Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.EthaneAirway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.HistoryFamous PersonsReflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Mid-Atlantic Region: A geographical area of the United States comprising the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Brucea: A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Phascolarctidae: A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
... the surface tension of the curved watery layer lining the alveoli tends to draw water from the lung tissues into the alveoli. ... that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them.[10][11] At ... In a normal human lung all the alveoli together contain about 3 liters of alveolar air. All the pulmonary capillaries contain ... Secondly, the diameters of the alveoli increase and decrease during the breathing cycle. This means that the alveoli have a ...
... the surface tension of the curved watery layer lining the alveoli tends to draw water from the lung tissues into the alveoli. ... therefore expand to fill the increased space. The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways (Fig. 2). In ... in the pulmonary circulation. The reaction occurs in other tissues as well, but it is particularly prominent in the lungs. ... that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. At the end ...
... and since the alveoli are open to the outside air through the open airways, the pressure in the lungs also decreases at the ... Since the pulmonary capillary blood equilibrates with this virtually unchanging mixture of air in the lungs (which has a ... of inhalation and exhalation through a highly branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli. The ... The anatomy of a typical mammalian respiratory system, below the structures normally listed among the "upper airways" (the ...
Pulmonary toxicity symptoms result from an inflammation that starts in the airways leading to the lungs and then spreads into ... The result of breathing increased partial pressures of oxygen is hyperoxia, an excess of oxygen in body tissues. The body is ... collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment, and seizures. Oxygen toxicity is managed by reducing the exposure to ... Aquatic mammals such as seals and whales dive after full exhalation, which would reduce the amount of nitrogen available to ...
This is the case with the alveoli, which form the inner surface of the mammalian lung, the spongy mesophyll, which is found ... exhalation) through the respiratory airways, a set of relatively narrow and moderately long tubes which start at the nose or ... However, an increase in the available surface area, will increase the amount of gas that can diffuse in a given time. This is ... pulmonary alveoli and spongy mesophyll provide the large area needed for effective gas exchange. These convoluted surfaces may ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... Air passes unidirectionally through the lungs during both exhalation and inspiration, causing, except for the oxygen-poor dead ... The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it ... 3.2-3.3 "Lung", "Airway (Bronchiol) System" 66-82. ISBN 978-3-540-25595-6.. ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... Air passes unidirectionally through the lungs during both exhalation and inspiration, causing, except for the oxygen-poor dead ... This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable ... The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... 3.2-3.3 "Lung", "Airway (Bronchiol) System" 66-82. ISBN 978-3-540-25595-6. Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; et al. (2010 ... Air passes unidirectionally through the lungs during both exhalation and inspiration, causing, except for the oxygen-poor dead ... When the contents of all capillaries mix, the final partial pressure of oxygen of the mixed pulmonary venous blood is higher ...
pulmonary over-inflation syndrome Pulmonary barotrauma of ascent. Lung over-pressure injury. purge To press the purge button on ... A partial exhalation is made, followed by a quick inhalation, then the diver closes the airway and pressurises for a few ... lung packing A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z mammalian diving reflex A reflex response to breathhold and ... Diffusion of gas out of the tissue into the blood, and transport to the lungs where it diffuses into the lung gas and is ...
Their unique lungs have airways that are highly reinforced with cartilaginous rings and smooth muscle, and alveoli that ... Increased body weight in males increases the length of time they can fast due to the ample energy reserves stored in the ... Retia mirabilia form blocks of tissue on the inner wall of the thoracic cavity and the body periphery. These tissue masses, ... Miller, N. J.; Postle, A. D.; Orgeig, S. Koster, G.; Daniels, C. B. (2006b). "The composition of pulmonary surfactant from ...
This process occurs in the pulmonary capillaries adjacent to the alveoli of the lungs. The oxygen then travels through the ... increased glycosylation of hemoglobin increases its affinity for oxygen, therefore preventing its release at the tissue and ... which increases the total blood oxygen capacity seventy-fold compared to dissolved oxygen in blood. The mammalian hemoglobin ... exhalation. *respiratory rate. *respirometer. *pulmonary surfactant. *compliance. *elastic recoil. *hysteresivity. *airway ...
... the surface tension of the curved watery layer lining the alveoli tends to draw water from the lung tissues into the alveoli. ... that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them.[10][11] At ... In a normal human lung all the alveoli together contain about 3 liters of alveolar air. All the pulmonary capillaries contain ... Secondly, the diameters of the alveoli increase and decrease during the breathing cycle. This means that the alveoli have a ...
... the surface tension of the curved watery layer lining the alveoli tends to draw water from the lung tissues into the alveoli. ... therefore expand to fill the increased space. The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways (Fig. 2). In ... in the pulmonary circulation. The reaction occurs in other tissues as well, but it is particularly prominent in the lungs. ... that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. At the end ...
Respiratory anatomy Respiration Respiratory musculature Ventilation, lung volumes and capacities Gas exchange and transport O 2 ... Supply all lung tissue except the alveoli *Venous blood bypasses the systemic circuit and just flows into pulmonary veins ... During exhalation, airways collapse (why not during inhalation?) *These patients are often called "blue bloaters" because they ... Increase HR but not RR - no more O2 coming in than before so blood cant deliver it to tissues ...
A localized pleurodesis for lung devices created utilizing a combination of a mechanical component and a chemical component. ... the airway due to the reduction in lung tissue elasticity. In other words, the breakdown of lung tissue leads to the reduced ... In pulmonary emphysema, the alveoli of the lungs lose their elasticity, and eventually the walls between adjacent alveoli are ... the airways (dynamic collapse during exhalation), the increase in collateral ventilation does not significantly assist an ...
Tissues in the Lungs. In order to be effective, all airways must have the following things:. *The larger airways must be large ... There are numerous alveoli which increases the surface area.. *The plasma membranes that surround the thin cytoplasm of the ... The Structure of the Mammalian Heart. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. The ... Once circuit carries blood to the lungs to pick up the oxygen (pulmonary circulation). The other circuit carries the oxygen and ...
... the elastic properties allow us to improve predictions of the air volumes in the upper and lower airways in excised lungs at ... The greater pulmonary elastance in odontocetes suggests that the proportion of intrapulmonary gas remaining in the alveoli ... excised lungs was estimated by weighing the lung and the volume of fresh water it displaced and assuming a tissue-specific ... 1980). Quantitative comparisons of mammalian lung pressure volume curves. Respir. Physiol. 42, 101-107. ...
... and since the alveoli are open to the outside air through the open airways, the pressure in the lungs also decreases at the ... Since the pulmonary capillary blood equilibrates with this virtually unchanging mixture of air in the lungs (which has a ... of inhalation and exhalation through a highly branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli. The ... The anatomy of a typical mammalian respiratory system, below the structures normally listed among the "upper airways" (the ...
Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... Air passes unidirectionally through the lungs during both exhalation and inspiration, causing, except for the oxygen-poor dead ... The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it ... 3.2-3.3 "Lung", "Airway (Bronchiol) System" 66-82. ISBN 978-3-540-25595-6.. ...
Avian lungs. Avian lungs do not have alveoli, as mammalian lungs do, but instead contain millions of tiny passages known as ... by increasing volume and thus decreasing pressure, air flows into the airways down a pressure gradient, and by reducing volume ... 1:Trachea 2:Pulmonary artery 3:Pulmonary vein 4:Alveolar duct 5:Alveoli 6:Cardiac notch 7:Bronchioles 8:Tertiary bronchi 9: ... The connective tissue that divides lobules is often blackened in smokers and city dwellers. The medial border of the right lung ...
... is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung ... The basic functional units of the lung, the alveoli, are referred to as the lung parenchyma. Chronic obstructive pulmonary ... airway compliance, causing incomplete lung expansion (i.e. via increased lung `stiffness`). This change manifests itself in ... affect lung tissue. Respiratory neoplasms include mesothelioma, small cell lung cancer, and, non-small cell lung cancer. Each ...
Specific compliance is lung compliance which is normalised to a lung volume or capacity, which permits comparison between lungs ... Static compliance is defined as the change in lung volume per unit change in pressure in the absence of flow. Dynamic ... compliance is defined as the change in lung volume per unit change in pressure in the presence of flow. ... Respiratory compliance is defined as the change in lung volume per unit change in transmural pressure gradient. It is usually ...
... the pulmonary alveoli and lung tissues. Thus, combinations using nanoparticles with drugs have been disclosed. U.S. Pat. No. ... and fails to reach lung tissues (Knowles M, et al., Mucus clearance as a primary innate defense mechanism for mammalian airways ... It is assumed, that as air pollution increases, so does the number of cases of lung cancer patients. [0006]In addition to lung ... Meanwhile, particles with less than 0.5 μm in radius are expelled by exhalation. [0039]The pharmaceutical composition of the ...
Alveoli are small and there are approximately 300 million of them in each lung. Although alveoli are tiny structures, they have ... and is also most likely to occur in the smaller airways of the pulmonary (alveolar) region, where air flow is low. ... The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air, blood and body tissues is known as respiration. Healthy lungs take ... Hygroscopic particles may grow in size as they pass through the warm, humid air passages, thus increasing the probability of ...
Lungs: Bronchi and Alveoli. The end of the trachea bifurcates (divides) to the right and left lungs. The lungs are not ... Mammalian Systems. In mammals, pulmonary ventilation occurs via inhalation (breathing). During inhalation, air enters the body ... also, main bronchus) region of the airway within the lung that attaches to the trachea and bifurcates to each lung where it ... The sac-like structure of the alveoli increases their surface area. In addition, the alveoli are made of thin-walled ...
Alveoli are small and there are approximately 300 million of them in each lung. Although alveoli are tiny structures, they have ... As the dose administered to a single subject or tissue increases, the pharmacological response also increases in graded fashion ... and is also most likely to occur in the smaller airways of the pulmonary (alveolar) region, where air flow is low. ... Oxytocin is a hormone, predominately belonging to mammalian family; it is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. After its ...
The human lung and airway epithelial cells, a prime target for influenza infection, have an abundance of alpha 2,6 linkages. ... a viral pulmonary disease or a bacterial pulmonary disease. The one or more subjects includes, but is not limited to, mammalian ... alveoli of the lungs of the subject. [0032]FIGS. 3A and 3B depict a logic flowchart of a method such as those depicted in FIGS ... Peripheral deposition may also be increased with an increased in tidal volume and a decrease in respiratory frequency. As such ...
The fluid carrying conduits link the oxygen source to diseased sites within the patients lungs. ... A long term oxygen therapy system having an oxygen supply directly linked with a patients lung or lungs may be utilized to ... more efficiently treat hypoxia caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The ... Dynamic airway compression results from the loss of tethering forces exerted on the airway due to the reduction in lung tissue ...
Norwalk-La Mirada USD pays a Completing movement of lung and airway. The ebook Parent\s Guide to Primary School: How offers ... alveoli of human object. ebook Parent\s Guide to Primary School: How to Get the and Foreign Language Learning. methodological ... For Increases, SmartBook suffers ebook Parent\s Guide to Primary School: How to Get infant and is requirements that malware ... state on being sports of human and serious general studied with an program of the presenting standard line of the mammalian ...
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... preventing or reducing the risk of developing occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis. In several embodiments, the ... There is also an increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma with asbestos exposure. Asbestosis and lung cancer require ... Pulmonary function can be monitored by testing any of several physically measurable operations of a lung including, but not ... In the airways, they cause bronchial or alveolar narrowing and increase secretions. Drugs can interfere with leukotriene action ...
Differing models of lung compression and collapse depth caused major differences in blood and tissue N(2) estimates. Our ... and respiratory volume on pulmonary shunt and gas exchange as pressure compressed the alveoli. The model showed good agreement ... inverted U in the nasal passage, narrower airways, swelling tissues on the inferior concha, an upper lip that can seal off the ... DD: Possibly, the larger the mammal, the more explosive the exhalation? Elephants have unusual lungs, explained by their ...
The design of the respiratory system The human gas exchanging organ, the lung, is located in the thorax, where its delicate ... These form minute air chambers and represent the first gas-exchanging alveoli (pulmonary alveolus) on the airway path. In the ... If for some reason the delicate fluid balance of the pulmonary tissues is impaired, an excess of fluid accumulates in the lung ... Hyperventilation, a form of overbreathing that increases the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli, may be used ...
... and since the alveoli are open to the outside air through the open airways, the pressure in the lungs also decreases at the ... of inhalation and exhalation through a highly branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli.[3] ... The lungs are not capable of inflating themselves, and will expand only when there is an increase in the volume of the thoracic ... Lower airways. The anatomy of a typical mammalian respiratory system, below the structures normally listed among the "upper ...
The tissue was dehydrated using sequentially increasing concentrations of ethanol followed by xylene, and then embedded in ... Cremona, et al., "Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor and the Pulmonary Circulation," Lung 169:185-202 (1991).. ... The thrombosis may be at any one of various locations in the mammalian body. For example, the thrombosis location may be ... Janson, "The Relaxant Properties in Guinea Pig Airways of 5-Nitroeothiois," J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 261:154-160 (1992).. ...
increase psychology research; to provide the modern lung at App Store or Google Play for latest requirements on 2019 decades. ... pulmonary feedback has controlled by studying the cruel provision by the study in Pplat and PEEP( Table 2). The chronic ... airways: PSY 2012 and PSB 2000 or PSB 3004C or three download independence hall Centuries in user. This socialization findings ... mammalian bronchioles postulate to construct to the United States to refer. Each of the generations matched Usually is prior ...
  • Blood carries oxygen away from the lungs. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The breathing movements of the lungs replace the used air with fresh air, which brings more oxygen into the lungs and ensures that the concentration of oxygen in the air of the alveolus remains higher than the concentration in the blood. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • an efficient circulatory system that conveyed gases to and from the deepest tissues in the body, and a large, internalized respiratory system that centralized the task of obtaining oxygen from the atmosphere and bringing it into the body, whence it could rapidly be distributed to all the circulatory system. (wikidoc.org)
  • During inspiration, oxygen diffuses through the alveoli walls and the interstitial space, into the blood. (pharmawiki.in)
  • Amongst, the important roles of the lungs, one can cite: (i) supply oxygen, (ii) remove wastes and toxins, and (iii) defend against hostile intruders. (pharmawiki.in)
  • Larger organisms had to evolve specialized respiratory tissues, such as gills, lungs, and respiratory passages accompanied by complex circulatory systems, to transport oxygen throughout their entire body. (hawaii.edu)
  • The flat shape of these organisms increases the surface area for diffusion, ensuring that each cell within the body is close to the outer membrane surface and has access to oxygen. (hawaii.edu)
  • The air contains oxygen that crosses the lung tissue, enters the bloodstream, and travels to organs and tissues. (edu.vn)
  • Such intimate contact ensures that oxygen will diffuse from the alveoli into the blood. (edu.vn)
  • Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body, such as to the muscles , where it releases its load of oxygen. (wikidoc.org)
  • By nasal breathing, CO 2 is not dispelled as disparately and though airflow is constricted, limiting the rate at which oxygen can be assimilated into the bloodstream compared to mouth breathing, the oxygen that is inhaled is more efficiently distributed to fatigued tissues which should in theory improve athletic performance and recovery, with practice of the technique. (adamcap.com)
  • the heart is able to utilize the built up plasma lactate for energy, which thus allows it to pump harder and increase blood flow to tissues that have a pressing need for oxygen. (adamcap.com)
  • Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. (ipfs.io)
  • Because hemoglobin is a darker red when it is not bound to oxygen ( deoxyhemoglobin ), as opposed to the rich red color that it has when bound to oxygen ( oxyhemoglobin ), when seen through the skin it has an increased tendency to reflect blue light back to the eye. (ipfs.io)
  • Oxygen passively diffuses in the lung alveoli according to a pressure gradient. (ipfs.io)
  • In peripheral tissues, oxygen again diffuses down a pressure gradient into cells and their mitochondria , where it is used to produce energy in conjunction with the breakdown of glucose , fats , and some amino acids . (ipfs.io)
  • This can include decreased partial pressures of oxygen, problems with diffusion of oxygen in the lungs, insufficient available hemoglobin, problems with blood flow to the end tissue, and problems with breathing rhythm. (ipfs.io)
  • The result of breathing increased partial pressures of oxygen is hyperoxia , an excess of oxygen in body tissues. (infogalactic.com)
  • Pulmonary and ocular toxicity result from longer exposure to increased oxygen levels at normal pressure. (infogalactic.com)
  • Prolonged exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes , collapse of the alveoli in the lungs, retinal detachment , and seizures . (infogalactic.com)
  • Oxygen toxicity is managed by reducing the exposure to increased oxygen levels. (infogalactic.com)
  • These protocols have resulted in the increasing rarity of seizures due to oxygen toxicity, with pulmonary and ocular damage being mainly confined to the problems of managing premature infants. (infogalactic.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration has warned those suffering from problems such as heart or lung disease not to use oxygen bars. (infogalactic.com)
  • Ocular ( retinopathic conditions ), characterised by alterations to the eyes, occurring when breathing increased pressures of oxygen for extended periods. (infogalactic.com)
  • Pulmonary oxygen toxicity results in damage to the lungs, causing pain and difficulty in breathing. (infogalactic.com)
  • Pulmonary and ocular damage are most likely to occur when supplemental oxygen is administered as part of a treatment, particularly to newborn infants, but are also a concern during hyperbaric oxygen therapy. (infogalactic.com)
  • In unusual circumstances, effects on other tissues may be observed: it is suspected that during spaceflight, high oxygen concentrations may contribute to bone damage. (infogalactic.com)
  • The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. (wikidoc.org)
  • The diaphragm, as the main respiratory muscle, and the intercostal muscles of the chest wall play an essential role by generating, under the control of the central nervous system, the pumping action on the lung. (academic.ru)
  • That air is doing more than just inflating and deflating the lungs in the chest cavity. (edu.vn)
  • Chest high-resolution computed tomography is the primary modality used in the initial assessment of patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and may have considerable influence on subsequent management decisions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Scholander suggested that the highly compliant lung and rib cage would easily compress, the air being shunted into the rigid upper airway. (biologists.org)
  • The upper airway system comprises the nose and the paranasal cavities, called sinuses, the pharynx, or throat, and partly also the oral cavity, since it may be used for breathing. (academic.ru)
  • 2010). Airborne vapor diffuses to the air:tissue interface and, if may contribute to the human-rat differences in diacetyl-induced soluble, enters the tissue phase. (cdc.gov)
  • Oxytocin is similar in structure to Vasopressin which is also produced by the posterior pituitary, and prolonged administration with intravenous fluids may lead to fluid overload, pulmonary oedema and water intoxication. (pharmawiki.in)
  • This external manifestation of the use of the accessory muscles of inhalation is sometimes referred to as clavicular breathing, seen especially during asthma attacks and in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABSTRACT Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a form of chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown cause, which predominantly affects elderly men who are current or former smokers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that usually has a progressive course and is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The main role of computed tomography is to distinguish chronic fibrosing lung diseases with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern from those presenting with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, suggesting an alternative diagnosis when possible. (bvsalud.org)
  • The "pump handle" and "bucket handle movements" of the ribs Breathing The lungs are not capable of inflating themselves, and will expand only when there is an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human gas exchanging organ, the lung, is located in the thorax, where its delicate tissues are protected by the bony and muscular thoracic cage. (academic.ru)
  • For both the human and rat models, a close more effectively to the lower airways of the human than the rat. (cdc.gov)
  • While sitting in the chamber, a mixture of inert helium gas is injected into the chamber, and the mixing of gases allows one to measure one's total lung capacity through examing the gaseous composition. (impulseadventure.com)
  • At this point the lungs contain the functional residual capacity of air, which, in the adult human, has a volume of about 2.5-3.0 liters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heart pumps the blood along the pulmonary artery to the lungs. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • All of the blood in the body is passed through the lungs every minute. (pharmawiki.in)
  • Type I cells are involved in the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and blood . (jakearchibald.com)
  • Gas exchange between tissues and the blood is an essential function of the circulatory system. (edu.vn)
  • At this point, the nucleus is lost in mammalian red blood cells, but not in birds and many other species. (wikidoc.org)
  • This then decreases pH in the blood (because of the influx of H + and plasma lactate, lowered HCO 3 - concentration, and thus increased amounts of CO 2 from H 2 CO 3 dissociation) and as a consequence, the body wants to raise its pH back up to maintain homeostasis. (adamcap.com)
  • To assist the lungs to distribute oxygenated blood throughout the body, infants at risk of hypoxia are often placed inside an incubator capable of providing continuous positive airway pressure (also known as a humidicrib). (ipfs.io)
  • Cystic fibrosis affects multiple organ systems in the body with the pulmonary and digestive systems being primarily affected. (wikidot.com)
  • The alveoli are the dead end terminals of the "tree", meaning that any air that enters them has to exit via the same route. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relaxation of all these muscles during exhalation causes the rib cage and abdomen (light green) to elastically return to their resting positions. (orange.com)
  • The respiratory system is susceptible to a number of diseases, and the lungs are prone to a wide range of disorders caused by genetic factors, infection and pollutants in the air. (pharmawiki.in)
  • Methods are disclosed for treating, preventing or reducing the risk of developing occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis. (google.com)