Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into smooth muscle myocytes (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
A tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue, as opposed to leiomyoma, a tumor derived from smooth muscle.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
"Diversity of CD97 in smooth muscle cells". Cell and Tissue Research. 324 (1): 139-47. doi:10.1007/s00441-005-0103-2. PMID ... Jaspars LH, Vos W, Aust G, Van Lier RA, Hamann J (Apr 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue ... However, lack of CD97 only affects the structure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, but not the function of skeletal muscle.[17] In ... Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ...
It also relaxes smooth muscle tissues. In blood vessels, relaxation of vascular smooth muscles lead to vasodilation and ...
... vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells; various types of epithelial cells, liver hepatocytes, neural tissue glial cells, ... FPR1 directs these cells to sites of invading pathogens or disrupted tissues and then stimulates these cells to kill the ... Since ψFpr-rs2 transcripts are expressed and inducible in multiple mouse tissues and since gene knockout studies ascribe ... FPR1 is widely expressed by circulating blood neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and platelets; tissue-bound ...
Weiss, Sharon W. (2002). "Smooth muscle tumors of soft tissue". Advances in Anatomic Pathology. 9 (6): 351-9. doi:10.1097/ ... Smooth muscle tumors are also associated with the virus in malignant patients. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a cancer found in ... "Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors are distinctive mesenchymal tumors reflecting multiple infection events: A ... including Burkitt's lymphoma and primary cerebral lymphoma Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder Smooth muscle tumors ...
The expression of caveolin-3 is restricted to striated and smooth muscle. ... Caveolin-1 is most prominently expressed in endothelial, fibrous, and adipose tissue. ... a novel member of the caveolin gene family expressed predominantly in muscle". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (4): 2255-61. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
... reduces spasm and relaxes smooth muscle. Bronchi are widened and mucus regulated. (PRs are widely present in ... To a lesser extent, progesterone is produced in nervous tissue, especially in the brain, and in adipose (fat) tissue, as well. ... Progesterone decreases contractility of the uterine smooth muscle. This effect contributes to prevention of preterm labor. A ... and the presence of progesterone receptors in certain muscle and fat tissue may hint at a role in sexually dimorphic ...
In uterine smooth muscle, slow waves have not been consistently observed. Uterine muscle seems to generate action potentials ... Cell and Tissue Research. 293 (2): 277-84. doi:10.1007/s004410051119. PMID 9662650. Zamir, O.; Hanani, M. (1990). " ... In gastrointestinal smooth muscle, the slow-wave threshold can be altered by input from endogenous and exogenous innervation, ... Slow waves generated in interstitial cells of Cajal spread to the surrounding smooth muscle cells and control motility. In the ...
... is a malignant (cancerous) smooth muscle tumor. A benign tumor originating from the same tissue is termed ... Smooth muscle cells make up the involuntary muscles, which are found in most parts of the body, including the uterus, stomach ... Vijay Shankar, M.D. "Soft tissue - Smooth muscle - Leiomyosarcoma - general". Pathology Outlines. Topic Completed: 1 November ... Uterine leiomyosarcomas come from the smooth muscle in the muscle layer of the uterus. Cutaneous leiomyosarcomas derive from ...
The lamina propria, a layer of connective tissue within the mucosa. The muscularis mucosae, a thin layer of smooth muscle. The ... a layer of connective tissue, and the muscularis mucosae, a thin layer of smooth muscle. The submucosa contains nerves ... The muscle of the inner layer is arranged in circular rings around the tract, whereas the muscle of the outer layer is arranged ... It comprises layers of smooth muscle in longitudinal and circular orientation that also helps with continued bowel movements ( ...
There are glands and mucus produced by goblet cells in parts, as well as smooth muscle, elastin or cartilage. Most of the ... This is a bacterial infection which deteriorates the lung tissue resulting in coughing up blood.[8][dead link] This infection ... Smooth muscle starts in the trachea, where it joins the C-shaped rings of cartilage. It continues down the bronchi and ... The diaphragm is the primary muscle that allows for lung expansion and contraction. Smaller muscles between the ribs, the ...
The perineal body is made up of smooth muscle, elastic connective tissue fibers, and nerve endings. Above the perineal body are ... The pubococcygeus muscle is subdivided into the pubourethralis, pubovaginal muscle and the puborectalis muscle. The names ... The perineal body is a pyramidal structure of muscle and connective tissue and part of it is located between the anus and ... The fascia also contains fibroblasts, smooth muscle, and vascular vessels. The cardinal ligament supports the apex of the ...
However, airway smooth muscle has demonstrated almost no capacity for regeneration, instead being replaced by connective tissue ... thus heating the tissue and reducing the amount of smooth muscle present in the airway wall. This reduces the capacity of the ... the smooth muscle tissue which is destroyed cannot be recovered. Bronchial thermoplasty was first approved by FDA in April 2010 ... It is this heat that destroys some of the muscle tissue which constricts during an asthma attack, reducing the number and ...
Uterine sarcoma is a rare cancer that grows from cells in the smooth muscle of the uterus.[10] Other tumors can grow in the ... Strong fibrous tissue grows on the outside of the uterus. The myometrium grows at first but becomes thinner at the end of the ... The uterus is made of smooth muscle called the myometrium. The cells of the myometrium grow during pregnancy. ... Weak pelvic muscles[11]. Surgery[change , change source]. The uterus is removed by surgery for many reasons. Removing the ...
Administration of this estradiol metabolite prevents vascular smooth muscle growth. This inhibition of angiogenesis is ... 2-meOE2 has also been found to inhibit aromatase activity, thereby lowering the in situ synthesis of E2 in cancer tissue. 2- ... Since macrophages and lymphocytes are present in breast tissue, this provides a concerning means of upregulating in situ ... 2-meOE2 is also a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in tumor tissues. ...
These cells express α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The myofibroblasts are absent in the first trimester in the embryonic stage ... but the composition of the scar tissue, compared to the normal tissue, is different. Scar tissue also lacks elasticity unlike ... Scar tissue is composed of the same protein (collagen) as the tissue that it replaces, but the fiber composition of the protein ... Essentially the process involves separating the skin tissue in the affected area from the deeper scar tissue. This allows the ...
... smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle has no striations when examined microscopically. It contracts ... Muscle cells (myocytes) form the active contractile tissue of the body. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause ... Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, epithelial, muscle and nervous tissue. Connective tissues are ... Connective tissue gives shape to organs and holds them in place. The main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, ...
Smooth muscle tissue, for example, is hard to differentiate from collagen. A trichrome stain can colour the muscle tissue red, ... muscle tissue to a red colour, and collagen to a blue colour. Some other trichrome staining protocols are the Masson's ... Staining differentiates tissues by tinting them in contrasting colours. It increases the contrast of microscopic features in ... Reid PE, Iagallo M, Nehr S, Jankunis M, Morrow P (1993) Mechanism of connective tissue techniques. 1. The effect of dye ...
... functions to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle tissue. It functions by promoting the survival of ... When this gene is inhibited, vascular smooth muscle proliferates and can cause pulmonary hypertension, which, among other ...
This fixed relationship holds at the level of the whole lung , isolated lung parenchymal tissue strips, isolated smooth muscle ... Friction in airway smooth muscle: mechanism, latch, and implications in asthma. J Appl Physiol 81: 2703-2712, 1996. Bursac P, ... Friction in airway smooth muscle: mechanism, latch, and implications in asthma. J Appl Physiol 81: 2703-2712, 1996. Fredberg JJ ... Time course and heterogeneity of contractile responses in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells. J Appl Physiol 91: 986-994 ...
Smooth muscle actin may be positive in about 50% of cases. Negative: Epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, p63 and calponin. ... The cells may extend into and entrap soft tissue structures including skeletal muscle and nerve bundles. The tumor is made up ... Submucosal circumscribed but not encapsulated nodular mass, often with entrapped muscle bundles at the edge. It may have a ... Swirling formations give the appearance of neural tissue. Importantly, there is an absence of glands or myoepithelial ...
They are composed of fat, smooth muscle tissue and vascular elements. The echogenicity is governed by the composition of these ... A solid renal mass appears in the US exam with internal echoes, without the well-defined, smooth walls seen in cysts, often ... A color bar is shown to the left of the image, where "S" and "H" denote soft and hard tissue, respectively. Abdominal ... Most renal masses are simple cortical renal cysts with a round appearance and a smooth thin capsule encompassing anechoic fluid ...
"The contractile strength of vascular smooth muscle myocytes is shape dependent." Integrative Biology 6.2 (2014): 152-163. ... Capturing complex 3d tissue physiology in vitro. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 7(3):211-224, 2006 Toyjanova, J; Bar- ... It is also hoped that recent findings from TFM will contribute to the design of optimal scaffolds for tissue engineering and ... "Epithelial bridges maintain tissue integrity during collective cell migration." Nature materials (2013).. ...
Sep 2015). "Microfibrillar-associated Protein 4 Modulates Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype in Experimental Asthma". Thorax. ... "Tissue expression of MFAP4 - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas". www.proteinatlas.org. Schlosser, et al. (Jan 2016). "MFAP4 ... It has a relatively non-specific tissue expression pattern, with higher levels observed in organs such as the lungs and ... Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Migration, Proliferation and Accelerates Neointima Formation". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and ...
The trigone is a smooth-muscle area that forms the floor of the bladder above the urethra.[5] It is an area of smooth tissue ... Detrusor muscle[edit]. The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in ... The outside of the bladder is protected by a serous membrane.[7] The bladder wall itself is smooth muscle.[7] The inner side of ... Journal of smooth muscle research = Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai kikanshi. 40 (6): 237-47. doi:10.1540/jsmr.40.237. PMID 15725706. ...
During ejaculation, the smooth muscle in the walls of the vas deferens contracts reflexively, thus propelling the sperm forward ... Cholinergic synapses and vasoactive intestinal peptide synapses are found in the connective tissue of the mucosa. Noradrenergic ... Berridge, Michael J. (2008). "Smooth muscle cell calcium activation mechanisms". The Journal of Physiology. 586 (21): 5047-5061 ... Adrenergic synapses are found in the smooth muscle layers. ... ATP release from nerve terminals elicits focal smooth muscle ...
It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle.[8] The protein encoded ... "Cell and Tissue Research. 357 (2): 463-76. doi:10.1007/s00441-014-1936-3. PMID 24996399.. ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... Cav1.2 is widely expressed in the smooth muscle, pancreatic cells, fibroblasts, and neurons.[9][10] However, it is particularly ...
Mature tissue cysts were observed in skeletal muscles in the post infection stage. Encephalitis has been reported to be ... The cysts had a smooth wall without projections. It was concluded that the size and wall morphology observed in the pigeons in ... Tissue cysts of a protozoan parasite were present in the skeletal muscle. The pigeons had severe granulomatous ...
These tumors typically form from the smooth muscle tissue lining the bronchi. They grow as a solitary tumor attaching ... These tumours can form in the lower respiratory tract tissue of the bronchi, trachea and other lung tissue. They may also be ... The determination of a leiomyoma is done by chest x-rays, blood sample and taking a tissue sample of the tumor. An associated ...
The muscularis consist of outer longitudinal and inner circular smooth muscle coats. This layer is responsible for the rhythmic ... The fimbriae (singular fimbria) is a fringe of tissue around the ostium of the Fallopian tube, in the direction of the ovary. ... The subserosa is composed of loose adventitious tissue, blood vessels, lymphatics. ... that crosses the muscles of the uterine. The average length of a fallopian tube is 11-12 cm. The uterus opens into the ...
One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... Furthermore, most tissues (with the notable exception of liver and kidneys) cannot remove the phosphate added by hexokinase. ... a smoothing prior leading to total variation regularization or a Laplacian distribution leading to ℓ. 1. {\displaystyle \ell _{ ... The emitted positron travels in tissue for a short distance (typically less than 1 mm, but dependent on the isotope[34]), ...
1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 ... Similar to the ER is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) found only in muscle cells. The SR stores and pumps calcium ions. The SR ... Porter K.R; Claude A. & Fullam E.F. (1945). "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy". J Exp Med. 81 (3): 233- ... Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Among its functions is the production of proteins and steroids, the maintenance of plasma ...
Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... Extensive connective tissue lattices support the respiratory muscles and allow them to expand the respiratory chamber.[37] The ... The ingress of water is achieved by contraction of radial muscles in the mantle wall, and flapper valves shut when strong ... The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ...
Soft tissue swelling occurs, along with airway obstruction and trouble swallowing, due to the rapid enlargement of the cyst.[2] ... Thyroglossal cyst usually presents as a midline neck lump (in the region of the hyoid bone) that is usually painless, smooth ... removal of one-eighth inch diameter core of tongue muscle superior to the hyoid at a 45 degree angle up to the foramen cecum to ... The Sistrunk procedure is the surgical resection of the central portion of the hyoid bone along with a wide core of tissue from ...
The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle ... organ changes and tissue accumulation". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 16 (5): 549-567. doi:10.1080/ ... and can help smooth the surface of other metals.[200][201] Being a strong reducing agent, it is often used to reduce many other ... One of the very few properties of the alkali metals that does not display a very smooth trend is their reduction potentials: ...
... decreased muscle movement and even tissue deformation. Vein swellingEdit. Further research reveals that another possible ... Lastly, American Smooth shoes are closed toed, flexible soled shoes that range in heel height from 2 to 2.5 inches. An ... "Muscle Activation of Paraspinal Muscles in Different Types of High Heels during Standing." Journal of Physical Therapy Science ... The researchers mentioned that over time these results would increase local muscle fatigue that could lead to muscle swelling, ...
... s have a capsule of connective tissue, and run parallel to the extrafusal muscle fibers.[c] ... Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ... Muscle spindle. Mammalian muscle spindle showing typical position in a muscle (left), neuronal connections in spinal cord ( ...
For most feet, a smooth curve can be traced through the joints at the bases of the toes. But in Morton's foot, the line has to ... For the condition involving the soft tissue between the bones, see Morton's metatarsalgia. ... "Effect of the Intrinsic Foot Muscle Exercise Combined with Interphalangeal Flexion Exercise on Metatarsalgia with Morton's Toe ...
In some receptor systems (e.g. acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction in smooth muscle), agonists are able to elicit ... they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. There are three main ways ... The final biological response (e.g. second messenger cascade, muscle-contraction), is only achieved after a significant number ...
smooth muscle tissue development. · regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. · righting ... skeletal muscle tissue development. · embryo development. · post-embryonic development. · cerebellum development. · caudate ...
Histological changes consist of epithelial necrosis and detachment, increase in the area of smooth muscle, epithelial ... Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated in vitro by determining their effects on stimulation of pulmonary and ... such as the effects of inflammatory mediators on airway and vascular smooth muscle tone. As a rule of thumb, all these models ... Chlorine is a strong oxidizing element causing the hydrogen to split from water in moist tissue, resulting in nascent oxygen ...
Levels of protein C, free and total protein S, factor VIII, antithrombin, plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and ... Anti-smooth muscle *Anti-actin. *Anti-TPO/Antimicrosomal. Cell membrane. *Anti-ganglioside ... a) Vascular thrombosis in three or more organs or tissues and. *b) Development of manifestations simultaneously or in less than ... c) Evidence of small vessel thrombosis in at least one organ or tissue and ...
... vascular smooth muscle and tissue engineering of the arteries. - Therapeutic Uses of Beta-casein a2 and dietary supplement ... In the early 1970s, she was the first to discover that smooth muscle cells can exist in a spectrum of phenotypes that control ... Julie Hazel Campbell is a cell biologist specializing in vascular smooth muscle. Dr. Campbell's postdoctoral experiences ... she researched the biology of smooth muscle cells in normal artery walls of the human body. She recognized the importance of ...
... receptor gene expression in human myometrium and leiomyomata and the direct action of GnRH analogs on myometrial smooth muscle ... 1997). "Characterization of multiple promoters directing tissue-specific expression of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... of a major up-stream transcription start site for the human progonadotropin-releasing hormone gene used in reproductive tissues ... of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNAs in various non-reproductive human tissues ...
... smooth muscle (bronchiole and capillary) dilation, and increased metabolism, all of which are characteristic of the fight-or- ... Neuroblastoma, a neuroendocrine tumor of any neural crest tissue of the sympathetic nervous system[5] ...
PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ... PDGF is a required element in cellular division for fibroblasts, a type of connective tissue cell that is especially prevalent ... vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells as well as chemotaxis, the directed migration, of mesenchymal cells. ... it is also produced by other cells including smooth muscle cells, activated macrophages, and endothelial cells[5] ...
It also causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle in the bronchus and gut, increases vascular permeability and is also ... The B1 receptor (also called bradykinin receptor B1) is expressed only as a result of tissue injury, and is presumed to play a ... from the effect of snake venom on intestinal smooth muscle, which was noted to slowly contract.[citation needed] ... suppresses trauma-induced swelling caused by the release of bradykinin into the bloodstream and tissues.[12] Other substances ...
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • positive ... On other tissues: increasing insulin resistance. TNF phosphorylates insulin receptor serine residues, blocking signal ... positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation of gene expression. • protein ... adipose tissue, fibroblasts, and neurons.[5] Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other ...
The cardiac muscle is not voluntary. The smooth muscles are the other muscles in the body that are involuntary. Smooth muscles ... Muscle is a tissue in animal bodies. Their main purpose is to help us to move our body parts. They are one of the major systems ... Types of muscles[change , change source]. There are three kinds of muscles: *Skeletal muscle, the muscle attached to bones. ... Muscle structure[change , change source]. Muscles are made of many muscle cells. The cells contract together to make the muscle ...
There is a smooth muscle layer below the epithelium arranged as two ribbons of muscle that spiral in opposite directions. This ... The surrounding tissue secretes mucus normally but builds up and becomes distended.[16] This can lead to regional emphysema.[17 ... Hyaline cartilage is present in the bronchi, surrounding the smooth muscle layer. In the main bronchi, the cartilage forms C- ... As the cartilage decreases, the amount of smooth muscle increases. The mucous membrane also undergoes a transition from ...
Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane ... The muscular layer of the body is of smooth muscle tissue that helps the gallbladder contract, so that it can discharge its ... The suspensory muscle attaches the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm. This muscle is thought to be of help in the digestive ... It starts at the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum. The attachment of the suspensory muscle to the ...
... and smooth-muscle contraction. This results in rhinorrhea, itchiness, dyspnea, and anaphylaxis. Depending on the individual, ... from their granules into the surrounding tissue causing several systemic effects, such as vasodilation, mucous secretion, nerve ...
... which relax smooth muscle of constricted airway in asthma, or (4) mast cell stabilizers, which inhibit the degranulation of ... which both help the mast cells survive and accumulate in tissue, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 as well as IL-33 which in turn activate ... to allow other immune cells to gain access to tissues, but which can lead to a potentially fatal drop in blood pressure as in ...
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • cellular response to hydrogen peroxide. • sorbitol biosynthetic ... tissue homeostasis. • inner medullary collecting duct development. • oxidation-reduction process. • positive regulation of JAK- ... Morjana NA, Lyons C, Flynn TG (February 1989). "Aldose reductase from human psoas muscle. Affinity labeling of an active site ... skeletal muscle, testis, blood vessels, lung, and liver.[8] It is a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH ...
The common ostrich's sternum is flat, lacking the keel to which wing muscles attach in flying birds.[17] The beak is flat and ... It then moves along the coronary groove and continues on into the tissue as interventricular branches toward the apex of the ... The feathers lack the tiny hooks that lock together the smooth external feathers of flying birds, and so are soft and fluffy ... During expiration, oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs[62] and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. ...
It increases vessel permeability, dilates blood vessels and causes smooth muscle cells to contract. Bradykinin plays an ... Bradykinin is a peptide-based hormone that is formed locally in tissues, very often in response to a trauma. ...
They are superior to the previously used animal tissues because of their large size and the high rate of mitosis (cell division ... Anti-smooth muscle *Anti-actin. *Anti-TPO/Antimicrosomal. Cell membrane. *Anti-ganglioside ... Until around 1975, when HEp-2 cells were introduced, animal tissue was used as the standard substrate for immunofluorescence.[ ... In addition to SLE, these antibodies are highly associated with mixed connective tissue disease. Anti-nRNP antibodies recognise ...
... receptor gene expression in human myometrium and leiomyomata and the direct action of GnRH analogs on myometrial smooth muscle ... Dong KW, Yu KL, Chen ZG, et al. (1997). "Characterization of multiple promoters directing tissue-specific expression of the ... of a major up-stream transcription start site for the human progonadotropin-releasing hormone gene used in reproductive tissues ... of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNAs in various non-reproductive human tissues ...
Normally endothelial cells release prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) which induce relaxation of the smooth muscle cells, and ... This can lead to tissue ischemia and tissue death (necrosis). Cerebral vasospasm may arise in the context of subarachnoid ... It does not stimulate as much prostacyclin and NO to induce relaxation on smooth muscle cells. Also there is not as much ... Aggregating platelets stimulate ADP to act on endothelial cells and help them induce relaxation of the smooth muscle cells. ...
The morphology and immunophenotype of smooth muscle tumors in deep soft tissue are similar to their counterparts irrespective ... It is interesting to note that leiomyomas of deep soft tissue (extremity and retroperitoneum) are often hyalinized/sclerosed ... Leiomyomas of deep soft tissue in the extremity should be devoid of mitoses and ... mitotic activity are acceptable when making a diagnosis of leiomyoma in deep soft tissue sites is controversial. ...
However, this issue has largely been ignored with respect to PKC-dependent regulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle ( ... In vascular tissues, phosphorylation of the PKC hydrophobic site, but not turn motif site, as well as phosphorylation of PDK at ... is a key enzyme involved in agonist-induced smooth muscle contraction. In some cases, regulatory phosphorylation of PKC is ... Agonist Stimulation of Smooth Muscle Tissue. The antibody used to detect phosphorylation of recombinant PKC at the PDK site in ...
smooth muscle cell;. ASMA,. SMC-specific α actin;. rBSMC,. rat bladder SMC;. SMIM,. smooth muscle inductive medium.. ... Smooth Muscle Differentiation of ASC.. To ascertain that the induction of smooth muscle markers was due to differentiation and ... Smooth Muscle Differentiation.. The effect of the medium and the substrate on the induction of a differentiated smooth muscle ... Smooth Muscle Differentiation of PLA Cells.. Optimal smooth muscle differentiation was observed when cells were cultured in ...
... including smooth muscle cells. Tissue factor expression on the smooth muscle cell surface could be of pathological significance ... Tissue factor expression in human arterial smooth muscle cells: tissue factor is present in three cellular pools after growth ... LDL Increases Inactive Tissue Factor on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Surfaces. Marc S. Penn, Chandrashekhar V. Patel, Mei-Zhen ... LDL Increases Inactive Tissue Factor on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Surfaces. Marc S. Penn, Chandrashekhar V. Patel, Mei-Zhen ...
Smooth muscle is typically comprised of numerous elongate spindle-shaped cells, each of which contains a single nucleus located ... Mammalian Smooth Muscle Tissue. The muscle tissue in mammals and other higher animals is usually described as either striated, ... More varied than other types of muscle tissue, smooth muscle may exhibit a number of different characteristics. In addition to ... The most studied of these types of tissue is striated muscle, but a significant body of information has been compiled on smooth ...
... including early marker smooth muscle alpha actin, middle markers calponin, caldesmon, and late marker smooth muscle myosin ... Five percent oxygen concentration significantly increased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin ... muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, ... Hypoxia influences differentiation of smooth muscle cells from adipose stem cells and 5% oxygen was the optimal condition to ...
... in smooth muscle tissue. Antibody staining with HPA000993 and HPA063890 in immunohistochemistry. ... Skeletal muscle. Skin. Skin 1. Skin 2. Small intestine. Smooth muscle. Soft tissue 1. Soft tissue 2. Sole of foot. Spleen. ... SMOOTH MUSCLE - Annotated protein expressioni. The detailed normal tissue page shows images of the stained tissue, together ... Smooth muscle. Spleen. Stomach. Testis. Thyroid gland. Tonsil. Urinary bladder. Specificity. Tissue enriched. Group enriched. ...
Release of active tissue factor by human arterial smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2000; 87: 126-132. ... Agonist-mediated tissue factor expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells: role of Ca2+ mobilization and protein ... NADPH Oxidase Mediates Tissue Factor-Dependent Surface Procoagulant Activity by Thrombin in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells ... NADPH Oxidase Mediates Tissue Factor-Dependent Surface Procoagulant Activity by Thrombin in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells ...
Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction of Tissue Factor Expression in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells. Mei-Zhen Cui, Guojun Zhao, Allison L ... Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction of Tissue Factor Expression in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells ... Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction of Tissue Factor Expression in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells ... Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction of Tissue Factor Expression in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells ...
Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor ... Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor ... Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor ... Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor ...
The muscle contractions produced can be measured either as forces (isometrically) or as displacements (is ... The flexible Graz Tissue Bath System is can be used for many standard pharmacological experiments to measure smooth and ... Mounting Material for Graz Tissue Vessel and Tissue Holder. 73-3534. Support Set for Muscle Strips to Graz Core Tissue Holder, ... Flexible tissue bath system suitable for many standard pharmacological experiments to measure smooth and skeletal muscle ...
Jespersen, B., Tykocki, N. R., Watts, S. W., Cobbett, P. J. Measurement of Smooth Muscle Function in the Isolated Tissue Bath- ... Davis, M. J., Gore, R. W. Length-tension relationship of vascular smooth muscle in single arterioles. Am. J. Physiol. 256, H630 ... Burdyga, T. V., Wray, S. On the mechanisms whereby temperature affects excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle. J. Gen ... Ca2+ flashes and contractility evoked by muscarinic receptor activation in mouse urinary bladder smooth muscle. J. Physiol. 587 ...
View Stock Photo of Colon Mucosa Or Glandular Epithelium And Underlying Connective And Smooth Muscle Tissue Lm X140. Find ... Colon mucosa or glandular epithelium and underlying connective and smooth muscle tissue. LM X140. ...
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of human smooth muscle cells in bioengineered tissue scaffolds Author(s): ... The integration of living, human smooth muscle cells in biosynthesized cellulose scaffolds was monitored by nonlinear ... together with a small signal obtained from the cytoplasmic myosin of the muscle cells. From the overlay images we conclude a ...
Vascular tissue engineering: Bioreactor design considerations for extended culture of primary human vascular smooth muscle ... Vascular tissue engineering: Bioreactor design considerations for extended culture of primary human vascular smooth muscle ...
The relation of these findings to the process of wound healing in smooth muscle tissues in vivo is discussed. ... Dedifferentiation, redifferentiation and bundle formation of smooth muscle cells in tissue culture: the influence of cell ... Dedifferentiation, redifferentiation and bundle formation of smooth muscle cells in tissue culture: the influence of cell ... Dedifferentiation, redifferentiation and bundle formation of smooth muscle cells in tissue culture: the influence of cell ...
Mouse Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiate Into Lymphoid Tissue Organizer-Like Cells on Combined Tumor Necrosis Factor ... See commentary "From bystander to commander: how smooth muscle cells promote lymphoid tissue neogenesis." in Arterioscler ... Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β- ... SMC were used at passages 1 to 3 and purity was ≥99% as shown by α-smooth muscle actin positivity of cytospins. Cells were ...
Ver Foto de stock de Colon Mucosa Or Glandular Epithelium And Underlying Connective And Smooth Muscle Tissue Lm X140. Encuentra ... Colon mucosa or glandular epithelium and underlying connective and smooth muscle tissue. LM X140. ...
Expression of Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Inhibits Secretion of Macrophage Migration ... 2015) Expression of Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Inhibits Secretion of Macrophage ... muscle, smooth, E-DEFICIENT MICE, LEUKOCYTE RECRUITMENT, INTIMAL HYPERPLASIA, FACTOR MIF, THROMBIN, LIPOPROTEIN, ATHEROGENESIS ...
Smooth muscle-containing tissue needs to be stretched often, so elasticity is an important attribute of smooth muscle. Smooth ... make the entire smooth muscle tissue contract with them. The smooth muscle is the only type of muscle without the ability to be ... ultimately resulting in contraction of the entire smooth muscle tissue.. Phasic or tonic. Smooth muscle may contract phasically ... or action potentials between smooth muscle cells. Single unit smooth muscle displays numerous gap junctions and these tissues ...
... ... EGF-induced adipose tissue mesothelial cells undergo functional vascular smooth muscle differentiation. Cell Death and Disease ... which generates fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), in developing coelomic organs via epithelial-to- ... which generates fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), in developing coelomic organs via epithelial-to- ...
Thanks for visiting my blog, article above Smooth Muscle Tissue If you like the Smooth Muscle Tissue what I would like you to ... 25+ best ideas about smooth muscle tissue on pinterest , muscle at Cephalic Vein ... 25+ best ideas about smooth muscle tissue on pinterest , muscle at Cephalic Vein ... 25+ best ideas about smooth muscle tissue on pinterest , muscle at Cephalic Vein ...
... most likely reflecting the presence of vascular smooth muscle in these tissues. Recombination was analyzed by breeding the SM22 ... smooth muscle cells;. ABP,. arterial blood pressure;. RAA,. renin-angiotensin-aldosteron;. β-gal,. β galactosidase;. X-Gal,. 5- ... and tissues were harvested and immersed in 20% sucrose in phosphate buffer for 3 h. Tissues were frozen in tissue-tek, ... Smooth muscle-selective deletion of guanylyl cyclase-A prevents the acute but not chronic effects of ANP on blood pressure. ...
Retinoic acid-induced tissue transglutaminase and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation research. 2000 Nov 10; ... Retinoic acid-induced tissue transglutaminase and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. / Ou, Hesheng; Haendeler, Judith; ... Retinoic acid-induced tissue transglutaminase and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. ... title = "Retinoic acid-induced tissue transglutaminase and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells", ...
... and differentiation of primary cell lines including human bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and urothelial cells as well as ... Two structurally diverse groups of silk scaffolds were produced by a gel spinning process and consisted of either smooth, ... that fibronectin-coated Group 2 scaffolds facilitated ESC and iPS cell differentiation toward both urothelial and smooth muscle ... These results demonstrate that silk scaffolds support primary and pluripotent cell responses pertinent to bladder tissue ...
Muscle tissue gives muscles the ability to contract, by applying forces to other body parts. Smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, ... and cardiac muscles are three types of muscle tissues. ... Muscle tissue is a tissue that helps in contraction of muscles ... Muscle Tissue. Muscle tissue is a tissue that helps in the contraction of muscles. Muscle tissue gives muscles the ability to ... There are three types of Muscle tissues: Skeletal Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, Smooth muscle. Smooth muscle cells do not have ...
Tissue preparation. Mouse lungs were perfused with 10% neutral buffered formalin (Sigma). The perfused lung was placed in a ... indicating elevated smooth muscle expression of C3aR. Bronchial smooth muscle expression of C5aR was difficult to differentiate ... indicating that these C3aR-positive basolateral cells are bronchial smooth muscle cells. Although mouse bronchial smooth muscle ... C5aR expression was found on bronchial epithelial and smooth muscle cells, alveolar epithelial cells, and pulmonary smooth ...
The tissue was incubated 3 times in the tissue digestion mixture to yield 3 batches of cells. For the first batch, the tissue ... Single coronary smooth muscle cells were loaded with the Ca2+ indicator fura-2 for 30 minutes at 34°C.34,35,37⇓⇓ The fura-2 ... We have previously shown that incubation of coronary smooth muscle in Ca2+-free solution reduces [Ca2+]i to ≈35 nmol/L.10 We ... Ca2+-independent isoforms of protein kinase C differentially translocate in smooth muscle. Am J Physiol. 1992; 263(3 pt 1): ...
... works with internal organs and passageways through the body Explain how smooth muscles differ from skeletal and cardiac muscles ... Describe a dense body Explain how smooth muscle ... Smooth muscle tissue. Smooth muscle tissue is found around ... Explain how smooth muscles differ from skeletal and cardiac muscles. *Explain the difference between single-unit and multi-unit ... and they produce their own connective tissue, endomysium. Although they do not have striations and sarcomeres, smooth muscle ...
Perivascular adipose tissue potentiates contraction of coronary vascular smooth muscle: Influence of obesity. Circulation. 2013 ... Perivascular adipose tissue potentiates contraction of coronary vascular smooth muscle : Influence of obesity. / Owen, Meredith ... keywords = "adipose tissue, coronary disease, muscle, smooth, obesity, vasoconstriction",. author = "Owen, {Meredith Kohr} and ... title = "Perivascular adipose tissue potentiates contraction of coronary vascular smooth muscle: Influence of obesity", ...
  • Recently, our laboratory also found that 20-HETE is involved in promoting prolonged hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which is a major producer of NADPH in the cell, and cytochrome P -450 monooxygenase enzymes are functionally coupled in vascular smooth muscle tissue (unpublished observations). (physiology.org)
  • Our results indicate that electrical stimulation on PPy-coated scaffolds applied through the novel 3D ES device is a valid approach for vascular smooth muscle tissue engineering. (tut.fi)
  • H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in mitochondria of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle tissue and its modification by DFO, DMTU and DIDS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal function of a multitude of organs including the intestine, urinary tract and the vascular system. (pnas.org)
  • The multilineage capacity of PLA cells and ASC makes them promising candidates for reconstruction of human smooth muscle related tissues and organs. (pnas.org)
  • Most of the body s hollow internal organs, including all of the parts of the digestive system, are lined with smooth muscle. (fsu.edu)
  • Recent studies suggested that the post-natal mesothelium retain differentiative potential of the embryonic mesothelium, which generates fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), in developing coelomic organs via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (us.es)
  • Smooth muscle tissue is found around organs in the digestive, respiratory, reproductive tracts and the iris of the eye. (jobilize.com)
  • Angiotensin receptors are expressed in a wide variety of cell types and regulate important physiological activities such as blood pressure, electrolyte balance, hormone secretion, tissue growth and neuronal activity by interacting with specific receptors on target organs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As the sarcoma gets bigger and presses on nearby organs, nerves, muscles, or blood vessels, it may cause signs or symptoms, such as pain or weakness. (vicc.org)
  • A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. (vicc.org)
  • A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. (vicc.org)
  • We compared the different organs and different immunohistochemical reactions when using vimentin and smooth muscle actin. (huveta.hu)
  • In our study we found that the smooth muscle actin reaction is working very well in all species, and in all of the tested organs. (huveta.hu)
  • In histological respects, both organs have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina, one or two cell layers, the cuticular intima, and the inner lumen. (bioone.org)
  • Stem cells are special cells that can mature into specific tissues or organs. (cancer.net)
  • Furthermore, ACE2 was present in arterial and venous endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells in all organs studied. (nih.gov)
  • Allied with autonomic or involuntary systems, smooth muscle tissues can be found in the digestive system, the blood vessels, and a large number of the internal organs. (fsu.edu)
  • Studies have indicated expression of KCNQ channels in airway smooth muscle (ASM), a tissue that is predominantly regulated by muscarinic receptor signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • The control of membrane voltage by K + channels serves as a negative feedback to oppose voltage-dependent calcium influx pathways that contribute to airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme family hydrolyzes cAMP and cGMP, second messengers that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation and the inhibition of inflammatory cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The combination of both bioprinted materials allows the tissue to flex and contract, like a human airway. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • irradiating walls of an airway in a human lung with the source of energy at a wavelength and intensity which prevents smooth muscle tissue from replicating and causes debulking of the smooth muscle tissue. (google.com)
  • 8 . The method of claim 1 , wherein irradiating further comprises delivering a photo-active substance to the airway, wherein the photo-active substance enhances the ability of light energy to prevent the smooth muscle tissue from replicating. (google.com)
  • 9 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the source of energy emits energy at the wavelength and intensity which, when applied to the airway crosslinks DNA in smooth muscle cells surrounding the airway and prevents the smooth muscle cells from replicating. (google.com)
  • irradiating the walls of an airway in a human lung with the source of energy at a wavelength and intensity which affects smooth muscle tissue of the airway so as to prevent the airway from contracting or undergoing a spasm. (google.com)
  • An RGS4-mediated phenotypic switch of bronchial smooth muscle cells promotes fixed airway obstruction in asthma. (upenn.edu)
  • Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β may play an important role in airway remodeling, and the fibrogenic effect of TGF-β may be mediated through connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) release. (edu.au)
  • We investigated the role of MAPKs and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the effects of inflammatory cytokines on TGF-β-induced CTGF expression in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC). (edu.au)
  • Sydney Research Online: Connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor from airway smooth muscle interact with the extracellular matrix. (edu.au)
  • Altered airway smooth muscle (ASM) function and enrichment of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with interstitial collagen and fibronectin are major pathological features of airway remodeling in asthma. (jimmunol.org)
  • Two prominent features of the remodeling process that may underlie or contribute to the development of airways hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics include accumulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM), 4 possibly due to hyperplastic and/or hypertrophic changes ( 3 , 4 ) and alterations in the amount and composition extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • abstract = "BACKGROUND - : This investigation examined the mechanisms by which coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)-derived factors influence vasomotor tone and the PVAT proteome in lean versus obese swine. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). (tut.fi)
  • Leiomyomas of deep soft tissue are extremely rare and should only be diagnosed following adherence to stringent histological criteria, namely, the absence of nuclear atypia and of coagulative tumor necrosis. (hindawi.com)
  • If any mitotic activity and several atypical cells are encountered in smooth muscle tumors of deep soft tissue of the extremity, it would be prudent to invoke the appellation of smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential and advocate wide local excision and follow-up. (hindawi.com)
  • Benign smooth muscle tumor (leiomyoma) of deep somatic soft tissue of the extremity: histologically, an unencapsulated, well-circumscribed, multinodular, low cellularity spindle cell lesion is usually seen (a). (hindawi.com)
  • Objective- Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β -receptor (LT β R). Circumstantial evidence has linked the SMC LT β R to tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • EBV-positive smooth muscle tumor (EBV+SMT) is a rare disease with no established therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prolonged immunodeficiency often results in the development of malignant tumors including de novo EBV-related neoplasms such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and EBV-positive smooth muscle tumor (EBV+SMT). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Following this introductory section, each soft tissue tumor is presented according to its morphologic differentiation. (springer.com)
  • A veterinarian can perform a fine needle aspiration of cells or a biopsy (which removes a small amount of tissue from a tumor) for evaluation. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • If malignancy is suspected, tissue surrounding the tumor will also be removed to increase the chance that none of the tumor cells are left behind. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Cytolytic ILCs, also referred to as conventional NK (cNK) cells, release cytolytic effector molecules including perforin and granzyme B, which can kill tumor or virus-infected tissue. (jci.org)
  • The integration of living, human smooth muscle cells in biosynthesized cellulose scaffolds was monitored by nonlinear microscopy toward contractile artificial blood vessels. (spie.org)
  • Single unit smooth muscle, however, is most common and lines blood vessels (except large elastic arteries), the urinary tract, and the digestive tract. (ipfs.io)
  • Retinoids exert antiproliferative and prodifferentiating effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and reduce neointimal mass in balloon-injured blood vessels. (elsevier.com)
  • The rhythmic contractions of this muscle help in the pumping of blood through the blood vessels to various parts of the body. (toppr.com)
  • C3a and C5a can trigger contraction of smooth muscle, increase the permeability of small blood vessels, and regulate vasodilation (reviewed in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The smooth muscles in the blood vessels are also called vascular smooth muscles. (answers.com)
  • Blood Vessels are smooth muscles. (answers.com)
  • An example of smooth muscle would be in your blood vessels. (answers.com)
  • Smooth muscles are mainly involuntary (blood vessels, intestines, etc. (answers.com)
  • In blood vessels, when the smooth muscles contract, they constrict the lumen of the blood vessels ( arteries ) thus increasing the blood pressure, and when they relax, the lumen increases in diameter and thus brings down the blood pressure. (answers.com)
  • Up to date there was no optimal methods of isolation and expansion of urinary bladder smooth muscle cells (UB-SMCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most efficient method of establishment of porcine UB-SMCs culture is enzymatic digestion of urinary bladder tissue with collagenase and dispase and culture of isolated cells in SmGM-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Establishment of UB-SMCs culture for tissue engineering is even more complicated because cells are usually isolated from a small biopsy and have to be expanded to high numbers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important aspects of vascularization in vaginal reconstruction. (springer.com)
  • Smooth muscle cell (SMC) embedded scaffolds have possible applications in treating diseased tissues that are rich in SMCs. (pitt.edu)
  • The goal of this thesis was to create a SMC-populated tissue engineered urethral wrap (TEUW) using autologous urethral SMCs (uSMCs), to be used as a cuff around the native urethra to integrate with the host tissue for providing mechanical and functional reinforcement to the diseased urethra. (pitt.edu)
  • To test the hypothesis, rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded onto rubber-like elastic, three-dimensional PLCL [poly(lactide-co-caprolactone), 50:50] scaffolds and subjected to pulsatile strain and shear stress by culturing them in pulsatile perfusion bioreactors for up to 8 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • Importantly, the expression of SM α-actin, a differentiated phenotype of SMCs, was upregulated by 2.5-fold in VSM tissues engineered under the mechano-active condition, compared to VSM tissues engineered in the static condition. (elsevier.com)
  • The signaling mechanisms downstream from integrin-ligand binding are poorly understood, particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). (rupress.org)
  • Development of atherosclerotic plaques also includes the continuous crosstalk between EC, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), inflammatory cells, and inflammatory mediators ( 1 ) acting through mechanisms that have not yet been completely revealed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells known as myocytes , have a fusiform shape and, like striated muscle , can tense and relax . (ipfs.io)
  • Muscle cells are also called as myocytes. (toppr.com)
  • In single muscle tissue, there are many myocytes present. (toppr.com)
  • The contraction of smooth muscle is slow and generally under the control of the autonomic nervous system, resulting in its alternate moniker, involuntary muscle. (fsu.edu)
  • Smooth muscle is an involuntary non- striated muscle . (ipfs.io)
  • They are also called involuntary muscles. (toppr.com)
  • The involuntary muscles are controlled by the brain. (toppr.com)
  • The brain controls this muscle and is an involuntary muscle. (toppr.com)
  • Integrated hardware, software, and curriculum systems allow students to record data from their own bodies, animal, or tissue preps to learn principles of life science physiology. (biopac.com)
  • To induce differentiation, PLA cells were cultured in smooth muscle differentiation medium. (pnas.org)
  • Smooth muscle differentiation of PLA cells induced genetic expression of all smooth muscle markers and further confirmed by increased protein expression of smooth muscle cell-specific α actin (ASMA), calponin, caldesmon, SM22, myosin heavy chain (MHC), and smoothelin. (pnas.org)
  • Clonal studies of adipose derived multipotent cells demonstrated differentiation of these cells into smooth muscle cells in addition to trilineage differentiation capacity. (pnas.org)
  • Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on their smooth myogenic differentiation remains unexplored. (mdpi.com)
  • Oxygen concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% were used during differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Hypoxia influences differentiation of smooth muscle cells from adipose stem cells and 5% oxygen was the optimal condition to generate smooth muscle cells that contract from adipose stem cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Scaffolds alone or coated with collagen types I or IV or fibronectin were assessed independently for their ability to support attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of primary cell lines including human bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and urothelial cells as well as pluripotent cell populations, such as murine embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (plos.org)
  • In addition, real time RT-PCR and IHC analyses showed that fibronectin-coated Group 2 scaffolds facilitated ESC and iPS cell differentiation toward both urothelial and smooth muscle lineages in response to all trans retinoic acid as assessed by induction of uroplakin and contractile gene and protein expression. (plos.org)
  • In a culture model mimicking smooth muscle differentiation, VCAM-1 mRNA and protein and α 4 integrin protein were coexpressed with smooth muscle-specific variants of cytoskeletal and contractile proteins, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, caldesmon heavy chain, and desmin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Treatment with antibodies against VCAM-1 or α 4 integrin subunit interfered with the mRNA induction of smooth muscle-specific markers of differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results in vitro, associated with the transitory expression of VCAM-1 and VLA-4 during vascular ontogeny and the atherosclerosis process, point to a possible role of VCAM-1 and VLA-4 in the induction of smooth muscle differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 8 9 In addition to VCAM-1/VLA-4's role in cell recruitment and migration, other reports have indicated that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 also mediated cell differentiation or maturation and tissue formation, as demonstrated by Rosen et al 10 for skeletal muscle differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lineage tracing efforts in the chick, the mouse and the zebrafish unambiguously identified fibroblasts in interstitial and perivascular locations as well as coronary smooth muscle cells as the two major lineages that derive from epithelial-mesenchymal transition and subsequent differentiation from individual epicardial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Techniques are provided which can isolate pluripotent stem cells at high purity capable of differentiation into at least a myocardial cell to regenerate the cardiac muscle. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Experiments with ltbr −/− SMC indicated that LTβR-RelB activation was obligatory to generate the lymphoid tissue organizer phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 In addition, medial SMC underlying intimal plaques became activated and expressed the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 (B-lymphocyte chemoattractant) and CCL21 (secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine). (ahajournals.org)
  • 15-17 Together, these data indicate that media SMC were activated by plaques to express features of lymphoid tissue organizers (LTO) through an LTβR-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cells derived from primate lymphoid tissue may fall under the regulations of 29 CFR 1910.1030 Bloodborne Pathogens. (atcc.org)
  • LTi cells play a critical role in restoring lymphoid tissue following viral infection. (jci.org)
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) consists of a group of inherited heterogeneous disorders that share a common decrease in the tensile strength and integrity of the skin, joints, and other connective tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of smooth muscle cells-specific markers, including early marker smooth muscle alpha actin, middle markers calponin, caldesmon, and late marker smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. (mdpi.com)
  • [2] Smooth muscle α-actin (alpha actin) is the predominant isoform within smooth muscle. (ipfs.io)
  • [2] Alpha actin is also expressed as distinct genetic isoforms such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle specific isoforms of alpha actin. (ipfs.io)
  • Differently graded areas of human prostate adenocarcinoma were examined after Masson's trichrome staining or immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle alpha-actin, type IV collagen and laminin. (unesp.br)
  • Flexible tissue bath system suitable for many standard pharmacological experiments to measure smooth and skeletal muscle contractions, from small isolated vascular rings to larger tissue vessels and other muscle preparations. (harvardapparatus.com)
  • The flexible Graz Tissue Bath System can be used for many standard pharmacological experiments to measure smooth and skeletal muscle contractions. (harvardapparatus.com)
  • The muscle contractions produced can be measured either as forces (isometrically) or as displacements (isotonically). (harvardapparatus.com)
  • Clumps of vas deferens tissue which were not fully dispersed by the enzyme treatment did not dedifferentiate with time in culture but muscle bundles were disrupted and asynchronous contractions resulted. (biologists.org)
  • After 8-12 days of culture the muscle bundles reformed and foci of synchronous contractions developed. (biologists.org)
  • We found that coronary (P=0.03) and mesenteric (P=0.04) but not subcutaneous adipose tissue augmented coronary contractions to KCl (20 mmol/L). Inhibition of CaV1.2 channels with nifedipine (0.1 μmol/L) or diltiazem (10 μmol/L) abolished this effect. (elsevier.com)
  • In the rat anococcygeus smooth muscle, Ang II induces contractions in a concentration-dependent fashion by activating prejunctional receptors located at the sympathetic nerve endings. (aspetjournals.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the enteric nervous system (ENS) generates neurogenic contractions of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been a long-standing mystery in vertebrates. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the mechanisms underlying the generation of rhythmic neurogenic contractions of smooth muscle in the GI tract remains unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Some evidence suggests it may be related to sustained esophageal contractions (SECs) of longitudinal smooth muscle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Striated muscle contracts and relaxes in short, intense bursts, whereas smooth muscle sustains longer or even near-permanent contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue factor expression on the smooth muscle cell surface could be of pathological significance as a contributor to plaque growth, thrombus formation, and the acute coronary syndrome after plaque rupture. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 4 5 In addition, SMC in arteries of normolipemic rats upregulate tissue factor expression within 2 to 6 hours after balloon injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 SMC expression of tissue factor may thus be important in disease complications. (ahajournals.org)
  • however, little is known about the effects of the lesion constituents, LDL, and reactive oxygen species on tissue factor expression in these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • To understand further the regulation of tissue factor in SMC, we investigated the effects of LDL and hydrogen peroxide on the surface expression and activity of tissue factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • however, in the OVA-challenged animals only the bronchial smooth muscle cells showed increased C3aR expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results demonstrate the expression of C3aR and C5aR by cells endogenous to the lung, and, given the participation of bronchial epithelial and smooth muscle cells in the pathology of diseases such as sepsis and asthma, the data suggest a role for these receptors during lung inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Additionally, we report here for the first time that 20-HETE repressed miR-143, which suppresses Elk-1 expression, and miR-133a, which is known to suppress synthetic/secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. (physiology.org)
  • Expression of the smooth muscle markers- alpha smooth muscle actin and smoothelin was the highest for cells isolated by enzymatic method I and cultured in SmGM-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review we highlight some of the recent studies that have described the transcriptional regulation of mylk1 gene products in smooth muscle tissues and discuss the implications of these findings for regulation of expression of other smooth muscle-specific genes. (elsevier.com)
  • PPy-coated scaffolds promoted proliferation and induced stronger calponin, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in ASCs compared to uncoated scaffolds. (tut.fi)
  • Both ES protocols supported smooth muscle expression markers. (tut.fi)
  • The expression of CD97 on macrophage and the abundant presence of its ligand CD55 on fibroblast-like synovial cells suggest that the CD97-CD55 interaction is involved in the recruitment and/or retention of macrophages into the synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [35] [36] In brain tissue, CD97 is undetectable in normal white matter, and expression of CD55 is fairly restricted to the endothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective To investigate the expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA)in advanced colorectal cancer tissue and its association with chemotherapy response and prognosis.Methods The expression of α-SMA was detected by immunohistochemistry in tissues from 52 advanced colorectal cancer patients who received oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil regimen as first-line chemotherapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Two structurally diverse groups of silk scaffolds were produced by a gel spinning process and consisted of either smooth, compact multi-laminates (Group 1) or rough, porous lamellar-like sheets (Group 2). (plos.org)
  • These results demonstrate that silk scaffolds support primary and pluripotent cell responses pertinent to bladder tissue engineering and that scaffold morphology and fibronectin coatings influence these processes. (plos.org)
  • Previous studies in bladder tissue engineering have investigated both natural and synthetic scaffolds either alone or seeded with autologous bladder cell populations as alternative strategies for defect repair or neobladder reconstruction [3] . (plos.org)
  • This study demonstrates that tissue engineering of VSM tissues in vitro by using pulsatile perfusion bioreactors and elastic PLCL scaffolds leads to the enhancement of tissue development and the retention of differentiated cell phenotype. (elsevier.com)
  • Smooth muscle, an active component of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and urinary systems, has been the subject of intense research in the field of cellular therapeutics involving these tissues. (pnas.org)
  • This is an easy and consistent method for obtaining high numbers of urinary bladder smooth muscle cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The invention provides improved devices, methods, and systems for shrinking of collagenated tissues, particularly for treating urinary incontinence in a noninvasive manner by directing energy to a patient's own support tissues. (google.es)
  • Smooth muscle cells do not have striations or stripes. (toppr.com)
  • These muscle cells do not have striations or stripes. (toppr.com)
  • Skeletal muscles have stripes or striations. (toppr.com)
  • These skeletal muscles are the most common and widely distributed muscle tissue in the body. (toppr.com)
  • The skeletal muscles can be found in the muscles of the limbs, face, neck etc. (toppr.com)
  • Reflexes are a form of non conscious activation of skeletal muscles, but nonetheless arise through activation of the central nervous system, albeit not engaging cortical structures until after the contraction has occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • While skeletal muscles are arranged in regular, parallel bundles, cardiac muscle connects at branching, irregular angles (called intercalated discs). (wikipedia.org)
  • More varied than other types of muscle tissue, smooth muscle may exhibit a number of different characteristics. (fsu.edu)
  • Several groups have suggested the use of bone marrow-derived cells ( 3 - 5 ) and embryonic stem cells to repair smooth muscle tissues ( 6 , 7 ) because of their stem cell-like properties. (pnas.org)
  • It contains an inner cell mass that will eventually form the fetus structure and embryonic tissues. (prezi.com)
  • Rearrangement of the embryo where one end folds inwards, expands, and fills the blastocel, producing layers of embryonic tissues. (prezi.com)
  • Synovial tissues (tissues around joints ). (vicc.org)
  • The prevailing view was that most, and perhaps all, smooth muscle tumors of deep soft tissue were malignant, although this was based on studies of smooth muscle tumors demonstrating both mitotic activity and cytological atypia. (hindawi.com)
  • Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body. (vicc.org)
  • CD97 is widely expressed on, among others, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, immune cells, epithelial cells, muscle cells as well as their malignant counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 The key player in regulating the hemostatic and thrombotic response to injury is the 47-kDa single-transmembrane glycoprotein tissue factor (TF), 2 which is upregulated in medial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of injured arteries and in atherosclerotic plaques. (ahajournals.org)
  • Most smooth muscle is of the single-unit variety, that is, either the whole muscle contracts or the whole muscle relaxes, but there is multiunit smooth muscle in the trachea, the large elastic arteries, and the iris of the eye. (ipfs.io)
  • The presence of the complement-derived anaphylatoxin peptides, C3a and C5a, in the lung can induce respiratory distress characterized by contraction of the smooth muscle walls in bronchioles and pulmonary arteries and aggregation of platelets and leukocytes in pulmonary vessels. (jimmunol.org)
  • These effects were elevated in tissues obtained from obese swine and were observed in intact and endothelium denuded arteries. (elsevier.com)
  • No. Valves in the arteries are responsible for preventing back-flow of blood, not smooth muscles. (answers.com)
  • Smooth muscle is mostly in the afferent branch going from the arteries to the arterioles. (answers.com)
  • Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling. (springer.com)
  • Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in vivo is thought to be synthesized mainly by endothelial cells. (wustl.edu)
  • MV contribution to vascular remodeling is also discussed, with a particular emphasis on the effect of MVs on the crosstalk between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and their role regulating the active process of AT-driven angiogenesis and neovascularization. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, differentiated PLA cells exhibited a contractile function that is similar to that of smooth muscle in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • At 11-12 days of culture the cells reaggregated into clumps, began to contract spontaneously, and formed into well-organized muscle bundles in two layers at right angles, resembling the muscle layer organization of the in vivo vas deferens. (biologists.org)
  • The relation of these findings to the process of wound healing in smooth muscle tissues in vivo is discussed. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, a significant cell alignment in a direction radial to the distending direction was observed in VSM tissues exposed to radial distention, which is similar to that of native VSM tissues in vivo, whereas VSMs in VSM tissues engineered in the static condition randomly aligned. (elsevier.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) express tissue factor in vitro and in vivo, which may contribute to vascular thrombosis. (wustl.edu)
  • This study investigated the phenotype and contractility of adipose-derived stem cells differentiated toward the smooth myogenic lineage under hypoxic conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a major source of NADPH in the cell, prevents 20-HETE synthesis and 20-HETE-induced proinflammatory signaling that promotes secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. (physiology.org)
  • In summary, our findings indicate that 20-HETE elicited mitochondrial superoxide production and promoted secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells by activating MAPK1-Elk-1, all of which are blocked by inhibition of G6PD. (physiology.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tissues engineered in vitro with a conventional tissue engineering technique may not be functional, because vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) cultured in vitro typically revert from a contractile phenotype to a synthetic phenotype. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that pulsatile strain and shear stress stimulate VSM tissue development and induce VSMCs to retain the differentiated phenotype in VSM engineering in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle tissue mitochondria with H2O2 stimulated iron release, hydroxyl radical (OH) production and lipid peroxidation. (bvsalud.org)
  • This book helps readers to overcome the challenges encountered during the imaging diagnosis of soft tissue tumors due to their diversity and the significant overlap in imaging features between different tumors. (springer.com)
  • It does so by fostering familiarization with typical findings and clearly explaining the pattern analysis of soft tissue tumors. (springer.com)
  • Grading and staging of soft tissue sarcomasare then described.In the second part of the book, radiologic features of soft tissue tumors are reviewed in detail, based on the 2013 WHO classification system.The third part summarizes diagnostic imaging clues, including characteristic imaging findings and radiologic signs that aid in specific diagnosis and differential diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • The book closes by presenting 30 typical cases of soft tissue tumors, with questions, answers, and commentary, in order to help readers to consolidate what they have learned and to hone their diagnostic reasoning skills. (springer.com)
  • This text is constructed to educate clinicians on the general classification and diagnostic approach to soft tissue tumors, such that they feel more empowered to discuss the relevant features of particular cases with their pathology colleagues. (springer.com)
  • However, this issue has largely been ignored with respect to PKC-dependent regulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractility. (hindawi.com)
  • Smooth muscle is fundamentally different from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle in terms of structure, function, regulation of contraction, and excitation-contraction coupling. (ipfs.io)
  • Calcineurin-independent regulation of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase-4 in the vascular smooth muscle cell cycle. (atcc.org)
  • Wilcox et al 1 showed that tissue factor is expressed by mesenchymal cells in the SMC-rich media of carotid endarterectomy specimens 1 but not in the media of normal vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Synthetic peptide within Human smooth muscle Myosin heavy chain 11 aa 1950 to the C-terminus (C terminal). (abcam.com)
  • As indicated by its name, the tissue displays no striations or other distinct patterns under the microscope. (fsu.edu)
  • The cells of this muscle tissue are branched and cylindrical with a single nucleus and striations present. (toppr.com)
  • Although they do not have striations and sarcomeres, smooth muscle fibers do have actin and myosin contractile proteins, and thick and thin filaments. (jobilize.com)
  • It also has striations unlike smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tendons (bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones). (vicc.org)
  • This is opposed to other components or tissues in muscle such as tendons or perimysium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, muscle tissue can be described as being one of three different types: Skeletal muscle, striated in structure and under voluntary control, is anchored by tendons (or by aponeuroses at a few places) to bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and to maintain posture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first section addresses the basic foundations of soft tissue pathology, including common morphologic patterns, approach to grading, concepts of immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. (springer.com)
  • 3-6 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ Also, local release of vasoactive eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ), in response to cardiac tissue injury causes significant coronary vasoconstriction that may dangerously interfere with adequate coronary blood flow. (ahajournals.org)
  • An activator device for activation of cardiac tissue having a stint for placement within the interior volume of a natural heart adjacent cardiac tissue thereof. (google.co.uk)
  • Sarcoma can start in any part of the body, such as the bone or soft tissue. (cancer.net)
  • Methods and Results −In this study, we show that LDL increased tissue factor mRNA and cell surface protein in smooth muscle cells without a marked increase in surface tissue factor activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hydrogen peroxide activated tissue factor on the cell surface but did not increase tissue factor mRNA or cell surface protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thrombin induces TF mRNA in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to the prolonged procoagulant activity and enhanced thrombogenicity at sites of vascular injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Under noninflamed conditions, C3aR and C5aR protein and mRNA were expressed by bronchial epithelial and smooth muscle cells of both human and mouse lung. (jimmunol.org)
  • The use of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising alternative for smooth muscle repair. (pnas.org)
  • Recent reports on PLA cells have demonstrated improvement of postnatal neovascularization ( 10 ), muscle regeneration ( 11 ), high potential to heal critical-size calvarial defects (osteogenic capacity) ( 12 ), and rescue of lethally irradiated mice (stromal capacity) ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. (mdpi.com)
  • Smooth muscle cells seeded on grafts play multiple functions: seal highly porous grafts and protect by urine leakage, prevent graft fibrosis, enhance vascularization and trigger smooth muscle regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large population of cells isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of human adipose tissue termed processed lipoaspirate (PLA) cells possesses multilineage potential ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Silk-based biomaterials in combination with extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings were assessed as templates for cell-seeded bladder tissue engineering approaches. (plos.org)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key enzyme involved in agonist-induced smooth muscle contraction. (hindawi.com)
  • Upon induction, PLA cells assumed typical smooth muscle morphology and expressed characteristic leiomyogenic markers both at the genetic and protein levels. (pnas.org)
  • Conclusions −These results suggest a novel 2-step pathway for increased tissue factor activity on smooth muscle cell surfaces in which lipoproteins regulate synthesis of a latent tissue factor and oxidants activate the protein complex. (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated whether physiological concentrations of ET-1 enhance coronary smooth muscle contraction by activating a PKC-mediated signaling pathway involving tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). (ahajournals.org)
  • Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Derived Leptin Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switching Via P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase In Metabolic Syndrome Rats. (elabscience.com)
  • Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. (nih.gov)
  • Muscles contain special proteins called contractile protein which contract and relax to cause movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • These NPs activate a common guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A) receptor expressed in a wide variety of tissues, thereby increasing intracellular cGMP concentrations ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • These effects were associated with alterations in the obese coronary PVAT proteome (detected 186 alterations) and elevated voltage-dependent increases in intracellular [Ca] in obese smooth muscle cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that MARCKS is a significant, PKC-releasable reservoir of CaM in differentiated smooth muscle and that it contributes to CaM signalling by modulating the intracellular distribution of CaM. (biologists.org)
  • The data suggest that α v β 3 and α 5 β 1 integrins are differentially linked through intracellular signaling pathways to the L-type Ca 2+ channel and thereby alter control of Ca 2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle. (rupress.org)
  • SHG microscopy visualized the fibers of the cellulose scaffold, together with a small signal obtained from the cytoplasmic myosin of the muscle cells. (spie.org)
  • This specialized tissue contains muscle cells' fibers which are connected in fibers and sheets. (toppr.com)
  • When the muscle fibers contract and relax, movement occurs. (toppr.com)
  • Contraction of the muscle fibers is in response to a stimulus. (toppr.com)
  • m (thousands of times shorter than skeletal muscle fibers), and they produce their own connective tissue, endomysium. (jobilize.com)
  • is analogous to the Z-discs of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers and is fastened to the sarcolemma. (jobilize.com)
  • Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections are primarily associated with a characteristic histologic appearance known as 'medial necrosis' or 'Erdheim cystic medial necrosis' in which there is degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, loss of smooth muscle cells, and an accumulation of basophilic ground substance. (abcam.com)
  • Striated muscles are composed of elongated fibers and are used for actions such as hopping. (fsu.edu)
  • skeletal muscle tissue consists of elongated muscle cells called muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the capacity of processed lipoaspirate (PLA) and adipose-derived stem cells to differentiate into phenotypic and functional smooth muscle cells was evaluated. (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, smooth muscle-differentiated cells, but not their precursors, exhibit the functional ability to contract and relax in direct response to pharmacologic agents. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, adipose-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells and, thus, adipose tissue can be a useful source of cells for treatment of injured tissues where smooth muscle plays an important role. (pnas.org)
  • Augmented contractile effects of obese coronary PVAT are related to alterations in the PVAT proteome (eg, calpastatin), Rho-dependent signaling, and the functional contribution of K and CaV1.2 channels to smooth muscle tone. (elsevier.com)
  • Microscopically, deep soft tissue benign smooth muscle tumors are often well-circumscribed, unencapsulated, occasionally multinodular, paucicellular spindle cell lesions (Figure 1(a) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Adipose tissue represents a potential alternative reservoir of cells with stem cell properties such as self-renewal and pluripotency. (pnas.org)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • There are intercalated disks of overlapping cell membrane between the cardiac muscle cells. (toppr.com)
  • Cell contraction was measured in smooth muscle cells isolated from porcine coronary artery, [Ca 2+ ] i was measured in fura-2 loaded cells, and tissue fractions were examined for reactivity with anti-phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) and anti-MAPK antibodies using immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of these myosin motors by MLCK modulates a variety of contractile processes, including smooth muscle contraction, cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and its counterreceptor, the integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), have recently been identified in smooth muscle cells during intimal thickening in humans and in newly forming vessels during ontogeny in mice, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Confocal images indicate that calmodulin and MARCKS co-distribute in unstimulated freshly dissociated smooth-muscle cells and are co-targeted simultaneously to the cell interior upon depolarization. (biologists.org)
  • uSMC-based TEUWs showed non-linear pressure-diameter profiles like soft tissues, greater compliance than the native urethra, and burst pressures similar to stem-cell based TEUWs. (pitt.edu)
  • By printing the tissue using a biodegradable polyester material and mesenchymal-stem-cell-infused hydrogels, the WFIRM team has found a way to differentiate the cells into chondrocytes and smooth muscle cells. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • In rat afferent arterioles, RGD peptide causes a sustained constriction that is associated with an increase in smooth muscle cell [Ca 2+ ] i ( Yip and Marsh, 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • 26. The pluripotent stem cell group according to claim 24, wherein the pluripotent stem cells have an ability to be differentiated into one or more cells selected from the group consisting of skeletal muscle cell, smooth muscle cell, myocardial cell, blood cell, vascular endothelial cell, fat cell, cartilage cell, osteoblastic cell, and neural cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • SMC, smooth muscle cell. (jci.org)
  • We hypothesized that engineered smooth muscle cell (SMC)-endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) bi-level cell sheets could improve ventricular dysfunction in DMCM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of DMCM with tissue-engineered SMC-EPC bi-level cell sheets prevented cardiac dysfunction and microvascular disease associated with DMCM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. (ahajournals.org)
  • tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator. (nih.gov)
  • The printed tissue-the first of its kind-is made up of smooth muscle and cartilage cells which demonstrate similar properties to natural human tracheal tissue. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • Up until now, attempts to create artificial tracheal tissue constructs have primarily relied on using regenerated cartilage tissue. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • The cartilage regions of the bioprinted tracheal tissue are stiff and provide support to the structure, while the smooth muscle lends more flexibility and functions to connect the ends of the cartilage rings. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • Multiple cellular and molecular events, such as tubular atrophy, microvascular rarefaction and tissue hypoxia, promote scar formation and ensure a vicious progression to end-stage kidney failure. (nih.gov)
  • Primary vascular aortic smooth muscle cells isolated by collagenase - elastase digestions in December 1999 were transduced with retrovirus encoding the SV40 large T antigen as well as the gene for neomycin resistance. (atcc.org)
  • In vascular tissues, phosphorylation of the PKC hydrophobic site, but not turn motif site, as well as phosphorylation of PDK at S241 increased in response to phenylephrine. (hindawi.com)
  • PGF 2α did not cause any additional increases in tyrosine phosphorylation of MAPK in tissues untreated or pretreated with ET-1 or PMA. (ahajournals.org)
  • The enhancement of PGF 2α -induced coronary smooth muscle contraction by ET-1 involves additional activation of a Ca 2+ -sensitive PKC-mediated pathway but not tyrosine phosphorylation or activation of MAPK. (ahajournals.org)