Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Ascaridia: A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Mersalyl: A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).MalatesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.MalonatesEndoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Mitochondrial Degradation: Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.PyruvatesNeurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Rhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Coenzyme AMitochondrial Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Palmitoylcarnitine: A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Adenine NucleotidesRhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Ruthenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.CitratesBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Organelle Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cytochrome ReductasesHydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseCytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The most common Coenzyme Q in human mitochondria is CoQ10. Q refers to the quinone head and 10 refers to the number of isoprene ... It appears that CoQ10 is metabolised in all tissues, while a major route for its elimination is biliary and fecal excretion. ... Dairy products are much poorer sources of CoQ10 compared to animal tissues. Vegetable oils also are quite rich in CoQ10. Within ... Littarru, G. P.; Nakamura, R.; Ho, L.; Folkers, K.; Kuzell, W. C. (Oct 1971). "Deficiency of Coenzyme Q10 in Gingival Tissue ...
These bacteria have been observed in the mitochondria of the host cells, a trait that has never been described in any other ... Tissue Cell. 36: 43-53. doi:10.1016/j.tice.2003.08.004. Lo N, Beninati T, Sacchi L, Bandi C (2006b). An alpha-proteobacterium ... Midichloria bacteria seem to consume the mitochondria they parasitize, possibly using them as a source of energy and/or ... The Rickettsiales are widely regarded as being the closest relatives to mitochondria. Based on the fact that the Midichloria ...
... is expressed in most tissue types, with the notable exceptions of adipose tissue, ear tissue, the larynx, lymph tissue ... TMEM126A: A paralog of TMEM126B expressed in the mitochondria. CREBZF: Also known as the Zhangfei protein, a protein that ... It has since been detected in other tissues. TMEM126B is located on chromosome 11 in humans, flanked by the following genes: ... It also appears to be highly expressed in parathyroid, bone marrow, and urinary bladder tissue. There is also evidence that one ...
M3 was not found in any other rat or mouse tissue. This suggests that M3 may be formed by gut microflora in rats. After NRB had ... Norbormide has a strong effect on the mitochondria in the cell. Therefore, norbormide transfer through the outer mitochondrial ... In all animals tested and also in the rat aorta and extravascular smooth muscle tissue, NRB exhibits vasorelaxant properties in ... Therefore, norbormide is not only species specific but in addition tissue specific. ...
... and other tissues enriched in mitochondria. Nonetheless, FASTKD2 has been observed to mediate apoptosis independent of import ... Though ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, FASTKD2 appears more abundantly in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, ... and then this term was replaced by apoptosis to emphasize its role opposite mitosis in tissue kinetics. In later stages of ... The mitochondrial targeting domain directs FASTKD2 to be imported into the mitochondria. Though the functions of the C-terminal ...
Though MUL1 is highly expressed in most human tissues during normal conditions, it is found to be missing in cancer cells ... Can also activate NF-κB to initiate mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling under stress. As aforementioned, MUL1 encodes for an ... Kerr JF, Wyllie AH, Currie AR (Aug 1972). "Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue ... Has been observed to shuttle between the mitochondria and peroxisome, where it may also help regulate peroxisome fission. ...
Connective tissue is present in all muscles as fascia. Enclosing each muscle is a layer of connective tissue known as the ... It has multiple mitochondria to meet energy needs. Muscle fibers are in turn composed of myofibrils. The myofibrils are ... It is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the 'voluntary' control of the somatic nervous system. Most skeletal ... Between the myofibrils are the mitochondria. While the muscle fiber does not have a smooth endoplasmic cisternae , it contains ...
Oxygen-rich blood is transported to the peripheral tissues by convection 4. Oxygen diffuses into the mitochondria. Fick's laws ... There is a proportional relationship between the tissue sheet and the surface area. Finally, in the avian respiratory system, ...
Depending on the tissue type, each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria. There are 2-10 mtDNA molecules in each ... The mother carries the trait, but does not have the mtDNA deletion in her tissues. Even though prenatal testing for Pearson ... This type of mitochondrial DNA deletion are normally more abundant and easily isolated in the blood than in any other tissue ... An mtDNA is genetic material contained in the cellular organelle called the mitochondria. ...
Alexson SE, Svensson LT, Nedergaard J (1989). "NADH-sensitive propionyl-CoA hydrolase in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria of ...
Alexson SE, Svensson LT, Nedergaard J (1989). "NADH-sensitive propionyl-CoA hydrolase in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria of ... and medium-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases in brown adipose tissue mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (27): 13564-71. PMID 2901416. ...
Calcification can occur in dead or degenerated tissue. Caseous necrosis in T.B. is most common site of dystrophic calcification ... first in the mitochondria, and progressively throughout the cell. These calcifications are an indication of previous ... Calcinosis cutis is condition in which there are irregular nodular deposits of calcium salts in skin and subcutaneous tissue. ... A systemic mineral imbalance would elevate calcium levels in the blood and all tissues and cause metastatic calcification.) ...
... is localized in mitochondria and widely expressed in human tissues. High expression in adult brain and low expression in ...
ADXR gene is expressed in all tissues that have mitochondrial P450s. The highest levels of the enzyme are found in the adrenal ... Immmunofluorescent staining shows that enzyme is localized in mitochondria. The enzyme is also expressed in the liver, the ... q25 are expressed in steroidogenic tissues". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ... "Human skin is a steroidogenic tissue: steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors are expressed in epidermis, normal sebocytes, and an ...
Unique type of brown adipose tissue, allowing mammals to raise heat fast. Mitochondria with five to seven times higher ... Proton permeability of the inner membrane of liver mitochondria is greater in a mammal than in a reptile". The Biochemical ... Cannon, B. (1 January 2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): ...
StarD2 exhibit increased adaptive thermogenesis and enlarged mitochondria in brown adipose tissue". J. Lipid Res. 50 (11): 2212 ... PCTP is produced in all tissues in the body at various levels. The protein is expressed at high levels in tissues engaged in ... Protein kinase C phosphorylation promotes localization of PCTP to the mitochondrion where it may activate Them2. This soluble ... "Clofibrate-induced relocation of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein to mitochondria in endothelial cells". Exp. Cell Res. 274 ...
Thus, a cell is composed of a nucleus, mitochondria, and all sorts of other organelles. Each level is a component of a higher- ... Cells organize together to become tissues, organs, etc. Thus, "in the continuity of natural systems every unit is at the very ...
... in humans is expressed in fetus and adult tissues. Tissue expression of caspase-9 is ubiquitous with the highest ... Apoptotic signals cause the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of apaf-1 (apoptosome), which then cleaves ... In humans, expression of caspase-9 varies from tissue to tissue, and the different levels have a physiological role. Low ... The liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscle express this enzyme at a moderate level, and all other tissues express caspase-9 at ...
Bergan T; Dalhoff A; Thorsteinsson SB (1985). "A review of the pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of ciprofloxacin": 23-36 ... "The effect of bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors on DNA synthesis in mammalian mitochondria". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 740 ( ... due to their ability to enter bone tissue without chelating it, as tetracyclines are known to do. Fluoroquinolones are featured ... "Fluoroquinolones vs beta-lactams for empirical treatment of immunocompetent patients with skin and soft tissue infections: a ...
Also, lactic acid concentrations increase as tissues are switching to anaerobic metabolism which poisons the mitochondria. ... Respiratory irritants bind to respiratory tissue membranes, which are the first tissue membranes available for exposure. ... Respiratory blockers are known to affect the electron transport chain in the mitochondria of cells. Central Nervous System ... In the final phases of narcosis, McKim and colleagues observed tissue hypoxia, generalized loss of respiratory-cardiovascular ...
They are derived from the mitochondria and act as important retrograde signaling molecules in the cell. Their names were given ... Every individual SHLP showed unique expression pattern in mouse tissues. Specifically, SHLP1 was detected in the heart, kidney ...
... and medium-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases in brown adipose tissue mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (27): 13564-71. PMID 2901416. ...
In the arteries of the brain, high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and ... Cell and Tissue Research. 357 (2): 463-76. doi:10.1007/s00441-014-1936-3. PMID 24996399. "Entrez Gene: voltage-dependent, L ... type, alpha 1C subunit". Narayanan D, Xi Q, Pfeffer LM, Jaggar JH (Sep 2010). "Mitochondria control functional CaV1.2 ...
... s induce insulin resistance in many tissues by inhibition of Akt/PKB signaling. Aggregation of LDL cholesterol by ... Ceramides cause endothelial dysfunction by activating protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). In mitochondria, ceramide suppresses the ... Mitochondrion. 6 (3): 118-25. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2006.03.002. PMC 2246045 . PMID 16713754. "Ceramides - Skin Lipids That Keep ... "Aging up-regulates expression of inflammatory mediators in mouse adipose tissue". The Journal of Immunology. 179 (7): 4829-39. ...
Cardiac tissue is therefore described as a functional syncytium, as opposed to the true syncytium of skeletal muscle. Certain ... The proximal cytoplasm contains nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, glycogen deposits, and ... The internal most layer is bounded by a layer of connective tissue known as the "basal lamina". The basal lamina is followed by ... Much of the body of Hexactinellid sponges is composed of syncitial tissue. This allows them to form their large siliceous ...
... mitochondria, and the plasma membrane. ... Connective tissue cells. Hidden categories: *All articles with ...
Salamander Liver Tissue Mitochondria. Salamander Liver Tissue Mitochondria. Amphiumas are a genus of aquatic salamanders that ...
Features of the Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Tissue: Quick and Convenientisolate intact m ... The Thermo Scientific Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Tissue enables isolation of intact mitochondria from soft and hard tissue ... The Thermo Scientific Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Tissue enables isolation of intact mitochondria from soft and hard tissue ... Features of the Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Tissue:. • Quick and Convenient-isolate intact mitochondria in less than 60 ...
These mitochondria were also closely associated with T gondii tissue cysts. Incubation of tissue cysts from cultured cells and ... a mitochondria-specific vital fluorescent dye) staining of isolated tissue cysts. Structurally mature T gondii tissue cysts ... Our results indicate that host cell mitochondria may be closely associated with the tissue cysts of T gondii in cell cultures ... Association of host cell mitochondria with developing Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts.. Lindsay DS1, Mitschler RR, Toivio- ...
... and Connective Tissues by Elsevier Books Reference for free with a 30 day free trial. Read unlimited* books and audiobooks on ... Fused Mitochondria Let Dividing Cells Better Use O2. When cells divide rapidly, their mitochondria are fused together, research ... Submicroscopic Cytochemistry, Volume II: Membranes, Mitochondria, and Connective Tissues presents laboratory findings and ... discusses the role of mitochondria and metabolism in health and disease. Nav also provides insights into the mitochondria as ...
Restoration of mitochondria dysfunction and mitochondrial-based therapeutics represent a potentially... ... Damage of mitochondria in the initial period of tissue injury aggravates the severity of injury. ... Damage of mitochondria in the initial period of tissue injury aggravates the severity of injury. Restoration of mitochondria ... The damage of mitochondria frequently occurs in the initial period of tissue injury. Release of accumulated ROS, imbalance of ...
... LERNMARK, U ... Glycine oxidation in mitochondria from etiolated leaves was also very substantial; the rate of glycine oxidation relative to ... Mitochondria were isolated from light grown and dark grown monocotyledonous (wheat-Triticum aestivum and barley-Hordeum vulgare ... In etiolated non-photosynthetic tissues the relative glycine oxidation was only ca 20% of that measured in green leaves. The ...
... Friederich Persson, Malou Uppsala ... Importantly, increased mitochondria oxygen consumption resulted in kidney tissue hypoxia, proteinuria and increased staining of ... A mechanism to reduce increased mitochondria superoxide production is to reduce the mitochondria membrane potential by ... Importantly, elevated UCP-2 protein expression increased mitochondria uncoupling in mitochondria isolated from diabetic kidneys ...
... : Quickly and easily isolate membrane ... Mitochondria Isolation Kit For Tissue - Pierce Protein Extraction Kits, Thermo Scientific SKU: VWR-PI89801 Retail Price: $ ... Home » Mitochondria Isolation Kit For Tissue - Pierce Protein Extraction Kits, Thermo Scientific. ... Mitochondria Isolation Kit For Tissue - Pierce Protein Extraction Kits, Thermo Scientific Gift-wrapping is not available for ...
... and in the mitochondria indicated significant concentration of corticosterone in tissues and mitochondria, as compared to the ... A simplified fluorimetric method for corticosterone estimation in rat serum, tissues and mitochondria. ... tissues and mitochondria. The suitably diluted samples were treated with freshly prepared chloroform: methanol mixture (2:1, v/ ... The presence of corticosterone in the mitochondria suggests that the hormone may play a role in regulation of mitochondrial ...
Uncoupling protein content of brown adipose tissue mitochondria in fasted and refed mice. PAUL TRAYHURN, GRAHAM JENNINGS ... Uncoupling protein content of brown adipose tissue mitochondria in fasted and refed mice ... Uncoupling protein content of brown adipose tissue mitochondria in fasted and refed mice ... Uncoupling protein content of brown adipose tissue mitochondria in fasted and refed mice ...
Acute effects of a β-adrenoceptor agonist (BRL 26830A) on rat brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. Increased GDP binding and GDP- ... Acute effects of a β-adrenoceptor agonist (BRL 26830A) on rat brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. Increased GDP binding and GDP- ... Acute effects of a β-adrenoceptor agonist (BRL 26830A) on rat brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. Increased GDP binding and GDP- ... Acute effects of a β-adrenoceptor agonist (BRL 26830A) on rat brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. Increased GDP binding and GDP- ...
Tissue is designed to accelerate and simplify the isolation of mitochondria from human and mouse tissue. The kit has been ... The resulting tissue homogenates provide the ideal basis for subsequent magnetic labeling and isolation of intact, functional ... The Mitochondria Extraction Kit - Tissue allows the preparation of homogenates from the most common tissue types, e.g., muscle ... The Mitochondria Extraction Kit - Tissue is designed to accelerate and simplify the isolation of mitochondria from human and ...
... mouse tissue facilitates the isolation of functional and viable mitochondria from mouse tissue. The isolation protocol is based ... on the renowned MACS Technology, which enables fast isolation of high purity and high yield mitochondria. - Lëtzebuerg ... Mitochondria were prepared from various mouse tissues using the Mitochondria Isolation Kit, mouse tissue. The mitochondria ... Mitochondria were prepared from various mouse tissues using the Mitochondria Isolation Kit, mouse tissue. The mitochondria ...
Tissue-Specific Isolation of Arabidopsis/plant Mitochondria- IMTACT (Isolation of Mitochondria TAgged in specific Cell Types). ... Tissue-specificity is achieved with cell-specific promoters (e.g. CAB3 and SUC2). Labelled mitochondria from crude extracts are ... that involves biotinylation of mitochondria in a tissue-specific manner using transgenic lines expressing a synthetic version ... Mitochondria represent a very small fraction of the total cell volume and yet are the site of respiration and thus crucial for ...
This is especially true for mitochondria from different tissues as much of the proteomic work on mitochondria has been done on ... In summary, according to the tissues we examined, the mitochondria composition showed a high degree of tissue-dependent ... tissues. In our previous study, we elucidated the protein composition of mitochondria from several mouse tissues (heart, brain ... and liver tissues. Based on 689 proteins identified with high confidence, mitochondria from the different tissues are ...
In Muscle Tissue Showing The Internal Cristae The Cristae Is A Highly Folder Internal Membrane Of The Mitochondria Tem. Find ... Mitochondrion in muscle tissue showing the internal cristae. The cristae is a highly folder internal membrane of the ... Cellular respiration occurs within the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the producers of high energy molecules known as ATP and ...
Im Focus: How do scars form? Fascia function as a repository of mobile scar tissue. Abnormal scarring is a serious threat ... Proteins destined to mitochondria, the cells powerhouse, are not directly transported to mitochondria but are directed to the ... Alzheimers »Parkinsons »aggregates »cellular energy »mitochondria »proteins »transport of proteins »transport pathway ... Further reports about: , Alzheimers , Parkinsons , aggregates , cellular energy , mitochondria , proteins , transport of ...
Tissue Collection. Blood was collected from mice before treatment began and also during the course of the treatment. Blood was ... Development of mitochondria-specific mouse oligonucleotide microarray and validation of data by real-time PCR. Mitochondrion. ... The present study evaluated liver mitochondria in AZT-treated B6C3F1 mice to understand the role of mitochondria in sex-related ... Mitochondrion. 2008;8(2):181-195. [PubMed]. 14. Geddes R, Knight S, Moosa MYS, Reddi A, Uebel K, Sunpath H. A high incidence of ...
Tissue Collection. Blood was collected from mice before treatment began and also during the course of the treatment. Blood was ... The present study evaluated liver mitochondria in AZT-treated B6C3F1 mice to understand the role of mitochondria in sex-related ... Evaluation of Hepatic Mitochondria and Hematological Parameters in Zidovudine-Treated Mice. Varsha G. Desai,1 Taewon Lee,2 ... induced expression profile of mitochondria-related genes in the mouse liver," Mitochondrion, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 181-195, 2008. ...
IMAGE: Thius is renal tissue obtained on a laser scanning confocal microscope and coloration of the cytoskeleton (red ... a mitochondrion gets a "black label" in the form of a special protein -- PINK-1. Such a labeled mitochondrion undergoes a ... Thats why in case of severe kidney ischemia mitochondria can cope with the damage and they survive. And what happens in old ... As a result of such training "bad" mitochondria are only accumulated in an old cell and in case of kidney ischemia everything ...
Mitochondria / genetics * Mitochondria / metabolism* * Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics * Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism* ... Mitochondria are the predominant site of DISC1 expression with additional nuclear, cytoplasmic, and actin-associated locations ... Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a multicompartmentalized protein that predominantly localizes to mitochondria Mol Cell ... Although the subcellular targeting of DISC1 is clearly complex, the association with mitochondria is of interest as many ...
Little is known about the physiological relevance of mitochondria in adipose tissue. It has been reported by Choo et al [9] ... White adipose tissue (WAT) is highly adapted to store any excess energy as triglycerides, while brown adipose tissue (BAT), on ... Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM), which are thought to represent key cellular mediators of adipose tissue inflammatory response ... TEM analysis of in situ mitochondria. To determine whether PM2.5 exposure affects mitochondria in WAT and BAT, transmission ...
We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ... We postulate that exposure to PM2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby ... Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT), while mitochondrial size was ... Additionally, exposure to PM2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by ...
Surviving anoxia: the maintenance of energy production and tissue integrity during anoxia and reoxygenation. ... A long mitochondrion in the periphery of a HeLa cell was located (A, arrowheads). A small area at one end of the mitochondrion ... Whilst individual mitochondria were clearly visible in the periphery of cells, it was less clear whether the mitochondria in ... 4Ai) mitochondria. Rings of perinuclear mitochondria were not as obvious since we did not specifically determine the location ...
Surviving anoxia: the maintenance of energy production and tissue integrity during anoxia and reoxygenation. ... The time course of changes in the properties of mitochondria from oxidative muscle of rainbow trout was examined during warm ( ... Time course of the response of mitochondria from oxidative muscle during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus ... Time course of the response of mitochondria from oxidative muscle during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus ...
  • Therefore, this thesis aimed to investigate the role of mitochondria uncoupling for development of diabetic nephropathy. (diva-portal.org)
  • Taken together, the data presented in this thesis establishes an important role of mitochondria uncoupling for the development of diabetic nephropathy. (diva-portal.org)
  • Understanding the role of mitochondria in disease pathogenesis has been greatly advanced by the visualisation of these organelles, using a variety of microscopy techniques to image affected tissues [5, (researchsquare.com)
  • Here we discuss the caveats of the traditional mitochondrial free radical theory of aging and highlight other possible mechanisms, including insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) and the target of rapamycin pathways, that underlie the central role of mitochondria in the aging process. (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this chapter is to present the current literature examining the role of mitochondria and metabolism in the healthy right heart, treatments to target deficits in the failing RV, and to identify knowledge gaps for future research in this clinically important area. (intechopen.com)
  • Here, we report a novel yet simple-to-implement non-viral approach to topically reprogram tissues through a nanochannelled device validated with well-established and newly developed reprogramming models of induced neurons and endothelium, respectively. (nature.com)
  • In addition, mitochondria in cultured neurons actively space themselves evenly along undistinguished regions of axon ( Miller and Sheetz, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • Indeed, a recent report has indicated that depletion of dendritic mitochondria by excess fusion enhances proximal dendrite formation in cortical neurons ( Kimura and Murakami, 2014 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Within neurons, mitochondria are nonuniformly distributed and are retained at sites of high activity and metabolic demand. (jneurosci.org)
  • Within neurons, a greater percentage of mitochondria were mobile than in astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Clemens Scherzer from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, along with an international team of researchers, now show that a root cause of Parkinson's disease may lie in 10 gene sets related to energy production that spur neurons in the brain to "divorce" their mitochondria and related energy-producing pathways. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitophagy in hippocampal neurons ramped up to normal, while the number of damaged mitochondria fell to control levels. (alzforum.org)
  • Acute effects of a β-adrenoceptor agonist (BRL 26830A) on rat brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. (biochemj.org)
  • An iterative analysis of Scatchard binding data suggested that there is only one high-affinity GDP-binding site (Kd 0.3 microM) in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. (biochemj.org)
  • Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipose tissue is now recognized as not only an energy reservoir for lipid storage, but also an active endocrine organ and an important regulator in glucose homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) is highly adapted to store any excess energy as triglycerides, while brown adipose tissue (BAT), on the other hand, functions to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notwithstanding, the effects of fat overload on adipose tissue physiology of offspring are still underexplored. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. (osti.gov)
  • significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. (osti.gov)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue is found in almost all mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue is especially abundant in newborns and in hibernating mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron-containing) mitochondria, which gives brown adipose tissue its brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans was discovered during FDG-PET scans to detect metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these scans and data from human autopsies, several brown adipose tissue depots have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains to be determined whether these depots are 'classical' brown adipose tissue or beige/brite fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria uncoupling and altered morphology was also evident in kidneys from db/db-mice, a model of type-2 diabetes, together with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration which are both clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, captopril preserves kidney tissue morphology from Hg(++)-induced damage. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1 −/− mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. (portlandpress.com)
  • The data are therefore compatible with a tentative model in which the ANT2 isoform mediates fatty-acid-induced uncoupling, whereas the ANT1 isoform may mediate a significant part of the high basal proton leak in brown-fat mitochondria. (portlandpress.com)
  • This method was then used to measure the distribution of mitochondria relative to capillaries in the right ventricles of four guinea pigs of differing capillary densities. (springer.com)
  • Kayar S.R., Banchero N. (1985) Distribution of Mitochondria Relative to Capillaries in Guinea Pig Myocardium. (springer.com)
  • Several different detection methods can be utilised to image mitochondria including endogenous fluorescence, small fluorescent molecule and immunochemistry. (researchsquare.com)
  • Therefore development of small molecule imaging tools that can quickly and effectively image mitochondria in both live and fixed tissue samples would offer greater flexibility in sample preparation. (researchsquare.com)
  • Although procedures exist to isolate plant mitochondria from different organs i.e. leaves, roots, tubers, etc., they are often tedious and do not provide resolution at the tissue level i.e. phloem, mesophyll, or pollen. (upsc.se)
  • This situation raises the question of why an apparently energy-wasteful pathway operates in plant mitochondria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • DsRed1 was found to be highly mobile within the matrix of individual mitochondria, with an estimated linear diffusion rate of 1μm s -1 . (biologists.org)
  • This is because individual mitochondria spend a significant part of their time stationary. (biologists.org)
  • Inhibiting neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX) increased the percentage of mobile mitochondria in astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Last, we demonstrated that neuronal activity increases the probability that mitochondria appose GLT-1 particles within astrocyte processes, without changing the proximity of GLT-1 particles to VGLUT1. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results imply that neuronal activity and the resulting clearance of glutamate by astrocytes regulate the movement of astrocytic mitochondria and suggest a mechanism by which glutamate transporters might retain mitochondria at sites of glutamate uptake. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recently described iridium tetrazolato coordination complex [Ir( ppy ) 2 (Me TzPyPhCN )]+, (where ppy is a cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine and TzPyPhCN is the 5-(5-(4-cyanophen-1-yl)pyrid-2-yl)tetrazolate ligand), commercially available as IraZolve-Mito, exhibits a high specificity for mitochondria in live H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts . (researchsquare.com)
  • Herein, a simple rational strategy, namely modulation of donor-acceptor (D-A) strength, for molecular engineering of mitochondria-targeting aggregation-induced emission (AIE) PSs with desirable characteristics including highly improved 1 O 2 generation efficiency, NIR emission (736 nm), high specificity to mitochondria, good biocompatibility, high brightness and superior photostability is demonstrated. (rsc.org)
  • We hypothesized that a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant would prevent kidney damage in the Ins2 +/−AkitaJ mouse model (Akita mice) of Type 1 diabetes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In order to provide the student with a complete view of the tissue organization, basic and advanced methods for analyzing the organization of human tissues and how this organization is instrumental in ensuring full homeostatic tissue function are discussed. (unige.it)