- meaning "within" and -osseous meaning "bony"). This type of dental implant is the most common and widely used method for replacing missing teeth.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the gum tissue to expose the jawbone, and a hole is drilled into the bone to receive the implant. The implant is then carefully positioned and secured within the bone. Once the implant has integrated with the bone (a process that can take several months), a dental crown or bridge is attached to the implant to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Endosseous dental implantation is a safe and effective procedure that has a high success rate, making it an excellent option for patients who are missing one or more teeth due to injury, decay, or other causes.

Tantalum is not a medical term, but a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. In the field of medicine, tantalum is often used in the production of medical implants such as surgical pins, screws, plates, and stents due to its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion. For example, tantalum mesh is used in hernia repair and tantalum rods are used in spinal fusion surgery.

Bone plates are medical devices used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize and hold together fractured or broken bones during the healing process. They are typically made of surgical-grade stainless steel, titanium, or other biocompatible materials. The plate is shaped to fit the contour of the bone and is held in place with screws that are inserted through the plate and into the bone on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and alignment to the broken bones, allowing them to heal properly. Bone plates can be used to treat a variety of fractures, including those that are complex or unstable. After healing is complete, the bone plate may be left in place or removed, depending on the individual's needs and the surgeon's recommendation.

A dental abutment is a component of a dental implant restoration that connects the implant to the replacement tooth or teeth. It serves as a support structure and is attached to the implant, which is surgically placed in the jawbone. The abutment provides a stable foundation for the placement of a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Dental abutments can be made from various materials such as titanium, zirconia, or other biocompatible materials. They come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate the specific requirements of each implant case. The selection of an appropriate dental abutment is crucial for ensuring a successful and long-lasting dental implant restoration.

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

Medical definitions generally refer to terms and concepts within the medical field. The term "metal nanoparticles" is more commonly used in materials science, chemistry, and physics. However, I can provide a general scientific definition that could be relevant to medical applications:

Metal nanoparticles are tiny particles with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), composed of metals or metal compounds. They have unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties due to their small size and high surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful in various fields, including medical research. In medicine, metal nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutic applications such as photothermal therapy and radiation therapy. Examples of metals used for nanoparticle synthesis include gold, silver, and iron.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

Intraoral electrogalvanism is a rare oral condition that occurs due to the presence of two or more dissimilar dental restorative materials in the mouth, which generate electrical potentials when in contact with saliva. This phenomenon is also known as "oral galvanic electricity" or simply "galvanism."

The electrical currents generated by these dissimilar materials can cause various symptoms, such as a metallic taste, tongue and lip tingling or burning sensations, and pain or discomfort in the affected area. The severity of the symptoms may vary depending on factors like the number of dissimilar materials present, the distance between them, and the individual's sensitivity to electrical currents.

To diagnose intraoral electrogalvanism, dental professionals typically perform a thorough examination of the oral cavity, including checking for any existing restorations made from different metals. They may also use specialized equipment, such as a galvanic cell tester or a potentiometer, to measure and compare the electrical potentials between various dental materials in the mouth.

Treatment usually involves replacing the dissimilar dental restorations with materials that have similar electrochemical properties, thus minimizing or eliminating the generation of electrical currents. In some cases, simply removing one of the offending restorations may be sufficient to alleviate the symptoms. However, if multiple restorations are involved, a more comprehensive treatment plan may be necessary to address all contributing factors and ensure long-term relief.

Gold alloys are not strictly a medical term, but they are often used in medical applications, particularly in the field of dentistry. Therefore, I will provide both a general definition and a dental-specific definition for clarity.

A gold alloy is a mixture of different metals, where gold is the primary component. The other metals are added to modify the properties of gold, such as its hardness, melting point, or color. These alloys can contain varying amounts of gold, ranging from 30% to 75%, depending on their intended use.

In dentistry, gold alloys refer to a specific type of alloy used for dental restorations like crowns, inlays, and onlays. These alloys typically contain between 60% and 90% gold, along with other metals such as silver, copper, and sometimes palladium or zinc. The high gold content ensures excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and durability, making these alloys a popular choice for dental applications. Additionally, their malleability allows for precise shaping and adjustment during the fabrication process.

Electrochemical techniques are a group of analytical methods used in chemistry and biochemistry that involve the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. These techniques use an electrochemical cell, which consists of two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) immersed in an electrolyte solution. An electrical potential is applied between the electrodes, which drives redox reactions to occur at the electrode surfaces. The resulting current that flows through the cell can be measured and related to the concentration of analytes in the solution.

There are several types of electrochemical techniques, including:

1. Voltammetry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell as a function of the applied potential. There are several types of voltammetry, including cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and square wave voltammetry.
2. Amperometry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell at a constant potential.
3. Potentiometry: This technique measures the potential difference between the working electrode and a reference electrode at zero current flow.
4. Impedance spectroscopy: This technique measures the impedance of the electrical circuit formed by the electrochemical cell as a function of frequency.

Electrochemical techniques are widely used in various fields, such as environmental monitoring, pharmaceuticals, food analysis, and biomedical research. They offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity, making them a powerful tool for chemical analysis.

"Wettability" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of chemistry, physics, and materials science to describe how well a liquid spreads on a solid surface. In other words, it refers to the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, which can have implications for various medical applications such as the design of medical devices or the study of biological surfaces. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a clinical medical context.

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgO. It is a white, odorless solid that is highly basic and stable. Medically, magnesium oxide is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood. It is also used as a antacid to neutralize stomach acid and as a laxative to relieve constipation.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

Vitallium is not a medical term per se, but rather a trademarked name for a specific alloy that is often used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. The term "Vitallium" was first coined by the International Nickel Company in 1932 to describe their cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy.

Medical Vitallium is typically composed of approximately 60% cobalt, 25% chromium, and 7.5% molybdenum, with trace amounts of other elements like carbon, manganese, silicon, and iron. This specific combination of metals results in an alloy that has several desirable properties for medical applications:

1. High strength-to-weight ratio: Vitallium is exceptionally strong and durable, making it suitable for load-bearing implants such as artificial hip or knee joints.
2. Corrosion resistance: The alloy exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in the human body, which helps to ensure the longevity of medical devices made from it.
3. Biocompatibility: Vitallium has been shown to be biocompatible, meaning that it does not typically cause adverse reactions or rejection when implanted into the human body.
4. Wear resistance: The alloy's hardness and durability make it resistant to wear, which is particularly important in dental applications where components like crowns and bridges must withstand constant use.
5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility: Vitallium is generally considered safe for use in MRI scans, as it does not interfere significantly with the magnetic field or radiofrequency pulses used during the procedure.

Overall, while "Vitallium" may not be a medical term itself, it represents an important alloy that has contributed significantly to advancements in orthopedic and dental medicine.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Silicon compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element silicon (Si) combined with other elements. Silicon is a Group 14 semimetal in the periodic table, and it often forms compounds through covalent bonding. The most common silicon compound is silicon dioxide (SiO2), also known as silica, which is found in nature as quartz, sand, and other minerals.

Silicon can form compounds with many other elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, halogens, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. For example:

* Silanes (SiHn) are a series of silicon-hydrogen compounds where n ranges from 1 to 6.
* Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.
* Silicates are a class of minerals that contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metal cations. They have a wide range of structures and uses, including as building materials, ceramics, and glass.
* Siloxanes are a group of compounds containing alternating silicon-oxygen bonds with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.

Silicon compounds have various applications in industry, medicine, and daily life. For instance, silicones are used in medical devices such as breast implants, contact lenses, and catheters due to their biocompatibility and flexibility. Silicates are found in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food additives. Silicon-based materials are also used in dental restorations, bone cement, and drug delivery systems.

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Niobium" is not a medical term. Niobium is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, crystalline metal that is naturally found in minerals such as columbite and pyrochlore.

Niobium has some applications in the medical field, particularly in the production of implants and medical devices. For instance, niobium alloys are used in orthopedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility properties. However, niobium itself is not a medical term or concept.

Dental etching is a dental procedure that involves the use of a chemical agent, such as phosphoric or maleic acid, to create microscopic roughness on the surface of teeth. This process is typically used to prepare the tooth enamel for the application of bonding agents, such as dental adhesives and composite resins, which are used in various restorative and cosmetic dental procedures, such as fillings, veneers, and crowns.

During dental etching, the chemical agent is applied to the tooth surface for a specific amount of time, usually between 15-60 seconds, depending on the strength of the acid and the desired level of etching. The acid dissolves the minerals in the enamel, creating small pores or irregularities that increase the surface area and improve the bonding of the restorative material to the tooth. After etching, the tooth is rinsed with water and dried, and the bonding agent is applied and cured to create a strong and durable bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Dental etching is a safe and effective procedure when performed by a trained dental professional. However, over-etching or improper use of the acid can weaken the tooth structure and lead to sensitivity or other complications. Therefore, it is important to follow proper techniques and guidelines for dental etching to ensure optimal outcomes and patient satisfaction.

Carbon inorganic compounds are chemical substances that contain carbon combined with one or more elements other than hydrogen. These compounds include oxides of carbon such as carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), metal carbides like calcium carbide (CaC2) and silicon carbide (SiC), and carbonates like calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3).

Unlike organic compounds, which are based on carbon-hydrogen bonds, inorganic carbon compounds do not contain hydrocarbon structures. Instead, they feature carbon bonded to elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or halogens. Inorganic carbon compounds have diverse physical and chemical properties and play important roles in various industrial applications, as well as in biological systems.

Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive noble gas that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere. It is chemically inert and is extracted from air by fractional distillation. Argon is used in various applications such as illumination, welding, and as a shielding gas in manufacturing processes.

In medical terms, argon is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent or medication. However, it has been used in some medical procedures such as argon laser therapy for the treatment of certain eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. In these procedures, an argon laser is used to seal off leaking blood vessels or destroy abnormal tissue in the eye.

Overall, while argon has important uses in medical procedures, it is not a medication or therapeutic agent that is commonly administered directly to patients.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to create and manage designs in a variety of fields, such as architecture, engineering, and manufacturing. It allows designers to visualize their ideas in 2D or 3D, simulate how the design will function, and make changes quickly and easily. This can help to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the design process, and can also facilitate collaboration and communication among team members.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Twenty-five years of Titanium news: A concise and timely report on titanium and titanium recycling (Report). Suisman Titanium ... List of countries by titanium production Suboxide Titanium in Africa Titanium in zircon geothermometry Titanium Man VSMPO- ... TiCl4 is used in the conversion of titanium ores to titanium metal. Titanium tetrachloride is also used to make titanium ... Titanium(III) and titanium(II) also form stable chlorides. A notable example is titanium(III) chloride (TiCl3), which is used ...
... may refer to: Titanium tetrachloride (titanium(IV) chloride), TiCl4 Titanium trichloride (titanium(III) ... chloride), TiCl3 Titanium dichloride (titanium(II) chloride), TiCl2 This set index article lists chemical compounds articles ...
... is also produced intentionally, within some steels, by judicious addition of titanium to the alloy. TiN forms ... Titanium nitride coatings can also be deposited by thermal spraying whereas TiN powders are produced by nitridation of titanium ... TiN layers are also sputtered on a variety of higher melting point materials such as stainless steels, titanium and titanium ... titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN or AlTiN), and titanium aluminum carbon nitride, which may be used individually or in ...
"Titanium" A 25-second sample of "Titanium". Problems playing this file? See media help. "Titanium" is a house and urban-dance ... Sia - Titanium" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 19 March 2020. "David Guetta feat. Sia - Titanium". VG-lista. Retrieved ... Sia - Titanium" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved 12 October 2011. "David Guetta feat. Sia - Titanium". ARIA Top 50 ... Sia - Titanium" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 12 October 2011. "David Guetta feat. Sia - Titanium" (in French). Ultratop ...
"Russia to create "Titanium Valley"". Reuters. 2010-11-19. "Vladimir Putin has promised to launch a "Titanium Valley" in the ... The Titanium Valley project is part of Russia's ongoing effort to modernise and diversify its economy, one of the main programs ... Titanium Valley is a planned special economic zone in Sverdlovsk Oblast in the Urals Federal District of Russia, which will ... It will be created around the world's largest titanium producer, VSMPO-Avisma. The Russian government plans to invest at least ...
... titanium) or "aircraft grade" (primarily, 90% titanium, 6% aluminum, 4% vanadium), and titanium rings are often crafted in ... titanium rings are commonly referred to as such if they contain any amount of titanium. Rings crafted from titanium are a ... A titanium wedding-ring is used as a minor plot-point in the 1989 science fiction film and novel The Abyss. Titanium started ... Anodization of titanium rings is the process whereby an oxide film is formed on the surface of the titanium via an electrolytic ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Calliostomatidae. The size of the ... titanium". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 15 January 2019. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... Bouchet, P. (2012). Calliostoma titanium McLean, 1984. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ...
... , also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania /taɪˈteɪniə/, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula ... The process on the surface of the titanium dioxide was called the Honda-Fujishima effect (ja:本多-藤嶋効果). Titanium dioxide, in ... Look up titanium suboxide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Titanium dioxide. ... Sol-gel routes involve the hydrolysis of titanium alkoxides, such as titanium ethoxide: Ti(OEt)4 + 2 H2O → TiO2 + 4 EtOH This ...
Titanium is a very advanced backdoor malware APT, developed by PLATINUM, a cybercrime collective. The malware was uncovered by ... Regarding campaign activity, we have not detected any current activity [as of 8 November 2019] related to the Titanium APT." ... Goodin, Dan (8 November 2019). "One of the world's most advanced hacking groups debuts new Titanium backdoor - Malware hides at ... Ewell, Pauline (8 November 2019). "Platinum APT Shines Up New Titanium Backdoor". MashViral.com. Archived from the original on ...
... can refer to Titanium(III) fluoride (titanium trifluoride, TiF3), a violet to purple-red solid Titanium(IV) ... fluoride (titanium tetrafluoride, TiF4), a white hygroscopic solid with polymeric structure This set index article lists ...
In April 2010, Appcelerator expanded the Titanium product line with the Titanium Tablet SDK. The Titanium Tablet SDK draws ... Titanium can be used with Vue.js as a framework to develop apps since May 2018. Titanium supports ES6 features since SDK 6.1.0 ... "Titanium Guides Project: JS Environment". Appcelerator. Titanium runs your application's JavaScript using one of two JavaScript ... 1] GitHub - appcelerator/titanium-angular: Use the Titanium platform with Angular., Team Appcelerator, 2019-06-03, retrieved ...
In the titanium gas atomisation (TGA) process, titanium is vacuum induction skull melted in a water cooled copper crucible, the ... The Titanium Sponge Plant in India is the only one in the world that can undertake all the different activities of ... Titanium powder metallurgy (P/M) offers the possibility of creating net shape or near net shape parts without the material loss ... With titanium however, the binders used in MIM results in the introduction of carbon into the matrix due to insufficient binder ...
... (TiSe2) also known as titanium(IV) selenide, is an inorganic compound of titanium and selenium. In this ... Within the titanium-selenium system, many stoichiometries have been identified. Titanium diselenide crystallizes with the CdI2 ... Titanium diselenide is a member of metal dichalcogenides, compounds that consist of a metal and an element of the chalcogen ... A mixture of titanium and selenium are heated under argon atmosphere to produce crude samples. The crude product is typically ...
The Titanium Explorer is an Australian autogyro designed by Neil Sheather and Andrew Pepper and produced by Titanium Auto Gyro ... The aircraft fuselage box-section frame is made from titanium, while the cockpit fairing is made from carbon fiber reinforced ... Titanium Auto Gyro aircraft, 2010s Australian sport aircraft, Single-engined pusher autogyros). ...
... may refer to: Titanium dioxide (titanium(IV) oxide), TiO2 Titanium(II) oxide (titanium monoxide), TiO, a non- ... A common reduced titanium oxide is TiO, also known as titanium monoxide. It can be prepared from titanium dioxide and titanium ... "Inferno World with Titanium Skies - ESO's VLT makes first detection of titanium oxide in an exoplanet". www.eso.org. Retrieved ... Soleimani, Meisam; Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Badiei, Alireza (2022-01-01). "Black titania; novel researches in synthesis and ...
... was chosen because it is the lightest and cheapest chalcogenide. Titanium disulfide also has the fastest ... The microstructure of the titanium disulfide greatly affects the intercalation and deintercalation kinetics. Titanium disulfide ... "Thio sol-gel synthesis of titanium disulfide thin films and powders using titanium alkoxide precursors". Journal of Non- ... Titanium disulfide is a semimetal, meaning there is small overlap of the conduction band and valence band. The properties of ...
Official Home Page Torre Titanium Official Site Grupo Imber ffical Site de JEGAL "Torre Titanium". SkyscraperPage. (Orphaned ... Torre Titanium is 115 meters (377 ft) high and has 28 floors (including 26 apartments, a mezzanine and the ground floor). Its ... Torre Titanium is a vertical condominium building for residential use. It is located on Av. Empresarios #236, Boulevard. Puerta ...
... is the chemical compound with the formula TiBr4. It is the most volatile transition metal bromide. The ... Titanium tetrabromide forms adducts such as TiBr4(THF)2 and [TiBr5]−. With bulky donor ligands, such as 2-methylpyridine (2- ... "Titanium tetrabromide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2021. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry ... S. P. Webb & M. S. Gordon (1999). "Intermolecular Self-Interactions of the Titanium Tetrahalides TiX4 (X = F, Cl, Br)". J. Am. ...
... may mean: Titanium, chemical element, atomic number 22 Titanium alloy, metallic material used most notably in ... aircraft production Titanium Metals Corporation This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the ...
Titanium is used from head to toe in biomedical implants. One can find titanium in neurosurgery, bone conduction hearing aids, ... Titanium and its alloys are not immune to corrosion when in the human body. Titanium alloys are susceptible to hydrogen ... Titanium can have many different standard electrode potentials depending on its oxidation state. Solid titanium has a standard ... "Chemistry of Titanium". Winter, Mark. "Titanium compounds". Healy, Kevin E.; Ducheyne, Paul (1991). "A physical model for the ...
... (Nb-Ti) is an alloy of niobium and titanium, used industrially as a type II superconductor wire for ... The experimental fusion reactor ITER uses niobium-titanium for its poloidal field coils. In 2008, a test coil achieved stable ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Superconductors, Niobium alloys, Titanium alloys ... Niobium-titanium superconducting magnet coils (liquid-helium-cooled) were built to be used in the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ...
... titanium isopropoxide, titanium isopropylate, tetrakis(1-methylethoxy)titanium. TTIP can be used as a precursor for ambient ... titanium(IV) isopropoxide, titanium tetraisopropoxide, iso-propyl titanate, titanium tetraisopropanolate, ... Titanium isopropoxide, also commonly referred to as titanium tetraisopropoxide or TTIP, is a chemical compound with the formula ... Titanium isopropoxide is mainly a monomer in nonpolar solvents. It is prepared by treating titanium tetrachloride with ...
Titanium(IV) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiF4. It is a white hygroscopic solid. In contrast to the ... The traditional method involves treatment of titanium tetrachloride with excess hydrogen fluoride: TiCl4 + 4 HF → TiF4 + 4 HCl ... other tetrahalides of titanium, it adopts a polymeric structure. In common with the other tetrahalides, TiF4 is a strong Lewis ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula TiI4. It is a black volatile solid, first reported by Rudolph ... It is an intermediate in the van Arkel-de Boer process for the purification of titanium. TiI4 is a rare molecular binary metal ... Jongen, L.; Gloger, T.; Beekhuizen, J.; Meyer, G. (2005). "Divalent Titanium: The Halides ATiX3 (A = K, Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br, I ... "Titanium tetraiodide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2021. Weber, R. (1863). "Ueber die isomeren ...
Titanium lactate is a chemical compound, a salt of titanium and lactic acid with the formula C 12H 20O 12Ti. A reaction of ... "NCATS Inxight Drugs - TITANIUM TETRALACTATE, (+/-)". drugs.ncats.io. Retrieved 7 February 2023. "Titanium lactate (79533-80-5, ...
... can be obtained from the reaction between titanium or titanium hydride with silicon. Ti + 2 Si → TiSi2 It ... Titanium disilicide (TiSi2) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and silicon. ... by electrolysis of a melt of potassium hexafluorotitanate and titanium dioxide, or by reaction of titanium with silicon ... TiCl4 + 2 SiH4 → TiSi2 + 4 HCl + 2 H2 TiCl4 + 2 SiH2Cl2 + 2 H2 → TiSi2 + 8 HCl TiCl4 + 3 Si → TiSi2 + SiCl4 Titanium silicide ...
In 2013, Titanium signed a managing deal with Mike Cammarata who is the manager of American boy band Big Time Rush. Titanium's ... as Titanium worked with producers including Vince Harder. Titanium's debut studio album All For You was released worldwide on ... Titanium was a New Zealand pop boy band formed in Auckland in 2012 from the winners of The Edge radio station's competition to ... Titanium then went on to support American band Hot Chelle Rae as supporting acts for their New Zealand leg of the "Whatever ...
... at the Comic Book DB (archived from the original) Chinese Printers Reject Titanium RainICV2 Chinese Printers ... Titanium Rain is a limited series published by Archaia Studios Press, written by Josh Finney, with art by Josh Finney and Kat ... Issue 1 An introduction to the world and setting of Titanium Rain. Opens with United States Marines on the ground in a fire ... In June 2011, the AudioComics Company announced plans to adapt Titanium Rain as an audio drama. The first volume of the trilogy ...
Titanium Grade Overview "6Al-4V-ELI Titanium". Performance Titanium Group. "Grade 38 Titanium: A High-Strength and Corrosion- ... "6Al-4V Titanium". Performance Titanium Group. "Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Grade 5". Service Steel Aerospace Corporation. "Titanium Ti- ... "Titanium-6-4". Retrieved 2009-02-19. Compare Materials: Commercially Pure Titanium and 6Al-4V (Grade 5) Titanium Titanium ... See: Titanium orthopedic implants. The ASTM International standard on titanium and titanium alloy seamless pipe references the ...
... , also known as nitinol, is a metal alloy of nickel and titanium, where the two elements are present in roughly ... US patent 6875949, Hall, P. C., "Method of Welding Titanium and Titanium Based Alloys to Ferrous Metals" Hahnlen, Ryan; Fox, ... and the tremendous reactivity of titanium. Every atom of titanium that combines with oxygen or carbon is an atom that is robbed ... Nickel titanium can be used to make the underwires for underwire bras. It is used in some actuation-bending devices, such as ...
See: Titanium orthopedic implants. Titanium grades[edit]. The ASTM International standard on titanium and titanium alloy ... "Titanium Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (Grade 6) - Material Web".. *^ a b "Titanium Grade 7 (Titanium Palladium alloy, Ti-IIPd)-Metals, Alloys, ... "6Al-4V-ELI Titanium". Performance Titanium Group.. *^ "Grade 38 Titanium: A High-Strength and Corrosion-Resistant Alloy". ... Beta-titanium[edit]. Beta titanium alloys exhibit the BCC allotropic form of titanium (called beta). Elements used in this ...
Each year, the United States produces some 1.5 million tons of titanium dioxide, a powder thats widely used as a sunscreen and ... In the past few years, chemists have also found that coatings of titanium dioxide can kill bacteria, catalyze the breakdown of ...
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Titanium Dioxide. *This ingredients score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of ... Titanium dioxide is an inorganic compound used in a range of body care products such as sunscreens and makeup. It appears to ...
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The iPhone 14 Pro is no longer expected to feature a titanium chassis, according to recent reports. iPhone 14 Pro concept ... In 2021, a key report from JP Morgan Chase said that the ‌iPhone 14‌ Pro could offer a titanium chassis instead of stainless ... Despite the benefits of titanium, it appears that Apple looks set to continue using a stainless steel frame for the ‌iPhone 14‌ ... Prossers information suggested that the ‌iPhone 14‌ Pro would feature a thicker titanium chassis allowing for a flush rear ...
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... have discovered a titanium-gold (TiAu3) alloy that is harder than most steels and may be an optimal choice for use in ... Because titanium and gold by themselves are among the most biocompatible metals and are often used in medical implants, the ... "We published a study not long ago on titanium-gold, a 1-to-1 ratio compound that was a magnetic material made from nonmagnetic ... One of the extra compounds was a mixture of three parts titanium and one part gold that had been prepared at high temperature. ...
... to form organized periodontal tissues on titanium implants would be a significant improvement over current implant therapies. ... Bioengineered periodontal tissue formed on titanium dental implants J Dent Res. 2011 Feb;90(2):251-6. doi: 10.1177/ ... The ability to use autologous dental progenitor cells (DPCs) to form organized periodontal tissues on titanium implants would ... Analyses of recovered implants revealed organized PDL tissues surrounding titanium implant surfaces in PDL-cell-seeded, and not ...
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This statistic shows the volume of titanium (broken down into metals and oxides) exported by Bulgaria between 2008 and 2014 in ... Titanium metal export volume peaked at 849 tonnes in 2011 and titanium oxides export volume peaked at 987 tonnes in 2011. ... Basic Statistic Titanium export volume from the Czech Republic 2008-2014. * Basic Statistic U.S. exports of refined platinum ... Titanium industry worldwide. Iron ore. Copper mining industry worldwide. Base metal industry worldwide ...
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Bis(η5-cyclopentadienyl)titanium dibromide. *Formula: C10H10Br2Ti ...
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  • The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium readily reacts with oxygen at 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) in air, and at 610 °C (1,130 °F) in pure oxygen, forming titanium dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each year, the United States produces some 1.5 million tons of titanium dioxide, a powder that's widely used as a sunscreen and a white pigment for paints. (sciencenews.org)
  • In the past few years, chemists have also found that coatings of titanium dioxide can kill bacteria, catalyze the breakdown of dirt and toxic pollutants, and prevent water from building into tiny, fog-forming beads (SN: 3/21/98, p. 186). (sciencenews.org)
  • It is used to make titanium metal and other titanium-containing compounds, such as titanium dioxide, which is used as a white pigment in paints and other products and to produce other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Some other titanium compounds, such as titanium dioxide, are also found in air and water. (cdc.gov)
  • However, you can be tested for the presence of titanium dioxide or titanium metal, which are breakdown products of titanium tetrachloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Titanium dioxide is an inorganic compound used in a range of body care products such as sunscreens and makeup. (ewg.org)
  • DuPont is the world's largest manufacturer of titanium dioxide, a white pigment commonly used in coatings, plastics, paper as well as a variety of other applications. (prnewswire.com)
  • You are not likely to be exposed to titanium tetrachloride compounds, such as titanium dioxide, which is used as a in water, soil, food, or air. (cdc.gov)
  • Titanium dioxide, TiO₂ is used as a white pigment in paints and plastics as it provides great opacity. (goodfellow.com)
  • Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements . (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta titanium alloys exhibit the BCC allotropic form of titanium (called beta). (wikipedia.org)
  • The titanium alloys have excellent formability and can be easily welded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the beta titanium alloys can convert to hard and brittle hexagonal omega-titanium at cryogenic temperatures [6] or under influence of ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium is superconducting when cooled below its critical temperature of 0.49 K. Commercially pure (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 434 MPa (63,000 psi), equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, but are less dense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain titanium alloys (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like aluminium and magnesium, the surface of titanium metal and its alloys oxidize immediately upon exposure to air to form a thin non-porous passivation layer that protects the bulk metal from further oxidation or corrosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as: Humphreys Gold Co., Titanium Alloys Mfg. Co., Div. Of National Lead, Titanium Alloy Metals, Titanium Pigment Co. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, there are no open/active SEC petitions from Titanium Alloys Manufacturing. (cdc.gov)
  • All employees who worked in any area or building at Titanium Alloys Manufacturing from January 1, 1955, through December 31, 1956. (cdc.gov)
  • Titanium and its alloys are characterised by their lightness, strength and corrosion resistance and are used widely in aerospace applications. (goodfellow.com)
  • Like many other alloys, titanium gold alloys have a higher yield strength, tensile strength, hardness, and magnetism than either of its constituent metals. (mis-asia.com)
  • However, the number of NPL sites evaluated for titanium tetrachloride is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • Ordered the Apple Watch Edition GPS + Cellular, 44mm Space Black Titanium Case with Black Leather Link. (macrumors.com)
  • I ordered a 44mm Space Black Titanium w/ the charcoal braided loop around 1:30 CDT. (macrumors.com)
  • Because titanium and gold by themselves are among the most biocompatible metals and are often used in medical implants, the researchers team believed TiAu3 would be comparable. (sme.org)
  • This statistic shows the volume of titanium (broken down into metals and oxides) exported by Bulgaria between 2008 and 2014 in tonnes. (statista.com)
  • Titanium is a metal that is available to us in nature, so the production is not as expensive as it is for other metals. (thefrisky.com)
  • However, even titanium jewelry can be combined with precious stones and metals. (thefrisky.com)
  • This test is not specific for titanium tetrachloride exposure, but it does indicate exposure to some titanium-containing substances. (cdc.gov)
  • There is not enough information to determine if titanium lished for titanium tetrachloride exposure in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2021, a key report from JP Morgan Chase said that the ‌iPhone 14‌ Pro could offer a titanium chassis instead of stainless steel, resulting in a stronger, lighter, and more scratch-resistant design. (macrumors.com)
  • Despite the benefits of titanium, it appears that Apple looks set to continue using a stainless steel frame for the ‌iPhone 14‌ Pro, continuing a design feature that was introduced on the ‌iPhone‌ X. Apple reportedly concluded that it was simply too expensive to offer a titanium ‌iPhone‌ chassis at the current time amid production issues. (macrumors.com)
  • These versatile scissors feature nonstick, titanium-enhanced, stainless steel blades that stay sharp through heavy use and cut cleanly through materials with sticky adhesives. (michaels.com)
  • Compared to my Stainless Steel Series 4, my Series 5 Titanium held up much better. (macrumors.com)
  • To study the osseointegrative properties of titanium and tantalum implants with different surface structures in animal experiments . (bvsalud.org)
  • Titanium implants with multilayered interlaced pore layers of 300 microns and tantalum with 300 microns pore size and 80% porosity may be promising. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tantalum (left) and titanium (right) fiber mesh acetabular cups. (medscape.com)
  • Meet titanium white , the art world's favorite go-to pigment for power. (liquitex.com)
  • Elements used in this alloy are one or more of the following other than titanium in varying amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium is 60% denser than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Rice University (Houston) have discovered a titanium-gold (TiAu3) alloy that is harder than most steels and may be an optimal choice for use in orthopedic joint replacement surgery. (sme.org)
  • What the team didn't know at the time was that making TiA3 at relatively high temperature produces an almost pure crystalline form of the beta version of the alloy-the crystal structure that's four times harder than titanium. (sme.org)
  • Tests by colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston showed that the new alloy was even more biocompatible than pure titanium, and the results were same for wear resistance. (sme.org)
  • In metallurgy, titanium gold (Ti-Au or Au-Ti) refers to an alloy of Titanium and gold. (mis-asia.com)
  • With the decrease in temperature, the brittleness of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy increases. (mis-asia.com)
  • Grupp et al reported their experience regarding failed modular titanium neck adapters, in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem, after hip arthroplasty, as a result of fretting or corrosion. (medscape.com)
  • The authors noted that by the end of 2008, 1.4% (68/~5000) of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed at an average of 2 years (range, 0.7-4.0) postoperatively. (medscape.com)
  • Grupp et al concluded that failure of modular titanium alloy neck adapters can be initiated by surface micromotions due to surface contamination or highly loaded implant components. (medscape.com)
  • Iluka Resources bills itself as the second-largest producer of titanium minerals and the world's largest producer of zircon.The company has been mining in southeastern Virginia since 1998. (wral.com)
  • Thus the red tourmaline will be a titanium oxide. (liquitex.com)
  • Transparent mixing white (usually made with zinc oxide) has a tenth of the strength of titanium white. (liquitex.com)
  • Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants , for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminium and vanadium , typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's four times harder than pure titanium, which is what's currently being used in most dental implants and replacement joints. (sme.org)
  • Many times people have reactions to gold or silver, but titanium is biocompatible, meaning the body will not have any reaction while wearing these earrings. (thefrisky.com)
  • If it comes in contact with water, it rapidly forms hydrochloric acid, as well as titanium compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • If moisture is in the air, titanium tetrachloride reacts rapidly with it to form hydrochloric acid and other titanium compounds, such as titanium hydroxide and titanium oxychlorides. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of the titanium compounds may settle out to soil or water. (cdc.gov)
  • The titanium compounds may remain for a long time in the soil or sediments. (cdc.gov)
  • If it comes in contact with Some other titanium compounds, such as titanium diox water, it rapidly forms hydrochloric acid, as well as titanium ide, are also found in air and water. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the extra compounds was a mixture of three parts titanium and one part gold that had been prepared at high temperature. (sme.org)
  • Prized by orthopedic surgeons for knee and hip replacements, titanium offers a strong, wear-resistant and nontoxic choice for implants. (sme.org)
  • The ability to use autologous dental progenitor cells (DPCs) to form organized periodontal tissues on titanium implants would be a significant improvement over current implant therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used to bioengineer PDL tissues on titanium implants in a novel, in vivo rat maxillary molar implant model. (nih.gov)
  • Analyses of recovered implants revealed organized PDL tissues surrounding titanium implant surfaces in PDL-cell-seeded, and not in unseeded control, implants. (nih.gov)
  • Further refinement of this approach will facilitate the development of clinically relevant methods for autologous PDL regeneration on titanium implants in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Like steel structures, those made from titanium have a fatigue limit that guarantees longevity in some applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium tetrachloride is not found naturally in the environment and is made from minerals that contain titanium. (cdc.gov)
  • Because titanium tetrachloride breaks down rapidly in air, you probably would not be exposed to it unless you worked in an industry that made or used it. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to titanium ronment and is made from minerals that contain titanium. (cdc.gov)
  • With a few tweaks, Titanium made the mastered version sound positively murky. (musicradar.com)
  • We published a study not long ago on titanium-gold, a 1-to-1 ratio compound that was a magnetic material made from nonmagnetic elements," Morosan said. (sme.org)
  • The cover is made in Japan using a single piece of titanium pressed over our mold and hand molded to perfectly fit the iPhone 4. (geekalerts.com)
  • If it is made from titanium it maybe light but the price I'm sure is heavy. (geekalerts.com)
  • Here you'll find a range of nipple piercing jewelry all made with titanium, from horseshoe rings to barbells, each with its own distinct design. (spencersonline.com)
  • Built to the highest standards, this titanium buckle is removable and features a sandblasted black DLC finish for a refined experience, made to suit the TAG Heuer Connected Calibre E4 Watch 45mm model. (tagheuer.com)
  • Its bright white wall tiles were made with titanium white in 1887. (liquitex.com)
  • We are sure that if you choose titanium earrings or any other product, you will be satisfied with the quality and the way it is made. (thefrisky.com)
  • Mechanical, made of man-made (synthetic) materials, such as titanium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What you need to know is that titanium is as strong as steel, yet it is light and contains not even a trace of nickel. (thefrisky.com)
  • Nickel-titanium rotatory systems should remove dentin during the root canal preparation to promote the enlargement and tapered shape with continuously narrowing towards the apex. (bvsalud.org)
  • ProTaper showed the highest cutting ability among the three tested nickel-titanium rotatory systems followed by Mtwo and K3. (bvsalud.org)
  • Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium was discovered by Rev. William Gregor in 1791 in Creed, Cornwall, England and, independently, by M.H. Klaproth in 1795 in Berlin, Germany. (goodfellow.com)
  • Titanium is used predominately in paint, but is commonly associated with products like golf clubs, airplanes, and medical applications like artificial joints, pacemakers, and braces. (wral.com)
  • The company will debut their new feature set and capabilities, as well as a first look at its new Brushed Titanium colorway, in a main stage presentation at the 2023 HLTH Conference in Las Vegas featuring ŌURA CEO Tom Hale, stress and well-being expert, Dr. Elissa Epel, and Thrive Global CEO, author, and longtime ŌURA member, Arianna Huffington. (businesswire.com)
  • Titanium is a very reactive metal that burns in normal air at lower temperatures than the melting point. (wikipedia.org)
  • At lower temperatures, the atoms tend to arrange in another cubic structure-the alpha form of TiAu3 and the alpha structure is about as hard as regular titanium. (sme.org)
  • Titanium tends to be inert at low temperatures but will combine with a variety of reagents at elevated temperatures. (goodfellow.com)
  • This test uses electron microscopes to examine lung tissue for particles that contain titanium. (cdc.gov)
  • A polymer called PoreStar is then added as padding around the titanium sternum, replacing tissue and cartilage around the titanium sternum. (www.csiro.au)
  • Prosser's information suggested that the ‌iPhone 14‌ Pro would feature a thicker titanium chassis allowing for a flush rear camera array, round volume buttons like the iPhone 4 and ‌iPhone‌ 5, and redesigned speaker and microphone grilles with elongated mesh cutouts instead of holes. (macrumors.com)
  • Titanium is capable of withstanding attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, chloride solutions, and most organic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is no evidence that long-term exposure to titanium tetrachloride causes cancer in people. (cdc.gov)
  • If you breathe in lower levels of titanium tetrachloride, not indicate whether you may have potential health effects less serious respiratory system effects can include coughing resulting from such exposure or the amount of titanium com and tightness in the chest. (cdc.gov)
  • This layer gives titanium excellent resistance to corrosion, almost equivalent to platinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The iPhone 4 Titanium Cover is a lightweight and durable case, with a clean and modern design. (geekalerts.com)
  • We have already mentioned that titanium is lightweight, which means that you will not feel that something is pulling on your ear when you wear these earrings. (thefrisky.com)
  • As a metal, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium metal export volume peaked at 849 tonnes in 2011 and titanium oxides export volume peaked at 987 tonnes in 2011. (statista.com)
  • Titanium is a material that does not react with the skin, which means that you will not develop an allergy to this metal. (thefrisky.com)
  • Titanium is a hard, lustrous, silvery metal which is obtained by magnesium or calcium reduction of the tetrachloride. (goodfellow.com)
  • Titanium is nicknamed "The Rainbow Metal" in some jeweler circles because it can be anodized in an electrolyte solution to produce a variety of colors. (mis-asia.com)
  • WARNING - Flame cutting Titanium under certain conditions can produce high volumes of hydrogen that can combine with air, producing a highly explosive gas mix. (mis-asia.com)
  • An essential part of any studio kit, titanium white remains the powerhouse of white pigments. (liquitex.com)
  • For the name, the scientist decided to "borrow one from mythology - as I have already done for uranium - for the new name of this metallic body and I will call it titanium, in honour of the Titans, first children of the earth. (liquitex.com)
  • The climate was ideal: titanium white was cheaper to make than zinc white and had more strength. (liquitex.com)
  • When the two manufacturers team up in 1920, the titanium white went big on both continents. (liquitex.com)
  • Titanium white continues to be prized for its ability to dazzle. (liquitex.com)
  • Titanium white is an excellent choice. (liquitex.com)
  • Go for titanium white - it hides it all. (liquitex.com)
  • Titanium is one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas, reacting at 800 °C (1,470 °F) to form titanium nitride, which causes embrittlement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Releases of more than 100 pounds of titanium tetra result in skin burns and can cause permanent damage to the chloride have been proposed as the release levels that must be eyes, if they are not protected. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors concluded that the titanium stem is a versatile option for THA. (medscape.com)
  • In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is about three to four times harder than most steels," said Emilia Morosan, the lead scientist on a new study published in Science Advances that describes the properties of a 3-to-1 mixture of titanium and gold with a specific atomic structure that imparts hardness. (sme.org)
  • The three-dimensional titanium P´8947 sunglasses also create an impressive interplay between light and shadow. (porsche-design.com)
  • The titanium Bingham Built frame is paired with a titanium stem and seat post, with Selander opting for a Specialized Romin saddle. (cyclingnews.com)
  • BaBylissPRO Nano Titanium 1-3/4'' Ionic Straightening Iron's pure titanium-coated plates create smooth, sleek styles. (ulta.com)
  • What happens to titanium tetrachloride when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Titanium tetrachloride enters the environment primarily in the air from factories that make or use it in various chemical processes, or as a result of spills. (cdc.gov)
  • Titanium tetrachloride enters the environment primarily skin. (cdc.gov)
  • There has been leaks and rumours on the upcoming Apple Watch Series 5 and a new report suggests that Apple Watch Series 5 could come in Ceramic and Titanium variants alongside the regular variant. (fonearena.com)
  • Follow-up tests showed how hard the compound was, and the team also measured the hardness of the other compositions of titanium and gold that they had used as comparisons in the original study. (sme.org)
  • MILWAUKEE® Titanium Silver and Deming Drill Bits are engineered for all jobsite drilling applications. (milwaukeetool.com)
  • I know some people say the Titanium looks like the silver aluminum, but pictures don't do it justice. (macrumors.com)
  • Titanium has a nice silver finish that is brushed and has enough reflection to give it a luxurious look to it. (macrumors.com)
  • 44mm Titanium Silver with Blue braided sport loop. (macrumors.com)
  • The lifespan of titanium rods depends on several factors, including the quality of the material, how it is used, and how it is maintained. (mis-asia.com)
  • Silca 3D printed the MENSOLA Titanium Computer Mount for a functional and aesthetic mount that's 10 - 15% lighter than aluminum mounts and stronger, too. (backcountry.com)
  • And that's titanium, which is known primarily for it's extremely light weight. (geekalerts.com)
  • Very much satisfied with my bracelet.I have ordered several products from Titanium Kay before and has always received excellent quality products with good customer service and timely shipping of order. (titaniumkay.com)
  • Some laboratory animals that breathed titanium tetrachloride fumes for 2 years developed lung tumors of a special type. (cdc.gov)
  • Without the development of Aurelian Springs, the U.S. will be relying on foreign countries to supply titanium within eight years, Iluka officials said. (wral.com)
  • Titanium is safe and will not corrode, even if you don't wear the earrings for years. (thefrisky.com)
  • High-quality Titanium can last up to 20 years or more when properly cared for and used in appropriate applications. (mis-asia.com)
  • Dalury et al followed 96 patients for 5 years who had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) with single titanium stems. (medscape.com)
  • Titanium":"6" }, "ItemImage" : "/wcsstore/ExtendedSitesCatalogAssetStore///s7d1.scene7.com/is/image/MoosejawMB/10532220x1013583_zm? (moosejaw.com)
  • The second image below shows one type of IVC filter (titanium Greenfield filter) in place. (medscape.com)
  • Apple only sells the Titanium on Apple.com and only at there flag-ship Apple Stores. (macrumors.com)