Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
N(6)-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine. An unusual amino acid, not a dipeptide, which has been found in proteins of cooked foods. It is formed in food that is heated or treated with alkali. Has been implicated in nephrocytomegalia in rats.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It contains a hemagglutinin.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Components of a cell.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A plant species in the genus SAMBUCUS, known for the elderberry fruit. The plant is also a source of Sambucus nigra lectins and ribosome-inactivating protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An indole derivative effective in schizophrenia and other psychoses and possibly useful in the treatment of the aggressive type of undersocialized conduct disorder. Molindone has much lower affinity for D2 receptors than most antipsychotic agents and has a relatively low affinity for D1 receptors. It has only low to moderate affinity for cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Some electrophysiologic data from animals indicate that molindone has certain characteristics that resemble those of CLOZAPINE. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p283)
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
Relating to the size of solids.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/18708)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (2/18708)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (3/18708)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (4/18708)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (5/18708)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (6/18708)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (7/18708)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/18708)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Fluoride poisoning occurs when a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs too much fluoride, which can be toxic to the body. Fluoride is a naturally occurring compound found in water, soil, and various minerals. It is also commonly added to drinking water and some dental products due to its ability to prevent tooth decay. However, excessive exposure to fluoride can cause a range of health problems, including gastrointestinal symptoms, neurological damage, and skeletal fluorosis.

Sources of Fluoride Poisoning

There are several sources of fluoride poisoning, including:

1. Excessive consumption of fluoridated drinking water or dental products.
2. Accidental ingestion of fluoride-containing products, such as toothpaste or fluoride supplements.
3. Prolonged exposure to high levels of fluoride in the workplace or environment.
4. Inadequate ventilation or safety measures when handling fluoride-based chemicals.

Symptoms of Fluoride Poisoning

The symptoms of fluoride poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but may include:

1. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
2. Neurological symptoms, such as headache, dizziness, confusion, and seizures.
3. Skeletal symptoms, such as joint pain, bone fractures, and skeletal deformities.
4. Skin symptoms, such as rash, itching, and burning sensations.
5. Eye symptoms, such as blurred vision, eye irritation, and tearing.

Treatment of Fluoride Poisoning

The treatment of fluoride poisoning depends on the severity of exposure and the symptoms present. Treatment options may include:

1. Activated charcoal to absorb fluoride and reduce absorption.
2. Water lavage to remove fluoride from the gastrointestinal tract.
3. Calcium chloride to counteract the effects of fluoride on bone metabolism.
4. Sodium thiosulfate to reverse the effects of fluoride on the nervous system.
5. Supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy, for severe cases.

Prevention of Fluoride Poisoning

To prevent fluoride poisoning, it is important to follow safety measures when handling fluoride-based chemicals, such as wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eye protection. It is also important to ensure adequate ventilation and to follow the recommended exposure limits for workers. In addition, it is important to use fluoride-based products only as directed and to keep them out of reach of children and pets.


Fluoride poisoning can occur due to acute or chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride ions. The symptoms can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but may include gastrointestinal irritation, bone pain, and neurological effects. Treatment involves supportive care, such as hydration and nutrient supplements, as well as specific medications to counteract the effects of fluoride on the body. Prevention is key, and it is important to follow safety measures when handling fluoride-based chemicals and to use these products only as directed.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

Without more information about the context in which this term is being used, it is difficult to provide a clear definition or interpretation of its meaning. However, based on the name "Walker" and the fact that it is followed by a number (256), it is possible that this term may refer to a specific type of cancer or tumor that has been identified in a patient with the last name Walker.

It's important to note that the diagnosis and treatment of cancer can be complex and highly individualized, and any medical information or terminology should only be interpreted and applied by qualified healthcare professionals who have access to the relevant clinical context and patient information.

Some common types of adrenal gland diseases include:

1. Cushing's syndrome: A hormonal disorder caused by excessive production of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. This can be caused by a tumor on one of the adrenal glands or by taking too much corticosteroid medication.
2. Addison's disease: A rare disorder caused by the destruction of the adrenal glands, typically due to an autoimmune response. This results in a deficiency of cortisol and aldosterone hormones, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and skin changes.
3. Adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare type of cancer that affects the adrenal glands. This can cause symptoms such as weight gain, skin changes, and abdominal pain.
4. Pheochromocytoma: A rare type of tumor that develops on one of the adrenal glands, typically causing high blood pressure and other symptoms due to excessive production of hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.
5. Adrenal insufficiency: A condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones, often caused by a autoimmune response or a viral infection. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and skin changes.
6. Primary aldosteronism: A condition in which the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone hormone, leading to high blood pressure and other symptoms.
7. Adrenal incidentalomas: Tumors that are found on the adrenal glands, but do not produce excessive hormones or cause symptoms. These tumors can be benign or malignant.
8. Adrenal metastases: Tumors that have spread to the adrenal glands from another part of the body, often causing symptoms such as high blood pressure and abdominal pain.
9. Adrenal cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that form on the adrenal glands, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and weight loss.
10. Adrenal hemorrhage: Bleeding in the adrenal glands, often caused by trauma or a blood clotting disorder. This can lead to symptoms such as severe abdominal pain and shock.

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there may be other rare conditions that affect the adrenal glands not included here. If you suspect you have any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention from a qualified healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

MPS VII is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme beta-glucuronidase, which is necessary for the breakdown of certain complex sugars in the body. Without this enzyme, the sugars accumulate in the body and cause progressive damage to the brain, spinal cord, and other organs.

The symptoms of MPS VII can vary in severity and may include:

* Developmental delays and intellectual disability
* Seizures
* Vision loss and blindness
* Hearing loss
* Speech difficulties
* Poor coordination and balance
* Corneal clouding
* Joint stiffness and weakness
* Sleep apnea
* Respiratory problems

MPS VII is diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Enzyme assays can measure the levels of beta-glucuronidase in the body, and genetic testing can identify mutations in the GUSB gene that causes the disorder.

There is no cure for MPS VII, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT): This involves replacing the missing enzyme, beta-glucuronidase, with a synthetic version given through a vein. ERT can help reduce the amount of sugar molecules accumulated in the body and improve symptoms.
* Bone marrow transplantation: This is a procedure that involves replacing damaged bone marrow cells with healthy ones from a donor. BMT has been shown to improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of infections in some patients with MPS VII.
* Physical therapy: This can help maintain joint mobility and strength.
* Respiratory support: This may include the use of ventilators or other breathing devices to help manage respiratory problems.
* Nutritional support: A dietitian can work with the patient and family to develop a feeding plan that meets the individual's needs.

The prognosis for MPS VII is generally poor, with many patients dying before the age of 10. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, some patients may have a better outcome.

Lifestyle modifications:
There are no lifestyle modifications that can cure MPS VII, but they can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include:

* Regular exercise to maintain joint mobility and strength
* Good nutrition to support growth and development
* Avoiding contact sports to reduce the risk of injury
* Getting regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor progress and adjust treatment as needed.

There are several types of drug overdoses, including:

1. Opioid overdose: This is the most common type of drug overdose and is caused by taking too much of an opioid medication or street drug like heroin.
2. Stimulant overdose: This occurs when someone takes too much of a stimulant drug like cocaine or amphetamines.
3. Depressant overdose: This is caused by taking too much of a depressant drug like alcohol, benzodiazepines, or barbiturates.
4. Hallucinogenic overdose: This happens when someone takes too much of a hallucinogenic drug like LSD or psilocybin mushrooms.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary depending on the type of drug taken, but common signs include:

1. Confusion and disorientation
2. Slurred speech and difficulty speaking
3. Dizziness and loss of balance
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Slow or irregular breathing
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Cold, clammy skin
8. Blue lips and fingernails
9. Coma or unresponsiveness
10. Death

If you suspect someone has overdosed on drugs, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Call emergency services or bring the person to the nearest hospital.

Treatment for drug overdoses usually involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluids, and medication to manage symptoms. In severe cases, a patient may need to be placed on life support or receive other intensive treatments.

Preventing drug overdoses is crucial, and this can be achieved by avoiding the use of drugs altogether, using drugs only as directed by a medical professional, and having access to naloxone, a medication that can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose.

In conclusion, drug overdoses are a significant public health issue that can have severe consequences, including death. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of drug overdoses and seek medical attention immediately if you suspect someone has overdosed. Additionally, prevention measures such as avoiding drug use and having access to naloxone can help reduce the risk of overdose.

Examples of Bird Diseases:

1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

This haplotype has a similar distribution as A34-B56. These haplotypes indicate that long range/oversees migrations were taking ... Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European ... Bioinformatics Institute Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database". Tissue Antigens ...
Scar Tissue. "American Inks With Rep for Distribution of Select Titles". Billboard Magazine November 5, 1994. November 5, 1994 ...
Heaton JM (1972). "The distribution of brown adipose tissue in the human". J Anat. 112 (Pt 1): 35-9. PMC 1271341. PMID 5086212 ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... Brown adipose tissue activation may play an important role in bone health and bone density. Brown adipose tissue activation ... which gives the tissue its color. Brown fat also contains more capillaries than white fat. These supply the tissue with oxygen ...
Locke M, Krishnan N (1971). "The distribution of phenoloxidases and polyphenols during cuticle formation". Tissue & Cell. 3 (1 ... Larger polyphenols are often concentrated in leaf tissue, the epidermis, bark layers, flowers and fruits but also play ... Absolute concentrations of total phenols in plant tissues differ widely depending on the literature source, type of polyphenols ... Tissue & Cell. 20 (6): 919-932. doi:10.1016/0040-8166(88)90033-X. PMID 18620248. Dennell R (September 1947). "The occurrence ...
Jaspars LH, Vos W, Aust G, Van Lier RA, Hamann J (Apr 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue ... In brain tissue, CD97 is undetectable in normal white matter, and expression of CD55 is fairly restricted to the endothelium. ... Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Cell and Tissue Research. 324 (1): 139-47. doi:10.1007/s00441-005-0103-2. PMID 16408199. S2CID 36161414. Veninga H, Becker S, ...
"Distribution of fluoride in cortical bone of human rib". Calcified Tissue International. 52 (4): 278-282. doi:10.1007/ ... Since this model has two tissue compartments, it is sometimes called a two-tissue compartmental model. Various different ... "Distribution of fluoride concentration in the rat's bone". Calcified Tissue International. 46 (3): 200-204. doi:10.1007/ ... within the tissue region-of-interest from the PET image, Cbone(T) is the bone tissue activity concentration of tracer (in units ...
Tissue Distribution Kidney, amygdala, hippocampus; Species: Human; Technique: RT-PCR ... Human brain tissues (with the level of ... Tissue Distribution Comments ... No expression of TAAR9 was detected by RT-PCR in the Grueneberg ganglion [2]. TAAR9 expression ...
2001). "Distribution of testican expression in human brain". Cell Tissue Res. 302 (2): 139-44. doi:10.1007/s004410000277. PMID ... 1996). "Structure and cellular distribution of mouse brain testican. Association with the postsynaptic area of hippocampus ...
Nokhbatolfoghahai, M.; Downie, J. R. (1 August 2007). "Amphibian hatching gland cells: Pattern and distribution in anurans". ... Tissue and Cell. 39 (4): 225-240. doi:10.1016/j.tice.2007.04.003. Gourevitch, Eleanor H. Z.; Downie, J. Roger (18 December 2018 ... Distribution and References; an Update". Revista Ecología Latino Americana. 9: 1-48. Sherratt, Thomas N.; Harvey, Ian F. (1989 ... which is an uncommon distribution. The strongest antimicrobial peptides found were phylloseptin-1.1TR and 3.1TR. Like defense ...
Distribution of caveolar proteins". Cell and Tissue Research. 306 (2): 265-76. doi:10.1007/s004410100439. PMID 11702238. S2CID ... Elevated levels of serum ArgBP2 and coordinate decreases in ArgBP2 in myocardial tissue were detected in the very early phase ... Voldstedlund M, Vinten J, Tranum-Jensen J (Nov 2001). "cav-p60 expression in rat muscle tissues. ... proteomic analysis of cardiac tissues from patients". Journal of the American Heart Association. 2 (6): e000565. doi:10.1161/ ...
"Tissue distribution of P2X4 receptors studied with an ectodomain antibody". Cell and Tissue Research. 313 (2): 159-65. doi: ... Ulmann L, Hirbec H, Rassendren F (July 2010). "P2X4 receptors mediate PGE2 release by tissue-resident macrophages and initiate ...
Sequence and tissue distribution". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (21): 10510-6. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)81545-4. PMID 2839493. Christie ...
"Nonrandom distribution of goblet cells around the circumference of colonic crypt". Cell and Tissue Research. 160 (4): 551-6. ...
I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution". J. Exp. Med. 137 (5): 1142-62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237. PMID ... In tissue cultures, immunity develops in clusters of DCs and lymphocytes. The onset of adaptive immunity could actually be ... Antigens from the periphery are captured by DCs in lymphoid tissues, even in steady (not matured) state. In steady state, DCs ... He studied the initiation of antibody responses in tissue culture in the laboratory. As shown, he found out that antigens, ...
I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution. J. Exp. Med. 137:1142-1162. 1974 With S. Gordon and J. Todd. In vitro ... which may lead either to wound healing and tissue repair or to destruction of tissues,' says Dr. Cohn. 'Among the secreted ... Cohn's "adroit tissue culturing of macrophages made it possible to observe, challenge, and manipulate them to figure out how ... They identified the blood monocyte as the precursor for tissue macrophages and the bone marrow as the source of monocytes." At ...
I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution". J. Exp. Med. 137 (5): 1142-62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237. PMID ... Macrophages are usually only found in tissue and are rarely seen in blood circulation. The life-span of tissue macrophages has ... In the tissues, they are activated by cytokines and arrive at the battle scene ready to kill. When an infection occurs, a ... Once activated, they mature and migrate to the lymphoid tissues where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and ...
Namba T, Narumiya S (1993). "[Thromboxane A2 receptor; structure, function and tissue distribution]". Nippon Rinsho. 51 (1): ... Isoprostanes form in tissues undergoing acute or chronic oxidative stress such as occurs at sites of inflammation and the ... However, it is now clear that TP receptors exhibit a wide distribution in different cell types and among different organ ... In animal models and human tissues, they act through TP to promote platelet responses and stimulate blood vessel contraction. ...
"Characterization and distribution of HLA-B*5002 in a Spanish population sample". Tissue Antigens. 52 (2): 183-6. doi:10.1111/j. ... Tissue Antigens. 75 (4): 291-455. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01466.x. PMC 2848993. PMID 20356336. derived from IMGT/HLA Balas ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. {{cite journal}}: External link in ,title ...
"ティッシュ配り、なぜ減った?" [Why did tissue distribution decrease?]. Nikkei Style (in Japanese). September 13, 2010. Retrieved June 29, ... Tissue paper Out-of-home advertising Communications in Japan Marketing strategies Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tissue ... and cloth face masks furthered the decline of the tissue's usage as a promotional item. Since its creation in Japan, tissue- ... the same is not true of advertising tissue-packs.[citation needed] The most important reason for this is because the tissues ...
1993). "Structural diversity in the HLA-A10 family of alleles: correlations with serology". Tissue Antigens. 41 (2): 72-80. doi ... A*2501 distribution is primarily located in Western Eurasia. Frequency tends to be highest in the populations that underwent ... Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. Madrigal JA, Hildebrand WH, Belich MP, et ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-407. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. (HLA-A alleles). ...
Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (25): 16653-8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ... CD44 is an antigen found on the surface of most cell types and functions as a receptor that binds tissue macromolecules. ... and adipose tissues. There is moderate expression in the brain, pancreas, mammary glands, and ovaries. Finally, there is little ...
Collo G, Neidhart S, Kawashima E, Kosco-Vilbois M, North RA, Buell G (September 1997). "Tissue distribution of the P2X7 ... Ishii K, Kaneda M, Li H, Rockland KS, Hashikawa T (May 2003). "Neuron-specific distribution of P2X7 purinergic receptors in the ... Calcified Tissue International. 73 (4): 361-9. doi:10.1007/s00223-002-2098-y. PMID 12874700. S2CID 23793221. Bowler WB, Buckley ...
Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (25): 16653-8. doi: ... adipose tissue, and the central nervous system. In these tissues, HSD11B1 reduces cortisone to the active hormone cortisol that ... Salicylate downregulates 11β-HSD1 expression in adipose tissue in obese mice and hence may explain why aspirin improves ... a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response". Endocrine Reviews. 25 (5): 831-66. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0031. PMID ...
It may act on dopamine receptors in peripheral tissues, or be metabolized, or be converted to norepinephrine by the enzyme ... Longo R, Castellani A, Sberze P, Tibolla M (1974). "Distribution of l-dopa and related amino acids in Vicia". Phytochemistry. ... Cottrell GA (January 1967). "Occurrence of dopamine and noradrenaline in the nervous tissue of some invertebrate species". ... Tissue and Organ Culture. 33 (3): 259-64. doi:10.1007/BF02319010. S2CID 44814336. ...
Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional characterization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (45): 35486-90. doi: ... Animal cells in tissue culture expressing the gene-encoding the ABC-type chloride channel protein CFTR (TC# 3.A.1.202.1) in the ... They are also found in many other body tissues. At least two genes encode these symporters in any one mammal. A 10 TMS model ... Tolerance to boron toxicity in cereals is known to be associated with reduced tissue accumulation of boron. Expression of genes ...
I. Tissue distribution and functional studies". J. Immunol. 154 (9): 4423-33. PMID 7722299. Ruegg CL, Rivas A, Madani ND, et al ... Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02898.x. PMID 9389317. Soares ...
Characterization, tissue distribution, and gene localization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (25): 16948-53. doi: ...
"Cellular distribution and contribution of cyclooxygenase COX-2 to diabetogenesis in NOD mouse". Cell and Tissue Research. 310 ( ... Kim JS, Romero R, Cushenberry E, Kim YM, Erez O, Nien JK, Yoon BH, Espinoza J, Kim CJ (2007). "Distribution of CD14+ and CD68+ ... Anti-CD68 monoclonal antibodies that react with tissues of rodent and other species include ED1, FA-11, KP1 (a.k.a. C68/684), ... and by tissue macrophages (e.g., Kupffer cells, microglia). Human CD68 is a Type I transmembrane glycoprotein, heavily ...
"Distribution and compartmentalization of human circulating and tissue-resident memory T cell subsets". Immunity. 38 (1): 187- ... TRM cells have tissue residency-promoting transcriptional signature, features specific to individual tissues and features ... Shortly after antigen-specific response in the non-lymphoid tissue, infected tissue is occupied by CD8+ effector-stage T cells ... Tissue-resident memory T cells or TRM cells represent a subset of a long-lived memory T cells that occupies epithelial and ...
Finch T, Lawlor E, Borton M, Barnes C, McNamara S, O'Riordan J, McCann S, Darke C (1997). "Distribution of HLA-A, B and DR ... Schipper R, Schreuder G, D'Amaro J, Oudshoorn M (1996). "HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Dutch blood donors". Tissue ... MacKie RM, Dick HM (February 1979). "A study of HLA antigen distribution in families with atopic dermatitis". Allergy. 34 (1): ... November 1979). "Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA-DRw3". Tissue Antigens. 14 (5): 449-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ...
... and are virtually cosmopolitan in distribution as a result of global commerce. Of all common cockroach species, the American ... is used as a prescribed drug for wound healing and tissue repair. Dependent on several factors, including temperature ( ...
Ye Z, Jiang X, Wang Z (Oct 2012). "Measurements of Particle Size Distribution Based on Mie Scattering Theory and Markov Chain ... Mie theory has been used to determine whether scattered light from tissue corresponds to healthy or cancerous cell nuclei using ... The Mie solution is also important for understanding the appearance of common materials like milk, biological tissue and latex ...
... uneven distribution of tension, too tight, etc.) can damage the tendons. Polo wraps only stay on the leg as well as they are ... Polo wraps are often chosen for a horse whose legs are blemished with significant scar tissue that would prevent a boot from ...
Allen, Robert T. (2002). "A synopsis of the Diplura of North America: Keys to higher taxa, systematics, distributions and ... Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Differentiation of the oocyte and nurse cells in an apterygote insect (Campodea)". Tissue and Cell ... Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 149: 555-566. doi:10.1007/BF00223032. Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Oogenesis in Campodea sp ... Insecta, Diplura): Chorion formation and the ultrastructure of follicle cells". Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 228: 165- ...
... having a global distribution". J. Infect. Dis. 179 (6): 1334-44. doi:10.1086/314783. PMID 10228052. Tu ET, Bull RA, Greening GE ... making it more intense when introduced during or after the initial infection of the host tissue. Bile salts are produced by the ...
Oberg-Welsh C, Welsh M (January 1995). "Cloning of BSK, a murine FRK homologue with a specific pattern of tissue distribution ... Elevated expression levels of c-Src were found in human breast cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. Overexpression of ... The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. Src, Fyn and Yes are ...
... and plant tissue nutrient concentrations) by relating 'biologically active' biomass components (foliage and small roots) to ... stand-level productivity into the growth of individual stems with user-supplied information on stem size distributions at ...
A variety of distributions are possible. In some cases, hair loss is gradual, without symptoms, and is unnoticed for long ... It can be caused by a diverse group of rare disorders that destroy the hair follicle, replace it with scar tissue, and cause ...
... gymnosperm tissues tend to contain significantly higher terpenoid concentrations than angiosperm tissues. Additionally, the ... It is important to note, however, that such interpretations rely on the assumption that terpenoid distributions and abundances ... Abietanes are found in the tissues and resins of certain higher plants, particularly gymnosperms. Although the functions of ... Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Wing, Scott L. (2012-05-15). "Distribution and carbon isotope patterns of ...
... allowing a diver to gain a better overall weight distribution leading to a more horizontal trim in the water. Tank weights can ... and inject gas into the tissues, along with possible contaminants. Scuba is safety-critical equipment, as some modes of failure ...
Mature bark, clad completely in corky tissue with reticulate pattern. Base of main trunk of mature specimen Royal Botanic ... The range of distribution of the species thus corresponds roughly to the Los Lagos Region ( Lakes Region ), the plant occurring ...
Allen, Robert T. (2002). "A synopsis of the Diplura of North America: Keys to higher taxa, systematics, distributions and ... Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Differentiation of the oocyte and nurse cells in an apterygote insect (Campodea)". Tissue and Cell ... Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 228: 165-170. doi:10.1007/BF00206274. PMID 6831522. ...
Other than fat, glucose is stored in most tissues, as an energy resource available within the tissue through glycogenesis which ... evolution and distribution of novel enzyme activities" (PDF). Environmental Microbiology. 7 (12): 1868-82. doi:10.1111/j.1462- ... A parallel approach is to identify the small molecules in a cell or tissue; the complete set of these molecules is called the ... Ions are also critical for nerve and muscle function, as action potentials in these tissues are produced by the exchange of ...
"Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including different types of plant tissue (e.g. leaf ... such as the distribution of plant biomass. The field of chemical ecology has elucidated multitrophic interactions that entail ... Many of the Earth's elements and minerals (or mineral nutrients) are contained within the tissues and diets of organisms. Hence ... distribution, or biomass in the trophic levels. For example, predators eating herbivores indirectly influence the control and ...
... established that X-chromosome inactivation occurs in an imprinted manner in the extra-embryonic tissues of mice and all tissues ... nonrandom parental chromatid distribution in the ferns, and even mating type switching in yeast. This diversity in organisms ... a new study has suggested a novel inheritable imprinting mechanism in humans that would be specific of placental tissue and ... one haploid set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatinised after the sixth cleavage division and remains so in most tissues; ...
... has a widespread distribution in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, its range extending from the east coast ... After digestion of the soft tissues, any shell or indigestible material is regurgitated. Philinopsis speciosa is a ...
Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family ...
However, this distribution may not occur until later on in the course of the disease. As many as 15% of patients may never ... However, in some cases a Rickettsia rickettsii infection has been contracted by contact with tick tissues or fluids. Then, the ... Less commonly, infections may occur following exposure to crushed tick tissues, fluids, or tick feces. A female tick can ... resulting in mononuclear cell infiltration into blood vessels and subsequent red blood cell leakage into surrounding tissues. ...
Allen, Robert T. (2002). "A synopsis of the Diplura of North America: Keys to higher taxa, systematics, distributions and ... Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Differentiation of the oocyte and nurse cells in an apterygote insect (Campodea)". Tissue and Cell ... Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 228: 165-170. doi:10.1007/BF00206274. PMID 6831522. ...
The success the Center has experienced in spawning is evident in its distribution of the species into their natural habitat. ... Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE): Colored fluorescent elastomer material is injected into tissue with a hypodermic syringe. The ...
Owen, R. (1860). "On the orders of fossil and Recent Reptilia, and their distribution in time". Report of the British ... 1940 A complete specimen of Plesiosaurus conybeari, including preserved soft tissues, was destroyed in a bombing raid against ...
Allen, Robert T. (2002). "A synopsis of the Diplura of North America: Keys to higher taxa, systematics, distributions and ... Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Differentiation of the oocyte and nurse cells in an apterygote insect (Campodea)". Tissue and Cell ... Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 228: 165-170. doi:10.1007/BF00206274. PMID 6831522. ...
Initially, moving organisms, such as sharks and hagfish, scavenge soft tissue at a rapid rate over a period of months to as ... Stirling, Ian (1988). "Distribution and Abundance". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10100- ... Contaminants that are found in the tissues of marine mammals include heavy metals, such as mercury and lead, but also ... Killer whales are apex predators throughout their global distribution, and can have a profound effect on the behavior and ...
It can also be very handy in studying enzyme distribution or tissue-specific gene expression in terms of enzyme activity ... giving a clear picture of the distribution of enzyme activity. With the same simplicity, corresponding tissues taken from ...
The distribution of the Na⁺-K⁺ pump on myelinated axons in the human brain has been demonstrated to be along the internodal ... In many types of tissue, ATP consumption by the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases have been related to glycolysis. This was first discovered in ... Each has unique properties and tissue expression patterns. This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases. The Na⁺/K⁺- ...
This tissue is analogous to xylem in higher plants. The other tissue is called leptome, which surrounds the hydrome, contains ... which contains approximately 70 species that cover a cosmopolitan distribution. The genus Polytrichum has a number of closely ... One of these water conducting tissues is termed the hydrome, which makes up the central cylinder of stem tissue. It consists of ... This minimises water loss as relatively little tissue is directly exposed to the environment, but allows for enough gas ...
Among the 12 tissues examined the highest level of expression was observed in heart, followed by brain and steroidogenic tissue ... The within-cell and between-cell distributions of heteroplasmy dictate the onset and severity of disease and are influenced by ... Measurement of the levels of the mtDNA-encoded RNAs in bovine tissues has shown that there are major differences in the ... but their tissues do not produce more ROS as predicted by the 'Vicious Cycle' hypothesis. Supporting a link between longevity ...
Its tissues contain different alkaloids. In flower buds, the major alkaloid found is γ-coniceine. This molecule is transformed ... Altervista Flora Italiana, Cicuta maggiore, Conium maculatum L. includes photos and European distribution map Holm, LeRoy G. ( ... Cromwell, B. T. (October 1956). "The separation, micro-estimation and distribution of the alkaloids of hemlock (Conium ... 1997). World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471047015. "Poison Hemlock" (PDF). store. ...
In addition to its distribution, B. kermesinus can be distinguished from E. frostii by having flesh that does not bruise blue ... Infection results in necrosis of the mushroom tissue, and a yellow color caused by the formation of large amounts of pigmented ... Cystidia are non-fertile cells interspersed among the basidia, and they are prevalent in the hymenial tissue of E. frostii. ... The characteristic feature of the mycorrhiza is the presence of a sheath of fungal tissue that encases the terminal, nutrient- ...
ISBN 978-0-7591-0154-8. Gavashelishvili, A.; Tarkhnishvili, D. (2016). "Biomes and human distribution during the last ice age ... Aiello, Leslie C.; Wheeler, Peter (1995). "The expensive-tissue hypothesis" (PDF). Current Anthropology. 36 (2): 199-221. doi: ...
Near IR Labeling for Tissue Distribution. Kip P. Conner, Brooke M. Rock, Gayle K. Kwon, Joseph P. Balthasar, Lubna Abuqayyas, ... Near IR Labeling for Tissue Distribution. Kip P. Conner, Brooke M. Rock, Gayle K. Kwon, Joseph P. Balthasar, Lubna Abuqayyas, ... Evaluation of Near Infrared Fluorescent Labeling of Monoclonal Antibodies as a Tool for Tissue Distribution. Kip P. Conner, ... Correction to "Evaluation of Near Infrared Fluorescent Labeling of Monoclonal Antibodies as a Tool for Tissue Distribution" - ...
Structure, tissue distribution and estrogen regulation of splice variants of the sea bream estrogen receptor α gene. ...
Channel Distribution is een distributeur/groothandel en producent van Gifts, Gadgets en woon accessoires. Wij distribueren ... Rotary Hero Tiki Tissue box Holder Tissue dispenser Facial tissue box cover - For kitchen bathroom bedroom - Rectangular - Red ... Rotary Hero Owl Tissue box Holder Tissue dispenser Facial tissue box cover - For kitchen bathroom bedroom - Rectangular - 17.5 ... Rotary Hero Moai Tissue box Holder Tissue dispenser Facial tissue box cover - For kitchen bathroom bedroom - Rectangular - Gold ...
Explore the topic Tissue Distribution through the articles written by the best experts in this field - both academic and ... Distribution profiles. Therefore, we have developed "TissueDistributionDBs", a repository of Tissue-Distribution profiles based ... The Tissue Distribution results showed that liver, lung and kidney were the major Distribution Tissues of orientin in rats, and ... The Tissue Distribution results showed that liver, lung and kidney were the major Distribution Tissues of orientin in rats, and ...
Three-dimensional modeling and assessment of cardiac adipose tissue distribution. ... Three-dimensional modeling and assessment of cardiac adipose tissue distribution.. Jon D. Klingensmith, Saygin Sop, Mete Naz, ... In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) modeling technique is developed and used to quantify the distribution of the CAT across ... Objective: The layer of fat that accumulates around the heart, called cardiac adipose tissue (CAT), can influence the ...
Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate.. Coelho, Deise Riba; ... Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb ... while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > ... content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, ...
Here we used a dynamic multi-compartment gas exchange model to estimate blood and tissue O2, CO2, and N2 from high-resolution ... Here we used a dynamic multi-compartment gas exchange model to estimate blood and tissue O2, CO2 and N2 from high-resolution ... Blood flow distributions to each tissue at the surface and during diving were iteratively tested to maximize utilization of O2 ... and blood flow distribution are important to alter blood and tissue gas levels (Fahlman et al., 2006, 2009). Previously, we ...
Tissue distribution of rat S-100α and β subunit mRNAs. / Kuwano, Ryozo; Usui, Hiroshi; Maeda, Toshinaga et al. In: Molecular ... Tissue distribution of rat S-100α and β subunit mRNAs. Molecular Brain Research. 1987 Apr;2(1):79-82. doi: 10.1016/0169-328X(87 ... Tissue distribution of rat S-100α and β subunit mRNAs. In: Molecular Brain Research. 1987 ; Vol. 2, No. 1. pp. 79-82. ... Tissue distribution of rat S-100α and β subunit mRNAs. Ryozo Kuwano, Hiroshi Usui, Toshinaga Maeda, Kazuaki Araki, Toru ...
Cision Distribution 888-776-0942. from 8 AM - 9 PM ET *Chat with an Expert ... and BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado, Boulder to send hemp and coffee tissue culture to space. The ... Front Range Biosciences to Send Hemp and Coffee Tissue Culture Samples to Space to Study Effects of Microgravity Partners ... Front Range Biosciences is an agricultural biotech company that specializes in tissue culture propagation and breeding of high- ...
Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats. ... Dive into the research topics of Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in ...
Cadaver-assessed validity of anthropometric indicators of adipose tissue distribution. A. D. Martin, M. Daniel, J. P. Clarys, M ... Cadaver-assessed validity of anthropometric indicators of adipose tissue distribution. / Martin, A. D.; Daniel, M.; Clarys, J. ... Cadaver-assessed validity of anthropometric indicators of adipose tissue distribution. In: International Journal of Obesity. ... Cadaver-assessed validity of anthropometric indicators of adipose tissue distribution. International Journal of Obesity. 2003 ...
WHO guidelines on tissue infectivity distribution in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Contributor(s): World Health ... Details for: WHO guidelines on tissue infectivity distribution in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. ...
Table 2. Tissue Distribution of Alpha (IV) Chains Alpha (IV) Chain Tissue Distribution ...
Tissue Distribution * Tryptophan / analogs & derivatives* * Tryptophan / pharmacokinetics * Tryptophan / pharmacology * Young ...
Thermal stress distribution in laser irradiated hard dental tissue : Implications for dental applications. Laser-Tissue ... Thermal stress distribution in laser irradiated hard dental tissue: Implications for dental applications. / Motamedi, M.; ... Motamedi M, Rastegar S, Anyari B. Thermal stress distribution in laser irradiated hard dental tissue: Implications for dental ... Motamedi, M, Rastegar, S & Anyari, B 1992, Thermal stress distribution in laser irradiated hard dental tissue: Implications for ...
What organization actually manages the distribution of organs? What is the process to receive an organ or tissue?. UNOS ... If I need an organ or tissue transplant, what do I need to do?. If you need a transplant, you need to get on the national ... Its a way to legally give consent for the anatomical gift of organs, tissue and eyes. Each time you go to your local Bureau of ... Organ donation is the process of surgically removing an organ or tissue from one person (the organ donor) and placing it into ...
Calcif Tissue Int 1993;52:192-198.. *S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Distribution of Licensed ...
Mutation Distribution, Variants, SLC12A3_ENST00000262502 Genome Browser, SLC12A3_ENST00000262502 References ... Tissue distribution. The table shows the distribution of mutations across the primary tissue types that are curated by COSMIC. ... Mutation distribution. This section displays a series of charts that show the distribution of different types of mutations for ... In the tabs below you can see any other genes that have resistance mutations to the same drug(s), and the distribution of ...
Tissues require oxygen for survival. Delivery depends on adequate ventilation, gas exchange, and circulatory distribution. ... Tissue hypoxia occurs within 4 minutes of failure of any of these systems because the oxygen reserves in tissue and lung are ... However, Pao2 and Sao2 can be normal when tissue hypoxia is caused by low output cardiac states, anaemia, and failure of tissue ... approximates to mean tissue Po2 and is a better index of tissue oxygenation. Even in the presence of a normal Pao2 and Pvo2 ...
Tissue isolation for gene expression analysis. Tissue dissection was performed in ice-cold HBSS. Sterile forceps were cleaned ... Distribution and development of peripheral glial cells in the human fetal cochlea. PLoS ONE 9, e88066 (2014). ... n = 8 fetal tissues (week 9.4 to 12.3). Values are mean percent ± s.d. c Quantification of the total number of hair cells-like ... Tissue isolation, staging, and dissection. The inner ear was isolated from aborted human fetuses ranging from W8 to W12 post ...
Distribution of the infectious agent in animal tissues. As the infectious agent has not been isolated, it has not been possible ... Avoiding tissues with maximum infectivity titres, such as tissues from the brain, pituitary and intestine from duodenum to ... to humans would arise essentially from exposure to certain tissues of infected animals or products prepared from these tissues ... No infectivity was found in any other tissue before one year.. The study is still going on but so far there is no evidence of ...
Analytical-methods; Lung-burden; Tissue-distribution; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Airborne-particles; Lung-disorders; Lung- ... using ashed lung preparations may mean that information concerning the specific location of the particles in the lung tissue ...
Tissue distribution of ketamine in a mixed drug fatality J Forensic Sci. 1997. ...
... and progesterone were more strongly associated with amounts of glandular tissue than adipose tissue, while fat body mass, ... Our results show that methods of breast imaging and modalities for estimating the amount of glandular tissue have no effects on ... and insulin like growth factor-II appear to be more associated with the amount of breast adipose tissue. ... The curve-analysis estimated the relative distribution of areas under the adipose and glandular breast tissue curves of the ...
"Primary structure and tissue distribution of two novel proline-rich gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Matrix gla protein (MGP) - inhibitor of calcification of soft tissue and plays a role in bone organization ... "Identification of two novel transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins expressed broadly in fetal and adult tissues" ...
  • Three-dimensional modeling and assessment of cardiac adipose tissue distribution. (
  • Although the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) has emerged as the best anthropometric indicator of the body's adipose tissue distribution, it has never been directly validated. (
  • These results, especially the strong association between WHR and the ratio of intra-abdominal to lower limb adipose masses (R 2 =35.4%, P=0.002), demonstrate a clear relation between the selected anthropometric variables (hip and waist girths, and subscapular and triceps skinfolds) and adipose tissue distribution, thus validating the use of WHR as an important predictor of health risk. (
  • Used for the mechanism, dynamics and kinetics of exogenous chemical and drug absorption, biotransformation, distribution, release, transport, uptake and elimination as a function of dosage, extent and rate of metabolic processes. (
  • The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution research after intravenous administration of a 20 mg/kg dose of orientin to healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • The Tissue Distribution results showed that liver, lung and kidney were the major Distribution Tissue s of orientin in rats, and that orientin had difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). (
  • The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies. (
  • The objectives of the present study were: to monitor the influence of CLA supplementation on mammary carcinogenesis in rats, to compare the CLA distribution in tissues and to assess their influence on other fatty acids profile. (
  • Abstract A simple HPLC-UV method was established for the determination of orientin in plasma and different Tissue s of rat (heart, liver, spleen , lung, kidney, brain, stomach and small intestine). (
  • Tissue hypoxia occurs within 4 minutes of failure of any of these systems because the oxygen reserves in tissue and lung are relatively small. (
  • One disadvantage was that using ashed lung preparations may mean that information concerning the specific location of the particles in the lung tissue may be lost. (
  • What organs and tissues can be transplanted? (
  • It's a way to legally give consent for the anatomical gift of organs, tissue and eyes. (
  • There is no cost to the donor's family or estate for the donation of organs, tissue or eyes. (
  • The recovery of organs, tissue and eyes is a surgical procedure performed by trained medical professionals. (
  • What organization actually manages the distribution of organs? (
  • Open to individuals involved or interested in the banking of cells, organs, eyes, or tissues who support our objectives, policies, and ethical standards. (
  • Although previous recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through transplantation of human tissue and organs have markedly reduced the risk for this type of transmission, a case of HIV transmission from a screened, antibody-negative donor to several recipients raised questions about the need for additional federal oversight of transplantation of organs and tissues. (
  • A working group formed by the Public Health Service (PHS) in 1991 to address these issues concluded that further recommendations should be made to reduce the already low risk of HIV transmission by transplantation of organs and tissues. (
  • In 1985, when tests for HIV antibody became available, screening prospective donors of blood, organs, and other tissues also began (2,3). (
  • This occurrence raised questions about the need for additional federal oversight of transplantation of organs and tissues. (
  • The working group concluded that, although existing recommendations are largely sufficient, revisions should be made to reduce the already low risk of HIV transmission via transplantation of organs and tissues. (
  • Additionally, direct fluorescence analysis of homogenized tissues revealed several large differences in IR800-8C2 tissue uptake when compared with a previously published study using [ 125 I]8C2, most notably an over 4-fold increase in liver concentration. (
  • Under a magnification of 100X, this hematoxylin-eosin-stained (H&E) photomicrograph depicts the cytoarchitectural changes found in a liver tissue specimen extracted from a Lassa fever patient. (
  • Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution study of orientin in rat by liquid chromatography. (
  • Delivery depends on adequate ventilation, gas exchange, and circulatory distribution. (
  • In chronically hypoxaemic patients adequate delivery of oxygen to tissues is achieved by compensatory mechanisms, including polycythaemia, a shift in the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, and increased extraction of oxygen. (
  • A Hologic DXA full-body scanner provides images displaying the distribution of fat, lean tissue, and bone, a critical tool in assessing obesity and osteoporosis. (
  • Organ donation is the process of surgically removing an organ or tissue from one person (the organ donor) and placing it into another person (the recipient). (
  • Online learning and education surrounding all aspects of tissue donation, tissue banking, research, and transplantation. (
  • Most of the currently available resources for Tissue - Distribution profiles are either specialized for a few particular organisms, Tissue types and disease stages or do not consider the " Tissue ontology" levels for the calculation of the Tissue - Distribution profiles. (
  • Guidelines for AATB accredited establishments to use in conjunction with the Standards for Tissue Banking and the Standards for Non-Anatomical Donation. (
  • and recall of stored tissues from donors found after donation to have been infected. (
  • A 1991 investigation determined that several recipients had been infected with HIV by an organ/tissue donor who had tested negative for HIV antibody at the time of donation (4). (
  • Adipose tissue from the upper limbs, lower limbs, subcutaneous trunk and intra-abdominal regions was then separated by dissection and weighed. (
  • On the basis divided into aliquots for direct use in pathotyping studies, of these mostly retrospective studies, the pathogenesis of and their titers were determined by standard plaque (sub- infl uenza-associated ARDS is widely viewed as being the type H1N1) or median tissue culture infective dose assays same whatever the infecting strain. (
  • Here we used a dynamic multi-compartment gas exchange model to estimate blood and tissue O 2 , CO 2 , and N 2 from high-resolution dive records of two different common bottlenose dolphin ecotypes inhabiting shallow (Sarasota Bay) and deep (Bermuda) habitats. (
  • Neglecting heat conduction and light scattering in tissue, analytical solutions for heat and stress distribution were used to estimate the radial and circumferential stresses developed as a result of temperature rise on the surface of a tooth. (
  • This database system is useful for the understanding of the Tissue -specific expression patterns of genes, which have implications for the identification of possible new therapeutic drug targets, in gene discovery, and in the design and analysis of micro-arrays. (
  • Motamedi, M , Rastegar, S & Anyari, B 1992, Thermal stress distribution in laser irradiated hard dental tissue: Implications for dental applications . (
  • Anyari, B. / Thermal stress distribution in laser irradiated hard dental tissue : Implications for dental applications . (
  • LI-COR, Lincoln, NE) as a protein-labeling agent in preclinical work holds the potential for quantitative tissue analysis. (
  • Here, we tested the utility of the IR800 dye as a quantitative mAb tracer during pharmacokinetic analysis in both plasma and tissues using a model mouse monoclonal IgG1 (8C2) labeled with ≤1.5 molecules of IR800. (
  • The layer of fat that accumulates around the heart, called cardiac adipose tissue (CAT), can influence the development of coronary disease and is indicative of cardiovascular risk. (
  • However, Pao 2 and Sao 2 can be normal when tissue hypoxia is caused by low output cardiac states, anaemia, and failure of tissue to use oxygen. (
  • Tissue - Distribution profiles are crucial for understanding the characteristics of cells and Tissue s in terms of their differential expression of genes. (
  • Distribution, radiographic appearance, and differential diagnosis are discussed. (
  • 1975. The effect of atmospheric levels of pesticides on pesticide residues in rabbit adipose tissue and blood sera. (
  • 1981. Determination of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in drinking water, human blood serum, and adipose tissue. (
  • In these circumstances mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (Pvo 2 ), which is measured in pulmonary artery blood, approximates to mean tissue Po 2 and is a better index of tissue oxygenation. (
  • While volumetric assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can quantify CAT, volume alone gives no information about its distribution across the myocardial surface, which may be an important factor in risk assessment. (
  • Central cyanosis is an unreliable indicator of tissue hypoxia. (
  • 1990. Organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue from north Texas. (
  • It presents images and discusses the common and rare soft tissue pathology that may occur in the plantar soft tissues of the foot with specific MRI findings. (
  • Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. (
  • However, the distribution characteristics of TILs and their significance in pancreatic cancer (PC) remain largely unexplored. (
  • Good linearity was found between 0.250-50.0 μg/ml (r2 = 0.9966) for plasma samples and 0.050-50.0 μg/ml (r2 ≥ 0.9937) for the Tissue samples, respectively. (
  • It was also found that there was no long-term accumulation of orientin in rat Tissue s. (
  • We also found that the number of completed pregnancies, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, and progesterone were more strongly associated with amounts of glandular tissue than adipose tissue, while fat body mass, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin like growth factor-II appear to be more associated with the amount of breast adipose tissue. (
  • The worms can be found in all internal tissues of the eye - except the lens - where they cause eye inflammation, bleeding and other complications. (
  • Genomic organization, tissue distribution and deletion mutation of human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. (
  • The following adipose tissue mass ratios (and corresponding volume ratios) were derived: trunk to sum of lower limbs, trunk to sum of upper and lower limbs, intra-abdominal to sum of lower limbs and intra-abdominal to sum of upper and lower limbs. (
  • Details for: WHO guidelines on tissue infectivity distribution in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. (
  • In this particular view you'll note a region of "focal necrosis without specific topographic distribution, thereby, isolating some layers of recognizable hepatocytes. (
  • Our results show that methods of breast imaging and modalities for estimating the amount of glandular tissue have no effects on the strength of these predictors of BD. (
  • Breast density (BD) reflects the proportion of fibroglandular tissue in the breast and is one of the strongest independent predictors of breast cancer risk [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • The full field digital mammography (FFDM) unit also routinely estimates and records percent glandular breast tissue. (
  • 10 ] developed compressible breast phantoms with known and varying breast composition (e.g., 0-80% glandular tissue) which were imaged together with each mammogram. (
  • We have shown that total volume (TV), glandular volume (GV), and adipose (fat) volume (FV) of the breast can be easily and reasonably approximated by multiplying the fat and gland tissue areas of the mammogram by the compression thickness of the breast as recorded in the mammogram DICOM header report [ 9 ]. (
  • Compared with paracancerous tissues, in PC tissues, the proportions of total T cells, CD4 + T cells and CD8 + CTLs were markedly decreased, while those of Tregs and PD‑L1 + T cells were significantly increased. (
  • Meetings & events designed to advance your ambitions, expand your professional network, and influence the future of tissue banking. (
  • Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration . (
  • Concurrently, the expression among Tissue types is used for Tissue - Distribution calculations. (
  • In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) modeling technique is developed and used to quantify the distribution of the CAT across the surface of the heart. (
  • The only accreditation program for tissue establishments, recognizing the highest commitment to the quality and safety of donated human tissue. (
  • The relative recoveries of orientin ranged from 95.4 to 100.6% for plasma and 93.1 to 107.9% for Tissue homogenates. (
  • We benchmarked our database system against the Swissprot database using a set of 40 different Tissue types. (
  • Relating in vitro to in vivo exposures with physiologically based tissue dosimetry and tissue response models. (
  • More than one mechanism may contribute to tissue hypoxia, and predicting the response to supplemental oxygen requires careful evaluation of these functions. (