Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Mice, Inbred BALB CBrain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Canthaxanthin: A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Mice, Inbred ICRSodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Lysinoalanine: N(6)-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine. An unusual amino acid, not a dipeptide, which has been found in proteins of cooked foods. It is formed in food that is heated or treated with alkali. Has been implicated in nephrocytomegalia in rats.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Maackia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It contains a hemagglutinin.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Cellular Structures: Components of a cell.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Sambucus nigra: A plant species in the genus SAMBUCUS, known for the elderberry fruit. The plant is also a source of Sambucus nigra lectins and ribosome-inactivating protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molindone: An indole derivative effective in schizophrenia and other psychoses and possibly useful in the treatment of the aggressive type of undersocialized conduct disorder. Molindone has much lower affinity for D2 receptors than most antipsychotic agents and has a relatively low affinity for D1 receptors. It has only low to moderate affinity for cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Some electrophysiologic data from animals indicate that molindone has certain characteristics that resemble those of CLOZAPINE. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p283)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Arctium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluoride PoisoningFluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Macroglobulins: Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Fluorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Rats, Inbred F344TritiumAnion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Protein PrecursorsGene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/18708)The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation. (+info)
Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (2/18708)Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods. (+info)
Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (3/18708)Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain. (+info)
A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (4/18708)Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells. (+info)
The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (5/18708)Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut. (+info)
Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (6/18708)We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities. (+info)
Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (7/18708)A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping. (+info)
Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/18708)We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes. (+info)
NCDA&CS plant tissue analysis guide :: State Publications
Plant/Waste/Solution/Media Analysis Section Agronomic Division N.C. Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services (919) 733-2655 Michelle McGinnis, Ph.D., Agronomist Catherine Stokes, Communication Specialist Brenda Cleveland, Section Chief February 2012 February 2012 NCDA&CS Plant Tissue Analysis Guide i 1. Overview of the Agronomic Division 1 2. Introduction to Plant Tissue Analysis 2 3. Collecting a Good Sample 2 4. Understanding the Plant Analysis Report 5 5. Summary 6 6. References 7 Appendix A. Sampling procedures for plant tissue analysis 9 Appendix B. NCDA&CS Agronomic Division methods for plant tissue analysis 21 Figure credits: All figures were developed by the NCDA&CS Agronomic Division, with the exception of a) the corn diagram in Figure 1, which was adapted, with permission, from the University of Illinois Cooperative Extension and b) the cabbage/lettuce diagram in Figure 1, which was adapted from CorelDRAW® clipart. February 2012 NCDA&CS Plant Tissue Analysis Guide 1 is to provide N.C. ...
Remote Sensing | Free Full-Text | Water Body Distributions Across Scales: A Remote Sensing Based Comparison of Three Arctic...
Water bodies are ubiquitous features in Arctic wetlands. Ponds, i.e., waters with a surface area smaller than 104 m2, have been recognized as hotspots of biological activity and greenhouse gas emissions but are not well inventoried. This study aimed to identify common characteristics of three Arctic wetlands including water body size and abundance for different spatial resolutions, and the potential of Landsat-5 TM satellite data to show the subpixel fraction of water cover (SWC) via the surface albedo. Water bodies were mapped using optical and radar satellite data with resolutions of 4mor better, Landsat-5 TM at 30mand the MODIS water mask (MOD44W) at 250m resolution. Study sites showed similar properties regarding water body distributions and scaling issues. Abundance-size distributions showed a curved pattern on a log-log scale with a flattened lower tail and an upper tail that appeared Paretian. Ponds represented 95% of the total water body number. Total number of water bodies decreased with
Experimental study for cancer diagnosis with positron-labeled fluorinated glucose analogs: [<sup>18</sup>F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experimental study for cancer diagnosis with positron-labeled fluorinated glucose analogs. T2 - [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-mannose: A new tracer for cancer detection. AU - Fukuda, Hiroshi. AU - Matsuzawa, Taiju. AU - Abe, Yoshinao. AU - Endo, Satoshi. AU - Yamada, Kenji. AU - Kubota, Kazuo. AU - Hatazawa, Jun. AU - Sato, Tachio. AU - Ito, Masatoshi. AU - Takahashi, Toshihiro. AU - Iwata, Ren. AU - Ido, Tatsuo. PY - 1982/7/1. Y1 - 1982/7/1. N2 - 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-mannose (18F-FDM) were tested as tumor diagnostic agents in a transplantable rat tumor and rabbit tumors. Tissue distribution studies in rats showed high tumor uptakes of both radiopharmaceuticals. The tumor uptake reached 2.65±0.61% dose 18F-FDG/g and 2.65±0.81% dose 18F-FDM/g at 60 min and remained relatively constant until 120 min. Blood clearance of both 18F-FDG and 28F-FDM was very rapid and tumor-to-blood ratios reached 22.1 and 29.4 at 60 min, respectively. ...
All animal PET/CT and tissue biodistribution. Future work will expand | CTSK Inhibito ctskinhibito.com
Coalescence and Size Distribution Characteristics of Oil Droplets Attached on Flocs After Coagulation on Environmental XPRT
Preparation, properties and preclinical pharmacokinetics of low molecular weight heparin-modified isoliquiritigenin-loaded...
Low molecular weight heparin-modified isoliquiritigenin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (LMWH-ISL-SLN) was developed for injective application. The morphological observation, particle diameter and zeta potential of LMWH-ISL-SLN were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a Malvern Zetasizer. Its entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were determined by ultracentrifuge. The in vitro release experiments were performed by dialysis technique. The cytotoxic effects of LMWH-ISL-SLN on Hep-G2 cell lines were determined using an MTT assay. Pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies were conducted in kunming mice after intravenous administration of LMWH-ISL-SLN. The average drug entrapment efficiency for LMWH-ISL-SLN was (99.80 ± 3.27) %, drug loading was (18.68 ± 1.51) %, mean particle size was (217.53 ± 4.86) nm and zeta potential was (-18.24 ± 2.47) mV. The in vitro release experiments demonstrated isoliquiritigenin release from LMWH-ISL-SLN was in line with Weibull
Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue disposition, excretion and metabolism of vinleucinol in mice as determined by high-performance...
JAIRO | General considerations regarding the in vitro and in vivo properties of block copolymer micelle products and their...
Specific Accumulation of Lipoprotein(a) in Balloon-Injured Rabbit Aorta In Vivo | Circulation Research
It may be argued that the differences between Lp(a) and LDL resulted from the possible absence of endogenous Lp(a) in contrast to the presence of large amounts of LDL in rabbit plasma. However, the observed difference between labeled Lp(a) and labeled LDL in accumulation during 23 hours was also found when the plasma Lp(a) concentration was increased to human levels by intravenous injection of the ,1.12-g/mL-density lipoprotein fraction of human plasma. Metabolism of labeled Lp(a) in plasma may produce labeled non-Lp(a) particles, which might interact differently than Lp(a) with the arterial wall. When iodinated Lp(a) was injected into humans, an increasing fraction of the total amount of plasma radioactivity appeared in LDL-like particles, whereas no radioactivity was found in free apo(a) or nonlipoprotein particles.35 36 In the present study, the fraction of Lp(a) radioactivity in LDL-like or "Lp(a)-" particles increased from an initial 7% to 19% during 23 hours. Also, the gel filtration ...
Target chemotherapy of anti-CD147 antibody-labeled liposome encapsulated GSH-DXR conjugate on CD147 highly expressed carcinoma...
It was confirmed that CD147 (Emmprin) was expressed on the cell surface of carcinoma cells. For the purpose of studying the efficacy of a CD147-targeting agent on CD147-expressing carcinoma cells, we investigated the effect of a conjugate of glutathione-doxorubicin (GSH-DXR) encapsulated in an anti-CD147 antibody-labeled liposome (aCD147ab-liposome) in terms of specific accumulation and cytotoxicity in CD147-expressing human carcinoma cells. Expression of CD147 was not observed in many normal human tissues. However, slight expression of CD147 in kidney, prostate and breast tissues was observed. By contrast, high-level expression of CD147 in all carcinoma cells such as A431, PC3 and Ishikawa cell lines was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analysis. Specific accumulation of the aCD147ab-liposome in the above-described CD147-expressing cells was observed. GSH-DXR encapsulated in an aCD147ab-liposome expressed specific cytotoxicity against these carcinoma cells. These results ...
99m</sup>Tc-labeled divalent and tetravalent CC49 single-chain Fv's: Novel imaging agents for rapid in vivo localization of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 99mTc-labeled divalent and tetravalent CC49 single-chain Fvs. T2 - Novel imaging agents for rapid in vivo localization of human colon carcinoma. AU - Goel, A.. AU - Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J.. AU - Hinrichs, S. H.. AU - Wisecarver, J.. AU - Pavlinkova, G.. AU - Augustine, S.. AU - Colcher, D.. AU - Booth, B. J.M.. AU - Batra, S. K.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Radioimmunopharmaceutical agents enabling rapid high-resolution imaging, high tumor-to-background ratios, and minimal immunogenicity are being sought for cancer diagnosis and imaging. Genetic engineering techniques have allowed the design of single-chain Fvs (scFvs) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing tumor-associated antigens. These scFvs show good tumor targeting and biodistribution properties in vivo, indicating their potential as imaging agents when labeled with a suitable radionuclide. Methods: Divalent (sc(Fv)2) and tetravalent ([sc(Fv)2]2) scFvs of mAb CC49 were evaluated for ...
High Accumulation of T Regulatory Cells Prevents the Activation of Immune Responses in Aged Animals | The Journal of Immunology
Foxp3 expression is confined only to CD25high cells in humans, whereas expression of Foxp3 is distributed throughout the CD25-staining population in mice (10). There is cumulative evidence indicating that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells are capable of suppressing the activation and expansion of other T cells and NK cells (9, 10). Furthermore, the ectopic expression of Foxp3 conferred a suppressive function on peripheral CD4+CD25− T cells (9). This demonstrates that Foxp3 is a key player in CD4+CD25+ suppressor/Treg cells. The prevalence of higher CD4+CD25high T cells with immunosuppressive activity has been described in the elderly (18, 19, 20). However, these studies did not evaluate the expression of Foxp3; therefore, it is difficult to predict how many of those cells are truly Treg cells. Additionally, the function of CD4+CD25high T cells does not always correlate with the function of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells (24, 27). Recently, it was shown that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells of aged mice are comparable ...
太湖富营养化湖区秋季水体和沉积物中硝化微生物分布特征及控制因素-Distribution characteristics and controlling factors of nitrifying microorganisms in freshwater...
微生物参与下的氮循环是富营养化湖泊十分重要的生物地球化学循环过程.采用基于amoA功能基因和16S rRNA基因的荧光定量PCR、PCR-DGGE与高通量测序等分子生物学技术，调查秋季太湖不同水体和表层沉积物中氨氧化古菌（AOA）、氨氧化细菌（AOB）和亚硝酸盐氧化菌（NOB）群落丰度和组成，探讨影响硝化微生物分布的关键环境因子.结果表明，中度富营养化的梅梁湾湖区水体表层、中层和底层水样和表层底泥中AOA amoA基因的丰度分别低于轻度富营养化的湖心区，而不同层水样中AOB amoA基因的丰度分别高于湖心区.梅梁湾湖区和湖心区水样中AOA群落组成基本相似，2个湖区表层沉积物样品中AOA群落组成亦基本相似，水体中AOA群落组成与表层沉积物中AOA群落组成有差异，AOA群落丰度显著受硝态氮、pH和DO影响；表层沉积物中AOB群落丰度有明显差异且显著受总氮含量影响
Cell & Tissue Analysis Core » McKnight Brain Institute » University of Florida
Evaluate Safety and Tolerability and Compare Absorption/Distribution Kinetics of a Single 100 Mcg Dose of Fentanyl Sublingual...
Left: By associating a dendrimer with a targeting group (e.g. an antibody) multiple "payload" molecules can be delivered to a molecular target. Right: Here the antibody fragment targets certain activated platelets, and the payload is successfully delivered to a blood clot. In a control study without the correct antibody no such delivery was achieved, showing that the targeting in the image above was specific in nature (work conducted in collaboration with the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute). Passive Targeting - Even in the absence of any targeting group, tailoring the size and physico-chemical properties of the dendrimer can achieve preferential accumulation in target tissues or organs. This is particularly of interest in the area of cancer treatments.. ...
Results of biodistribution studies in Wistar rats. Upta | Open-i
Tissue Drug Levels of HIV Medications - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Tissue Drug Levels of HIV Medications - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Top: Relative distribution plots of GA, GB, GC, GJ, and | Open-i
Striking a Nerve | Linux Journal
Recently it seems I hit on three very hot topics (all at once, too), that is if the volume of mail Ive received is any indicator. The first of these topics can be reduced to library versioning problems on distributions and my need to keep several kernels of varying levels running to make everything I wanted to compile and run do so.
Applied Spectral Imaging - Business Profile - SpectralImaging | PRLog
View Applied Spectral Imagings business profile on PRLog, with profiles from 340,000 organizations. Applied Spectral Imaging (ASI) is the maker of the GenASIs automated imaging platforms for genetic and pathology analysis. GenASIs enables automated pathology tissue analysis for primary diagnostics, creating reproducible and reliable results.
Multiple Tissue Panels of cDNA
Multiple Tissue Panels of cDNA
Radiosynthesis of [14C]Dasatinib. [14C]Dasatinib ([14C]BMS-354825) was synthesized at Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. (Princeton, NJ) (Allentoff et al., 2008). The specific activity was 31.9 μCi/mg, and the radioactive purity was 98.7%.. Animal Welfare. Before study initiation, the protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Covance Laboratories Inc. (Madison, WI).. Test Animals, Housing, and Randomization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (Harlan, Indianapolis, IN), approximately 8 to 9 days postpartum, were used for the lacteal secretion study. The rats weighed 287 to 351 g. Female Sprague-Dawley rats on gestation day 18 were used for the maternal and fetal tissue distribution study. The rats weighed 258 to 355 g. For all the studies, the animals were acclimated for at least 3 days before dose administration. During acclimation and the testing period, the animals were housed in individual polycarbonate shoe box cages. Certified Rodent Diet no. 8728CM (Harlan Teklad, ...
Distribution Characteristics of Geologic Age and Rock Type of Bedrocks at the National Wood Culture Heritage Site by GIS |...
Relationship between biodistribution of a novel thymidine phosphorylase (TP) imaging probe and TP expression levels in normal...
Objective: Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway and its expression is upregulated in a wide variety of solid tumors. In mice, we previously observed high and specific accumulation levels of our TP imaging probe, radioiodinated 5-iodo-6-[(2-iminoimidazolidinyl)methyl]uracil (IIMU) not only in high-TP-expressing tumors, but also in the liver and small intestine. To clarify the reason for the high accumulation levels of radioiodinated IIMU in the liver and small intestine, we investigated the expression levels of TP in mice in comparison with the biodistribution of radioiodinated IIMU (123I-IIMU). Methods: BALB/cCrSlc mice were injected with 123I-IIMU, and the radioactivity levels [%ID/g (normalized to a mouse of 25 g body weight)] in the tissues of interest were determined 0.5, 1, 3 and 24 h after the injection (n = 5, each time point). To determine the expression levels of TP, BALB/cCrSlc and ddy mice (n = 3/each strain) were euthanized, and ...
"A distribution kinetics approach for polymer crystallization and phase" by Jiao Yang
The mechanism of polymer crystallization is extensively studied and still far away from consensus. This research adopted cluster size distribution kinetics approach to explore the kinetics of polymer crystallization and phase separation within spinodal region. The kinetics of polymer crystallization is studied by integrating nucleation, crystal growth and ripening. Population balance equations based on crystal size distribution and concentration of amorphous polymer segments are solved numerically and the related differential moment equations are also solved. The model accounts for nucleation and crystal growth. Different mass dependences of growth and dissociation rate coefficients are proposed to investigate the fundamental features of crystal growth. The effect of temperature is also investigated for isothermal and nonisothermal polymer crystallization. Incorporating temperature effects of nucleation and crystal growth rate, the model presents time dependencies of polymer concentration, number and
Distribution profile of body mass index in Tongling children aged 7-13 years--《Anhui Medical Journal》2009年03期
Objective To investigate the distribution profile of body mass index (BMI) in children aged from 7～13 years old in Tongling city.Methods Two primary schools in Tongling urban area were randomly selected by the method of cluster sampling, 3 076 students aged from 7～13 years old body weight and height were measured, BMI was calculated by one year interval from age 7 to 13 years old and its distribution pattern was compared with the Chinese BMI norm.Results All the BMI values of means, medians and percentiles of male children were significantly higher than those of female. And BMI values increased gradually with age. The BMI norm was established composed by cut- off points of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity for Tongling children. Compared with the Chinese BMI norm, P85 and P95 were lower for Tongling male and female children aged from 7 to 13.Conclusion The BMI distribution characteristics of Tongling children aged from 7 to 13 are different from the Chinese BMI charts. New established BMI
Older's Natural Radioactivity Level Articles from Dec. 11th 1967 to Jan. 1st 2017 on Environmental XPRT
Potential of 131I-anti-TLR5 mAb for noninvasive assessment of monitoring rapamycin treated allograft efficiency (TRAN1P.936) |...
Background Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a potentially target related with immunosuppressant rapamycin. Our aim was to evaluate 131I-anti-TLR5 mAb for non-invasive in vivo graft visualization and quantification in rapamycin treated allogeneic transplantation model compared with nonspecific tracer 18F-FDG. Methods Labeling, binding and stability studies were performed. Allografted BALB/c mice were divided into rapamycin-treated and non-treated group, respectively. In vivo dynamic whole-body phosphor-autoradiography and ex vivo biodistribution studies were conducted. Results Phosphor-autoradiography imaging showed clear graft localization from 12 h onward after 131I-anti-TLR5 mAb injection,significantly higher graft uptake in rapamycin-treated group. Pretreatment with anti-TLR5 mAb blocked graft uptake,which were consistent with ex vivo biodistribution studies. As the nonspecific radiotracer, high 18F-FDG uptake was only observed in non-treated allorejection group, not in treated group. The ...
Pulmonary Function in Morbid Obesity: Influence of Sex and Body Distribution | OMICS International
Apixaban, a potent and highly selective factor Xa inhibitor, is currently under development for treatment of arterial and venous thrombotic diseases. The distribution, metabolism, and elimination of [14C]apixaban were investigated in male, female, pregnant, and lactating rats after single oral doses. Tissue distribution of radioactivity in rats was measured using quantitative whole-body autoradiography. After a single oral administration, radioactivity distributed quickly in rats with Cmax at 1 h for most tissues. The elimination t1/2 of radioactivity in blood was 1.7 to 4.2 h. The blood area under the plasma concentration-time curve of radioactivity was similar between male and female rats and was slightly higher in pregnant rats and lower in lactating rats. The radioactivity concentration in tissues involved in elimination was greater than that in blood with the highest concentration in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and urinary bladder/contents and lowest level in brains. In pregnant ...
1703.07596] Testing and Learning on Distributions with Symmetric Noise Invariance
Abstract: Kernel embeddings of distributions and the Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD), the resulting distance between distributions, are useful tools for fully nonparametric two-sample testing and learning on distributions. However, it is rarely that all possible differences between samples are of interest -- discovered differences can be due to different types of measurement noise, data collection artefacts or other irrelevant sources of variability. We propose distances between distributions which encode invariance to additive symmetric noise, aimed at testing whether the assumed true underlying processes differ. Moreover, we construct invariant features of distributions, leading to learning algorithms robust to the impairment of the input distributions with symmetric additive noise ...
In vitro and in vivo properties of antimacrophage sera.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro and in vivo properties of antimacrophage sera.. AU - Hirsch, M. S.. AU - Gary, G. W.. AU - Murphy, F. A.. PY - 1969/3. Y1 - 1969/3. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0014477484&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0014477484&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 5773315. AN - SCOPUS:0014477484. VL - 102. SP - 656. EP - 661. JO - Journal of Immunology. JF - Journal of Immunology. SN - 0022-1767. IS - 3. ER - ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20025814 - Selective accumulation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the lung following acute...
The lung has been shown to be a target organ for the effects of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (oxo8dG) is a mutagenic oxidized base formed in DNA during the metabolism of B[a]P by the peroxidase and prostaglandin H synthetase systems. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity to cleave oxo8dG in the lung, liver, and kidney by measuring the activity of 8-oxogua
Smart delivery of lapatinib to reduce its cardiotoxicity: A 99mTc labeled biodistribution study | OncologyPRO
Objective: The research work aimed to reduce the cardiotoxicity of lapatinib, anti-HER-2 agent, used in treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer. Overexpression of HER-2 in breast cancer is associated with large tumor size, poor differentiation, and poor clinical outcomes. However, HER-2 pathway plays a significant role in heart too, where it is involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism, growth and survival through activation of important signaling pathways, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling. Inhibition of HER-2 receptors in the breast is desirable for its therapeutic benefit but their blockage in the heart is related to its associated cardio-toxicity.. Experimentation: PEGylated liposomes of lapatinib were formulated by lipid layer hydration method. Different ratios of lipid and drug were tried to prepare the liposomes with maximum drug entrapment. The optimized formulation with maximum drug loading was promoted for in vivo biodistribution study, after 99mTc labeling, in ...
Cell / Tissue Culture > Tissue Analysis Laboratory Product Directory and Equipment Reviews on...
Patente US7445620 - Apparatus and method for protecting nontarget tissue of a patient during ... - Google Patentes
An apparatus for protecting a nontarget body tissue of a patient during electrocautery surgery, an electrocautery probe being adapted to provide an electrical field to electrocauterize a target body tissue of the patient, includes a stent. The stent is adapted to detect the electrical field and to produce a field proximity signal in response to the detected electrical field. An electrical source provides electrical power to the probe. An electrical controller is adapted to receive the field proximity signal and to regulate electrical power to the probe in response to the field proximity signal. A method for protecting a nontarget body tissue of the patient during electrocautery surgery is also described.
Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of an interstitial 20p deletion associated with syndromic intrahepatic ductular hypoplasia ...
High-resolution chromosome analysis of a 19-year-old female proband with syndromic intrahepatic ductular hypoplasia (Alagille syndrome, AWS) revealed an interstitial deletion of chromosome 20p with breakpoints provisionally located in or close to p11.22 and p12.2. Southern blots from digests of DNA of the proband and her chromosomally normal parents were hybridized with the human DNA probes pR12.21, HuPrPcDNA2, and pDS6-SgI, which have been mapped to the region 20 (p12-pter), and rehybridized with the F IX probe for calibration. Comparing the hybridization signals of the normally sized DNA fragments of the family, we found no evidence for loss of any of the three tested distal chromosome 20p loci in our proband. Furthermore, in situ hybridization with HuPrPcDNA2 revealed a specific accumulation of grains at or around the faint distal G band suspected to represent all or most of band p12.3 of the probands deleted 20p and at p12 of the normal chromosome 20. Thus the AWS of our proband is ...
What are the most common sites for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) lesions?
Rommel G. Tirona - Physiology and Pharmacology - Western University
Research in the Tirona Lab focuses on molecular determinants of drug response and toxicity. In particular, studies are performed to characterize and understand the factors that govern interindividual differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The laboratory is especially interested in transport proteins and their impact on tissue drug distribution and elimination. Moreover, the role of nuclear receptors in determining the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters is also an area of interest. A variety of biochemical, molecular biological and genetic methods are employed in cellular and animal models together with studies in humans. Currently, the laboratory is investigating the role of drug transporters in the skeletal muscle toxicity of the cholesterol-lowering drugs. In addition, we are studying the interplay between transporters and metabolizing enzymes with respect to quantitative in vitro to in vivo prediction of drug pharmacokinetics. Publications. Zaher H, Meyer Zu Schwabedissen ...
The link between cancer progression and inflammation is now well established (1). Numerous lines of investigation have shown that inflammatory cells are key participants in cancer progression and metastasis (42). This study is, to our knowledge, the first to identify a functional role for neutrophils in the adhesion of CTCs in the liver. Neutrophil depletion resulted in a significant decrease in both gross metastases using an intrasplenic model of liver metastasis. Activated neutrophil infusion 10 minutes before the administration of cancer cells resulted in increased adhesion of H-59 cells in another model of metastasis using intravital microscopy. Again at 72 hours postinjection, neutrophil depletion caused a profound reduction in microscopic liver metastases, which was rescued when activated peripheral blood neutrophils were admixed to the cancer cell inoculum. These results indicate that early interactions between neutrophils and cancer cells within sinusoids of the liver promote cancer ...
Applied Sciences | Free Full-Text | Effect of Islanding and Telecontrolled Switches on Distribution System Reliability...
To improve electrical distribution network reliability, some portions of the network could operate in autonomous mode, provided that the related technical issues are addressed. More specifically, when there is not a path from those portions to the primary substation due to a fault in the network, such portions could be disconnected from the main network and supplied by local generation only. Such a mode of operation is known as
Normality of radiopharmaceutical distribution data<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Normality of radiopharmaceutical distribution data. AU - Krohn, K. A.. AU - Hines, H. H.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017812458&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017812458&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017812458. VL - 19. JO - Journal of Nuclear Medicine. JF - Journal of Nuclear Medicine. SN - 0161-5505. IS - 6. ER - ...
What Has Changed Recently With Hormones? - MobileG
The Reputable Carrolton Weight Loss Services. Personal weight often reflects the exact weight of an individual health knowing very well that high accumulation of harmful cholesterol in the body coupled with unrestrained level of sugars in the blood may result to gaining excessive weights. In the essence of maintaining a healthy society in Carrolton, many health professionals have come up with a legal ground where exceptional weight loss services can be conveniently assured to a level of satisfying the concerned parties considerably. It is hence advisable for anyone in Carrolton faced with an excessive weight to make an effort of reading through the latest reviews where one can easily identify the best weight loss professionals with enough experience in provision of quality weight loss service options.. The amazing thing about the assuring weight loss companies in Carrolton is the truth that they create good chance for consultancy services to enable patients to express their personal interests ...
Exacta Tumor Tissue Analysis | Datar Cancer Genetics Limited
Rohini, a 49- year old housewife, was diagnosed with a rare form of cancer (Leiomyosarcoma) in March 2016, after she noticed pain in legs along with swelling, that led to difficulty in walking. Unfortunately, there are not many standard treatment options for Leiomyosarcoma. Hence despite three lines of chemotherapy, which also had side-effects such as toxicity, the disease progressed to her liver and forearm.. Surgery and radiotherapy were ruled out due to the location of the cancer. Current medical knowledge and guidelines failed to provide any insight on how this cancer could be cured. Under these circumstances Rohini was advised to start palliative treatment, which would do little to rid the cancer or to prevent it from spreading. While the patient was otherwise healthy, her disease appeared to be incurable. DCGL carried out comprehensive genetic and cellular testing of the patients tumor and blood samples and selected a customized treatment for this patient.. Within 30 days of receiving ...
viewed. The term restricted drug distribution program was used, and some readers of the Bulletin were not familiar with this term. Restricted drug distribution programs [or systems] are methods used by drug compa-nies to limit access to drugs, primarily for safety reasons.1-5 These agents are some-times called "limited distribution drugs." The restrictions or limitations fall under the FDAs Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). Restricting drug access has a long history, and this article briefly explains these heterogeneous programs. When these programs were last reviewed in the Bulletin in 2003, the legal authority to restrict access to FDA approved drugs was questionable.3 In 2007, legal authority was given by the FDA Amendments Act (FDAAA) by establishing REMS, which allows for "re-strictions on distribution." Prior to 2007, a small number of drugs that offered substantial therapeutic benefits, but significantly increased risks relative to most drugs in that therapeutic area were ...
Alpenflow, joint meeting of the the Austrian Society for Cytometry (OEGfZ) and the Swiss Cytometry Society (SCS) -...
TissueGnostics is the expert in microscope automation, image analysis, cell analysis, tissue analysis and blood analysis and automated digital cell morphology. Our list of products ranges from microscopy workstations to stand alone software for image analysis, cell analysis, tissue analysis and systems that can identify and pre-classify white blood cells for the hematology field.
TissueFAXS i PLUS - TissueGnostics
TissueGnostics is the expert in microscope automation, image analysis, cell analysis, tissue analysis and blood analysis and automated digital cell morphology. Our list of products ranges from microscopy workstations to stand alone software for image analysis, cell analysis, tissue analysis and systems that can identify and pre-classify white blood cells for the hematology field.
Farmacja - Oncology - Cancer research using preclincal imaging | Bruker
Molecular imaging is providing key data to inform drug development. It furthers understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying the biology of cancer and illustrates drug distribution patterns. Such knowledge is fundamental to assessments of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, drug-drug interactions, transport and metabolism of therapeutic agents. PET and MRI are valuable tools for tumor surveillance and evaluation of metastatic potential and treatment effects in a variety of preclinical models. 3D tomographic imaging and quantification of radiotracers have been particularly useful in evaluating candidate small-molecule oncology tracers and following the in vivo biodistribution and targeting of novel therapeutic compounds. ...
This is an updated edition of the FBAs original key to case-bearing caddis larvae, by the same authors, published in 1990. It includes additional information on distribution and different instars and the text, illustrations and references reflect the considerable amount of work that has been carried out on the taxonomy and systematics of the families of case-bearing caddis (Trichoptera) since 1990. This edition incorporates improvements at several points in the text where some users of the 1990 edition have experienced confusion or difficulties, and also incorporates new couplets and text figures to help improve identification of several species. Additional notes on the key couplets are provided. The key comprises ...
Toxicology, Pathology and Biodistribution Core (TPB Core) - Lionel Lewis
Pearson chi-squared test (χ2): differences? | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community
This haplotype has a similar distribution as A34-B56. These haplotypes indicate that long range/oversees migrations were taking ... Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-407. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. ...
Jaspars LH, Vos W, Aust G, Van Lier RA, Hamann J (Apr 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue ... In brain tissue, CD97 is undetectable in normal white matter, and expression of CD55 is fairly restricted to the endothelium. ... Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Cell and Tissue Research. 324 (1): 139-47. doi:10.1007/s00441-005-0103-2. PMID 16408199. Veninga H, Becker S, Hoek RM, Wobus M ...
Distribution of caveolar proteins". Cell and Tissue Research. 306 (2): 265-76. doi:10.1007/s004410100439. PMID 11702238. Sanger ... Elevated levels of serum ArgBP2 and coordinate decreases in ArgBP2 in myocardial tissue were detected in the very early phase ... Voldstedlund M, Vinten J, Tranum-Jensen J (Nov 2001). "cav-p60 expression in rat muscle tissues. ... proteomic analysis of cardiac tissues from patients". Journal of the American Heart Association. 2 (6): e000565. doi:10.1161/ ...
Tissue distribution. The liver is the main site of transferrin synthesis but other tissues and organs, including the ... Ritchie RF, Palomaki GE, Neveux LM, Navolotskaia O, Ledue TB, Craig WY (1999). "Reference distributions for the negative acute- ... role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all tissues ...
Tissue distribution. Elastin serves an important function in arteries as a medium for pressure wave propagation to help ... Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after ... Tissue specific variants of elastin are produced by alternative splicing of the tropoelastin gene. There are at least 11 known ... In the body, elastin is usually associated with other proteins in connective tissues. Elastic fiber in the body is a mixture of ...
Tissue distribution. LAG-3 is expressed on activated T cells, natural killer cells, B cells and plasmacytoid ... Huard B, Gaulard P, Faure F, Hercend T, Triebel F (January 1, 1994). "Cellular expression and tissue distribution of the human ... Cai XF, Tao Z, Yan ZQ, Yang SL, Gong Y (Apr 2003). "Molecular cloning, characterisation and tissue-specific expression of human ...
Tissue distribution. GDF11 is expressed in many tissues, including skeletal muscle, pancreas, kidney, nervous system, and ... It has been reported that GDF11 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissue, compared with surrounding tissue, and pancreatic ... the expression of GDF11 was significantly higher compared with normal tissue (56). The classification of the patient cohort in ... and stimulates adiponectin secretion from white adipose tissue by direct action on adipocytes, while repairing neurogenesis in ...
Tissue distribution. GLUT1 expression occurs in almost all tissues, with the degree of expression typically correlating ... In the adult it is expressed at highest levels in erythrocytes and also in the endothelial cells of barrier tissues such as the ... The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is ...
Structure and tissue distribution. The gene for LAMP2 has 9 coding exons and 2 alternate last exons, 9a and 9b. When ... Kazakova MH, Staykov DG, Koev IG, Kitov BD, Sarafian VS (2014-09-01). "A comparative study of LAMPs and YKL-40 tissue ... Aumüller G, Renneberg H, Hasilik A (February 1997). "Distribution and subcellular localization of a lysosome-associated protein ... "Differential expression of the lysosome-associated membrane proteins in normal human tissues". Archives of Biochemistry and ...
Ralph M. Steinman
I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution". J. Exp. Med. 137 (5): 1142-62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237 . ... Antigens from the periphery are captured by DC in lymphoid tissues, even in steady (not matured) state. In steady state, DC ... He studied the initiation of antibody responses in tissue culture in the laboratory. As shown, he found out that antigens, ... Because dendritic cells were discovered amongst "adherent" accessory cells (i.e. those that attach to tissue culture surfaces ...
Zanvil A. Cohn
I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution. J. Exp. Med. 137:1142-1162. 1974 With S. Gordon and J. Todd. In vitro ... which may lead either to wound healing and tissue repair or to destruction of tissues,' says Dr. Cohn. 'Among the secreted ... Cohn's "adroit tissue culturing of macrophages made it possible to observe, challenge, and manipulate them to figure out how ... They identified the blood monocyte as the precursor for tissue macrophages and the bone marrow as the source of monocytes." At ...
I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution". J. Exp. Med. 137 (5): 1142-62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237 . ... Macrophages are usually only found in tissue and are rarely seen in blood circulation. The life-span of tissue macrophages has ... In the tissues, they are activated by cytokines and arrive at the battle scene ready to kill. When an infection occurs, a ... Once activated, they mature and migrate to the lymphoid tissues where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and ...
Namba T, Narumiya S (1993). "[Thromboxane A2 receptor; structure, function and tissue distribution]". Nippon Rinsho. 51 (1): ... Isoprostanes form in tissues undergoing acute or chronic oxidative stress such as occurs at sites of inflammation and the ... However, it is now clear that TP receptors exhibit a wide distribution in different cell types and among different organ ... In animal models and human tissues, they act through TP to promote platelet responses and stimulate blood vessel contraction. ...
Internal distribution. Main article: Vascular tissue. Vascular plants differ from other plants in that nutrients are ... or reproductive tissues, with more primitive plants lacking some tissue types. ... depending on the hardiness of the tissue. At freezing temperatures, water in the intercellular spaces of plant tissue freezes ... Distribution. Plants are distributed almost worldwide. While they inhabit a multitude of biomes and ecoregions, few can be ...
Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (25): 16653-8. PMID 1885595. "NCBI (National ... CD44 is an antigen found on the surface of most cell types and functions as a receptor that binds tissue macromolecules. ... and adipose tissues. There is moderate expression in the brain, pancreas, mammary glands, and ovaries. Finally, there is little ...
Collo G, Neidhart S, Kawashima E, Kosco-Vilbois M, North RA, Buell G (September 1997). "Tissue distribution of the P2X7 ... Ishii K, Kaneda M, Li H, Rockland KS, Hashikawa T (May 2003). "Neuron-specific distribution of P2X7 purinergic receptors in the ... Calcif Tissue Int. 73 (4): 361-9. doi:10.1007/s00223-002-2098-y. PMID 12874700. Bowler WB, Buckley KA, Gartland A, Hipskind RA ...
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1
Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (25): 16653-8. PMID ... adipose tissue, and the central nervous system. In these tissues, HSD11B1 reduces cortisone to the active hormone cortisol that ... Salicylate downregulates 11β-HSD1 expression in adipose tissue in obese mice and hence may explain why aspirin improves ... a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response". Endocrine Reviews. 25 (5): 831-66. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0031. PMID ...
Anion exchanger family
Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional characterization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (45): 35486-35490. doi ... Animal cells in tissue culture expressing the gene-encoding the ABC-type chloride channel protein CFTR (TC# 3.A.1.202.1) in the ... They are also found in many other body tissues. At least two genes encode these symporters in any one mammal. A 10 TMS model ... Tolerance to boron toxicity in cereals is known to be associated with reduced tissue accumulation of boron. Expression of genes ...
Scarring hair loss
"Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including different types of plant tissue (e.g. leaf ... distribution, or biomass in the trophic levels. For example, predators eating herbivores indirectly influence the control and ... Many of the Earth's elements and minerals (or mineral nutrients) are contained within the tissues and diets of organisms. Hence ... litter, dead wood, aquatic macrophytes, algae), animal tissue (carrion), dead microbes, faeces (manure, dung, faecal pellets, ...
Positron emission tomography
Furthermore, most tissues (with the notable exception of liver and kidneys) cannot remove the phosphate added by hexokinase. ... These algorithms compute an estimate of the likely distribution of annihilation events that led to the measured data, based on ... The emitted positron travels in tissue for a short distance (typically less than 1 mm, but dependent on the isotope), ... The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly ...
The arrangement of veins (the vascular tissue). These three tissue systems typically form a regular organization at the ... Of these, angiosperms have the greatest diversity. Within these the major veins function as the support and distribution ... Both are embedded in a dense parenchyma tissue, called the sheath, which usually includes some structural collenchyma tissue. ... or chlorenchyma tissue called the mesophyll (Greek for "middle leaf"). This assimilation tissue is the primary location of ...
Hazelton's veterinary pathologist sent tissue samples from dead animals to the United States Army Medical Research Institute of ... although the uneven distribution of cases was causing serious shortfalls in some areas. On 28 January 2015, the WHO ... Samples of body fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be handled with special caution. Prevention includes ... An electron microscopist from USAMRIID discovered filoviruses similar in appearance to Ebola in the tissue samples sent from ...
Distribution. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, hominins were found primarily in eastern Africa, east of the Great ... "The expensive-tissue hypothesis" (PDF). Current Anthropology. 36: 199. doi:10.1086/204350 ... Gavashelishvili, A.; Tarkhnishvili, D. (2016). "Biomes and human distribution during the last ice age". Global Ecology and ...
... the follicle can break into the deeper layers of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue and cause the formation of deep nodules. ... described as discrete slightly raised scars in a linear distribution similar to a tram track). The latter is thought to be ... whereas keloid scars can form scar tissue outside of these borders. Keloid scars from acne occur more often in men and ... skin discoloration and connective tissue damage from the accumulation of homogentisic acid). ...
Its tissue distribution and biologic actions were further investigated over the following decades. The eleven-amino-acid ... The original discovery of Substance P (SP) was in 1931 by Ulf von Euler and John H. Gaddum as a tissue extract that caused ... The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and repair. Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in ... Elevation of serum, plasma, or tissue SP and/or its receptor (NK1R) has been associated with many diseases: sickle cell crisis; ...
Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... 4 Distribution and habitat. *5 Behaviour and ecology *5.1 Feeding. *5.2 Locomotion ... The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... Extensive connective tissue lattices support the respiratory muscles and allow them to expand the respiratory chamber. The ...
Tüvirakud - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia
Siminovitch L, McCulloch EA, Till JE (1963). "The distribution of colony-forming cells among spleen colonies". Journal of ... stem cells in adult bone marrow and other tissues". Leukemia 21 (5): 860-7. PMID 17344915. ... "Stem-cell therapy shows promise for horse soft-tissue injury, disease". DVM Newsmagazine. Vaadatud 2013-10-21 ...
Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and ... justice - concerns the distribution of scarce health resources, and the decision of who gets what treatment (fairness and ... the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science. ...
The order of priority of photosynthate distribution is probably: first to apical growth and new needle formation, then to buds ... Form of nitrogen affected both the total amount and relative composition of the soluble nitrogen in white spruce tissues ( ... The concentrations of nutrient in plant tissues depend on many factors, including growing conditions. Interpretation of ... influenced by the distribution of photosynthate from its needles and the hormonal gradients controlled by the apical meristems ...
... and is produced in a tissue-selective manner based on expression of 5α-reductase. Tissues in which DHT forms at a high ... feminine changes in fat mass and distribution, and reduced penile length and testicular size. In addition, antiandrogens ... stimulating cell division and tissue growth. In accordance, therapeutic modalities that reduce androgen signaling in the ... and because DHT is important as an endogenous androgen only in select tissues, 5α-reductase inhibitors have minimal side ...
Distribution organizations. Several organizations exist that help to give and receive wheelchair equipment. Organizations that ... the parts of the body that are the most at risk for tissue breakdown include the ischial tuberosities, coccyx, sacrum and ... Most recently, pressure imaging (or pressure mapping) is used to help determine each individual's pressure distribution to ...
Initially, moving organisms such as sharks and hagfish, scavenge the soft tissues at a rapid rate over a period of months, and ... These vary from size, to coloration, to distribution, but they all share a similar hunting style. They use a suction technique ... These vibrations are received through fatty tissues in the jaw, which is then rerouted into the ear-bone and into the brain ... "Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) Facts - Distribution - In the Zoo". World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 5 ...
Global reptile distribution (excluding birds) Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other ... Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards a model system with implications for tissue ... via connective tissue) to the rest of the viscera. By using a series of special muscles (roughly equivalent to a diaphragm), ...
Computed tomography laser mammography
CTLM images show hemoglobin distribution in a tissue and can detect areas of Angiogenesis surrounding malignant tumors, that ... The technology uses laser in the same way computed tomography uses X-Rays, these beams travel through tissue and suffer ... to detect angiogenesis in the breast tissue. It is optical molecular imaging for hemoglobin both oxygenated and deoxygenated. ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
First, an infected tissue sample is taken from the patient. Then an oligonucleotide complementary to the suspected pathogen's ... Preparing DNA probes for one species and performing FISH with this probe allows one to visualize the distribution of this ... The tissue sample is chemically treated in order to make the cell membranes permeable to the fluorescently tagged ... If a patient is infected with a suspected pathogen, bacteria, from the patient's tissues or fluids, are typically grown on agar ...
Soft tissue laceration. Facial nerve branches. Facial nerve should be examined for any potential damage when buccal ... Zadik Y, Levin L (February 2009). "Does a free-of-charge distribution of boil-and-bite mouthguards to young adult amateur ... The layers of tissue that make up the tooth are clearly visible, with the pink pulp standing out against the paler dentine and ... Soft tissues injuries are presented commonly in association with dental trauma. Areas normally affected are lips, buccal mucosa ...
Rogers DJ, Wilson AJ, Hay SI, Graham AJ (2006). The global distribution of yellow fever and dengue. Adv. Parasitol. Advances in ... A French team developed the French neurotropic vaccine (FNV), which was extracted from mouse brain tissue. Since this vaccine ... Programmes for distribution of mosquito nets for use in homes are providing reductions in cases of both malaria and yellow ... reduced tissue damage in the liver and spleen, prevented hepatocellular steatosis, and normalised levels of alanine ...
Field Museum of Natural History
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
J. M. Saavedra and J. Axelrod (1973). "Demonstration and distribution of phenylethanolamine in brain and other tissues." Proc. ... In animal tissue, N-methylphenylethanolamine is formed by the action of the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase ( ... "Thin-layer chromatographic and high resolution mass spectrometric determination of β-hydroxyphenylethylamines in tissues as ...
Multiple Tissue Panels of cDNA
MTC Multiple Tissue cDNA Panels quickly determine the tissue distribution and relative abundance of specific transcripts. ... Quickly determine the tissue distribution and relative abundance of specific transcripts *Accurate and sensitive expression ... Multiple Tissue Panels, cDNA. MTC Multiple Tissue cDNA Panels are sets of first-strand cDNAs from 5 to 12 different tissues or ... They offer fast and accurate PCR analysis of gene expression across multiple tissues in a fraction of the time required for ...
Preparation, properties and preclinical pharmacokinetics of low molecular weight heparin-modified isoliquiritigenin-loaded...
Tissue distribution study indicated that ISL were mainly distributed in the liver and lung. In conclusion, low molecular weight ... Pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies were conducted in kunming mice after intravenous administration of LMWH-ISL-SLN ... in vitro release experiments demonstrated isoliquiritigenin release from LMWH-ISL-SLN was in line with Weibulls distribution ... Tissue distribution study indicated that ISL were mainly distributed in the liver and lung. In conclusion, low molecular weight ...
Tissue Distribution of Cardiac Glycosides | SpringerLink
Kuhlmann J., Rietbrock N., Schnieders B. (1978) Tissue Distribution of Cardiac Glycosides. In: Bodem G., Dengler H.J. (eds) ... Fischer, C.S., Sjoerdsma, A., Johnson, R.: The tissue distribution and excretion of radioactive digitoxin. Circulation 5, 496- ... Doherty, J.E., Perkins, W.H.: Tissue concentration and turnover of tritiated digoxin in dogs. Am. J. Cardiol. 17, 47-52 (1966) ... Bine, R., Friedman, M., Byers, S.O., Bland, C.: The deposition of digitoxin in the tissues of the rat after parenteral ...
Endocannabinoid System Components: Overview and Tissue Distribution. - PubMed - NCBI
In this chapter, we review the components and tissue distribution of this previously unknown but ubiquitous and complex ECS ... Endocannabinoid System Components: Overview and Tissue Distribution.. Joshi N1, Onaivi ES2. ... The distribution and function of the components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central nervous system (CNS) and ...
Occurrence and tissue distribution of por... & related info | Mendeley
Occurrence and tissue distribution of porcine circovirus type 2 identified by immunohistochemistry in danish finishing pigs at ... Accordingly, the occurrence and tissue distribution of PCV2 was examined in Danish finishing pigs at the time of slaughter. ... One or more tissues of 61% of the pigs were positive for PCV2 antigen. Up to 78% of the pigs had mild lymphoid depletion, ... corresponding to the morphology and distribution of FDCs. This observation may be interpreted to suggest that PCV2 may interact ...
Distribution of clusterin in Alzheimer brain tissue. - PubMed - NCBI
Distribution of clusterin in Alzheimer brain tissue.. McGeer PL1, Kawamata T, Walker DG. ... and normal human brain tissue and compared with the distributions of vitronectin, protectin and the complement membrane attack ... The immunohistochemical distribution of clusterin (SP40,40, SGP-2) was determined in Alzheimer disease (AD) ... and residual serum in normal tissue, but only antibodies to clusterin and vitronectin strongly stained amyloid deposits in ...
'tissue distribution' Protocols and Video...
... tissue distribution include Synthesis and Bioconjugation of Thiol-Reactive Reagents for the Creation of Site-Selectively ... The Use of Ex Vivo Whole-organ Imaging and Quantitative Tissue Histology to Determine the Bio-distribution of Fluorescently ... Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness of a Densovirus in ... A Tissue Clearing Method for Three-Dimensional Imaging of Adipose Tissue, Development and Functional Characterization of ...
NIH Guide: LIVER TISSUE PROCUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (LTPADS)
LIVER TISSUE PROCUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (LTPADS) NIH Guide, Volume 26, Number 38, November 21, 1997 RFP AVAILABLE: NIH ... has a requirement for the continuation of the Liver Tissue Procurement and Distribution System (LTPADS) as a network of three ... These tissue and cells would otherwise be discarded or be obtainable to most researchers who are not a part of a liver ... This project is designed to procure, preserve and deliver liver tissue and cells from a variety of end-stage liver diseases to ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00164422 - Tissue distribution of 14C-labeled ethylene dibromide in the guinea pig.
... body weight in order to determine EDB tissue distribution. The animals were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, or 72 hours ... The pattern of EDB distribution in the tissues as determined in this study is completely consistent with earlier studies of the ... body weight in order to determine EDB tissue distribution. The animals were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, or 72 hours ... Kidneys recorded 286.64, 236.52, 247.79, 73.45, 14.66, and 10.47 micrograms EDB/gram (microg/g) of tissue at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, ...
Tissue Genesis Signs Exclusive Distribution and License Agreement with SpineSmith
announced an exclusive distribution and licensing agreement for the human spine market with SpineSmith Partners, LP (Austin, ... Tissue Genesis Signs Exclusive Distribution and License Agreement with SpineSmith. Thursday, November 8, 2007 General News ... 7 Tissue Genesis, Inc. announced anexclusive distribution and licensing agreement for the human spine market withSpineSmith ... Tissue Genesis will shareSpineSmiths revenues from procedures and sales using Tissue Genesistherapeutic cell technologies, ...
Allele Receives Tissue Bank License for Manufacturing and Distribution of cGMP-compliant iPSCs | Business Wire
... cGMP-compliant stem cells from donor tissue for therapeutic use and commercial distribution. ... Allele Receives Tissue Bank License for Manufacturing and Distribution of cGMP-compliant iPSCs ... cGMP-compliant stem cells from donor tissue for therapeutic use and commercial distribution. ... All tissues and cells are processed in a state-of-the-art cleanroom to satisfy FDA requirements for Phase III clinical trials ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00052579 - Tissue Distribution of C-14-Labeled Ethylene Dibromide in the Guinea Pig.
A study was undertaken to determine the tissue distribution of uniformly radiocarbon-labeled ethylene-dibromide (106934) in ... Tissue Distribution of C-14-Labeled Ethylene Dibromide in the Guinea Pig.. ... A study was undertaken to determine the tissue distribution of uniformly radiocarbon-labeled ethylene-dibromide (106934) in ... indicating a direct correlation between tissue levels and target organ toxicity. The principal route of excretion was via the ...
Differentiation of Gliomas Using Tissue Parameters and a Three-dimensional Density Distribution Model | SpringerLink
At that time there was great hope that three measurable tissue... ... At that time there was great hope that three measurable tissue ... Differentiation of Gliomas Using Tissue Parameters and a Three-dimensional Density Distribution Model. ... Differentiation of Gliomas Using Tissue Parameters and a Three-dimensional Density Distribution Model. In: Higer H.P., Bielke G ... Komiyama M, Yagura H, Baba M, Yasui T, Hakuba A, Nishimura S, Inoue Y (1986) MR imaging: possibility of tissue characterization ...
Tissue Distribution of trans-Resveratrol and Its Metabolites after Oral Administration in Human Eyes
... Shuaishuai Wang,1,2 Zheng ... S. P. Lin, P. M. Chu, S. Y. Tsai, M. H. Wu, and Y. C. Hou, "Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of resveratrol, emodin and ... D. Wang, Y. Xu, and W. Liu, "Tissue distribution and excretion of resveratrol in rat after oral administration of Polygonum ... X. Vitrac, A. Desmoulière, B. Brouillaud et al., "Distribution of [14C]-trans-resveratrol, a cancer chemopreventive polyphenol ...
Tissue Distribution of trans-Resveratrol and Its Metabolites after Oral Administration in Human Eyes
... Shuaishuai Wang,1,2 Zheng ... S. P. Lin, P. M. Chu, S. Y. Tsai, M. H. Wu, and Y. C. Hou, "Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of resveratrol, emodin and ... The aim of the present study was to investigate the tissue distribution of parent resveratrol and its main three metabolites in ... D. Wang, Y. Xu, and W. Liu, "Tissue distribution and excretion of resveratrol in rat after oral administration of Polygonum ...
Tissue Distribution | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
"Tissue Distribution" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Tissue Distribution" was a major or minor ... tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios. ... "Tissue Distribution" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Tissue Distribution" by people in Profiles. ...
Human trks: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of extracellular domain immunoadhesins | Journal of...
Human trks: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of extracellular domain immunoadhesins. DL Shelton, J ... Human trks: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of extracellular domain immunoadhesins ... Human trks: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of extracellular domain immunoadhesins ... Human trks: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of extracellular domain immunoadhesins ...
Researchers develop new way of visualizing distribution of cholesterol in cells, tissues
Researchers from UCLA and the University of Western Australia have developed a new way of visualizing the distribution of ... Researchers develop new way of visualizing distribution of cholesterol in cells, tissues. *Download PDF Copy ... We would like to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of cholesterol movement in cells and tissues, said Jiang, a ... University of Western Australia have developed a new way of visualizing the distribution of cholesterol in cells and tissues. ...
Distribution of Radioiodinated, Acetone-killed Brucella abortus in the Tissues of Normal and Immune Mice | Nature
Few direct comparisons have been made of the distribution of labelled antigens in normal and immune animals, and no work seems ... THE distribution of radioactively labelled antigens in animal tissues has been studied extensively. Most of the work has been ... Distribution of Radioiodinated, Acetone-killed Brucella abortus in the Tissues of Normal and Immune Mice. *D. SULITZEANU1. ... SULITZEANU, D. Distribution of Radioiodinated, Acetone-killed Brucella abortus in the Tissues of Normal and Immune Mice. Nature ...
Imaging the Spatial Distribution of Efavirenz in Intact HIV Tissue Reservoirs
Here, we characterize the spatial distribution of efavirenz (EFV) within suspected reservoir tissues of a primate model using a ... Response was calibrated by EFV standards on blank tissue, with a limit of detection of 180 attomole/voxel (57 fg/mm3 tissue). ... EFV concentration was lowest (167 pg/g tissue) in the basal ganglia, increasing to approximately two-fold in most other tissues ... Serial sections of tissue were utilized to validate MSI results by LC-MS, and stained to correlate observed EFV response with ...
Distribution of anandamide amidohydrolase in rat tissues with special reference to small intestine
Interspecies comparison of the tissue distribution of WR-2721, a radioprotective drug - Digital Library
To test this hypothesis an interspecies comparison of the tissue distribution of $sup 35$S-labeled WR-2721 was carried out in ... Data originally obtained in studies using the mouse and rat indicated that the tissue distribution of WR-2721 was possibly more ... Deficient deposition of WR- 2721 in tumor tissue has recently been demonstrated and this is thought to be a major reason for ... Results suggest that the surface area and body weight exert equal effects on the tissue concentration of WR-2721. The results ...
Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues. | Sigma-Aldrich
Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues.. [Tomasz Gogiel, Małgorzata Wolańska, Zofia Galewska, Piotr ... Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions ... The effect of cysteine protease inhibitors showed similar distribution as in the case of the active enzyme, being the highest ... Differential enzyme action seems to contribute to tissue-specific collagen turnover within the umbilical cord cells, especially ...
Plectin transcript diversity: identification and tissue distribution of variants with distinct first coding exons and rodless...
Plectin transcript diversity: identification and tissue distribution of variants with distinct first coding exons and rodless ... Significant variations in expression levels of first exons indicated the possibility of tissue-specific promoter usage. In ... were identified in a variety of rat tissues. This study provides first insights into a complex plectin gene regulatory ... identified 4 alternate first exons revealed their coexpression in rat glioma C6 cells and in a series of different rat tissues ...
Brain uptake, pharmacokinetics, and tissue distribution in the rat of neurotoxic N-butylbenzenesulfonamide. | Sigma-Aldrich
Brain uptake, pharmacokinetics, and tissue distribution in the rat of neurotoxic N-butylbenzenesulfonamide.. [Ganesh Kumar, ... These data suggest rapid elimination and uptake into tissue; however, NBBS was not accumulated by any of the tissues studied (i ... The pharmacokinetics, cerebrovascular permeability, and tissue distribution of the neurotoxic plasticizer N- ... liver, kidney, muscle, adipose tissue, and brain). Given the critical interest in NBBS neurotoxicity, the brain uptake of [(13) ...
European Medicines Agency - Non-clinical - ICH S3B Pharmacokinetics: repeated dose tissue distribution studies
Biochemical Fractionation of Brain Tissue for Studies of Receptor Distribution and Trafficking - Current Protocols in...
Biochemical Fractionation of Brain Tissue for Studies of Receptor Distribution and Trafficking. Current Protocols in ... UNIT 1.16 Biochemical Fractionation of Brain Tissue for Studies of Receptor Distribution and Trafficking. ... The method is efficient in that only small amounts of tissue, such as might be obtained from a small region of a rodent brain, ... This unit presents a technique for analysis of brain tissue which relies on differential centrifugation to separate proteins ...
Tissue Diagnostics Market: Rising Incidence of Cancer - Express Press Release Distribution
Home , Submit Press Release , Nationwide / EPR Network , Free Press Release Distribution , Real Time Press Release Distribution ... The global tissue diagnostic market size is expected to reach USD 4.7 billion by 2025 from USD 3.4 billion in 2020, at a CAGR ... Tissue Diagnostics Market: Rising Incidence of Cancer. Posted on 2020-05-24 by MarketsandMarkets in Biotech, Healthcare, ... What are the recent trends affecting the tissue diagnostic market?. *Who are the key players in the market, and how intense is ...
MALDI Imaging of Distribution of Xanthohumol and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissues : Waters
MALDI Imaging was used to asses tissue distribution of xanthohumol and its metabolites in rats after repeated oral ... MALDI Imaging of Distribution of Xanthohumol and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissues. MALDI Imaging of Distribution of Xanthohumol ... However, the exact organ distribution is not known.. Localization of a drug molecules distribution in its targeted tissue ... The distribution of the isotope or the tag of the drug molecule in a tissue is then tested. It is time-consuming and expensive ...
Frontiers | Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A comparative...
Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various ... Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various ... Adiposity (% fat) was defined as the ratio of total fat tissue to (total lean mass + total fat tissue). Fat distribution was ... Adipose tissue distribution. Patients and HC did not differ regarding their BMI (in the whole group, or analyzed separately in ...
PRIME PubMed | Expression, characterization, and tissue distribution of a new cellular selenium-dependent glutathione...
... and tissue distribution of a new cellular selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, GSHPx-G were found in PRIME PubMed. ... Expression, characterization, and tissue distribution of a new cellular selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, GSHPx-GI.. J ... Expression, characterization, and tissue distribution of a new cellular selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, GSHPx-GI. J ... Expression, Characterization, and Tissue Distribution of a New Cellular Selenium-dependent Glutathione Peroxidase, GSHPx-GI. J ...
Fibrosis in Human Adipose Tissue: Composition, Distribution, and Link With Lipid Metabolism and Fat Mass Loss | Diabetes
N.V. collected obese tissue samples. D.H. prepared adipose tissue slides for immunohistochemistry. A.A. collected lean tissue ... Fibrosis in Human Adipose Tissue: Composition, Distribution, and Link With Lipid Metabolism and Fat Mass Loss. ... Fibrosis in Human Adipose Tissue: Composition, Distribution, and Link With Lipid Metabolism and Fat Mass Loss ... Fibrosis in Human Adipose Tissue: Composition, Distribution, and Link With Lipid Metabolism and Fat Mass Loss ...
ExpressionQuantitativeStudyPharmacokineticsAdipose Tissue DistributionLiverMetabolitesRatsDifferent tissuesRadioactivityKidneyVivoNeoplasticMRNAMetabolismLungMetaboliteExpressionAnimal tissuesDoseLeaf tissuesPatternsMolecularLymphoidProteinExtracellularCellularPropagationRapidlySpatial distributionTumorsDepositionExtensivelyBrainOrgansSoft tissueRadioactively labelledConsistentImmunohistochemistryOrganSerumBiologicalNorth AmericaParametersMeasurementFatty tissueMethodsMalignantBreast tissueExtractsHumansCharacterisationRegression
- Such studies are designed to investigate the distribution (integration, expression, persistence and dissemination) of viral, plasmid or other DNA sequences to target or non-target tissues in clinically-relevant animals, and it is possible to evaluate the risk of vector dissemination in parallel. (citoxlab.com)
- Brain uptake, pharmacokinetics, and tissue distribution in the rat of neurotoxic N-butylbenzenesulfonamide. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The pharmacokinetics, cerebrovascular permeability, and tissue distribution of the neurotoxic plasticizer N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS) were determined in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Here, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone, which are two main active sesquiterpene lactones in Radix Inulae, in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of total Radix Inulae extract. (mdpi.com)
- Li, X. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Excretion of Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone in Rats after Oral Administration of Radix Inulae Extract. (mdpi.com)
- Those methods were then applied to the pharmacokinetics (PK), tissue distribution and plasma protein binding (PPB) studies of SM-1. (medworm.com)
- In the studies presented here, the pharmacokinetics of ZD6474 was determined in plasma and tissues of MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice following single p.o. doses at 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg. (aspetjournals.org)
- Qu, H. Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Kinetics of Puerarin in Rats Using Indirect Competitive ELISA. (preprints.org)
- We studied the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution kinetics of PUE in Sprague-Dawley rats following intraperitoneal administration of three concentrations. (preprints.org)
- This study examined the pharmacokinetics, absolute bioavailability, and tissue distribution of CNF2 in rats, and combined computer-aided technology to predict the druggability of CNF2. (go.jp)
- Finally, a simple and effective HPLC method was used to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of CNF2 in rats. (go.jp)
Adipose Tissue Distribution4
- Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. (frontiersin.org)
- Although elevated body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer, the importance of adipose tissue distribution is not well understood. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, given racial differences in adipose tissue distribution, we examined whether race modified these associations. (aacrjournals.org)
- If confirmed in future studies, these results suggest that adipose tissue distribution differences may contribute to prostate cancer racial disparity. (aacrjournals.org)
- This project is designed to procure, preserve and deliver liver tissue and cells from a variety of end-stage liver diseases to researchers. (nih.gov)
- These tissue and cells would otherwise be discarded or be obtainable to most researchers who are not a part of a liver transplant center. (nih.gov)
- The LTPADS is also designed to make normal liver tissue and cells available for research when such livers are found to be unsuitable for liver transplantation. (nih.gov)
- Organs containing the greatest concentration of radioactivity per unit weight (kidneys, liver, adrenals, pancreas, and spleen) were the same organs in which pathologic changes have been reported by other investigators, indicating a direct correlation between tissue levels and target organ toxicity. (cdc.gov)
- GSHPx-GI mRNA was readily detected in human liver and colon, and occasionally in human breast samples, but not other human tissues including kidney, heart, lung, placenta, or uterus. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In rodent tissues, GSHPx-GI mRNA is only detected in the gastrointestinal tract, and not in other tissues including liver. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Method validation entailed the use of a mussel tissue reference material (RM) certified for most of the analytes of interest, spike recovery experiments and, for some analytes , a caprine liver secondary RM . (rsc.org)
- The radioactivity concentration in tissues involved in elimination was greater than that in blood with the highest concentration in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and urinary bladder/contents and lowest level in brains. (aspetjournals.org)
- Using a quantitative and sensitive reverse transcription (RT)-competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, we determined the distribution and relative mRNA expression of the four PPARs (α, β, γ1, and γ2) and liver X receptor-α (LXRα) in the main tissues implicated in lipid metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
- PPARα and LXRα were mainly expressed in liver, while PPARγ1 predominated in adipose tissue and large intestine. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The radioactivity detected by tissue excision or quantitative whole-body autoradiography was highest in adrenal gland, mammary tissue, lungs, kidneys, liver, and placenta. (aspetjournals.org)
- Tissue analysis showed that ZD6474 is extensively distributed to tissues, with liver and lung accumulating concentrations of 212 μg/g (∼450 μM) and 161 μg/g (∼340 μM), respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
- From a large amount of collected data on the distribution of drugs from blood, plasma or serum to tissue (brain, fat, heart, kidney, lung, liver, muscle and skin) at steady-state concentration in rats, it is shown that the three datasets of data can be combined. (bl.uk)
- The highest initial concentrations of unchanged styrene were found in adipose tissue, pancreas, liver, and brain. (eurekamag.com)
- The levels in the kidneys, lungs, pancreas, and liver far exceeded those in subcutaneous adipose tissue. (eurekamag.com)
- The concentration of unmetabolized styrene seemed to increase exponentially with the dose in subcutaneous adipose tissue, liver, kidneys, lungs, and brain. (eurekamag.com)
- This raises the interesting prospect of having differential modes of regulating intercellular channels within a given tissue and, at least in the case of liver, a given cell. (rupress.org)
- Preliminary results are reported for the light intensity distribution in liver and a computer analysis gives a value for "∂" the total absorption coefficient. (spie.org)
- Resveratrol and its three metabolites can be detected in the ocular tissues after oral administration. (hindawi.com)
- MALDI Imaging was used to asses tissue distribution of xanthohumol and its metabolites in rats after repeated oral administration. (waters.com)
- Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in C57BL6 mice following subchronic exposure to arsenate in drinking water. (biomedsearch.com)
- In this study, dose-dependency in tissue distribution and urinary excretion for inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites was assessed in female C57Bl/6 mice exposed to 0, 0.5, 2, 10 or 50 ppm arsenic (as arsenate, AsV) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
- 1. The distribution of vitamin D and its metabolites in human tissues has been studied by the combined use of radioactive cholecalciferol and biological assays of antiricketic activity in tissue extracts. (portlandpress.com)
- unchanged vitamin D and various metabolites were detected subsequently in all tissues examined. (portlandpress.com)
- A primary objective of the present investigation was to determine the tissue distribution of styrene, styrene glycol, and more polar metabolites in mice at different times (0.5-5 h) after the intraperitoneal administration of styrene (3.3 mmol/kg). (eurekamag.com)
- However, when the dose was increased, the more polar metabolites occurred at relatively lower levels in all tissues except brain. (eurekamag.com)
- Conjugates of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein are major metabolites in all embryonic organs within the dry seed and in seedling roots, hypocotyl, and cotyledon tissues at all times after germination. (plantphysiol.org)
- To test this hypothesis an interspecies comparison of the tissue distribution of $sup 35$S-labeled WR-2721 was carried out in normal mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs at 15 and 30 minutes after intravenous administration. (unt.edu)
- Determine the ocular distribution of orally administered multifunctional antioxidants (MFAOs) along with their monofunctional and parent analogs in the eyes of rats and determine whether the molecular attributes of these compounds can be correlated with their ocular distribution. (arvojournals.org)
- The distribution, metabolism, and elimination of [ 14 C]apixaban were investigated in male, female, pregnant, and lactating rats after single oral doses. (aspetjournals.org)
- Tissue distribution of radioactivity in rats was measured using quantitative whole-body autoradiography. (aspetjournals.org)
- After a single oral administration, radioactivity distributed quickly in rats with C max at 1 h for most tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
- In summary, tissue distribution of apixaban in rats was extensive but with limited transfer to fetal and brain tissues and extensive secretion into rat milk with the parent drug as the major component. (aspetjournals.org)
- The action of EGF is mediated by specific EGF receptors (EFG-R). In the present study, we investigated distribution of EGF receptors during various physiological stages of mammary glands, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary tumors in rats and human breast cancer samples. (spandidos-publications.com)
- After a single dose of [ 14 C]dasatinib to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestation day 18, radioactivity was extensively distributed in maternal tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
- The objectives of the current study were to investigate the lacteal secretion and maternal/fetal distribution of [ 14 C]dasatinib in rats after p.o. administration. (aspetjournals.org)
- But the absolute bioavailability of CNF2 in rats was 6.6%, mainly distributed in the stomach, intestine, and lung tissues, where the CNF2 contents were 401.20, 144.01, and 245.82 µg/g, respectively. (go.jp)
- Compared with maternal tissues, a relatively low level of radioactivity was detected in fetal tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
- To investigate this we tested whether tissue:plasma partition coefficients (PCs) of radioactivity are correlated with muscle:plasma PCs. (ovid.com)
- The relationships between PCs of radioactivity in muscle and those in other tissues were investigated in 25 tissues for 20 structurally unrelated drug candidates. (ovid.com)
- In the high-dose (80 mg/kg) and medium-dose (40 mg/kg) groups, the kinetic profile of PUE in blood and kidney samples showed two absorption peaks, while that of the other tissues showed only one peak. (preprints.org)
- Full-length cDNA gene of sodium-dependent dicarboxylate co-transporter protein 1 (SDCT1) is cloned from normal human kidney tissue and inserted into EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) expression vector along with N-terminal and C-terminal truncated SDCT1 genes, so to construct the eukaryotic expression vectors of EGFP/SDCT1 fusion proteins, which are transfected into human renal tubular epithelial cells (HKC). (springer.com)
- The results demonstrated that the three strains Italy02 genotype emerging in Moroccan poultry farms have a wide distribution for respiratory system, without kidney damage and without causing mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
- Localization of a drug molecule's distribution in its targeted tissue provides very important in vivo biological information. (waters.com)
- Therefore this approach is sub-optimal for studies focusing on the nature and distribution of mucins and mucus in vivo . (jove.com)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established method for the in vivo quantification of fat tissue. (bmj.com)
- The utility of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in predicting carcass tissue distribution and fat partitioning in vivo in terminal sire sheep was examined using data from 160 lambs representing combinations of 3 breeds (Charollais, Suffolk, and Texel), 3 genetic lines, and both sexes. (unl.edu)
- To explore the question of what is decisive for arthritogenicity, we have determined the chemical composition and tissue distribution as well as the arthritogenic capacity in vivo and resistance to lysozyme in vitro of cell walls isolated from three strains of Lactobacillus casei and one strain of Lactobacillus fermentum . (asm.org)
- In vivo experiments were conducted to assess the correlation of Se and MeHg in previously tested rat nail samples and various rat organ tissue samples. (umsystem.edu)
- Cyclophilin: distribution and variant properties in normal and neoplastic tissues. (jimmunol.org)
- CyP from all normal and neoplastic human tissues examined had an apparent Mr of 17,000 determined by gel filtration HPLC. (jimmunol.org)
- The results of preliminary studies suggest that fluorescent analogs of cobalamin may be a useful tool in therapeutic breast operations to define tumor margins and to distinguish neoplastic breast tissue from healthy breast tissue. (spie.org)
- These data show greater accumulation of drug in neoplastic than in normal tissues. (hud.ac.uk)
- We found that PPARγ2 mRNA was a minor isoform, even in adipose tissue, thus causing question of its role in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- PPARβ mRNA was present in all the tissues tested at low levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The eye tissues were also measured for Grx2 mRNA expression by RT-PCR with GAPDH as the control. (ovid.com)
- The results indicate that Grx2 level was higher in eye tissues rich in vasculature and mitochondria (i.e. ciliary body and retina), corroborating with the levels of mRNA expression and Grx2 activity. (ovid.com)
- Tissue distribution showed that elovl4 mRNA transcripts are abundant in eye, brain and testes, suggesting that, as described in mammals, these tissues are important metabolic sites for the biosynthesis of VLC-FA. (stir.ac.uk)
- The broad tissue and phylogenetic distribution of CyP, its highly conserved structure, and its increased content after mitogenic stimulation suggest a fundamental role in cellular metabolism. (jimmunol.org)
- These data indicate that pharmacokinetic models for arsenic metabolism and disposition need to include mechanisms for organ-specific accumulation of some arsenicals and that urinary metabolite profiles are not necessarily reflective of target tissue dosimetry. (biomedsearch.com)
- Primary leaf tissues undergo a programmed shift from isoflavonoid to flavonoid metabolism 3 days after germination and become largely predominated by glycosides of the flavonols kampferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin by 5 days. (plantphysiol.org)
- Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Significant variations in expression levels of first exons indicated the possibility of tissue-specific promoter usage. (nih.gov)
- However, little is known regarding their tissue distribution and relative expression in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Obesity and NIDDM were not associated with change in PPARs and LXRα expression in adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These results indicated that obesity is not associated with alteration in PPAR gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. (harvard.edu)
- Del Pozo A, Vera L, Sanchez JA & Sanchez-Vazquez FJ (2012) Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and daily expression of cry1 and cry2 clock genes in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 163 (3-4), pp. 364-371. (stir.ac.uk)
- Expression of the vasopressin regulated AQP2 was observed in a limited number of tissues. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Data originally obtained in studies using the mouse and rat indicated that the tissue distribution of WR-2721 was possibly more closely related to dose per unit surface area than to dose per unit weight. (unt.edu)
- This document provides guidance on circumstances when repeated dose tissue distribution studies should be considered. (europa.eu)
- Tumor levels ranged from 27 to 71 μg/g at C max levels across the three dose ranges, and ZD6474 was distributed to all of the tissues in a dose-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
- However, very few chloroplasts were observed in leaf tissues of rubescent, etiolated, and albino, except that some stomata cells were distributed with relatively rich chloroplasts (Figures 2B-E). Surprisingly chloroplast distribution pattern in petioles of all 4 mutants was similar to the wild type (Figures 2G-J). (nih.gov)
- The extracellular matrix components show specific distribution patterns within various structures of the umbilical cord, among which Wharton's jelly is especially collagen-rich tissue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- One factor in this apparently paradoxical sex distribution may be the differing patterns of fat deposition adjacent to the upper airway in men and women. (bmj.com)
- Using this reliable technique, pO 2 measurements in the normal breast and in fibrocystic disease resulted in oxygenation patterns which were characteristic for normal, adequately supplied tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
- This study explored whether common rules exist for the distribution patterns across tissues in tissue distribution studies. (ovid.com)
- Traditionally, autoradiography and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used for molecular imaging of biological tissues. (waters.com)
- Florescent labeling of AAV capsids aids in understanding the physical barriers associated with AAV mediated retinal gene delivery and to track the progressive steps of vector distribution, surface recognition and transduction at the cellular and molecular levels. (arvojournals.org)
- Because the descriptors used in the LFERs can be calculated from structure, distribution coefficients for air to blood or tissue for VOCs and for blood/plasma/serum to tissue for VOCs and drugs can be predicted directly from the molecular structures of the VOCs and drugs. (bl.uk)
- 24) in Atlantic salmon: Cloning, functional characterisation, and tissue distribution of an Elovl4 elongase, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 159 (2), pp. 122-129. (stir.ac.uk)
- Most of these studies did not detect the vCJD agent outside the nervous system (central, peripheral, and autonomic) and lymphoid tissues. (cdc.gov)
- Persistent infection led to a disruption of the normal immunodominance hierarchy of CD8 T-cell responses seen following acute infection and dramatically altered the tissue distribution of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. (asm.org)
- This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. (harvard.edu)
- In this study, we used in vitro amplification of prions by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to estimate distribution and level of the vCJD agent in 21 tissues from 4 patients who died of clinical vCJD and from 1 asymptomatic person with vCJD. (cdc.gov)
- A key event in the pathogenesis of TSEs is the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP C , encoded by the PRNP gene) into an abnormal disease-associated isoform (PrP Sc ) in tissues of infected animals. (cdc.gov)
- 4. Metabolically produced 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is also taken up from the blood into many tissues, probably by protein-binding. (portlandpress.com)
- Sequence and tissue distribution of a second protein of hepatic gap junctions, Cx26, as deduced from its cDNA. (rupress.org)
- The distribution of the Wnt5 protein in the tissues of the holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix. (deepdyve.com)
- Lamash, N. 2014-04-05 00:00:00 The Wnt5 protein localization in holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix tissues was examined in the norm and during regeneration. (deepdyve.com)
- The Wnt5 protein localization in holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix tissues was examined in the norm and during regeneration. (deepdyve.com)
- WAT extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which plays a pivotal role in adipogenesis ( 4 ) and tissue architecture ( 5 ), is crucial to accommodate obesity-induced cellular alterations ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- We report simulation of experimental data for heterogeneous distribution of extracellular potassium , by developing and applying a mathematical model formulated by incorporating a Luo-Rudy representation of the cell membrane current into the bidomain model of the cardiac tissue . (omicsonline.org)
- The cellular sequestration and gross distribution of fluorescent cobalamin bioconjugates in breast tissue is being examined by epifluorescence microscopy. (spie.org)
- The process for homogeneous distribution of a cellular suspension in a porous carrier material (3) for tissue engineering under using a molded body (1) with a chamber (2) having an opening for receiving the carrier material, comprises introducing the carrier material provided for colonization into the chamber. (ideaconnection.com)
- 1996). "Structure and cellular distribution of mouse brain testican. (wikipedia.org)
- studied propagation in ischemic tissue experimentally. (omicsonline.org)
- experiment using a mathematical model by incorporating a Luo-Rudy representation of the cell membrane current with the bidomain model of the cardiac tissue, and to examine propagation of potassium from a normal to an ischemic region. (omicsonline.org)
- We believe stem cells to be the next frontier in spine surgeryand the Tissue Genesis cell isolation system rapidly processes a smallquantity of a patient's own fat tissue to produce large quantities of cells,including adult stem cells and microvascular cells. (medindia.net)
- In summary, the results demonstrate that NBBS distributes rapidly to tissues, including brain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Pre-irradiation intravenous administration of the radioprotective drug S- 2-[3-aminopropylamino]ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) has potential value in radiotherapy because it doubles the radiation resistance of normal mouse tissues while affording only minimal protection to tumors. (unt.edu)
- Considering the size, the optical property of tumors and their difference from surrounding normal tissue, a two-layer tissue configuration model for LITT is set up, and then energy distribution in the configuration is simulated with Monte Carlo method. (cnki.com.cn)
- Fibrosis, attributed to excessive deposition of ECM proteins, is a ubiquitous tissue response to an unresolved chronic inflammation ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS There are differences in neck fat deposition between the sexes which, together with the greater overall soft tissue loading on the airway in men, may be factors in the sex distribution of SAHS. (bmj.com)
- Although there is a clear relationship between overall neck size and airway obstruction in men, 3 there is still controversy about the significance of the precise anatomical distribution of fat deposition in the neck. (bmj.com)
- Distribution of clusterin in Alzheimer brain tissue. (nih.gov)
- Reservoir tissues (GALT, lymph nodes, brain, testes) were removed at necropsy from an uninfected rhesus macaque dosed orally to steady-state with EFV. (natap.org)
- In most other tissues such as brain, testis and parotid gland, the ratio of synthase/hydrolase activity was 0.7-1.6. (nih.gov)
- In order to visualize myelin sheaths and astroglia in a rat brain sagittal tissue section (shown above), the specimen was immunofluorescently labeled with mouse anti-myelin BP and rabbit anti-GFAP primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 568, respectively. (microscopyu.com)
- This paper presents (1) an improved hierarchical method for segmenting the component tissue regions in fast spin echo T2 and PD images of the brain of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, and (2) a methodology to characterize the disease utilizing the distributions of standardized T2 and PD intensities in the segmented tissue regions. (spie.org)
- The segmentation method imposes a feedback-like procedure on our previously developed hierarchical brain tissue segmentation method. (spie.org)
- In order to facilitate collaborative research and increase the ability of Brain Tissue Repositories to serve a diverse set of constituents, the participating Institutes are exploring approaches to extend and enhance these resources, including collaborations and partnerships with other governmental and non-governmental organizations and groups. (nih.gov)
- The NIH is also seeking information from individuals, groups, and organizations on best practices to develop and manage a coordinated network and/or centralized Brain Tissue Repository. (nih.gov)
- During Toxoplasma gondii infection, a fraction of the multiplying parasites, the tachyzoites, converts into bradyzoites, a dormant stage, which form tissue cysts localized mainly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscles that persist for several years after infection. (asm.org)
- Tissue cysts can persist for several years in the brain, the heart, and the skeletal muscle of individuals who had been previously infected with T. gondii ( 34 , 46 , 49 ). (asm.org)
- This thesis investigates the use of automated image analysis to quantify peptide analogue distribution in mouse brain tissue. (dtu.dk)
- The work demonstrates the use of automated image analysis based on image registration to quantify LSFM data of the peptide brain distribution following peripheral administration. (dtu.dk)
- CollPlant is a regenerative medicine company focused on 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs, medical aesthetics, and on developing and commercializing tissue repair products for orthobiologics, and advanced wound care markets. (medindia.net)
- Our flagship rhCollagen BioInk product line is ideal for 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. (medindia.net)
- The distribution of flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and their conjugates in developing soybean ( Glycine max L.) seedling organs and in root and seed exudates has been examined. (plantphysiol.org)
- Therefore, in healthy individuals the persistence of T. gondii cysts in tissues and organs does not represent a cause for concern. (asm.org)
- These results confirm that body composition was altered in RA and AS, affecting distinct soft tissue compartments. (frontiersin.org)
- Platelets contain growth factors which are responsible for stimulating tissue generation and repair, including soft tissue repair, bone regeneration, development of new blood vessels, and stimulation of the healing process. (medindia.net)
- CollPlant's unique Vergenix line of rhCollagen products includes a soft tissue repair matrix for treating tendinopathy and a wound repair matrix to promote a rapid optimal healing of acute and chronic wounds. (medindia.net)
- Compared with men, a greater proportion of total body soft tissue in normal women is fat and obesity is more frequent in women. (bmj.com)
- In addition, preliminary data indicate that fosfomycin has a potential role in the treatment of soft tissue infections. (asm.org)
- We therefore conclude that fosfomycin might qualify as an alternative candidate for the therapy of soft tissue infections. (asm.org)
- Soft tissue infections are among the most frequent infections worldwide and may lead to serious ( 25 ) and even life-threatening ( 10 , 14 ) complications. (asm.org)
- Although promising but preliminary clinical data show the high degree of effectiveness of fosfomycin treatment for soft tissue infections ( 27 ), the administration of fosfomycin has still not been established for this condition. (asm.org)
- Due to its chemical structure, its pharmacokinetic properties, and antibacterial spectrum, however, fosfomycin may qualify as an alternative candidate for the treatment of soft tissue infections. (asm.org)
- The pattern of EDB distribution in the tissues as determined in this study is completely consistent with earlier studies of the pathologic changes brought about through exposure to this compound. (cdc.gov)
- The rich presence of Grx2 in these tissues is also consistent with their known sensitivity to oxidative stress. (ovid.com)
- Serial sections of tissue were utilized to validate MSI results by LC-MS, and stained to correlate observed EFV response with tissue morphology (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (CD3 staining). (natap.org)
- Tissue sections can be analyzed by immunohistochemistry using fluorescence or chromogenic detection. (jove.com)
- Therefore frozen tissues sections do not require any additional processing prior to staining and can be readily analyzed using immunohistochemistry methods. (jove.com)
- However, the exact organ distribution is not known. (waters.com)
- Our products address indications for the diverse fields of organ and tissue repair, and are ushering in a new era in regenerative medicine. (medindia.net)
- Animal studies suggest that a potential mechanism is that selenium causes the redistribution of methyl mercury from critical organ tissue to muscle. (umsystem.edu)
- The organ tissue samples were irradiated for 50 hours at a flux of ca. 5 X 1013 n·cm-2·s-1 and allowed to decay for ten or more days. (umsystem.edu)
- The ratio of selenium to mercury in the nails and organ tissue will be used to verify if the nail is a viable biological marker for selenium and mercury uptake in various organ tissues. (umsystem.edu)
- Antibodies to all four proteins showed staining of dystrophic neurites and neuropil threads in AD tissue, and residual serum in normal tissue, but only antibodies to clusterin and vitronectin strongly stained amyloid deposits in senile plaques. (nih.gov)
- Predictive LFER equations for blood/plasma/serum to tissue for a large number of drugs, has been achieved and their predictive capability has been assessed. (bl.uk)
- Easy accessibility to advanced technologies, government initiatives for screening cancer patients, favourable reimbursement scenario for pathology diagnostic tests, increasing healthcare expenditure, and high-quality infrastructure for hospitals and clinical laboratories in this region are the major factors driving the growth of the tissue diagnostic market in North America. (express-press-release.net)
- At that time there was great hope that three measurable tissue parameters, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density, would provide better specificity than other imaging modalities. (springer.com)
- While image quality has improved remarkably, results of studies investigating the value of MR tissue parameters have been contradictory. (springer.com)
- Pedrosa P., Jungke M., Grigat M., Higer H.P., Meindl S., Bielke G. (1990) Differentiation of Gliomas Using Tissue Parameters and a Three-dimensional Density Distribution Model. (springer.com)
- Intensity histograms and their parameters (peak height, peak location, and 25 th , 50 th and 75 th percentile values) are computed for both T2 and PD images within each tissue region. (spie.org)
- a disorder of fatty tissue distribution over the thighs, lower legs and hips. (medi.de)
- If the disorder spreads further down the legs, we talk of the "drawstring trouser phenomenon" because the deformities always end at the ankles, which are, however, overlapped by the fatty tissue. (medi.de)
- If the fatty pads are immune to every diet and sporting activity, jodhpurs can be a sign of lipoedema, a congenital disorder of fatty tissue distribution. (medi.de)
- 12 13 Fat has a relatively short T1 relaxation time, so fatty tissue has a higher intensity than other soft tissues in T1 weighted spin echo MRI images. (bmj.com)
- Methods to accurately evaluate ARV biodistribution within tissues are needed to design effective HIV therapy and eradication strategies. (natap.org)
- The two most commonly used histological methods for tissue collection and preservation in the clinic and in research laboratories are: formalin fixation followed by paraffin embedding, and tissue freezing, followed by embedding in cryo-protectant media. (jove.com)
- However, during the paraffin embedding process a number of epitopes become altered and in order to study these epitopes, tissue sections have to be further processed with one of many epitope retrieval methods 13 . (jove.com)
- As a results, the proposed methods were demonstrated to be accurate, precise and stable for the analysis of the SM-1 in plasma and tissue samples. (medworm.com)
- In parallel, this requires the development of objective and sensitive methods enhancing the diagnostic algorithm and reliably measuring alterations in affected muscle tissue over time to prove effectiveness and validity of therapeutic interventions. (frontiersin.org)
- Recruitment of relevant subjects, including methods of outreach and education to encourage tissue donation. (nih.gov)
- Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between BMI categories and tertiles of waist circumference (WC), visceral fat area (VFA), and periprostatic adipose tissue area (PPAT) with high-grade prostate cancer risk (Gleason score ≥7 vs. ≤6). (aacrjournals.org)
- Although breed-line-sex combination significantly affected fit of the regression for some tissue distribution variables, the values predicted were changed only trivially. (unl.edu)
- Linear regression analysis was performed for each tissue. (ovid.com)
- Slope factors for the regression ranged from 0.2 (blood) to 3.8 (Harderian gland) and were correlated with neutral lipid contents in tissues. (ovid.com)