Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.North AmericaRadar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)El Nino-Southern Oscillation: El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina_new_faq.html, accessed 5/12/2020)Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Atlantic OceanHydrocarbonsSapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Echinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Lightning: An abrupt high-current electric discharge that occurs in the ATMOSPHERE and that has a path length ranging from hundreds of feet to tens of miles. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.ArgentinaCosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.EthaneSouth AmericaGreenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.EuropeInfluenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Polyacetylenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one triple bond; or an oxidized form of POLYENES. They can react with SULFUR to form THIOPHENES.Pacific OceanAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Amorphophallus: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.AcetyleneEvolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)PhotochemistryTranscranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.ReadingOccipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Hemispherectomy: A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
The range is located in the northern hemisphere of Titan, between 56-7° north and 61-3° west. The Misty Montes are named after ... The Misty Montes are a range of mountains on Titan, the largest moon of the planet Saturn. ... Jennifer Blue, "Eight New Names for Titan Surface Features". USGS Astrologeology Science Center. Nov 13, 2012.. ...
The U.S. proposed TiME mission consider a lander that would splash down in a lake in Titan's northern hemisphere and float on ... The Huygens probe, carried to Saturn's moon Titan by the Cassini, was specifically designed to survive landing on land and on ... The landing on Titan in 2005 was the first landing on planet's satellites outside the Moon. ... the Saturn moon Titan, the asteroids and comets. A number of Moon probes, such as some members of the Soviet Luna program and ...
Testing for a Contractional Origin of Janiculum Dorsa on the Northern, Leading Hemisphere of Saturn's Moon Dione, The Woodlands ... Cassini SAR image of Titan's Mithrim Montes, showing 3 parallel ridges Radar-generated view of Titan's cryovolcanic Doom Mons ... "PIA20023: Radar View of Titan's Tallest Mountains". Photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 2016-03-24. Retrieved ... "Cryovolcanism on Titan: New results from Cassini RADAR and VIMS". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 118: 1-20. Bibcode: ...
Sotonera mid foreground Lakes, including Sotonera Titan northern hemisphere including Sotonera The USGS web site gives the size ... It is situated in a north polar region where the majority of Titan's large lakes are found. The lake is composed of liquid ... Sotonera Lacus is located near the north pole of Titan, centered on latitude 76.75°N and longitude 17.49°W, and measures 63 km ... External link in ,work= (help) Coustenis, A.; Taylor, F. W. (21 July 2008). Titan: Exploring an Earthlike World. World ...
Madagascar was separated by water when the marsupials first evolved in the northern hemisphere, and there are no current ... Curry Rogers, K.; Forster, C.A. (2001). "The last of the dinosaur titans: a new sauropod from Madagascar". Nature. 412: 530-534 ... Skeleton of New Dinosaur "Titan" Found in Madagascar from National Geographic. Dino skull fills knowledge gap from the BBC. New ...
The proposed Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) was a low-cost lander that would splash down in a lake in Titan's northern hemisphere ... It was summer in Titan's southern hemisphere until 2010, when Saturn's orbit, which governs Titan's motion, moved Titan's ... Titan nomenclature and Titan map with feature names from the USGS planetary nomenclature page Google Titan 3D, interactive map ... Solar System portal Colonization of Titan Lakes of Titan Life on Titan List of natural satellites Saturn's moons in fiction ...
The discovery on 22 July 2006 of lakes and seas in Titan's northern hemisphere confirmed the hypothesis that liquid ... Explorer of Enceladus and Titan (E2T) Journey to Enceladus and Titan (JET) Oceanus Titan Lake In-situ Sampling Propelled ... Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) is a proposed design for a lander for Saturn's moon Titan. TiME is a relatively low-cost, outer- ... Titan Mare Explorer: TiME for Titan. (PDF) Lunar and Planetary Institute (2012). Stofan, Ellen; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J. I.; ...
In contrast, the northern hemisphere's Ligeia Mare has depths of 170 m. According to Cassini data, scientists announced on ... Cook, J.-R. C. (2009-12-17). "Glint of Sunlight Confirms Liquid in Northern Lake District of Titan". NASA web site Cassini ... The model also apparently explains why there are more lakes in the northern hemisphere. Due to the eccentricity of Saturn's ... "Titan Has More Oil Than Earth". February 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13. "Astrophile: Titan lake has more liquid fuel than ...
... exposing different amounts of sunlight to Titan's northern and southern hemispheres during different parts of the Saturnian ... The day cycle on Titan lasts 15.9 Earth days, which is how long it takes Titan to orbit Saturn. Titan is tidally locked, so the ... this was the spring equinox for the northern hemisphere, meaning the southern hemisphere is getting less sunlight and moving ... Seasonal weather changes include larger hydrocarbon lakes in the northern hemisphere during the winter, decreased haze around ...
TiME lander would splashdown on Ligeia Mare, a methane sea on Titan's northern hemisphere. It is believed that Titan's methane ... Explore Titan as a system Study Titan's organic inventory and astrobiological potential Constrain Titan's origin and evolution ... Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) was a joint NASA-ESA proposal for an exploration of Saturn and its moons Titan and Enceladus ... The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) was officially created in January 2009 by the merging of the ESA's Titan and Enceladus ...
Before racing in the Northern Hemisphere he won his second Rowe Cup and the Bill Collins Mile in Melbourne. He also raced in ... Highlights of his North American racing included a win in the Su Mac Lad, a close second in the Titan Cup and a second in the ... A notable achievement of Lyell Creek was that he won 34 of his 37 starts before his extensive Northern Hemisphere campaign, ...
Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that it found strong evidence of seas of methane and ethane in the northern hemisphere. At ... Stephen L. Gillett, "Titan as the Abode of Life," Analog, Vol. CXII No. 13, pp. 40-55 (1992) Julian Nott - Titan: A Distant But ... Due to Titan's extremely low temperatures, heating of any flight-bound vehicle becomes a key obstacle. Titan in fiction ... in Titan's northern latitudes. This is the first discovery of currently existing lakes beyond Earth. The lakes range in size ...
The proposed Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) was a low-cost lander that would splash down in a lake in Titan's northern hemisphere ... Contrasting images of the number of lakes in Titan's northern hemisphere (left) and southern hemisphere (right) Two images of ... which governs Titan's motion, moved Titan's northern hemisphere into the sunlight. When the seasons switch, it is expected ... AstronomyCast: Titan Fraser Cain and Pamela Gay, 2010.. *Titan nomenclature and Titan map with feature names from the USGS ...
As the northern hemisphere is pointed towards the sun only at aphelion, the sky there would likely remain blue. The rings of ... "POV-Ray renderings of Huygens descending to Titan". www.beugungsbild.de. "Rainbows on Titan". NASA. Retrieved October 8, 2011. ... Even Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, appears only half the size of Earth's moon, and only grows as bright as −7. In fact, ... Titan is the only moon in the solar system to have a thick atmosphere. Images from the Huygens probe show that the Titanean sky ...
The first quarter corresponds to spring in the Martian northern hemisphere and autumn in the Martian southern hemisphere. The ... In 2003 he created a variant of the calendar for Titan. *Mars dates are approximate where the exact time of the event is not ... The Martian year is treated as beginning near the equinox marking spring in the northern hemisphere of the planet. Mars ... the Earth means that their significance is strongly amplified in the southern hemisphere and masked in the northern hemisphere ...
... and then observed Triton's northern hemisphere as it passed over its north pole. The net and final effect on Voyager 2 was to ... Voyager 2, if boosted by the maximum performance from the Titan-Centaur, could just barely catch the old Grand Tour trajectory ... The southern hemisphere of the Solar System's heliosphere is being pushed in. On April 22, 2010, Voyager 2 encountered ... The primary mission of Voyager 1 was to explore Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturn's moon, Titan. Voyager 2 was also to explore ...
... of Earth rotation was discussed in detail in the 1950 paper A preliminary survey of the radio stars in the Northern Hemisphere ... During the late 1960s and early 1970s, as computers (such as the Titan) became capable of handling the computationally ...
The sizes of northern hemisphere lakes and maria, in contrast, have been much more stable. By terrestrial standards, the lake ... On Titan, waves can be generated at lower wind speeds than on Earth, due to the four times greater atmospheric density, and ... The northern shoreline features low hills, probably about 1 kilometer (3,000 feet) high, and flooded river valleys. A smooth ... Ontario Lacus is a lake composed of methane, ethane and propane near the south pole of Saturn's moon Titan. Its character as a ...
The Voyager 2 flyby coincided with the southern hemisphere's 1986 summer solstice, when nearly the entire northern hemisphere ... The name Titania is ancient Greek in origin, meaning "Daughter of the Titans." Titania orbits Uranus at the distance of about ... Water ice absorption bands are slightly stronger on Titania's leading hemisphere than on the trailing hemisphere. This is the ... so the northern (dark) hemisphere could not be studied. No other spacecraft has ever visited the Uranian system or Titania, and ...
Meteoritical Society annual meeting, held during the Northern Hemisphere summer, generally alternating between North America ... This can involve comparing the dense atmospheres of Earth and Saturn's moon Titan, the evolution of outer Solar System objects ... Two moons have significant atmospheres: Saturn's moon Titan and Neptune's moon Triton. A tenuous atmosphere exists around ...
The dental formula for macropods is 3.0-18.104.22.168.2.4 Like the eutherian ruminants of the Northern Hemisphere (sheep, cattle, ... Other species (e.g. Simosthenurus, Propleopus, Macropus titan) became extinct after the Australian Aborigines arrived and ... Onychogalea lunata Northern nail-tail wallaby, Onychogalea unguifera Genus Petrogale P. brachyotis species-group Short-eared ...
The majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a ... as returned by the Cassini Probe observing the moon Titan, which orbits the planet Saturn. Globally, lakes are greatly ... Most the lakes in northern Europe and North America have been either influenced or created by the latest, but not last, ...
... earthscience.stackexchange.com/questions/4505/why-is-march-colder-than-september-in-northern-hemisphere https://www. ... The gas giants Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus, as well as Saturn's moon Titan, all have substantial seasonal lags corresponding to ...
At the time of the flyby the southern hemisphere of Oberon was pointed towards the Sun, so the dark northern hemisphere could ... The eight moons more massive than Oberon are Ganymede, Titan, Callisto, Io, Earth's Moon, Europa, Triton, and Titania. Some ... The Voyager 2 flyby coincided with the southern hemisphere's 1986 summer solstice, when nearly the entire northern hemisphere ... Water ice absorption bands are stronger on Oberon's trailing hemisphere than on the leading hemisphere. This is the opposite of ...
... concluded that Arctic amplification significantly decreased cold-season temperature variability over the Northern Hemisphere in ... Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Withers, Paul G.; McKay, Christopher P. (2001). "Titan, Mars and Earth: Entropy ... Qiuhong Tang, Xuejun Zhang and Jennifer A. Francis (December 2013). "Extreme summer weather in northern mid-latitudes linked to ... James A. Screen (June 15, 2014). "Arctic amplification decreases temperature variance in northern mid- to high-latitudes". ...
In cooler places such as Northern Tasmania, Australia, high humidity is experienced all year due to the ocean between mainland ... and in fact the record for the Western Hemisphere has been set in the region and has remained somewhere in the region for many ... "Comparing the Greenhouse Effect on Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan: Present Day and through Time" (PDF) ... for western hemisphere), specific humidity and absolute humidity world records have apparently held and in fact the highest dew ...
Lakes and seas are scattered across the northern hemisphere, and occasional rains dampen its sandy surface. The similarities ... A familiar alien landscape At first glance, Titan looks a lot like Earth. ... end there - Titan is so cold that water exists as rock-hard ice, and oily methane falls from the sky and trickles into the seas ... Saturns moon Titan has all the right ingredients for life. NASAs newly announced mission, Dragonfly, will explore the icy ...
... and especially Titan!) from the Cassini-Huygens mission.… ... as Titan has moved out of northern hemisphere winter, through ... Saturns equinox was 11 August 2009, and spring is coming to the northern hemisphere. The polar hood that covered Titans north ... northern hemisphere winter. Both Voyager and Cassini detected enhancements of some molecules at northern high latitudes. Why ... Titan and Dione with Saturn and rings On 21 May 2011, Cassini saw Dione pass behind Titan as both passed in front of the yellow ...
In contrast, the northern hemispheres Ligeia Mare has depths of 170 m. According to Cassini data, scientists announced on ... Cook, J.-R. C. (2009-12-17). "Glint of Sunlight Confirms Liquid in Northern Lake District of Titan". NASA web site Cassini ... The model also apparently explains why there are more lakes in the northern hemisphere. Due to the eccentricity of Saturns ... "Titan Has More Oil Than Earth". February 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13. "Astrophile: Titan lake has more liquid fuel than ...
The finance director of Northern Irish healthcare business Galen Holdings has cashed in his shares in the company for £4.6m, ... Methane rainfall indicates the start of the summer season in Titans northern hemisphere ... The finance director of Northern Irish healthcare business Galen Holdings has cashed in his shares in the company for £4.6m, ... Sunlit wet sidewalk provides evidence of methane rainfall on the north pole of Saturns moon Titan ...
New research led by The University of Texas at Austin has found that most waves on Titans lakes reach only about 1 centimeter ... Titan, are perfect for paddling but not for surfing. ... in on the three largest lakes in Titans northern hemisphere: ... On Titan, methane and ethane fall from the sky as rain, fill deep lakes that dot the surface, and are possibly spewed into the ... Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and one of the locations in the solar system that is thought to possess the ingredients for ...
Rev 211 Looking for changes in Titans northern hemisphere (6 replies). *Rev 210 Cloud monitoring and estuary glint (hopefully) ... Rev 238 and T 121 flyby: ? clouds over the northern seas. (1 reply) ...
Titans First Close-Up A chefs bounty of colors is represented in this full color view of Saturns northern hemisphere. ... Titans First Close-Up October 26, 2004 This image is one of the closest ever taken of Saturns hazy moon Titan. It was ... Closing in on Titan July 3, 2004 Full-Res: PIA06111 Titans veil begins to lift as Cassinis cameras peer through the hazy moon ... Terrain on Saturns moon Tethys, defined with craters, is shown in front of the hazy atmosphere of the larger moon Titan in ...
TiME lander would splashdown on Ligeia Mare, a methane sea on Titans northern hemisphere. It is believed that Titans methane ... Explore Titan as a system Study Titans organic inventory and astrobiological potential Constrain Titans origin and evolution ... Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) was a joint NASA-ESA proposal for an exploration of Saturn and its moons Titan and Enceladus ... The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) was officially created in January 2009 by the merging of the ESAs Titan and Enceladus ...
The proposed Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) was a low-cost lander that would splash down in a lake in Titans northern hemisphere ... Contrasting images of the number of lakes in Titans northern hemisphere (left) and southern hemisphere (right) Two images of ... which governs Titans motion, moved Titans northern hemisphere into the sunlight. When the seasons switch, it is expected ... AstronomyCast: Titan Fraser Cain and Pamela Gay, 2010.. *Titan nomenclature and Titan map with feature names from the USGS ...
It all started in 2007-2008 when lakes and seas were discovered in the northern hemisphere of Titan, satellite of Saturn. The ... The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME), as portrayed in an artist rendering of the lake lander probe TiME (from Wikipedia), is ... one of the large Titan seas, for at least 3 months. This first nautical exploration of an extraterrestrial sea could be a ... chemistry of these lakes, their role in the methane cycle of Titan and the seasonal variability is unknown and will remain ...
On the left is a true color image of Titan. The moons north polar hood is visible in this view. The image on the right is a ... Both images were taken on June 26, 2013, as it was looking for clouds across Titans northern trailing hemisphere. Cassini was ... Above and below Titans atmosphere On the left is a true color image of Titan. The moons north polar hood is visible in this ... The image on the right is a representation of what it would look like if you could see past Titans atmosphere and down to its ...
When the Cassini orbiter arrived at Saturn in 20o4, Titans northern hemisphere was experiencing winter - which began in 2004. ... Huygens Spots Methane Fog On Saturns Moon Titan. Titan is a moon shrouded in mystery. Despite multiple flybys and surface ... For example, similar observations were made near the north pole in 2005, about two years after the northern hemisphere ... Whereas the northern polar cloud observed in 2005 was spotted about two years after the northern winter solstice, the southern ...
Scientists suspected that clouds might appear at Titans equatorial latitudes as spring in the northern hemisphere progressed. ... The imaging team intends to watch whether Titan evolves in this fashion as the seasons progress from spring toward northern ... Clouds on Titan are formed of methane as part of an Earth-like cycle that uses methane instead of water. On Titan, methane ... "Titan continues to surprise and amaze us," said Alfred McEwen, a planetary scientist at the UAs Lunar and Planetary Lab and a ...
Reflection of Sunlight off Titan Lake Saturns northern hemisphere reached its summer solstice in mid-2017, bringing continuous ... The northern and southern hemispheres of Rhea are seen in these polar stereographic maps, mosaicked from the best-available ... Annotated version The northern and southern hemispheres of Rhea are seen in these polar stereographic maps, mosaicked from the ... This image shows the first flash of sunlight reflected off a hydrocarbon lake on Saturns moon Titan. The glint off a mirror- ...
Those observations were made near the north pole, about two years after the winter solstice in Titans northern hemisphere. ... In Titans stratosphere, a global circulation pattern sends a current of warm gases from the hemisphere where its summer to ... The northern cloud was spotted about two years after the northern winter solstice, but the southern cloud was spotted about two ... "One of the advantages of Cassini was that we were able to flyby Titan again and again over the course of the thirteen-year ...
The latest Earth-based observations were focused on Titans southern hemisphere. Its possible the northern region may still ... Early radar studies showed that Titan was covered with pools of methane - a flammable gas on Earth but liquid on Titan because ... Titan - one of two moons in the solar system known to have a significant atmosphere - has long baffled scientists because its ... The spacecraft noticed a dark spot on Titans south pole about the size of Lake Ontario that could be the site of a past or ...
Clouds continued to be observed as spring came to Titans northern hemisphere. But since a huge storm swept across the icy ... As NASAs Cassini spacecraft sped away from Titan following a relatively close flyby, its cameras monitored the moons northern ... NASAs Cassini spacecraft recently captured images of clouds moving across the northern hydrocarbon seas of Saturns moon Titan ... A year on Titan lasts about 30 Earth years, with each season lasting about seven years. Observing seasonal changes on Titan ...
... a sea of frigid methane on Titans northern hemisphere. … ... We in the Northern Hemisphere can see the Summer Triangle for ... Magic Island may show Titans oceans are hardly pacific. The sudden disappearance of a bright spot on a methane sea on Titan ... Scientists are investigating a mystery object that appeared and then vanished again from a giant lake on Titan, the largest ... Mystery object in lake on Saturns moon Titan intrigues scientists , Science , The Guardian. ...
tmosphere is brilliant blue in the northern hemisphere and yellow in the southern hemisphere; Titan, Saturns largest moon, has ... If your living room features a fake Christmas tree, your choice is Northern Forest, which smells like spruce. Sweet Dreams ...
Cassini has seen a vast network of these hydrocarbon seas cover Titans northern hemisphere, while a more sporadic set of lakes ... A hydrocarbon lake warming in the early spring thaw, as the northern lakes of Titan have begun to do, may become more ... Titan is the only other body besides Earth in our solar system with stable bodies of liquid on its surface. But while our ... bejewels the southern hemisphere. Up to this point, Cassini scientists assumed that Titan lakes would not have floating ice, ...
The Cassini spacecraft looks down on the north pole of Titan, showing night and day in the northern hemisphere of Saturns ... Surface features on Titan form like Earths, but with a frigid twist. [Thursday, August 6, 2009]. Saturn s haze-enshrouded moon ... Caltech Scientists Discover Storms in the Tropics of Titan. [Wednesday, August 12, 2009]. For all its similarities to Earth ... Satellites Unlock Secret to Northern Indias Vanishing Water. [Wednesday, August 12, 2009]. Using NASA satellite data, ...
Once every 30 years or so, or roughly one Saturnian year, a monster storm rips across the northern hemisphere of the ringed ... Titan data indicates a rigid, weathered ice shell. August 28, 2013. An analysis of gravity and topography data from Saturns ... largest moon, Titan, has revealed unexpected features of the moons outer ice shell. The best... ... Research Institute may explain how Saturns majestic rings and icy inner moons formed following the collision of a Titan-sized ...
Cassini arrived during the southern hemispheres summer (winter in the northern hemisphere). Now it is summer in the northern ... Titan, Saturns Largest Moon. Saturns largest moon, Titan, also will fall under Webbs powerful gaze. Titan is unique because ... In late 2010, a monster storm erupted in Saturns northern hemisphere. It began as a tiny spot but grew rapidly, until by the ... They will be watching for more storms as Saturns northern hemisphere moves from summer into fall over the course of Webbs ...
... northern hemisphere enter summer.. Titan is covered in a thick, orangey atmosphere that hid its surface from scientists the ... This image represents the first time this "sunglint" and Titans northern polar seas have been captured in one mosaic, NASA ... Cassini, NASA, Saturn, Solar System, Space Exploration, Titan. Titanic Liquid: Blinding Sunglint Shines On Saturns Swampy ... See that yellow smudge in the image above? Thats what the Sun looks like reflecting off the seas of Titan, that moon of Saturn ...
Approximately 1 percent of Titans surface was mapped during the Oct. 26 flyby. Radar images from Titans northern hemisphere, ... Previously, Titans surface was hidden behind a veil of thick haze. Image above: In this radar image, brighter areas may ... The story of Titan is unfolding right before our eyes, and what we are seeing is intriguing." The Oct. 26 flyby marked the ... "Titan is a dynamic place with complex geologic processes that may be shaping its surface. Its surface may well be covered with ...
Titan'sCassiniHydrocarbonsFlybySaturnianLakesCassini'sLigeia MareEnceladusEarth'sMoon's southern hemisphereScientistsLiquid methaneAtmosphericMoonsSeasSaturn and TitanChristiaan HuygensOrbitsSunlightHemisphere'sSolarHazeLatitudesNitrogen2017SurfaceSaturn's Largest MoonMillion kilometersCloudSummerNASASeasonal changesOrbitCloudsJupiterMare ExplorerYear on Titan lastsHazyTidally lockedEquinoxObserversKilometersPlanetaryOrbiterClosestSpacecraft1655Moon TitanEarth
- The idea of building an aircraft to fly in Titan's thick atmosphere isn't new, but it wasn't until drone technology became more advanced that the Dragonfly team realized they could make their dream of flying on Titan a reality. (voanews.com)
- The first molecule ever detected in Titan's atmosphere, and indeed our first solid evidence that Titan had an atmosphere, was methane (CH 4 ), which was discovered by Gerard Kuiper in the 1940s. (planetary.org)
- In June 2008, Cassini's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer confirmed the presence of liquid ethane beyond doubt in a lake in Titan's southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
- The research zeroes in on the three largest lakes in Titan's northern hemisphere: Kraken Mare, Ligeia Mare and Punga Mare. (eurekalert.org)
- Closing in on Titan July 3, 2004 Full-Res: PIA06111 Titan's veil begins to lift as Cassini's cameras peer through the hazy moon. (nasa.gov)
- Titan's First Close-Up October 26, 2004 This image is one of the closest ever taken of Saturn's hazy moon Titan. (nasa.gov)
- Detailed assessment reports of the mission elements as well as a specific concept for a lake-landing module for Titan's lakes called Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) with the potential of becoming a part of the TSSM have been proposed in February and October 2009, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- The TSSM mission consists of an orbiter and two Titan exploration probes: a hot air balloon ("Montgolfier" type) that will float in Titan's clouds, and a lander that will splash down on one of its methane seas. (wikipedia.org)
- The montgolfière, a hot air balloon, would be released on approach to the first Titan flyby for ballistic entry into Titan's atmosphere for its six Earth months' mission from April 2030 to October 2030. (wikipedia.org)
- Based on Cassini-Huygens discoveries, the montgolfière should be able to circumnavigate Titan at least once during its nominal lifetime at its deployment latitude of about 20°N, 10 kilometers above Titan's surface. (wikipedia.org)
- Above and below Titan's atmosphere On the left is a true color image of Titan. (planetary.org)
- Both images were taken on June 26, 2013, as it was looking for clouds across Titan's northern trailing hemisphere. (planetary.org)
- When the Cassini orbiter arrived at Saturn in 20o4, Titan's northern hemisphere was experiencing winter - which began in 2004. (universetoday.com)
- Scientists suspected that clouds might appear at Titan's equatorial latitudes as spring in the northern hemisphere progressed. (innovations-report.com)
- Essentially, the features observed by Cassini are just part of Titan's northern polar region, which is covered by large standing bodies of liquid methane - the largest of these being Kraken Mare, Ligeia Mare and Punga Mare. (universetoday.com)
- In Titan's stratosphere, a global circulation pattern sends a current of warm gases from the hemisphere where it's summer to the winter pole. (innovations-report.com)
- The latest Earth-based observations were focused on Titan's southern hemisphere. (redorbit.com)
- Clouds continued to be observed as spring came to Titan's northern hemisphere. (scitechdaily.com)
- Observing seasonal changes on Titan will continue to be a major goal for the Cassini mission as summer comes to Titan's north and the southern latitudes fall into winter darkness. (scitechdaily.com)
- Cornell Universitywere flipping between radar images of Ligeia Mare, a sea of frigid methane on Titan's northern hemisphere. (flipboard.com)
- Cassini has seen a vast network of these hydrocarbon seas cover Titan's northern hemisphere, while a more sporadic set of lakes bejewels the southern hemisphere. (nasa.gov)
- Radar images from Titan's northern hemisphere, a region that has not yet been imaged optically, show great detail and features down to 300 meters (984 feet) across. (nasa.gov)
- In 2007, not long after the discovery of Titan's northern lakes , Stofan and her colleagues developed TiME. (space.com)
- Bright and dark terrain on Titan's trailing hemisphere is revealed by Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem in this mosaic of images taken during the T28 flyby in April 2007. (esa.int)
- The region shown in this image, centred on the northern part of Titan's trailing hemisphere (near 31.2° North, 139.3° East), had only been seen at very low resolution until February 2007, when Cassini flew over this area for the first time. (esa.int)
- An updated Titan map , being released today by the Cassini Imaging Team, includes the first near-infrared images of the leading hemisphere portion of Titan's northern "lake district" captured on Aug. 15-16, 2008. (ciclops.org)
- Titan's tropics may be fairly dry because they only experience brief episodes of rainfall in the spring and fall as peak sunlight shifts between the hemispheres," said Dr. Tony DelGenio of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York, a co-author and a member of the Cassini imaging team. (ciclops.org)
- For its first observation of Rev 237, on June 18, ISS will look at Titan's northern trailing hemisphere from a distance of 3.54 million kilometers (2.20 million miles). (ciclops.org)
- ISS will be searching for clouds across Titan's north polar region and at northern mid-latitudes during this sequence. (ciclops.org)
- The hydrocarbon lakes of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, may contain nitrogen that, at times, causes them to bubble and fizz, according to a NASA study that simulated conditions on Titan's surface. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- Winter is taking a grip on Titan's southern hemisphere, and a strong, whirling atmospheric circulation pattern - a vortex - has developed in the upper atmosphere over the south pole, the probe has revealed. (odishatv.in)
- Cassini's observations show a reversal in the atmosphere above Titan's poles since the spacecraft arrived at Saturn in 2004, when similar features were seen in the northern hemisphere, the scientists said. (odishatv.in)
- We arrived at the northern mid-winter and have now had the opportunity to monitor Titan's atmospheric response through two full seasons," Coustenis noted. (odishatv.in)
- Titan's hemispheres have responded in different ways to these seasonal changes. (odishatv.in)
- The evaporation that has been discovered in the Southern Hemisphere of the Titan's lake implies that there are weather and geological recurrence in place similar to those on earth. (affleap.com)
- Titan's atmosphere actual activation can be much more complicated according to Dr. Aharonson, heading to long recurring events in which one hemisphere or the other could be wetter or colder. (affleap.com)
- Due to the variables of Titan's orbiting around Saturn and Saturn's orbiting around the sun, Titan seems closer to the sun during its southern summer than in its northern hemisphere. (affleap.com)
- The proposed titan mare explorer time was a low-cost lander that would splash down in a lake in titan's northern hemisphere and float on the surface of the lake for three to six months. (anek.pl)
- These included the Keck Observatory, which captured high-resolution images of the atmospheric weather patterns on Titan, and the IRTF, which helped determine the direction of Titan's winds. (scienmag.com)
- Titan in front of Saturn as seen by Cassini. (voanews.com)
- Titan and Dione with Saturn and rings On 21 May 2011, Cassini saw Dione pass behind Titan as both passed in front of the yellow bulk of planet Saturn. (planetary.org)
- The lakes of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, are bodies of liquid ethane and methane that have been detected by the Cassini-Huygens space probe, and had been suspected long before. (wikipedia.org)
- Following a flyby on July 22, 2006, in which the Cassini spacecraft's radar imaged the northern latitudes (which were at the time in winter), a number of large, smooth (and thus dark to radar) patches were seen dotting the surface near the pole. (wikipedia.org)
- Overall, the Cassini radar observations have shown that lakes cover only a few percent of the surface and are concentrated near the poles, making Titan much drier than Earth. (wikipedia.org)
- According to Cassini data, scientists announced on February 13, 2008, that Titan hosts within its polar lakes "hundreds of times more natural gas and other liquid hydrocarbons than all the known oil and natural gas reserves on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
- From beneath the ringplane, the Cassini spacecraft takes stock of Saturn's southern skies and peeks through the rings and beyond their shadows at the northern latitudes. (nasa.gov)
- This Cassini spacecraft image provides a view of the southern portion of Tethys' trailing hemisphere. (nasa.gov)
- An intricate, fingerprint-like pattern of dunes is seen in this dramatic radar image of Saturn's moon Titan captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on May 21, 2009 from an altitude of 965 kilomet. (nasa.gov)
- Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) was a joint NASA-ESA proposal for an exploration of Saturn and its moons Titan and Enceladus, where many complex phenomena were revealed by Cassini. (wikipedia.org)
- After Giovanni Domenico Cassini published his discoveries of four more moons of Saturn between 1673 and 1686, astronomers fell into the habit of referring to these and Titan as Saturn I through V (with Titan then in fourth position). (wikipedia.org)
- Cassini arrived during the southern hemisphere's summer (winter in the northern hemisphere). (spaceref.com)
- Cassini and its Huygens probe from the European Space Agency, which landed on Titan in 2004, made remarkable discoveries about this Saturnian moon. (spaceref.com)
- As spring continues to unfold on Saturn, April showers on the planet's largest moon, Titan, have brought methane rain to its equatorial deserts, as revealed in images captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft. (innovations-report.com)
- These outbreaks may be the Titan equivalent of what creates Earth's tropical rainforest climates, even though the delayed reaction to the change of seasons and the apparently sudden shift is more reminiscent of Earth's behavior over the tropical oceans than over tropical land areas," said Tony Del Genio of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, a co-author and a member of the Cassini imaging team. (innovations-report.com)
- The northern and southern hemispheres of Rhea are seen in these polar stereographic maps, mosaicked from the best-available Cassini and Voyager images. (nasa.gov)
- For example, previous images provided by NASA's Cassini mission showed indications of steep-sided canyons in the northern polar region that appeared to be filled with liquid hydrocarbons, similar to river valleys here on Earth. (universetoday.com)
- Cassini image of the northern polar area of Titan and Vid Flumina drainage basin, showing Ligeia Mare (left) and the Vid Flumina drainage basin (right). (universetoday.com)
- Researchers with NASA's Cassini mission found evidence of a toxic hybrid ice in a wispy cloud high above the south pole of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. (innovations-report.com)
- This view of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is among the last images the Cassini spacecraft sent to Earth before it plunged into the giant planet's atmosphere. (innovations-report.com)
- Cassini has yet to detect abundant reflections that would indicate areas of liquid on Titan. (redorbit.com)
- This animated sequence of Cassini images shows methane clouds moving above the large methane sea on Saturn's moon Titan known as Ligeia Mare. (scitechdaily.com)
- NASA's Cassini spacecraft recently captured images of clouds moving across the northern hydrocarbon seas of Saturn's moon Titan. (scitechdaily.com)
- The Cassini spacecraft obtained the new views in late July, as it receded from Titan after a close flyby. (scitechdaily.com)
- As NASA's Cassini spacecraft sped away from Titan following a relatively close flyby, its cameras monitored the moon's northern polar region, capturing signs of renewed cloud activity. (scitechdaily.com)
- Lakes on Saturn's moon Titan reflect radio waves in varying ways in this image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. (nasa.gov)
- A new paper by scientists on NASA's Cassini mission finds that blocks of hydrocarbon ice might decorate the surface of existing lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbon on Saturn's moon Titan. (nasa.gov)
- The presence of ice floes might explain some of the mixed readings Cassini has seen in the reflectivity of the surfaces of lakes on Titan. (nasa.gov)
- Up to this point, Cassini scientists assumed that Titan lakes would not have floating ice, because solid methane is denser than liquid methane and would sink. (nasa.gov)
- Cassini's extended stay in the Saturn system gives us an unprecedented opportunity to watch the effects of seasonal change at Titan," said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "We'll have an opportunity to see if the theories are right. (nasa.gov)
- The Cassini spacecraft looks down on the north pole of Titan, showing night and day in the northern hemisphere of Saturn's largest moon. (spaceref.com)
- Unveiling Titan is like reading a mystery novel," said Dr. Charles Elachi, director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., and team leader for the radar instrument on Cassini. (nasa.gov)
- In the two days since this flyby, our understanding of Titan has grown tremendously," said Dr. Jonathan Lunine, Cassini interdisciplinary scientist, University of Arizona, Tucson. (nasa.gov)
- With the radar in its active mode, it is like shouting at Titan and listening for the echoes," said Dr. Ralph Lorenz, Cassini radar team member, University of Arizona, Tucson. (nasa.gov)
- With a remarkable flyby and complicated set of spacecraft gymnastics, Cassini will try its luck with Titan again on Dec. 13, 2004. (nasa.gov)
- Since Cassini arrived at Saturn just after the planet's northern winter solstice, the extension will allow for the first study of a complete seasonal period. (psi.edu)
- Showers on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, have brought methane rains to its equatorial deserts, as revealed in images captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft. (scienceagogo.com)
- Cassini will also study Saturn's northern hemisphere and atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
- Recent images of Titan from NASA's Cassini spacecraft affirm the presence of lakes of liquid hydrocarbons by capturing changes in the lakes brought on by rainfall. (ciclops.org)
- And, as the northern hemisphere moves toward summer, Cassini scientists predict large convective cloud systems will form there and precipitation greater than that inferred in the south could further fill the northern lakes with hydrocarbons. (ciclops.org)
- Over the next several orbits, Cassini will use encounters with Titan to gradually increase the inclination of its orbit. (ciclops.org)
- On July 11, Cassini will reach apoapse, bringing Rev 237 to a close and starting up the next orbit, Rev 238, which includes a flyby of Titan. (ciclops.org)
- When the Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint initiative between NASA and the European Space Agency, arrived at Titan in 2004, it discovered a world where methane rained down onto the surface into organic-rich lakes and seas. (scientificamerican.com)
- Researchers using data from NASA's Cassini mission have discovered a striking similarity between Earth and Saturn's moon Titan. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- NASA's Cassini orbiter conducted its last and closest flyby of Saturn's large moon Titan in the early morning hours of April 22, 2017, putting it on course for the mission's Grand Finale of 22 orbits between the innermost rings and the giant planet. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- As NASA's Cassini spacecraft moves toward its Grand Finale, it will conduct its final and closest flyby of Saturn's moon Titan on April 22, 2017. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- As those in the Northern Hemisphere mark the seasonal changes in the glorious colors of the leaves changing, NASA's Cassini orbiter is also seeing changes on a world far removed from our own. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- Scientists are learning more about the frigid landscape of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, from recent radar images captured by NASA's Cassini spacecraft. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- Radar data gathered by the Cassini Saturn orbiter have revealed that steep canyons on the planet's large moon Titan are filled with liquid hydrocarbons. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- During a close pass over Titan in May 2013, Cassini used its radar as an altimeter, or instrument to measure altitude, to study its canyons up close by pinging radio waves to the moon's surface to measure its features' height. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- Among its many discoveries, Cassini found liquid-methane lakes on Titan and a buried liquid-water ocean on the moon Enceladus that escapes to the surface via geysers. (scientificamerican.com)
- Color-composite of Titan made from raw Cassini images acquired on April 13, 2013. (phys.org)
- As Giovanni Domenico Cassini discoveries four more moons around Saturn between 1673 and 1686, astronomers began to refer to them as Saturn I through V (with Titan being in the fourth position as Saturn IV). (phys.org)
- Based on evidence provided by the Cassini-Huygens mission in 2005, it is believed that Titan may also have a subsurface ocean which exists between the crust and several deeper layers of high-pressure ice. (phys.org)
- When Cassini arrived in 2004, the planet's northern hemisphere was emerging from the throes of winter, its pole a deep, otherworldly blue. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Saturn's largest moon, haze-shrouded Titan, appears here in one of the last images Cassini returned. (astronomy.com)
- Finally, Carrie Anderson of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center reported on the chemical composition of a cloud that the Cassini spacecraft discovered in 2015 near the south pole of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. (astronomy.com)
- Saturn's third-largest moon Dione can be seen through the haze of its largest moon, Titan, in this view of the two posing before the planet and its rings from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. (phys.org)
- The pictures, from Cassini s imaging team, show Saturn s largest, most colorful ornament, Titan, and other icy baubles in orbit around this splendid planet. (phys.org)
- The colorful globe of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, passes in front of the planet and its rings in this true color snapshot from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. (phys.org)
- Current plans to extend the Cassini mission through 2017 will supply a continued bounty of scientifically rewarding and majestic views of Saturn and its moons and rings, as spectators are treated to the passage of northern spring and the arrival of summer in May 2017. (phys.org)
- Saturn's moon Tethys, with its stark white icy surface, peeps out from behind the larger, hazy, colorful Titan in this Cassini view of the two moons. (phys.org)
- National Geographic News echoed reports by Cassini scientists that a similar effect may be occurring on Titan. (crev.info)
- One thing that stands out in her report is a series of great questions about Titan posed by Jonathan Lunine, a Cassini scientist who has studied this mysterious moon for over two decades. (crev.info)
- Gravity measurements made during fly-bys by NASA's Cassini spacecraft revealed that Titan contains an ocean beneath its ice shell, and within this ocean, conditions are potentially suitable for life. (astrobiology.com)
- IRTF continues to be used for long-term studies of Saturn and Titan and their atmospheres, and to investigate Saturn's moons, extending and complementing Cassini findings. (scienmag.com)
- As Cassini passed over the moon's southern hemisphere, it detected strange fluctuations in Saturn's magnetic field. (observer.com)
- Based on this instrument's observations, scientists concluded that at least one of the large lakes observed on Saturn's moon Titan does in fact contain liquid, that liquid being hydrocarbons, and have positively identified the presence of ethane. (wikipedia.org)
- The lander will target Ligeia Mare, a northern polar sea of liquid hydrocarbons at about 79°N. The probe will descend by parachute, like the Huygens probe of 2005. (wikipedia.org)
- Like Earth, that atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, but Titan also has vaporous hydrocarbons like methane. (spaceref.com)
- LOS ANGELES -- Scientists peering through a ground-based telescope say the surface of Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan appears dry and not awash in oceans of liquid hydrocarbons as is commonly believed. (redorbit.com)
- On its moon Titan, we found seas of hydrocarbons and a surface environment whose complexity rivals that of Earth. (scientificamerican.com)
- Titan, Saturn's largest moon, whose surface remained invisible through its thick, ubiquitous haze, nonetheless teased observers with hints of a possible ocean of liquid hydrocarbons. (scientificamerican.com)
- Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is a hotbed of organic molecules, harboring a soup of complex hydrocarbons similar to that thought to have existed over four billion years ago on the primordial Earth. (astrobiology.com)
- The resulting complex hydrocarbons could be the building blocks of life, or provide chemical nutrients for life, and within its ocean Titan harbors a potential habitat for that life. (astrobiology.com)
- Like Earth, Titan has been found to accommodate liquid on its surface, that guide planetary scientists and astrobiologists to think that similar organic chemical procedures that led to life on Earth are happening in a glacial greasy compound of hydrocarbons on Titan. (affleap.com)
- If approved, TiME would be released by the orbiter on its second Titan flyby. (wikipedia.org)
- The Oct. 26 flyby marked the first time Cassini's imaging radar was used to observe Titan. (nasa.gov)
- The Titan flyby marks the end of Cassini's Ring-Grazing Orbits, and sets the stage for the mission's Grand Finale to begin. (nasa.gov)
- The Voyager flyby provided some information about Titan, but wind direction was one thing it could not tell us. (scienmag.com)
- Upon a successful flyby of the Saturnian moon Titan by Voyager 1 , Voyager 2 would get a mission extension to send the probe on towards Uranus and Neptune, ultimately realizing the vision of the Planetary Grand Tour. (worldheritage.org)
- Once every 30 years or so, or roughly one Saturnian year, a monster storm rips across the northern hemisphere of the ringed planet. (scienceblog.com)
- The venture quickly suggested a joint Saturnian orbiter and Titan lander mission. (nasaspaceflight.com)
- The following year, 1983, the Solar System Exploration Committee of NASA recommended a similar joint Saturnian orbiter and Titan lander mission. (nasaspaceflight.com)
- While it may be wintry in Earth's northern hemisphere, it is currently northern spring in the Saturnian system and it will remain so for several Earth years. (phys.org)
- Moreover, the northern and southern rotational variations also appeared to change with the Saturnian seasons and the hemispheres actually swapped rates. (nasa.gov)
- Lakes and seas are scattered across the northern hemisphere, and occasional rains dampen its sandy surface. (voanews.com)
- Based on the observations, scientists announced "definitive evidence of lakes filled with methane on Saturn's moon Titan" in January 2007. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been estimated that the visible lakes and seas of Titan contain about 300 times the volume of Earth's proven oil reserves. (wikipedia.org)
- The lakes of liquid methane on Saturn's moon, Titan, are perfect for paddling but not for surfing. (eurekalert.org)
- On Titan, methane and ethane fall from the sky as rain, fill deep lakes that dot the surface, and are possibly spewed into the air by icy volcanoes called cryovolcanoes. (eurekalert.org)
- Titan also is the only object in our solar system besides Earth with liquid seas and lakes on its surface. (spaceref.com)
- On Titan, methane fills lakes on the surface, saturates clouds in the atmosphere, and falls as rain. (innovations-report.com)
- A hydrocarbon lake warming in the early spring thaw, as the northern lakes of Titan have begun to do, may become more reflective as ice rises to the surface. (nasa.gov)
- Saturn's moon Titan is the only place in the solar system other than Earth known to have liquid lakes and seas on its surface. (space.com)
- All of this would help us understand exactly how the Titan atmosphere and sea interact , see how waves are generated, and see if the chemistry of the lakes was leading toward life," Stofan said. (space.com)
- Titan has liquid lakes! (esa.int)
- hydrocarbon lakes on Titan , activity that we've discovered at the south pole of Enceladus, looking for changes in the rings, storm activity. (wired.com)
- It has hydrocarbon lakes, but we don't know of any organisms that could live in those, not at the temperatures that we find on Titan. (wired.com)
- Any reference to possible life in lakes on the surface of Titan is pure speculation. (wired.com)
- Evanescent methane clouds appear to form downwind of the lakes dotting the northern hemisphere. (crev.info)
- Huygens mission in 2004, including the discovery of liquid hydrocarbon lakes in Titans polar regions. (scribd.com)
- The majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. (nake.me)
- Further, there are underground oceans on moons like Europa that might harbor life, as well as Saturn's moon, Titan, which has hydrocarbon lakes. (coasttocoastam.com)
- Titan and the transformations on its surface brought about by the changing seasons will continue to be a major target of investigation throughout Cassini's Equinox mission. (ciclops.org)
- In 2005 Cassini's Huygens probe descended to the surface of Saturn's moon Titan. (scientificamerican.com)
- Cassini's long mission and frequent visits to Titan have allowed us to observe the pattern of seasonal changes on Titan, in exquisite detail, for the first time," said Athena Coustenis, a member of Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer team at the Observatoire de Paris. (odishatv.in)
- Eventually, a whole hemisphere undergoes change, but it gets there by these jumps at specific latitude bands at different times in the season," Robert West, a member of Cassini's imaging team at JPL, said in the statement. (space.com)
- Ground-based observations of Titan, the giant planet's largest moon, helped with preparations for the Huygens probe mission early in Cassini's exploration of the Saturn system. (scienmag.com)
- The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) was officially created in January 2009 by the merging of the ESA's Titan and Enceladus Mission (TandEM) with NASA's Titan Explorer (2007) study, although plans to combine both concepts date at least back to early 2008. (wikipedia.org)
- Upon Saturn arrival, in October 2029, the orbiter's chemical propulsion system would place the flight system into orbit around Saturn, followed by a two-year Saturn Tour Phase, characterized by the deployment of the in situ elements, and including a minimum of seven close Enceladus flybys and 16 Titan flybys. (wikipedia.org)
- Among the most important targets of the mission are the moons Titan and Enceladus , as well as some of Saturn's other icy moons. (psi.edu)
- The name Titan , and the names of all seven satellites of Saturn then known, come from John Herschel (son of William Herschel , discoverer of Mimas and Enceladus ) in his 1847 publication Results of Astronomical Observations Made at the Cape of Good Hope . (thefullwiki.org)
- Though similar in composition to Dione and Enceladus, Titan is denser due to gravitational compression. (phys.org)
- So if you had a lineup of Enceladus, Titan and Europa, which are always brought up as good targets for astrobiology, which would you choose? (wired.com)
- The targeted encounters are listed below and include 26 Titan fly-bys, 7 Enceladus fly-bys, and one fly-by each of the icy moons Dione, Rhea and Helene. (esa.int)
- Frequently described as a planet-like moon, Titan is 50% larger than Earth's Moon , and it is 80% more massive. (wikipedia.org)
- Discovered in 1655 by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens , Titan was the first known moon of Saturn, and the sixth known planetary satellite (after Earth's Moon and the four Galilean moons of Jupiter ). (wikipedia.org)
- These observations suggest that recent weather on Titan is similar to that over Earth's tropics. (innovations-report.com)
- Titan is the one place in our solar system whose geographical and atmospheric diversity and complexity are rivaled only by the Earth's. (wired.com)
- These auroras are similar to Earth's northern and southern lights. (nameastarlive.com)
- The team also took Keck data of the polar magnetic fields to better understand the planet's auroras, which are similar to Earth's northern and southern lights. (scienmag.com)
- Titan - one of two moons in the solar system known to have a significant atmosphere - has long baffled scientists because it's surrounded by a thick blanket of nitrogen and methane. (redorbit.com)
- Scientists are investigating a mystery object that appeared and then vanished again from a giant lake on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. (flipboard.com)
- The flowing liquids could give rise to life-forms completely different from those on Earth, making Titan one of the most astrobiologically intriguing spots in the solar system, scientists have said. (space.com)
- In the summer of 2013, TiME scientists paired up with another team working on the Planetary Lake Lander (PLL) project, which was partly funded by NASA and was also created to prepare spacecraft to visit Titan. (space.com)
- Twelve years ago, on January 14, 2005, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Huygens probe touched down on the surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, where it collected images and data about a world viewed by many scientists as an analog of early Earth. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- Many of these tiny worlds are so different from one another, and so bizarre, that scientists puzzle over how they could have formed - how did bright white, pockmarked Tethys grow from the same building blocks that produced hazy, orange, oily Titan? (nationalgeographic.com)
- BBC News quoted AGU scientists optimistic that cryovolcanos are common on Titan. (crev.info)
- It must be remembered that scientists in the 1990s expected Titan to be covered in a global ocean of liquid ethane over half a mile thick ( 02/15/2008 , 07/31/2008 ), due to accumulating condensation products from the steady breakup of high-altitude methane by the solar wind. (crev.info)
- Washington: Scientists have said NASA's Cassinis mission has allowed them to observe the pattern of seasonal changes on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in exquisite detail. (odishatv.in)
- This contrasts with a much more gradual warming in the northern hemisphere, where temperatures remained stable during the early spring, the scientists said. (odishatv.in)
- According to NASA and university scientists, the Midwest boasts more photosynthetic activity during the Northern Hemisphere's growing season than any other spot on Earth. (no-tillfarmer.com)
- Direct evidence was not obtained until 1995 when data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other observations had already suggested the existence of liquid methane on Titan, either in disconnected pockets or on the scale of satellite-wide oceans, similar to water on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
- Such observations have documented greater stores of liquid methane in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere. (ciclops.org)
- The atmospheric pressure on Titan is about 50% greater than on Earth. (spaceref.com)
- Artist's impression of Saturn's moon Titan shows the change in observed atmospheric effects before, during and after equinox in 2009. (universetoday.com)
- Early radar studies showed that Titan was covered with pools of methane - a flammable gas on Earth but liquid on Titan because of the intense atmospheric pressure and cold. (redorbit.com)
- This provides powerful geometric support for an ongoing, interior hyperdimensional energy flow through Saturn -- which, in turn, creates a high-altitude, resonant, hexagonal (embedded tetrahedral) atmospheric pattern around its northern rotational axis. (enterprisemission.com)
- The Voyager spacecraft visits to Saturn's system in the 1980s had revealed that Titan, its largest satellite, had a complex atmospheric system. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- In 2009, a mission to Jupiter and its moons was given priority over Titan Saturn System Mission, although TSSM will continue to be assessed for possible development and launch. (wikipedia.org)
- Immediately after the Titan cloud observation on June 18, ISS will acquire an astrometric observation of Saturn's small, inner moons. (ciclops.org)
- The spacecraft, in orbit around the Saturn system since 2004, has observed the planet and its moons long enough to capture seasonal changes on Saturn's largest moon, Titan. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- Thenceforth, Titan status became fixed as Saturn VI, despite the discovery of several smaller moons that were closer to Saturn since then. (phys.org)
- In 1847, John Herschel published Results of Astronomical Observations Made at the Cape of Good Hope, in which he suggested that the moons be named after the mythological Titans - the brothers and sisters of Cronus, who is the Greek equivalent to Saturn. (phys.org)
- With a mean radius of 2576 ± 2 km and a mass of 1.345 × 10 23 kg, Titan is 0.404 the size of Earth (or 1.480 Moons) and 0.0225 times as massive (1.829 Moons). (phys.org)
- In terms of diameter and mass (and hence density) Titan is more similar to the Jovian moons of Ganymede and Callisto. (phys.org)
- A few of Saturn's stark, airless, icy moons appear to dangle next to the orange orb of Titan, the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. (phys.org)
- With its liquids (both surface and subsurface) and robust discoveries of four more moons of Saturn between 1673 nitrogen atmosphere, Titans methane cycle is analogous and 1686, astronomers fell into the habit of referring to to Earths water cycle, at the much lower temperature of these and Titan as Saturn I through V (with Titan then about 94 K (179.2 C). in fourth position). (scribd.com)
- spired by Galileo's discovery of Jupiters four largest The name Titan, and the names of all seven satellites of moons in 1610 and his improvements in telescope Saturn then known, came from John Herschel (son of technology. (scribd.com)
- The similarities end there - Titan is so cold that water exists as rock-hard ice, and oily methane falls from the sky and trickles into the seas. (voanews.com)
- The possibility that there were seas on Titan was first suggested based on data from the Voyager 1 and 2 space probes, launched in August and September 1977. (wikipedia.org)
- clouds over the northern seas. (unmannedspaceflight.com)
- On Titan, methane rain carves river beds through rock-hard water ice before flowing into tar-edged seas. (spaceref.com)
- A mission proposal that would send a spacecraft to land on Saturn's moon Titan and float in its methane seas was passed up by NASA, but the project isn't completely sunk. (space.com)
- Seas on Titan! (esa.int)
- On Titan, flowing methane and ethane rivers and seas provide a unique opportunity to explore the chemistry that could lead to the rise of life . (scientificamerican.com)
- So by studying plasma around Saturn and Titan - where it's dense or thin, and where it's hot or not - researchers could sense Saturn's magnetosphere and watch how it moves. (nasa.gov)
- While checking out Saturn and Titan in the next few months, don't overlook two nearby minor planets: 8 Flora and 532 Herculina. (skyandtelescope.com)
- This image shows the first flash of sunlight reflected off a hydrocarbon lake on Saturn's moon Titan. (nasa.gov)
- Distant Titan, its northern hemisphere drenched in the sunlight of late spring, hangs above Saturn's rings. (scitechdaily.com)
- On Wednesday at the 49th annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Provo, Utah, Apostolos Christou of the Armagh Observatory and Planetarium in Northern Ireland showed how sunlight can be creative. (astronomy.com)
- They watched the hexagonal jet stream surrounding Saturn's north pole change from blue to yellow (except for the very center) over the course of the northern hemisphere's spring. (space.com)
- Methane gas, abundantly trapped as a half frozen slush in the northern hemisphere's tundra permafrost regions and at the bottom of the sea may well be a ticking time bomb, says geologist John Atcheson in an article published by the Baltimore Sun in December last year. (newmediaexplorer.org)
- This makes Titan the only object in the Solar system other than Earth known to have stable ambient-temperature liquid on its surface (Io has long-lasting surface bodies of lava at elevated temperatures). (wikipedia.org)
- Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and one of the locations in the solar system that is thought to possess the ingredients for life. (eurekalert.org)
- Titan is unique because it is the only moon in our solar system with a substantial atmosphere. (spaceref.com)
- This is especially true of Titan, Saturn's largest moon and one of the most mysterious objects in the Solar System. (universetoday.com)
- For instance, Titan is the only other body in the Solar System that is known to have a cycle where liquid is exchanged between the surface and the atmosphere. (universetoday.com)
- Titan is the only other body besides Earth in our solar system with stable bodies of liquid on its surface. (nasa.gov)
- Titan is the only satellite in the solar system with a thick atmosphere in which a complex organic chemistry occurs. (ciclops.org)
- Turtle, a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins Applied Research Laboratory in Maryland, is leading the team that's proposing an in-depth exploration of Titan as part of NASA's New Frontiers mission program, which generally funds midsize missions to explore the solar system. (scientificamerican.com)
- Titan: Papers presented at last week's AGU (American Geophysical Union) conference revealed several exciting new things about the second-largest moon in the solar system - the only one with a substantial atmosphere. (crev.info)
- Titan has methane in its atmosphere, which should quickly be destroyed by solar radiation. (crev.info)
- In the Solar System, Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are the only known worlds where sand dunes can be found. (blogspot.co.at)
- Titan is the 2nd largest moon in the solar system (Jupiter's moon Ganymede is the largest. (nameastarlive.com)
- Last week, we had a look at dicyanoacetylene , a highly reactive chemical found in our very own solar system, in the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. (blogspot.ro)
- True - Titan, Saturn's largest moon, is the only other known body in the solar system thought to have liquid on its surface. (opalexplorenature.org)
- High-altitude haze above Titan makes a brown ring around it, through which Saturnlight shines. (planetary.org)
- Radio waves can penetrate the thick veil of haze surrounding Titan. (nasa.gov)
- Downtown L.A. has got nothing on Saturn's moon Titan, at least in terms of smoggy haze that is. (spaceflightinsider.com)
- Air" on Titan has significantly more nitrogen than Earth air and almost no oxygen. (nasa.gov)
- The atmosphere of Titan is largely composed of nitrogen , and its climate includes methane and ethane clouds. (thefullwiki.org)
- With its liquids (both surface and subsurface) and robust nitrogen atmosphere, Titan is viewed as analogous to the early Earth, although at a much lower temperature. (thefullwiki.org)
- If amino acids are present on Titan, Dragonfly should be able to tell if there are unequal amounts of left- and right-handed varieties - a sign that life is present on the frozen surface. (voanews.com)
- Titan also is much colder than Earth, with a surface temperature around minus 290° Fahrenheit (minus 180° Celsius). (spaceref.com)
- We'll want to take these conditions into consideration if we ever decide to explore the Titan surface some day. (nasa.gov)
- The first radar images of Saturn's moon Titan show a very complex geological surface that may be relatively young. (nasa.gov)
- Titan is a dynamic place with complex geologic processes that may be shaping its surface. (nasa.gov)
- Unlike other landers, it would have bobbed along the surface, traveling wherever the currents and winds of Titan might carry it. (space.com)
- If we can get to these different places on the surface of Titan, we can pick up the results of the experiments. (scientificamerican.com)
- Titan ( , or as ), or Saturn VI , is the largest moon of Saturn , the only natural satellite known to have a dense atmosphere , and the only object other than Earth for which clear evidence of stable bodies of surface liquid has been found. (thefullwiki.org)
- Titan has no liquid water on its surface and any liquid water beneath its surface is inaccessible to us, as far as we know. (wired.com)
- How does the surface environment on Titan change with the seasons? (wired.com)
- It even dropped the European Space Agency's Huygens lander onto the surface of Titan , Saturn's largest moon. (nationalgeographic.com)
- From Titans surface, Saturn subtends an arc of 5.09 degrees and would appear 11.4 times larger in the sky than the Moon from Earth. (scribd.com)
- Giant sand dunes cover one-fifth of Titan surface and they are confined to a belt within 30 degrees north and south of the equator. (blogspot.co.at)
- That's not to say that water is not abundant there - but it's so cold on Titan (with a surface temperature of -180℃) that water behaves like rock and sand. (observer.com)
- Titan is Saturn's largest moon. (eurekalert.org)
- Saturn's largest moon, Titan, also will fall under Webb's powerful gaze. (spaceref.com)
- The sudden disappearance of a bright spot on a methane sea on Titan could add more proof that Saturn's largest moon is a lot like Earth - just colder and gasier. (flipboard.com)
- An analysis of gravity and topography data from Saturn's largest moon, Titan, has revealed unexpected features of the moon's outer ice shell. (scienceblog.com)
- The probe was equipped with six instruments to study Titan, Saturn's largest moon. (psi.edu)
- Saturn's largest moon, known as Titan, is therefore appropriately named. (phys.org)
- On Saturn's largest moon, Titan, methane storm clouds shifted up from the south toward the moon's equator from 2004 to 2010. (space.com)
- Close encounters with Saturn's largest moon, Titan , have allowed navigators to use the moon's gravity to reorient the probe's orbit so that it could swing over Saturn's poles. (observer.com)
- The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.8 million miles (2.9 million kilometers) from Titan and at a Sun-Titan-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 84 degrees. (scitechdaily.com)
- On July 9, ISS will acquire a cloud monitoring observation of Titan at a distance of 2.37 million kilometers (1.47 million miles). (ciclops.org)
- Evidence of this cloud was derived from three sets of Titan observations made with the CIRS instrument, which took place between July and November of 2015. (universetoday.com)
- The new cloud, which the researchers call the high-altitude south polar cloud, has a distinctive and very strong chemical signature that showed up in three sets of Titan observations taken from July to November 2015. (innovations-report.com)
- As seen in Figure 27, Saturn displays a quasi-stationary, highly geometric, multi-tiered linear cloud pattern -- arranged in the shape of a perfect hexagon -- centered precisely over its northern polar region. (enterprisemission.com)
- In 2010, during northern springtime, an unusually early and intense storm appeared in Saturn's cloud tops. (observer.com)
- Now it is summer in the northern hemisphere. (spaceref.com)
- They will be watching for more storms as Saturn's northern hemisphere moves from summer into fall over the course of Webb's mission. (spaceref.com)
- This involves currents of warm gases being sent from the hemisphere that is experiencing summer to the hemisphere experience winter. (universetoday.com)
- The imaging team intends to watch whether Titan evolves in this fashion as the seasons progress from spring toward northern summer. (innovations-report.com)
- We in the Northern Hemisphere can see the Summer Triangle for part of the night at any time of the year. (flipboard.com)
- The northern summer solstice marks the beginning of summer in the northern hemisphere and winter in the southern hemisphere. (psi.edu)
- That will be the height of northern summer. (wired.com)
- We arrived at the height of southern summer, so between the two hemispheres we'll be able to see the effects of a full seasonal cycle at Saturn. (wired.com)
- According to Dr.Aharonson, the reason why Titan behaves as it should be , it is because of that rough rule for hydrological systems like Earth or Titan, which has been expecting that moisture would migrate seasonally from one hemisphere to the other, evaporating where it had been summer and precipitating where it had been winter. (affleap.com)
- Periodic storms often appear in late summer in Saturn's northern hemisphere. (observer.com)
- This map shows where methane emission is strongest in the northern hemisphere summer on the Red Planet. (coasttocoastam.com)
- And as the planet rolled the northern hemisphere back into the brighter scrutiny of summer daylight, we've come to realize we're in this for the long haul, this shit isn't pretty, no one said it would be easy, &cetera and so forth. (terrain.org)
- More than 2,000 years ago, the Sun used to lie in Cancer when it reached its furthest point to the north, during the time of the summer solstice of the Northern Hemisphere. (everything2.com)
- Auroras have been observed on Earth (the Northern Lights and the Southern Lights at the geomagnetic North and South Poles, respectively), Saturn, Titan, Triton, Jupiter, Io - Jupiter's moon (only when its active volcanoes erupt, producing a temporary atmosphere), Uranus, and Neptune. (thefutureofthings.com)
- Jupiter is clearly visible in the northern sky as the brightest object in the early morning. (blogspot.com)
- One of the most detailed plans so far is the so-called Titan Mare Explorer (TiME), which had originally been proposed as a separate scout mission, but might eventually be postponed and included in the TSSM. (wikipedia.org)
- The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME), as portrayed in an artist rendering of the lake lander probe TiME (from Wikipedia), is definitely in my mind the most original mission ever envisioned in the field of planetary science. (scienceblogs.com)
- New research describes tests done with a miniature mock-up of the lander concept, which is called the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME). (space.com)
- For Northern Hemisphere observers, this will be Comet Encke's closest approach to Earth since November 1838. (skyandtelescope.com)
- Southern Hemisphere observers will have fine views of both. (skyandtelescope.com)
- This month, Saturn appears toward the northern horizon shortly after sunset for Southern Hemisphere observers, and sets a few hours later. (nameastarlive.com)
- Saturn appears toward the south-southwest sky for Nouthern Hemisphere observers. (nameastarlive.com)
- The radar antenna was pointing toward Titan at an altitude of 1,400 kilometers (870 miles) dur. (nasa.gov)
- Image scale on Titan is 109 miles (176 kilometers) per pixel. (scitechdaily.com)
- Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in the southern hemisphere of Titan, whose liquid level has receded by nearly five meters over the last four years, causing its shore to fall by more than the nine kilometers in some areas. (affleap.com)
- Titan continues to surprise and amaze us," said Alfred McEwen, a planetary scientist at the UA's Lunar and Planetary Lab and a co-author on the paper. (innovations-report.com)
- Not every planetary scientist accepts the interpretation of active eruptions on Titan. (crev.info)
- On Titan the liquid driving those recurring events happening is not water but methane according to Oded Aharonson, a planetary scientist at the California Institute of Technology. (affleap.com)
- WASHINGTON - Saturn's moon Titan has all the right ingredients for life. (voanews.com)
- This artist's concept envisions what hydrocarbon ice forming on a liquid hydrocarbon sea of Saturn's moon Titan might look like. (nasa.gov)
- An artist's impression of TiME as it floats on Saturn's moon Titan. (space.com)
- Fre- quently described as a planet-like moon, Titan is 50% larger than Earths Moon, and it is 80% more massive. (scribd.com)
- If you view Saturn through even a small telescope you should see Saturn's giant moon Titan, which is an 8th magnitude object. (nameastarlive.com)
- On the 4th of July, Saturns' Moon Titan cruises just below the planets South pole. (blogspot.com)
- Comes to mind the methane atmosphere that was recently found to be prevalent on Saturn's moon Titan. (newmediaexplorer.org)
- Many astronomers are also convinced that liquid water is still present on Saturn's moon, Titan, and under a deep layer of ice on Jupiter's moon, Europa. (encyclopedia.com)
- At first glance, Titan looks a lot like Earth. (voanews.com)
- While Earth has a water cycle in which water evaporates, falls as rain, and flows down rivers to the ocean, Titan experiences a similar cycle with methane. (spaceref.com)
- And it is yet another example of how the methane-based hydrological cycle on Titan drives the formation and evolution of the moon's features, and in ways that are strikingly similar to the water cycle here on Earth. (universetoday.com)
- Earth is warm and rocky, with rivers of water, while Titan is cold and icy, with rivers of methane. (universetoday.com)
- Is Titan similar to Earth? (spaceflightinsider.com)
- A movie of the auroral ovals - the locations of the greatest intensity of auroras on earth, and much more information on auroras may be found on Nordlys Northern Lights website . (thefutureofthings.com)
- Although it has all the ingredients for life, Titan is essentially a "frozen Earth," trapped at that moment in time before life could form. (observer.com)