Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Phosphorylase Phosphatase: An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Phosphatidate Phosphatase: A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases: A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.TartratesPTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Glycogen-Synthase-D Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)-Phosphatase: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.Cantharidin: A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 3: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.4-Nitrophenylphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.PhosphoproteinsCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.NitrophenolsMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 7: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a short extracellular domain, a cytosolic kinase-interaction domain, and single protein tyrosine kinase domain.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hypophosphatasia: A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Phosphorylase a: The active form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is derived from the phosphorylation of PHOSPHORYLASE B. Phosphorylase a is deactivated via hydrolysis of phosphoserine by PHOSPHORYLASE PHOSPHATASE to form PHOSPHORYLASE B.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 2: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CELL NUCLEUS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.TetramisolePhosphopeptidesBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.GlucosephosphatesLysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.HomoarginineCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.GlycogenTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.PyransCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome: A sex-linked recessive disorder affecting multiple systems including the EYE, the NERVOUS SYSTEM, and the KIDNEY. Clinical features include congenital CATARACT; MENTAL RETARDATION; and renal tubular dysfunction (FANCONI SYNDROME; RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS; X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA or vitamin-D-resistant rickets) and SCOLIOSIS. This condition is due to a deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase leading to defects in PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL metabolism and INOSITOL signaling pathway. (from Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p60; Am J Hum Genet 1997 Jun;60(6):1384-8)Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMice, Inbred C57BLgamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Histidinol-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of histidinol-phosphate to histidinol. One of the regulatory enzymes in histidine biosynthesis. EC 3.1.3.15.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Gynaecomastia (swelling of the breast tissue in men). *Transient increase in blood alkaline phosphatase ... The rapid breakdown of muscle tissue leading to the build-up of myoglobin in the blood and resulting in damage to the kidneys ...
Glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit (glucose 6-phosphatase alpha) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the G6PC gene. ... Cell Tissue Res. 166 (4): 497-510. doi:10.1007/BF00225914. PMID 175958.. ... glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • ... 1995). "Glucose-6-phosphatase gene G327A mutation is common in Chinese patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia". Hum. ...
Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALPL gene. There are at least ... Sugimoto N, Iwamoto S, Hoshino Y, Kajii E (1998). "A novel missense mutation of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase ... 1995). "Novel missense and frameshift mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene in a Japanese patient with ... "Entrez Gene: ALPL alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney". Mornet E (2000). "Hypophosphatasia: the mutations in the tissue- ...
Protein phosphatase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ... "The cloning expression and tissue distribution of human PP2Cbeta". FEBS Lett. 431 (1): 121-4. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00708-X ... This phosphatase has been shown to dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thus may be involved in cell cycle ... Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to cause cell-growth arrest or cell death. Alternative splicing results in ...
Torres MI, Lorite P, López-Casado MA, Ríos A (2007). "A new approach using tissue alkaline phosphatase histochemistry to ... Alkaline phosphatase, intestinal also known as ALPI is a type of alkaline phosphatase that in humans is encoded by the ALPI ... "Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase ... 2008). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a gut mucosal defense factor maintained by enteral nutrition". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
"Tissue distribution and intracellular localisation of the 75-kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase". Eur. J. Biochem. 234 (1 ... The IP signaling molecules are inactivated by a family of inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases). This gene ... Type II inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the INPP5B gene. Cellular calcium ... 1996). "Mapping of the 75-kDa inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (Inpp5b) to distal mouse chromosome 4 and its exclusion as a ...
"Different distributions of human bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms in serum and bone tissue extracts". Clin. Chim. Acta. 325 ( ...
Evidence for tissue-specific expression of alternative human transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase delta isoforms". J Biol ... Multiple tissue specific alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. Mutations in the PTPRD gene ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ... Wallace MJ, Fladd C, Batt J, Rotin D (May 1998). "The second catalytic domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase delta (PTP delta ...
"Expression of the membrane protein tyrosine phosphatase CD148 in human tissues". Tissue Antigens. 54 (5): 485-98. doi:10.1034/j ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ... Tangye SG, Phillips JH, Lanier LL, de Vries JE, Aversa G (1998). "CD148: a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase involved ... "Entrez Gene: PTPRJ protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, J". Holsinger LJ, Ward K, Duffield B, Zachwieja J, Jallal B ( ...
"Expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in the major insulin target tissues". FEBS Lett. 415 (3): 243-8. doi:10.1016/S0014- ... Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase S, also known as R-PTP-S, R-PTP-sigma, or PTPσ, is an enzyme that in humans is ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ... "Entrez Gene: PTPRS protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, S". Lang BT, Cregg JM, DePaul MA, Tran AP, Xu K, Dyck SM, ...
"Expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in the major insulin target tissues". FEBS Lett. 415 (3): 243-8. doi:10.1016/S0014- ... "Cloning of three human tyrosine phosphatases reveals a multigene family of receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatases ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ... Jirik FR, Anderson LL, Duncan AM (1992). "The human protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP alpha/LRP gene (PTPA) is assigned to ...
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase O is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPRO gene. This gene encodes a ... These variants exhibit tissue-specific expression. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000151490 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... 2004). "Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O (PTPRO) exhibits characteristics of a candidate tumor suppressor in human ... 2007). "Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O truncated (PTPROt) regulates SYK phosphorylation, proximal B-cell-receptor ...
The ideal tissue for this procedure is thymus tissue. This discussion focuses on two changes that occur in the thymus of mouse ... This change in color is due to fine homogeneous red reaction of acid phosphatase activity. In the lysosome there's a lot of ... The role of cell death is the maintenance of tissue and organ homeostasis , for example, the regular loss of skin cells or a ... Morphomtric measurement provides the result of cell death as a volume, size, weight and length of tissue, organ and the whole ...
"Three mammalian lipins act as phosphatidate phosphatases with distinct tissue expression patterns". The Journal of Biological ... Mouse studies suggest that this gene functions during normal adipose tissue development and may also play a role in human ... Lipin-1 has phosphatidate phosphatase activity. The nuclear localization of Lipin 1 is regulated by the mechanistic Target Of ... Reue K, Xu P, Wang XP, Slavin BG (July 2000). "Adipose tissue deficiency, glucose intolerance, and increased atherosclerosis ...
PMID 287036 Goldstein DJ, Rogers CE, Harris H. Expression of alkaline phosphatase loci in mammalian tissues. Proceedings of the ... Lack of homology between dog and human placental alkaline phosphatases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. ...
... subcellular distribution and tissue expression patterns of three members of Slingshot family phosphatases that dephosphorylate ... For the SSH-1 protocol, see Secure Shell#Version 1.x Protein phosphatase Slingshot homolog 1 is an enzyme that in humans is ... 2003). "Cell cycle-associated changes in Slingshot phosphatase activity and roles in cytokinesis in animal cells". J. Biol. ... 2004). "A pathway of neuregulin-induced activation of cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot and cofilin in lamellipodia". J. Cell Biol ...
... s induce insulin resistance in many tissues by inhibition of Akt/PKB signaling. Aggregation of LDL cholesterol by ... Ceramides cause endothelial dysfunction by activating protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). In mitochondria, ceramide suppresses the ... "Ceramide-activated phosphatase mediates fatty acid-induced endothelial VEGF resistance and impaired angiogenesis". The American ... "Aging up-regulates expression of inflammatory mediators in mouse adipose tissue". The Journal of Immunology. 179 (7): 4829-39. ...
phosphatase activity. • phosphoprotein phosphatase activity. • hydrolase activity. • protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. ... This gene was found to be expressed in brain, colon tissues, and several different tumor-derived cell lines. The biological ... Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 18 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN18 gene.[5][6] ... PTPN18, BDP1, PTP-HSCF, protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18. External IDs. MGI: 108410 HomoloGene: 74971 ...
Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, ... An up-to-date list of mutations is available online at The Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Mutations Database. ... Hypophosphatasia is associated with a molecular defect in the gene encoding tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). ... Alkaline phosphatase Choline "hypophosphatasia". Genetics Home Reference. Whyte MP (2001). "Hypophosphatasia". In Scriver CR, ...
Lindahl, T.; Gally, J.A.; Edelman, G.M. (1969). "Properties of deoxyribonuclease 3 from mammalian tissues". J. Biol. Chem. 244 ... I. Purification of the enzyme and characterization of the phosphatase activity". J. Biol. Chem. 239: 242-250. PMID 14114850. ... Richardson, C.C.; Lehman, I.R.; Kornberg, A. (1964). "A deoxyribonucleic acid phosphatase-exonuclease from Escherichia coli. II ... Richardson, C.C.; Kornberg, A. (1964). "A deoxyribonucleic acid phosphatase-exonuclease from Escherichia coli. ...
Of these, plasma PLP is probably the best single measure, because it reflects tissue stores. Plasma PLP less than 10 nmol/l is ... phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate involves their dephosphorylation catalyzed by a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Those ... The trapped pyridoxine and pyridoxamine are oxidized to pyridoxal phosphate in the tissue. The products of vitamin B6 ...
"A new isoform of human myosin phosphatase targeting/regulatory subunit (MYPT2): cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and ... "The major myosin phosphatase in skeletal muscle is a complex between the beta-isoform of protein phosphatase 1 and the MYPT2 ... Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R12B gene. Myosin light chain ... MBS is also encoded by another gene, myosin light chain phosphatase target subunit 1. sm-M20 shows higher binding affinity to ...
... and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation". Mol ... Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ... and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation". Mol ... "A PP2A phosphatase high density interaction network identifies a novel striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex ...
... and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation". ... and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation". ... In avian species, Hand2 has been shown to be expressed in developing gut tissue and is believed to contribute to the formation ... The induction of Hand2 by progesterone-dependent mechanisms in uterine stromal tissue suppresses fibroblast growth factors ( ...
MiRNA-210 suppresses Efna3 at the mRNA level, thereby allowing angiogenesis to occur in cardiac tissue post-infarct. The second ... target gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (Ptp1b) is involved in the induction of apoptosis. Ptp1b gene protein has been ... Therefore, suppression of these two particular genes may contribute to the improvement of cardiac tissue and function by up- ... Myocardial infarction is cardiac tissue necrosis that results from occlusion of blood supply via coronary arteries, thereby ...
The brain type is predominant in adult brain and embryonic tissues, whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult ... "The protein phosphatases involved in cellular regulation". European Journal of Biochemistry. 156 (1): 101-110. doi:10.1111/j. ... David ES, Crerar MM (January 1986). "Quantitation of muscle glycogen phosphorylase mRNA and enzyme amounts in adult rat tissues ... all stemming from low glucose levels in muscle tissue.[17] ...
Relative abundance of PDP1 and PDP2 mRNAs in rat tissues. Rat multiple tissue Northern blot (2 μg poly A RNA from each tissue) ... a tissue in which PDP2 is the dominantly expressed phosphatase, and rat heart, a tissue that also expresses large amounts of ... Tissue distribution of PDP1 and PDP2 messages in the rat.. By Northern blot analysis, PDP1 mRNA was present in all tissues ... Failures to detect effects of different metabolic states on phosphatase activity in heart and adipose tissue have been reported ...
... is a phospho tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase. It is a truncated form of the human T-Cell protein tyrosine phosphatase ( ... If the source of phosphorylated protein is a crude extract of cells or tissue, it is very important to include the appropriate ... 1X NEBuffer for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTP) Incubate at 30°C 1X NEBuffer for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTP) 50 mM ... T-Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (TC PTP) is a phospho tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase. It is a truncated form of the ...
... is a rare genetic disease with low tissue nonspeficic alkaline phosphatase activity (TNSALP), due to ALPL gene ... results from ALPL mutations leading to deficient activity of the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase isozyme (TNAP) and ... encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme. ... Hypophosphatasia is a genetic condition in which the activity of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase is deficient. This ...
Ocrl1, a PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase, is localized to the trans-Golgi network of fibroblasts and epithelial cells. J Histochem ... Although the OCRL1 protein is ubiquitously expressed in mouse and human tissues and cell lines, only a subset of organs are ... Targeting of the type II inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B to the early secretory pathway. J Cell Sci 120: 3941-3951 ... The protein deficient in Lowe syndrome is a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: ...
Hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme, ALPL in human or Akp2 in ... It is characterized by defective bone and tooth mineralisation associated with low serum and bone alkaline phosphatase activity ... bone mineralization and biochemically by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase. {14: ...
Tissue Non-Specific RNAi. Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB, RNAi, RNAi SP. Backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... Home » Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific » Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific RNAi » Alkaline Phosphatase, ... Tissue Non-Specific Products. Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific H00000249-R01V * Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non- ... Blogs on Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific. There are no specific blogs for Alkaline Phosphatase, Tissue Non-Specific, ...
... posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: HelloI have cultured human fetal osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) and I need to check for the alkaline ... phosphatase activity (ALP) for that cells.I use the plant extract as for the treatment for differentiation and proliferation of ... I have cultured human fetal osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) and I need to check for the alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for that ... If you desire to have a protocol for to make a Home-made kit useful for alkaline phosphatase determination let me know and I ...
To analyze the expression profile of placental type alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), and human ... Placental type alkaline phosphatase tissue expression in ovarian serous carcinoma Article type: Research Article ... Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)/PLAP-like alkaline phosphatase as tumour marker in relation to CA 125 and TPA for ovarian ... Pretreatment serum levels of CA-125, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, and placental alkaline phosphatase ...
Overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase increases the expression of neurogenic differentiation markers in the ... Analyses of the molecular role of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in transgenic SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) neuroblastoma ... Unraveling the molecular role of TNAP in extraosseous tissues, like in the CNS, will help to improve treatment strategies for ...
Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Is Required for MC3T3 Osteoblast-Mediated Protection of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells ... Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Is Required for MC3T3 Osteoblast-Mediated Protection of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells ... Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Is Required for MC3T3 Osteoblast-Mediated Protection of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells ... Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Is Required for MC3T3 Osteoblast-Mediated Protection of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells ...
SAR analysis of small molecule inhibitors of Human Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase using Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline ...
Microsomes isolated from oviductal tissue contain low levels of the specific glucose-6-phosphatase system JANET M. STEPHENSON; ... Microsomes isolated from oviductal tissue contain low levels of the specific glucose-6-phosphatase system. Biochem Soc Trans 1 ...
Possible involvement of protein phosphatase type 2A in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced tissue factor expression in ... Possible involvement of protein phosphatase type 2A in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced tissue factor expression in ... Possible involvement of protein phosphatase type 2A in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced tissue factor expression in ... Possible involvement of protein phosphatase type 2A in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced tissue factor expression in ...
... mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase, similar to that of cultured myofibroblasts. Strips of granulation tissue ... These results are consistent with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase by the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway, which would ... Membrane depolarization with K+ also stimulated a long-lasting contraction of granulation tissue; however, the amount of force ... We examined whether regulation of myofibroblast contraction in granulation tissue is dominated by Ca2+-induced phosphorylation ...
PRL-3 mRNA was expressed to a greater extent in prostate cancer tissue compared to normal prostate tissue. PRL-3 protein was ... Compared to normal prostate tissue, the prostate cancer tissue expressed a significantly higher level of PRL-3. We found PRL-3 ... PRL-3 was identified as a gene with differential expression between healthy and cancerous tissue in these analyses. We used the ... risk were analyzed with gene expression profiling and compared to normal prostate tissue. ...
The concentration of serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is commonly elevated in hyperthyroid cats. ... Tissue Sources of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase in 34 Hyperthyroid Cats: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study. ... The concentration of serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is commonly elevated in hyperthyroid cats. Agarose gel electrophoresis, ... comparing them to sera from five healthy cats and to tissue homogenates from liver, kidney, bone and duodenum. Contrary to ...
Organelle-specific detection of phosphatase activities with two-photon fluorogenic probes in cells and tissues. ... Organelle-specific detection of phosphatase activities with two-photon fluorogenic probes in cells and tissues. Journal of the ... We further demonstrated this novel two-photon system could be used for imaging endogenous phosphatase activities in Drosophila ... lower tissue autofluorescence and self-absorption, and reduced photodamage and photobleaching and therefore is particularly ...
MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phosphatase, Acid, of Tissues:. 40 Prostate, Liver, Kidney, Neutrophil, Brain, Bone, Thymus ... MalaCards integrated aliases for Phosphatase, Acid, of Tissues:. Name: Phosphatase, Acid, of Tissues 56 ... MalaCards based summary : Phosphatase, Acid, of Tissues, also known as lysosomal acid phosphatase, is related to acid ... An important gene associated with Phosphatase, Acid, of Tissues is ACP2 (Acid Phosphatase 2, Lysosomal), and among its related ...
We report a case of a 35-year-old Japanese woman with low serum alkaline phosphatase detected at a routine medical checkup. She ... Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity, elevation of phosphoethanolamine, and low bone mineral density supported the diagnosis ... hypophosphatasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low serum alkaline phosphatase. Early diagnosis is ... Hypophosphatasia is an inherited bone disease characterized by low alkaline phosphatase activity encoded by ALPL. Clinically, ...
Scaffolds for tissue engineering prepared from biocompatible, biodegradable polymer-based, lighter than or light as water ... Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured by using adaptations of standard histochemical ( ... Calcified Tissue International 1990 46(1):46-56; Masi et al. Calcified Tissue International 1992 51(3):202-212; Rattner et al. ... The present invention relates to tissue engineering scaffolds and methods for production of tissue engineering scaffold which ...
Our knowledge of the structure and function of alkaline phosphatases has increased greatly in recent years. The crystal ... Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase; TNSALP; "Bliver-bone-kidney type" AP. Developing nervous system, skeletal tissues, ... Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase; TNSALP; "liver-bone-kidney type" AP. Developing nervous system, skeletal tissues, ... Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 are central antagonistic regulators of bone ...
Organ cultures of newborn mouse calvaria were used to test the hypothesis that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase might serve ... Minkin, C. Calcif Tissue Int (1982) 34: 285. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02411252. * DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02411252 ... Bone acid phosphatase: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of osteoclast function. ... Yam, L. T.: Clinical significance of the human acid phosphatases. A review, Am. J. Med.56:604-616, 1974CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
... convenient and flexible alternative for measuring protein phosphatase activity. ... The Non-Radioactive Phosphatase Assay Systems provide a fast, ... Use with Purified Samples or Crude Cell and Tissue Extracts. In ... the Phosphatase Assay Systems can measure phosphatase activity in crude cell or tissue extracts. For this application, the high ... Fast, Convenient Assays for Tyrosine or Ser/Thr Phosphatase Activity. The Non-Radioactive Phosphatase Assay Systems determine ...
Inhibition studies of alkaline phosphatase in hard tissue-forming cells. The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : ... indicates that at least two different phosphatase are active at alkaline pH in hard tissue-forming cells; on nonspecific ... The effect of 50 kV X-ray irradiation on the alkaline phosphatase activity of growing rat bone. (opens in new tab) ... Alkaline phosphatase and ATPase activities of rat bone: separation and characterization. (opens in new tab) ...
Effective Concentration Method for the Recovery of Crude Alkaline Phosphatase fromthe Clarified Hepatopancreatic Tissue ... Effective Concentration Method for the Recovery of Crude Alkaline Phosphatase fromthe Clarified Hepatopancreatic Tissue ... Effective Concentration Method for the Recovery of Crude Alkaline Phosphatase fromthe Clarified Hepatopancreatic Tissue ... of the alkaline phosphatase by exploiting physico-chemical properties of the components of hepatopancreatic tissue homogenate ...
  • Unraveling the molecular role of TNAP in extraosseous tissues, like in the CNS, will help to improve treatment strategies for HPP patients. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The involvement of protein Ser/Thr phosphatase types 2A (PP2A) and 1 (PP1) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)-induced tissue factor (TF) expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was investigated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The methods are based upon newly discovered differences in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) function and related molecular events in Alzheimer's. (google.com)
  • The methods are based upon newly discovered differences in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) function and related molecular events in Alzheimer's disease cells compared to control cells. (google.com)
  • The detection of Alzheimer's disease-specific differences in PP2A function and related events in peripheral tissues provides the basis for highly practical and efficient tests and diagnostic test kits for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, as well as providing a biochemical basis for identifying therapeutic targets for drug development. (google.com)
  • PP6 is most closely related in protein sequence (57% identical) to protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and to protein phosphatase-4 (PP4). (portlandpress.com)
  • Despite their sequence similarity separate homologues of these phosphatases (PP2A/PP4/PP6) are conserved in eukaryotes, including model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PPH21/PPH3/SIT4), Schizosaccharomyces pombe (ppa2/pph3/ppe1), Caenorhabditis elegans (LET-92/PPH-4.1/PPH-6) and Drosophila (mts/Pp4-19C/PpV). (portlandpress.com)
  • Potent in vitro inhibition of the PP2A/PP4/PP6 (type 2A) phosphatases by low nanomolar doses of OA distinguishes these phosphatases from other members of the PPP family [ 12 , 13 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Although conjugated bile acids dominate the hepatic profile (97.0 ± 1.5%) of conventional animals, unconjugated bile acids comprise the largest proportion of the total measured bile acid profile in kidney (60.0 ± 10.4%) and heart (53.0 ± 18.5%) tissues. (pnas.org)
  • The presence of specific microbial bile acid co-metabolite patterns in peripheral tissues (including heart and kidney) implies a broader signaling role for these compounds and emphasizes the extent of symbiotic microbial influences in mammalian homeostasis. (pnas.org)
  • To analyze the expression profile of placental type alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in serous ovarian cancer and to correlate their expression with the tumor aggressiveness and progression. (iospress.com)
  • By reviewing all available transcript evidence, we found that at least 75% of kinase and phosphatase loci in mouse generate alternative splice forms, and that 44% of these loci have well supported alternative 5' exons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: Molecular Biology and Relevance to Tissue-Specific Expression and Action. (elsevier.com)
  • Realization and appreciation that growth factors are essential in tissue development, regeneration, and maintenance as well as crucial mediators/regulators of pertinent cellular- and molecular-level events has motivated new directions in bioengineering research. (springer.com)
  • The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is inactivated in many tissues during starvation and diabetes to conserve three-carbon compounds for gluconeogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, the pyruvate concentration in digestive gland revealed its differential response in the stress metabolic sequence of changes, as a unique tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • The lactate/pyruvate ratio and the calcium content in tissues constitute direct evidences for the snails adaptation to toxic stress. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we utilized alginate-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells for the culture of a tissue-engineered bone construct in the size and shape of the superior half of an adult human femur (∼ 200 cm(3)), a 20-fold increase over previously reported volumes of in vitro engineered bone grafts. (nih.gov)