The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Purchasers are provided information on the quality of health care, including patient outcomes and health status, with data on the dollar outlays going towards health. The focus is on managing the use of the health care system to reduce inappropriate care and to identify and reward the best-performing providers. (from accessed 11/25/2011)
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The non-profit, non-governmental organization which collects, processes, and distributes data on hospital use. Two programs of the Commission are the Professional Activity Study and the Medical Audit Program.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.
Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
Centers for acquiring and storing semen.
The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).

Feasibility of finding an unrelated bone marrow donor on international registries for New Zealand patients. (1/1276)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the treatment of choice for several hematological conditions. Unfortunately, for the majority (70%) of patients an HLA-matched sibling donor is not available and a matched unrelated donor must be found if they are to proceed to allogeneic transplantation. Most of the donors on international registries are of Caucasian ethnic origin. It has been recognized that patients from certain racial groups have a reduced chance of finding an unrelated donor. This study reports the feasibility of finding an unrelated donor for our local New Zealand patients of Caucasian, New Zealand Maori and Pacific Islander ethnic origin presenting with transplantable hematological conditions at a single center. The search was performed on international registries using HLA-A,B and DR typings for our patients. Six of six and five of six matches were evaluated. We have shown that Maori and Pacific Islanders have significantly lower hit rates than Caucasians when searched for 6/6 antigen matches, but there was no significant difference between the three ethnic groups in finding a 5/6 antigen matched donor. This study supports the policy of the New Zealand Bone Marrow Donor Registry in recruiting New Zealand Maori and Pacific Islanders.  (+info)

Tissue donation after death in the accident and emergency department: an opportunity wasted? (2/1276)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the accident and emergency department (A&E) is a potential source of tissues for donation, from non-heart beating donors (NHBDs). METHODS: A telephone survey of 30 A&E departments was conducted to determine current tissue harvesting practices from NHBDs. The potential number of tissue donors in our own medium sized district general hospital A&E department was estimated. Senior nursing staff were asked to complete a questionnaire to establish their knowledge, attitudes, and experience of tissue harvesting from NHBDs. RESULTS: Only seven of the 30 A&E departments surveyed (23%) had an active involvement in requesting tissue donation after a sudden death. Several others had limited experience. The level of involvement was unrelated to department size. In our own A&E department, there were 110 deaths in 1995. Tissue donation had occurred on just three occasions. However, departmental staff attitudes towards reducing this shortfall were positive. CONCLUSIONS: The A&E department is a resource of tissues for donation, which is currently under used.  (+info)

Cloning, killing, and identity. (3/1276)

One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation.  (+info)

Indigenous peoples and the morality of the Human Genome Diversity Project. (4/1276)

In addition to the aim of mapping and sequencing one human's genome, the Human Genome Project also intends to characterise the genetic diversity of the world's peoples. The Human Genome Diversity Project raises political, economic and ethical issues. These intersect clearly when the genomes under study are those of indigenous peoples who are already subject to serious economic, legal and/or social disadvantage and discrimination. The fact that some individuals associated with the project have made dismissive comments about indigenous peoples has confused rather than illuminated the deeper issues involved, as well as causing much antagonism among indigenous peoples. There are more serious ethical issues raised by the project for all geneticists, including those who are sympathetic to the problems of indigenous peoples. With particular attention to the history and attitudes of Australian indigenous peoples, we argue that the Human Genome Diversity Project can only proceed if those who further its objectives simultaneously: respect the cultural beliefs of indigenous peoples; publicly support the efforts of indigenous peoples to achieve respect and equality; express respect by a rigorous understanding of the meaning of equitable negotiation of consent, and ensure that both immediate and long term economic benefits from the research flow back to the groups taking part.  (+info)

Non-heart-beating organ donors as a source of kidneys for transplantation: a chart review. (5/1276)

BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure, but the supply of organs has not increased to meet demand. This study was undertaken to determine the potential for kidney donation from patients with irremediable brain injuries who do not meet the criteria for brain death and who experience cardiopulmonary arrest after withdrawal of ventilatory support (controlled non-heart-beating organ donors). METHODS: The charts of 209 patients who died during 1995 in the Emergency Department and the intensive care unit at the Foothills Hospital in Calgary were reviewed. The records of patients who met the criteria for controlled non-heart-beating organ donation were studied in detail. The main outcome measure was the time from discontinuation of ventilation until cardiopulmonary arrest. RESULTS: Seventeen potential controlled non-heart-beating organ donors were identified. Their mean age was 62 (standard deviation 19) years. Twelve of the patients (71%) had had a cerebrovascular accident, and more than half (10 [59%]) did not meet the criteria for brain death because one or more brain stem reflexes were present. At the time of withdrawal of ventilatory support, the mean serum creatinine level was 71 (29) mumol/L, mean urine output was 214 (178) mL/h, and 9 (53%) patients were receiving inotropic agents. The mean time from withdrawal of ventilatory support to cardiac arrest was 2.3 (5.0) hours; 13 of the 17 patients died within 1 hour, and all but one died within 6 hours. For the year for which charts were reviewed, 33 potential conventional donors (people whose hearts were beating) were identified, of whom 21 (64%) became donors. On the assumption that 40% of the potential controlled non-heart-beating donors would not in fact have been donors (25% because of family refusal and 15% because of nonviability of the organs), there might have been 10 additional donors, which would have increased the supply of cadaveric kidneys for transplantation by 48%. INTERPRETATION: A significant number of viable kidneys could be retrieved and transplanted if eligibility for kidney donation was extended to include controlled non-heart-beating organ donors.  (+info)

The ambiguity about death in Japan: an ethical implication for organ procurement. (6/1276)

In the latter half of the twentieth century, developed countries of the world have made tremendous strides in organ donation and transplantation. However, in this area of medicine, Japan has been slow to follow. Japanese ethics, deeply rooted in religion and tradition, have affected their outlook on life and death. Because the Japanese have only recently started to acknowledge the concept of brain death, transplantation of major organs has been hindered in that country. Currently, there is a dual definition of death in Japan, intended to satisfy both sides of the issue. This interesting paradox, which still stands to be fully resolved, illustrates the contentious conflict between medical ethics and medical progress in Japan.  (+info)

Supplying commercial biomedical companies from a human tissue bank in an NHS hospital--a view from personal experience. (7/1276)

NHS histopathology laboratories are well placed to develop banks of surgically removed surplus human tissues to meet the increasing demands of commercial biomedical companies. The ultimate aim could be national network of non-profit making NHS tissue banks conforming to national minimum ethical, legal, and quality standards which could be monitored by local research ethics committees. The Nuffield report on bioethics provides ethical and legal guidance but we believe that the patient should be fully informed and the consent given explicit. Setting up a tissue bank requires enthusiasm, hard work, and determination as well as coordination between professionals in the NHS trust and in the commercial sector. The rewards are exiting new collaborations with commercial biomedical companies which could help secure our future.  (+info)

Bioethics regulations in Turkey. (8/1276)

Although modern technical and scientific developments in medicine are followed closely in Turkey, it cannot be claimed that the same is true in the field of bioethics. Yet, more and more attention is now being paid to bioethics and ethics training in health sciences. In addition, there are also legal regulations in bioethics, some of which are not so new. The objective of these regulations is to provide technical and administrative control. Ethical concerns are rather few. What attracts our attention most in these regulations is the presence of the idea of "consent".  (+info)

Tissue and organ procurement is the process of obtaining viable tissues and organs from deceased or living donors for the purpose of transplantation, research, or education. This procedure is performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines. The tissues and organs that can be procured include hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, pancreases, intestines, corneas, skin, bones, tendons, and heart valves. The process involves a thorough medical evaluation of the donor, as well as consent from the donor or their next of kin. After procurement, the tissues and organs are preserved and transported to recipients in need.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Brain death is a legal and medical determination that an individual has died because their brain has irreversibly lost all functions necessary for life. It is characterized by the absence of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness to stimuli, and the inability to breathe without mechanical support. Brain death is different from a vegetative state or coma, where there may still be some brain activity.

The determination of brain death involves a series of tests and examinations to confirm the absence of brain function. These tests are typically performed by trained medical professionals and may include clinical assessments, imaging studies, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) to confirm the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

Brain death is an important concept in medicine because it allows for the organ donation process to proceed, potentially saving the lives of others. In many jurisdictions, brain death is legally equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, which means that once a person has been declared brain dead, they are considered deceased and their organs can be removed for transplantation.

Presumed consent, in the context of medical and transplantation law, refers to a policy or practice where it is assumed that an individual gives consent for organ donation after death, unless they have explicitly opted out or expressed their objection prior to their death. This means that if there is no clear evidence of the deceased person's wishes regarding organ donation, it is presumed that they would have wanted to donate their organs to help save lives. Presumed consent systems aim to increase the number of available organs for transplantation and reduce the need for potential recipients to wait on transplant lists. However, such policies can be controversial, as they rely on assumptions about a deceased person's wishes, which may not always align with their true intentions or beliefs.

Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure where an organ or tissue from one person (donor) is removed and placed into another person (recipient) whose organ or tissue is not functioning properly or has been damaged beyond repair. The goal of this complex procedure is to replace the non-functioning organ with a healthy one, thereby improving the recipient's quality of life and overall survival.

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and intestines. Tissues such as corneas, skin, heart valves, and bones can also be transplanted. The donor may be deceased or living, depending on the type of organ and the medical circumstances.

Organ transplantation is a significant and life-changing event for both the recipient and their families. It requires careful evaluation, matching, and coordination between the donor and recipient, as well as rigorous post-transplant care to ensure the success of the procedure and minimize the risk of rejection.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

A waiting list, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to a list of patients who are awaiting a particular medical service or procedure, such as surgery, consultation with a specialist, or therapy. These lists are often established when the demand for certain services exceeds the immediate supply of resources, including physician time, hospital beds, or specialized equipment.

Patients on waiting lists are typically ranked based on factors like the severity of their condition, the urgency of their need for treatment, and the date they were placed on the list. The goal is to ensure that those with the most pressing medical needs receive care as soon as possible, while also providing a fair and transparent system for allocating limited resources.

However, it's important to note that extended waiting times can have negative consequences for patients, including worsening of symptoms, decreased quality of life, and potential complications. As such, healthcare systems strive to minimize wait times through various strategies, such as increasing resource allocation, improving efficiency, and implementing alternative service delivery models.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

A Tissue Bank is a specialized facility that collects, stores, and distributes human tissues for medical research, transplantation, or therapeutic purposes. These tissues can include organs, bones, skin, heart valves, tendons, and other bodily tissues that can be used for various medical applications.

Tissue banks follow strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of the tissues they handle. They implement rigorous screening and testing procedures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and maintain the integrity of the tissues. The tissues are stored under specific conditions, such as temperature and humidity, to preserve their function and viability until they are needed for use.

Tissue banks play a critical role in advancing medical research and improving patient outcomes by providing researchers and clinicians with access to high-quality human tissues for study and transplantation.

Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. It is characterized by the loss of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness, and apnea (no breathing). In medical terms, death can be defined as:

1. Cardiopulmonary Death: The irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions.
2. Brain Death: The irreversible loss of all brain function, including the brainstem. This is often used as a definition of death when performing organ donation.

It's important to note that the exact definition of death can vary somewhat based on cultural, religious, and legal perspectives.

Donor selection is the process of evaluating and choosing potential organ, tissue, or stem cell donors based on various medical and non-medical criteria to ensure the safety and efficacy of the transplantation. The goal of donor selection is to identify a compatible donor with minimal risk of rejection and transmission of infectious diseases while also considering ethical and legal considerations.

Medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Age: Donors are typically required to be within a certain age range, depending on the type of organ or tissue being donated.
2. Blood type and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing: Compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood types and HLA markers is crucial to reduce the risk of rejection.
3. Medical history: Donors must undergo a thorough medical evaluation, including a review of their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests to assess their overall health and identify any potential risks or contraindications for donation.
4. Infectious disease screening: Donors are tested for various infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), among others, to ensure they do not transmit infections to the recipient.
5. Tissue typing: For organ transplants, tissue typing is performed to assess the compatibility of the donor's and recipient's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, which play a significant role in the immune response and rejection risk.

Non-medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Consent: Donors must provide informed consent for organ or tissue donation, and their next of kin or legal representative may be involved in the decision-making process for deceased donors.
2. Legal considerations: There are specific laws and regulations governing organ and tissue donation that must be followed, such as age restrictions, geographical proximity between the donor and recipient, and cultural or religious beliefs.
3. Ethical considerations: Donor selection should adhere to ethical principles, such as fairness, respect for autonomy, and non-maleficence, to ensure that the process is transparent, equitable, and free from coercion or exploitation.

Organ preservation is a medical technique used to maintain the viability and functionality of an organ outside the body for a certain period, typically for transplantation purposes. This process involves cooling the organ to slow down its metabolic activity and prevent tissue damage, while using specialized solutions that help preserve the organ's structure and function. Commonly preserved organs include hearts, livers, kidneys, lungs, and pancreases. The goal of organ preservation is to ensure that the transplanted organ remains in optimal condition until it can be successfully implanted into a recipient.

The United States (US) Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is not a medical term, but rather an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services. According to its official website, HRSA's mission is "to improve health equity and access to quality care." Here is a brief definition of HRSA from a medical and healthcare perspective:

The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is an agency in the US Department of Health and Human Services that aims to improve health outcomes for medically underserved populations, including people living in rural areas, those with low income, and other vulnerable groups. HRSA achieves this by strengthening the healthcare workforce, improving access to quality care, and providing services related to maternal and child health, infectious diseases, and substance use disorders. The agency manages various programs and grants to support healthcare providers, organizations, and communities in addressing health disparities and promoting equitable healthcare delivery.

Directed tissue donation is the process by which a person designates a specific individual as the recipient of their donated tissues, such as corneas, heart valves, or skin, after their death. This allows the donor to make a direct and meaningful impact on the life of someone they know or are related to who may be in need of a tissue transplant. It is important to note that the final determination of whether the tissues are suitable for transplantation will be made by medical professionals at the time of donation, taking into account various factors such as the donor's medical history and cause of death. Directed tissue donation can provide comfort and solace to both the donor and their loved ones, knowing that they have been able to help someone in need even after their passing.

Principle-Based Ethics is a framework for moral decision-making that involves the application of several fundamental ethical principles. These principles include:

1. Respect for Autonomy: This principle recognizes and respects an individual's right to make their own decisions, as long as they do not harm others or infringe upon their rights.
2. Nonmaleficence: This principle requires that healthcare providers should not cause harm to their patients. They should avoid doing anything that could potentially harm their patients, unless the potential benefits of an action outweigh its risks.
3. Beneficence: This principle requires healthcare providers to act in the best interests of their patients and promote their well-being. Healthcare providers should take positive actions to benefit their patients and prevent harm.
4. Justice: This principle requires that healthcare resources be distributed fairly and equitably among all members of society, regardless of their social status or ability to pay.

These principles serve as a foundation for ethical decision-making in healthcare and provide guidance for making difficult moral choices. They are often used in conjunction with other ethical theories and frameworks, such as consequentialism and virtue ethics, to help healthcare providers make informed and responsible decisions that promote the well-being of their patients while also respecting their autonomy and rights.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Facility regulation and control in a medical context refers to the laws, rules, and guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure that healthcare facilities are operating safely, effectively, and in compliance with standards set forth to protect patients and healthcare providers. This can include regulations related to building design and construction, infection control, staffing ratios, medication management, quality improvement, and patient rights.

Regulatory bodies such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in the United States or the Care Quality Commission (CQC) in the United Kingdom establish these regulations and conduct regular inspections to ensure compliance. Non-compliance with facility regulations can result in fines, sanctions, or loss of licensure for the facility.

Facility control, on the other hand, refers to the internal processes and procedures that a healthcare facility implements to ensure ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements. This may include policies and procedures related to staff training, quality improvement, infection control, medication management, and patient safety. Effective facility regulation and control are critical for ensuring high-quality care and maintaining the trust of patients and the wider community.

Health care rationing refers to the deliberate limitation or restriction of medical services, treatments, or resources provided to patients based on specific criteria or guidelines. These limitations can be influenced by various factors such as cost-effectiveness, scarcity of resources, evidence-based medicine, and clinical appropriateness. The primary goal of health care rationing is to ensure fair distribution and allocation of finite medical resources among a population while maximizing overall health benefits and minimizing harm.

Rationing can occur at different levels within the healthcare system, including individual patient care decisions, insurance coverage policies, and governmental resource allocation. Examples of rationing include prioritizing certain treatments based on their proven effectiveness, restricting access to high-cost procedures with limited clinical benefits, or setting age limits for specific interventions.

It is important to note that health care rationing remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns about potential disparities in care and the balance between individual patient needs and societal resource constraints.

Transplantation is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a functioning one. The goal of transplantation is to restore normal function, improve quality of life, and extend lifespan in individuals with organ failure or severe tissue damage. Common types of transplants include kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and bone marrow transplantations. The success of a transplant depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the health of both individuals, and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is a healthcare payment model where providers are paid based on the quality and effectiveness of the care they provide, rather than the quantity of services delivered. This approach aims to incentivize providers to deliver better patient outcomes, improve the overall health of populations, and reduce unnecessary costs.

In VBP, specific performance measures are identified and used to evaluate the quality and efficiency of healthcare services provided by physicians, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. These measures may include clinical outcomes, patient experience, and patient safety indicators. Providers that perform well on these measures receive higher payments, while those that do not meet the established benchmarks may receive lower payments or face penalties.

The goal of VBP is to create a more efficient and effective healthcare system by aligning financial incentives with high-quality care, promoting evidence-based practices, and fostering greater transparency and accountability in healthcare delivery. Ultimately, this approach aims to improve patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and the overall value derived from healthcare investments.

Informed consent is a process in medical care where patients are provided with all relevant information about their health status, proposed treatments, potential risks and benefits, and alternative options. This allows patients to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare and understand the consequences of their choices. The process includes ensuring that the patient has adequate mental capacity to make such decisions, is fully aware of the implications, and gives their voluntary agreement for the proposed treatment or procedure. It's a fundamental principle in medical ethics and is required by law in many jurisdictions to protect patients' rights.

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a term used to describe advanced and irreversible liver damage, usually caused by chronic liver conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, or alcoholic liver disease. At this stage, the liver can no longer function properly, leading to a range of serious complications.

The symptoms of ESLD may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)
* Encephalopathy (confusion, drowsiness, or coma caused by the buildup of toxins in the brain)
* Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
* Infections
* Kidney failure

Treatment for ESLD typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to improve survival. However, due to the shortage of available donor livers, many people with ESLD are not eligible for transplantation. The prognosis for individuals with ESLD is generally poor, with a median survival time of less than one year.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Medical ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical care, research, and practice. It provides a framework for addressing questions related to patient autonomy, informed consent, confidentiality, distributive justice, beneficentia (doing good), and non-maleficence (not doing harm). Medical ethics also involves the application of ethical principles such as respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to specific medical cases and situations. It is a crucial component of medical education and practice, helping healthcare professionals make informed decisions that promote patient well-being while respecting their rights and dignity.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

"Essential drugs" is a term used in the medical and public health fields to refer to a list of medications that are considered necessary to meet the most important needs of a healthcare system. The concept of essential drugs was first introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977, with the aim of promoting access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

The WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) is regularly updated and contains a core list of essential medicines that should be available at all times in adequate quantities, in the appropriate dosage forms, and at a price that the majority of the population can afford. The list includes drugs for a wide range of medical conditions, from infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

The selection of essential medicines is based on several criteria, including the burden of disease in a population, the safety and efficacy of the drug, its cost-effectiveness, and its place in the overall treatment strategy for a particular condition. The goal is to ensure that healthcare systems have access to a basic set of medicines that can address the most common health needs of their populations, while also allowing for flexibility to meet the specific needs of individual countries and regions.

In summary, essential drugs are a list of medications considered necessary to meet the most important healthcare needs of a population, selected based on criteria such as disease burden, safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and treatment strategy. The concept is promoted by the World Health Organization to improve access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Posthumous conception is a medical and reproductive procedure where an individual's sperm or egg, which have been retrieved and stored before their death, are used to create offspring after they have passed away. This may involve in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques and the subsequent transfer of resulting embryos to a surrogate mother for gestation. It is important to note that this procedure raises various ethical, legal, and social issues that require careful consideration and regulation.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

Organ preservation solutions are specialized fluids used to maintain the viability and functionality of organs ex vivo (outside the body) during the process of transplantation. These solutions are designed to provide optimal conditions for the organ by preventing tissue damage, reducing metabolic activity, and minimizing ischemic injuries that may occur during the time between organ removal from the donor and implantation into the recipient.

The composition of organ preservation solutions typically includes various ingredients such as:

1. Cryoprotectants: These help prevent ice crystal formation and damage to cell membranes during freezing and thawing processes, especially for organs like the heart and lungs that require deep hypothermia for preservation.
2. Buffers: They maintain physiological pH levels and counteract acidosis caused by anaerobic metabolism in the absence of oxygen supply.
3. Colloids: These substances, such as hydroxyethyl starch or dextran, help preserve oncotic pressure and prevent cellular edema.
4. Electrolytes: Balanced concentrations of ions like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate are essential for maintaining physiological osmolarity and membrane potentials.
5. Energy substrates: Glucose, lactate, or other energy-rich compounds can serve as fuel sources to support the metabolic needs of the organ during preservation.
6. Antioxidants: These agents protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by ischemia-reperfusion injuries.
7. Anti-inflammatory agents and immunosuppressants: Some solutions may contain substances that mitigate the inflammatory response and reduce immune activation in the transplanted organ.

Examples of commonly used organ preservation solutions include University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, Custodiol HTK solution, and Euro-Collins solution. The choice of preservation solution depends on the specific organ being transplanted and the duration of preservation required.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Purchasing, Hospital" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that "purchasing" in this context might be referring to the process or department within a hospital responsible for acquiring goods, services, and equipment. This function is essential for the efficient and cost-effective operation of a hospital. However, without more specific context, it's challenging to provide a precise definition. If you have a particular aspect of hospital purchasing that you'd like to understand better, I'd be happy to help clarify if I can.

Facial transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves replacing all or part of a patient's face with facial tissue from a deceased donor. The procedure typically includes the skin, muscles, nerves, and bones of the face, and may also include the eyes and eyelids, ears, and tongue. Facial transplantation is performed to significantly improve the appearance and function of a person's face, usually in cases where the patient has suffered severe facial trauma or disfigurement due to burns, cancer, or other medical conditions.

The procedure requires extensive planning, coordination, and expertise from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, transplant specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychiatrists, and rehabilitation therapists. The surgery itself can take up to 30 hours or more, depending on the extent of the transplant.

Following the procedure, patients must undergo rigorous immunosuppressive therapy to prevent their immune system from rejecting the donor tissue. This involves taking medications that weaken the immune system and make the patient more susceptible to infections and other complications. Despite these risks, facial transplantation has been shown to significantly improve the quality of life for some patients who have undergone the procedure.

In medical terms, dissection refers to the separation of the layers of a biological tissue or structure by cutting or splitting. It is often used to describe the process of surgically cutting through tissues, such as during an operation to separate organs or examine their internal structures.

However, "dissection" can also refer to a pathological condition in which there is a separation of the layers of a blood vessel wall by blood, creating a false lumen or aneurysm. This type of dissection is most commonly seen in the aorta and can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

In summary, "dissection" has both surgical and pathological meanings related to the separation of tissue layers, and it's essential to consider the context in which the term is used.

Tissue preservation is the process of preventing decomposition or autolysis (self-digestion) of tissues after they have been removed from a living organism. This is typically achieved through the use of fixatives, such as formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, which stabilize proteins and other cellular structures by creating cross-links between them. Other methods of tissue preservation include freezing, dehydration, and embedding in paraffin or plastic resins. Properly preserved tissues can be stored for long periods of time and used for various research and diagnostic purposes, such as histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology studies.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

The Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities (CPHA) was a non-profit organization that was established in the United States to collect, process, and analyze data related to healthcare services provided by hospitals and professionals. The CPHA developed a system for measuring and comparing the quality and efficiency of medical care delivered by hospitals and physicians.

The Commission's main product was the Professional Activity Study (PAS), which was a comprehensive database of hospital discharge summaries that contained information about patient diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. The PAS was used to evaluate physician performance, identify best practices, and develop quality improvement initiatives.

In 1995, the CPHA merged with the American Medical Association (AMA) to form the AMA-CPHA, which continued to collect and analyze healthcare data until 2003 when it was discontinued due to financial difficulties. The work of the CPHA has since been taken up by other organizations, such as The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), which continue to monitor and regulate the quality of healthcare in the United States.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Financial Management" is not a medical term. Financial management refers to the process of managing the financial resources, such as budgeting, investing, raising funds, and planning for an organization or individual. It involves the application of management principles to the financial functions of an organization.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Pancreas transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves implanting a healthy pancreas from a deceased donor into a recipient with diabetes. The primary goal of this procedure is to restore the recipient's insulin production and eliminate the need for insulin injections, thereby improving their quality of life and reducing the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

There are three main types of pancreas transplantation:

1. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: This is the most common type of pancreas transplant, performed simultaneously with a kidney transplant in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The new pancreas not only restores insulin production but also helps prevent further kidney damage.
2. Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation: In this procedure, a patient receives a kidney transplant first, followed by a pancreas transplant at a later time. This is typically performed in patients who have already undergone a successful kidney transplant and wish to improve their diabetes management.
3. Pancreas transplantation alone (PTA): In rare cases, a pancreas transplant may be performed without a concurrent kidney transplant. This is usually considered for patients with brittle diabetes who experience severe hypoglycemic episodes despite optimal medical management and lifestyle modifications.

The success of pancreas transplantation has significantly improved over the years, thanks to advancements in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it is essential to weigh the benefits against the risks, such as potential complications related to surgery, infection, rejection, and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Ultimately, the decision to undergo pancreas transplantation should be made in consultation with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, considering each patient's unique medical history and personal circumstances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "negotiating" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Negotiation is a process in which different parties come together to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement on a particular matter. It is often used in various contexts such as business, politics, and law, but it is not typically used in the context of medical terminology.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Accident insurance is a type of coverage that provides benefits in the event of an unexpected injury or accident. This type of insurance is designed to help protect individuals from financial losses due to medical expenses, lost wages, and other costs associated with an accidental injury. Accident insurance policies typically cover events such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and other unforeseen accidents. Benefits may include reimbursement for medical bills, disability payments, or even death benefits in the event of a fatal accident. It's important to note that accident insurance is not a substitute for comprehensive health insurance coverage, but rather a supplement to help cover out-of-pocket costs associated with accidents.

Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, specifically an oligosaccharide, that is composed of three sugars: galactose, fructose, and glucose. It is a non-reducing sugar, which means it does not undergo oxidation reactions like reducing sugars do.

Raffinose is found in various plants, including beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, and whole grains. It is a member of the class of carbohydrates known as alpha-galactosides.

In humans, raffinose cannot be digested because we lack the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, which is necessary to break down the bond between galactose and glucose in raffinose. As a result, it passes through the small intestine intact and enters the large intestine, where it is fermented by gut bacteria. This fermentation process can lead to the production of gases such as methane and hydrogen, which can cause digestive discomfort, bloating, and flatulence in some individuals.

It's worth noting that raffinose has been studied for its potential prebiotic properties, as it can promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. However, excessive consumption may lead to digestive issues in sensitive individuals.

A generic drug is a medication that contains the same active ingredients as an originally marketed brand-name drug, known as its "innovator" or "reference listed" drug. The active ingredient is the component of the drug that is responsible for its therapeutic effect. Generic drugs are required to have the same quality, strength, purity, and stability as their brand-name counterparts. They must also meet the same rigorous Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards regarding safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing.

Generic drugs are typically less expensive than their brand-name equivalents because generic manufacturers do not have to repeat the costly clinical trials that were required for the innovator drug. Instead, they demonstrate through bioequivalence studies that their product is therapeutically equivalent to the reference listed drug. This means that the generic drug delivers the same amount of active ingredient into a patient's bloodstream in the same timeframe as the brand-name drug.

In summary, generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs with the same active ingredients, dosage forms, strengths, routes of administration, and intended uses. They must meet FDA regulations for safety, efficacy, and manufacturing standards, ensuring that they provide patients with the same therapeutic benefits as their brand-name counterparts at a more affordable price.

A sperm bank is a facility that collects, stores, and distributes semen from donors for the purpose of artificial insemination. The sperm samples are typically collected through masturbation and then frozen in liquid nitrogen to preserve them for long-term storage. Potential donors undergo rigorous screening processes, including medical examinations, genetic testing, and background checks, to ensure that their sperm is healthy and free from infectious diseases.

Sperm banks may be used by individuals or couples who are unable to conceive naturally due to male infertility, same-sex female couples, single women, or those with genetic disorders who wish to avoid passing on certain genetic conditions to their offspring. Recipients can choose a donor based on various factors such as physical characteristics, ethnicity, education level, and personality traits.

It is important to note that the regulations governing sperm banks vary by country and even by state or province within countries. Therefore, it is essential to research and understand the specific laws and guidelines that apply in your location before using a sperm bank.

Cold ischemia is a medical term that refers to the loss of blood flow and subsequent lack of oxygen delivery to an organ or tissue, which is then cooled and stored in a solution at temperatures between 0-4°C (32-39°F) for the purpose of transplantation. The term "cold" indicates the temperature range, while "ischemia" refers to the lack of blood flow and oxygen delivery to the tissue.

During cold ischemia, the metabolic activity of the organ or tissue slows down significantly, which helps to reduce the rate of cellular damage that would otherwise occur due to the absence of oxygen and nutrients. However, even with cold storage, there is still some degree of injury to the organ or tissue, and this can affect its function after transplantation.

The duration of cold ischemia time is an important factor in determining the success of a transplant procedure. Prolonged cold ischemia times are associated with increased risk of poor organ function and rejection, as well as decreased graft survival rates. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the cold ischemia time as much as possible during organ transplantation to ensure optimal outcomes for the recipient.

"Drug costs" refer to the amount of money that must be paid to acquire and use a particular medication. These costs can include the following:

1. The actual purchase price of the drug, which may vary depending on factors such as the dosage form, strength, and quantity of the medication, as well as whether it is obtained through a retail pharmacy, mail-order service, or other distribution channel.
2. Any additional fees or charges associated with obtaining the drug, such as shipping and handling costs, insurance copayments or coinsurance amounts, and deductibles.
3. The cost of any necessary medical services or supplies that are required to administer the drug, such as syringes, needles, or alcohol swabs for injectable medications, or nebulizers for inhaled drugs.
4. The cost of monitoring and managing any potential side effects or complications associated with the use of the drug, which may include additional medical appointments, laboratory tests, or other diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that drug costs can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the patient's insurance coverage, the pharmacy where the drug is obtained, and any discounts or rebates that may be available. Patients are encouraged to shop around for the best prices and to explore all available options for reducing their out-of-pocket costs, such as using generic medications or participating in manufacturer savings programs.

... (also called organ harvesting) is a surgical procedure that removes organs or tissues for reuse, typically ... Thirteen of those organs transplanted were kidneys and 6 were livers. Operation Bid Rig § Organ trafficking "Tissue and Organ ... organ procurement is heavily regulated by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to prevent unethical allocation of organs. ... Organ procurement is tightly regulated by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). In the United States, there are a total of ...
After a minimum of 1 year of working as an Organ Transplant Coordinator or Organ Procurement Coordinator, most Organ ... "Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Rules, 2014" (PDF). Govt of India. "A bouquet of courses in allied ... Transplant coordinators can work for organ procurement organizations as donor or procurement transplant coordinators to ... or just procurement coordinators. Donor coordinators are called when a potential organ donor meets criteria for donating organs ...
Accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations, Lifeline of Ohio ... Lifeline of Ohio has both clinical and non-clinical staff who promote and coordinate organ and tissue donation. "Organ ... Lifeline of Ohio is one of four organ procurement organizations (OPOs) in the state of Ohio designated by the Centers for ... As a licensed tissue bank, Lifeline of Ohio's tissue recovery services are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA ...
Unlike other organs and tissues, corneas are in adequate supply for transplants in the United States, and excess tissue is ... Recovery is currently the preferred term; although "harvesting" and "procurement" have been used in the past, they are ... When an organ/tissue donor dies, consent for donation is obtained either from a donor registry or from the donor's next of kin ... refers to the retrieval of organs or tissues from a deceased organ donor. ...
... called Biomax Procurement Services. Under this guise, they posed as potential buyers of aborted fetal tissue and organs, and ... in setting up a fake tissue procurement company and using fake identities to set up private meetings engaged in wire and mail ... "sham procurement contracts," offering $1,600 for liver and thymus fetal tissues. The videos and allegations attracted ... and provide the full raw footage he collected while posing as an executive of the fictitious tissue procurement firm Biomax. On ...
Fry-Revere has served as a medical ethicist on the Washington Regional Transplant Community Organ and Tissue Advisory Committee ... WRTC is the Organ Procurement Organization (from deceased donors) for Washington, DC and neighboring regions in Maryland and ... "Bioethicist and living donor advocate Sigrid Fry-Revere challenges the current organ donor system with questions about why ... Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar (April 2014). "Sigrid Fry-Revere on Ethics of National and International Organ Markets". ...
During procurement, organs that are being recovered are cooled and perfused with preservation solution. This slows organ ... As the abdominal organs are cooled in situ, the surrounding tissue is dissected so that they may be quickly extracted. In the ... procurement can begin by utilizing the same standard techniques for all abdominal organ procurements. The team exposes the ... Following matching of the organ, the complicated procurement of the small bowel can be performed by a team of abdominal ...
In FY 2008, HRSA provided $23 million to promote the donation of organs and tissues and improve national procurement, ... HRSA oversees the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients in ... HRSA oversees the nation's organ and tissue donation and transplantation systems, poison control and vaccine injury ... addition to promoting national awareness of the critical need for organ and tissue donation. HRSA also provides staff and ...
NDRI partners with a nationwide network of over 130 tissue source sites (TSS), including organ procurement organizations (OPO ... It serves as the liaison between procurement sources and the research community. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) have ... tissue banks, eye banks, and hospitals. The TSS are distributed throughout the US, in 45 states, with concentrations in major ...
The Iranian Tissue Bank, commencing in 1994, was the first multi-facility tissue bank in country. In June 2000, the Organ ... followed by the establishment of the Iranian Network for Transplantation Organ Procurement. This act helped to expand heart, ... This surgery involves the transfer of tissue or an organ from one part of a person's body to another. early information on ... Modern organ transplantation in Iran dates to 1935, when the first cornea transplant in Iran was performed by Professor ...
... is regulated by the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994. The law allows both deceased ... functions as the apex body for activities of relating to procurement, allotment and distribution of organs in the country. ... "Organ Report". Archived from the original on 4 December 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020. National Organ and Tissue ... Uterus transplant is also performed, but it is not regarded as a life-saving organ. Organs and tissues from a person declared ...
... corneal donor tissue is usually handled by various eye banks.) Individual regional organ procurement organizations, all members ... Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts. Due to the genetic difference between the organ and the recipient, the ... The first transplant in the modern sense - the implantation of organ tissue in order to replace an organ function - was a ... In 1984, the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) was passed; it gave way to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network ...
The Care of the Patient is Our Reason for Existence." Facilitating kidney and other organ and tissue donation was the logical ... In 2016, it operated three organ procurement organizations: Tennessee Donor Services, New Mexico Donor Services, and Sierra ... next step in the vertical integration of DCI as the comprehensive care provider for those in need of organ and tissue ... Donor Services, in California, and one tissue bank: DCI Donor Services Tissue Bank. DCI Laboratory, founded in 1988 as a ...
In the United States, if the patient is at or near death, the hospital must notify a designated Organ Procurement Organization ... You can still be a tissue donor. Greer, David M. (30 December 2021). "Determination of Brain Death". New England Journal of ... 2012 State Comparisons "State and Federal Law on Organ Procurement". Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Unless the ... When mechanical ventilation is used to support the body of a brain dead organ donor pending a transplant into an organ ...
Tayur pioneered the use of nudge videos to increase tissue and organ donations by increasing consent from next of kins, which ... "A Fairer and More Equitable, Cost-Effective, and Transparent System of Donor Organ Procurement, Allocation, and Distribution: ... among other organ procurement organizations (OPOs), to investigate behavioral approaches that will increase the consent rate ... and the families of organ and tissue donors." Tayur and OrganJet have also been profiled in The Craft of Creativity, Ars ...
... corneal and tissue transplants HOPE Program (Human Organ Procurement and Exchange) University of Calgary Medical Clinic (UCMC) ... 93 inpatient beds 21 short-stay beds Diagnostic imaging Southern Alberta Tissue Program Calgary Laboratory Services space for ...
... "deeply concerned about recent allegations regarding the procurement of organs and tissues through coercive or exploitative ... Involuntary organ harvesting is illegal under Chinese law, although under a 1984 regulation it became legal to remove organs ... China has had an organ transplantation programme since the 1960s. It is one of the largest organ transplant programmes in the ... introduced a 2008 bill that would make it illegal for Canadians to get an organ transplant abroad if the organ was taken from ...
... tissue and organ procurement MeSH N02.421.911.200 - directed tissue donation MeSH N02.421.911.600 - donor selection MeSH ... tissue banks MeSH N02.278.065.900.205 - bone banks MeSH N02.278.065.900.400 - eye banks MeSH N02.278.080 - birthing centers ...
In 2015, Daleiden released videos showing Planned Parenthood officials discussing fees for human fetal tissue and organs. ... In furtherance of his plan, he set up a fake biomedical research company called Biomax Procurement Services. Daleiden and his ... Planned Parenthood states that they may donate fetal tissue at the request of a patient, but such tissue is never sold. ... The misdemeanor charge of offering to buy fetal tissue was dismissed on June 13, 2016, because of a defect in the indictment. ...
... to replace damaged tissues in various organs. In the research process of expanding the therapeutic uses of mesenchymal stem ... Finally, research has been largely limited due to the ethical issues that surround their controversial procurement from ... Mesenchymal stem cells can also be isolated from birth-associated tissues such as the umbilical cord without the need for an ... However, there have been some cases where there were both improvement and toxicity inflicted on the targeted organ, as well as ...
Eye bank The Human Tissue Transplantation Act No. 48 of 1987 set out the legal framework for tissue procurement and ... Corneal transplantation Eye bank Organ donation "Eyeing Merit: Pakistan from Sri Lankan eyes". ... "Tissue Bank: Srii Lanka" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 1998. Retrieved 25 January 2012. "Sri Lanka Human Tissue ... The eye bank was established in late 1980s and the tissue bank in 1998. It is the first organization in the world that supplies ...
... there must be an official declaration of death in a person before starting organ procurement, or that organ procurement cannot ... by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, or by molecular repair or rejuvenation of deteriorated cells and tissues. A United ... that the rule is legitimate in protecting organ donors while also countering any moral or legal objection to organ procurement ... Miller, F.G. (October 2009). "Death and organ donation: back to the future". Journal of Medical Ethics. 35 (10): 616-620. doi: ...
The United Network for Organ Sharing and the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) regulate Organ Procurement ... "Organ and tissue donor registration". Province of Ontario. November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2019. "Organ and Tissue ... "Compensation for Live Organ Donors". Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved December 4, 2019. "Organ and tissue donation". Getting a ... In many cases, organ-procurement representatives will request screening tests (such as blood typing) or organ-preserving drugs ...
These distinctions, and the independence of physicians certifying legal death, are significant in organ procurement. Post- ... The rise in intracranial pressure can lead to further disruption in cerebral blood flow, leading to necrosis or tissue death. ... Stage 4: Skeletonization - The internal organs liquefy and the body begins to dry out. Stage 5: Extreme Decomposition - ... Skeletonization, the end of decomposition, where all soft tissues have decomposed, leaving only the skeleton. Fossilization, ...
When a cell cannot be regenerated, the body will replace it with stromal connective tissue to maintain tissue or organ function ... 2008). 'Metabolic Management - Organ Procurement and Preservation For Transplantation. New York: Landes Bioscience Springer. ... The body can make more cells to replace the damaged cells keeping the organ or tissue intact and fully functional. ... When it affects many cells in an organ, it causes some pallor, increased turgor, and increase in weight of the organ. On ...
In a study done in 1989, only 35% of 195 physicians and nurses involved in organ procurement polled knew brain death criteria. ... The protocol for preserving the cadaver aims to prevent infection and maintain adequate oxygenation of tissue. The cadaver's ... It states that organ donors must be dead before removing the organs, and removing the organs is not the cause of death. This ... "organ recovery". Many organs can be extracted, and many lives can be saved by one body. The bodies are generally those of organ ...
"UNOS , United Network for Organ Sharing , US Organ Transplantation". UNOS. "OPTN: Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network ... for matching of donated hands and face tissue to ensure correct tissue type and compatibility for skin color, size, gender and ... United Network for Organ Sharing was awarded the initial Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network contract on September 30 ... United Network for Organ Sharing and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network operate by grouping states into several ...
Buttery LD, Bishop AE (2005). "Introduction to tissue engineering". Biomaterials, Artificial Organs and Tissue Engineering. Vol ... procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells, vol. OJ L, 7 April 2004, ... Tissue engineering often involves the use of cells placed on tissue scaffolds in the formation of new viable tissue for a ... Cell-Based Bone Tissue Engineering Clinical Tissue Engineering Center State of Ohio Initiative for Tissue Engineering (National ...
In 1964, Terasaki developed the microcytotoxicity test, a tissue-typing test for organ transplant donors and recipients that ... 1977). International Symposium on Kidney Procurement, Preservation, and Sharing for Clinical Transplantation, University of ... Tissue Antigens 1971; 2: 57-67. Terasaki PI, Cecka JM, Gjertson DW, Takemoto S. High survival rates of kidney transplants from ... Los Angeles: UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory; 1990. Patel R, Terasaki PI. Significance of the positive crossmatch test in kidney ...
In August 2015, StemExpress cut all ties with Planned Parenthood for the procurement of human fetal tissue, which has had a ... In Massachusetts, where there is no fetal tissue and organ donation program, Attorney General Maura Healey found that aborted ... PPFA have said they may donate fetal tissue at the request of a patient, but such tissue is never sold. At one point in the ... House Panel Holds Fetal Tissue Firm in Contempt, Dems Walk (AP) House panel votes to hold fetal tissue company in contempt (The ...
Learn about Tissue and Organ Procurement at ... Organ Donation. Organ Donations. Organ Procurement. Organ Procurement System. Organ Procurement Systems. Organ Procurements. ... Required Organ Donation Request. Required Request. Required Requests. Tissue Donation. Tissue Donations. Tissue Procurement. ... Tissue and Organ Procurement. Synonyms. Card, Donor. Cards, Donor. Donor Card. Donor Cards. ...
Results of search for su:{Tissue and Organ Procurement} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Guide to safety and quality assurance for organs, tissues, and cells / [edited by Council of Europe Publishing]. by Council of ... of Essential Health Technologies , WHO Consultation on the Ethics, Access and Safety in Tissue and Organ Transplantation : ... Ethics, access and safety in tissue and organ transplantation : issues of global concern, Madrid, Spain, 6-9 October 2003 : ...
To best understand the organ procurement process, reviewing the history of transplantation is helpful. ... Organ procurement is intimately tied to the history of organ transplantation and organ donation. ... organized the South-Eastern Regional Organ Procurement Program (SEROPP) after determining that tissue typing provided increased ... Organ procurement is intimately tied to the history of organ transplantation and organ donation. To best understand the organ ...
Apply for Tissue/Organ Procurement job with Thermo Fisher Scientific in Frederick, Merilendas, Jungtinės Amerikos Valstijos. ...
AN ACT TO AMEND THE CODE OF LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 1976, SO AS TO ENACT THE GIFT OF LIFE ORGAN AND TISSUE PROCUREMENT ACT OF ... SECTION 1. This act may be cited as the Gift of Life Organ and Tissue Procurement Act of 1996. Income tax check-off SECTION 2. ... Gift of Life Organ and Tissue Procurement Act of 1996. History. Body Date Action Description Com Leg Involved ... the American Red Cross Southeastern Tissues Services, the South Carolina Lions Eye Bank, the South Carolina Organ Procurement ...
... in organ donation. International Forum for Transplant Ethics ... Tissue and Organ Procurement / standards* * World Health ... The case for "presumed consent" in organ donation. International Forum for Transplant Ethics Lancet. 1998 May 30;351(9116):1650 ... Tissue and Organ Procurement / legislation & jurisprudence* * ...
This review aims to highlight the potential of these hybrid materials in tissue engineering applications. Additionally, the ... Challenges in organ transplantation such as high organ demand and biocompatibility issues have led scientists in the field of ... tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to work on the use of scaffolds as an alternative to transplantation. Among ... scaffolds have received considerable attention because of their biocompatibility and structural similarity to native tissues. ...
Organ procurement (also called organ harvesting) is a surgical procedure that removes organs or tissues for reuse, typically ... Thirteen of those organs transplanted were kidneys and 6 were livers. Operation Bid Rig § Organ trafficking "Tissue and Organ ... organ procurement is heavily regulated by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to prevent unethical allocation of organs. ... Organ procurement is tightly regulated by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). In the United States, there are a total of ...
Organ or Tissue Procurement Organizations.. Consistent with applicable law, we may disclose your PHI to organ procurement ... organizations or other entities engaged in the procurement, banking, or transplantation of organs for the purpose of tissue ...
"Procurement organization" means an organ procurement organization or a tissue bank. "Reasonably available for the giving of ... In making a request for organ or tissue donation, the hospital or the hospitals federally designated organ procurement ... "Organ procurement organization" means the organ procurement organization designated by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of ... "Tissue bank" does not include a licensed blood bank. For the purposes of this Act, "tissue" does not include organs or blood or ...
Organ donor data source: Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Tissue donor data source: American Association of ... Infectious Disease Transmission during Organ and Tissue Transplantation Melissa A. Greenwald. , Matthew J. Kuehnert, and Jay A ... Survey data for tissue donors includes only AATB-accredited tissue banks, except in 2007, when data were collected from ... accredited and nonaccredited tissue banks. No information is available regarding the number of organ and tissue donors. ...
The Gifted Life: Organ, Tissue and Eye Donation Podcast The Louisiana Organ Procurement Agency ... Improve your knowledge about organ, tissue and eye donation as your hosts Lori Steele, Nila Schwab, and Joey Boudreaux have ... Conversations about all things organ playing. Dr. Vidas Pinkevicius and Dr. Ausra Motuzaite-Pinkeviciene talk about organ ...
Tissue Donors / supply & distribution * Tissue and Organ Procurement / statistics & numerical data * Treatment Outcome ... The limiting factor in lung transplantation remains the number of organs available. Efforts to increase the donor pool, such as ... low tidal volume ventilation, are effective in allowing a greater percentage of offered organs to be accepted. Perhaps the most ...
... or harvesting of fetal tissue for procurement of organs.. While Southern Baptists entrust the ultimate decision about organ ... Whereas organ and tissue donation is a life-giving act since transplantation of organs and tissues is scientifically proven to ... Home » Transplant » Facts about organ donation » Theological perspective on organ and tissue donation ... Reprinted by permission of the New York Organ Donor Network, the organ procurement organization serving the Greater New York ...
Tissue/Organ Procurement. Career Pathway. *Work Experience. *Technical Diploma. *Associate Degree. *College Transfer ...
Advance commitment: an alternative approach to the family veto problem in organ procurement. Jurgen De Wispelaere et al., ... Emergency medicine, organ donation and the Human Tissue Act. M D D Bell, Emergency Medicine Journal, 2006 ... Modified mandated choice for organ procurement. P Chouhan et al., Journal of Medical Ethics, 2003 ... The organs crisis and the Spanish model: theoretical versus pragmatic considerations. Muireann Quigley et al., Journal of ...
Respond to organ and tissue donation requests. We can share health information about you with organ procurement organizations. ...
... state has its own requirements for organizations that perform organ and tissue recovery and OPOs must follow Organ Procurement ... Organ donation is truly a rare event. Less than 1 percent of all people die in a way that allows for organ donation. Organ ... Organ, eye and tissue donation does not compromise death investigations.. The National Association of Medical Examiners ... Organ procurement organizations (OPOs) actively pursue donation possibilities. OPOs will screen more than 700,000 telephone ...
Respond to organ and tissue donation requests. We can share health information about you with organ procurement organizations. ...
of Health and Human Services by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). This Web site provides data and educational ... information about organ donation, transplantation and the matching process. ... ILIP - Gift of Hope Organ & Tissue Donor Network Itasca, IL. Administrative Director - Harry E Wilkins III ... Organ Procurement Organizations Name Location Key Personnel. Center Phone Region ALOB - Legacy of Hope Birmingham, AL. ...
Organ and Tissue Procurement. Your PHI may be disclosed to organizations that facilitate organ, eye or tissue procurement, ...
Organ and Tissue Procurement. Your PHI may be disclosed to organizations that facilitate organ, eye or tissue procurement, ...
Respond to organ and tissue donation requests. We can share health information about you with organ procurement organizations. ...
The identification of acceptable donors is the responsibility of the organ and tissue procurement agencies. ... Organ Donor Information The Medical Examiner has jurisdiction over the entire body of a deceased person (all organs and tissues ... The Medical Examiner may allow release of certain organs, tissue, or corneas to allow harvesting for donation to proceed, but ... Authorization or consent for harvesting corneas, organs, or tissue must be obtained from the surviving family of the deceased ( ...
Guidelines for Preventing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Through Transplantation of Human Tissue and Organs ... Approximately 66 Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) and 260 organ transplant centers are members of the Organ Procurement ... even if it follows the procurement and/or transplant of the organs or tissues. * Results of HIV testing for organ/tissue donors ... Recall of Stored Tissue and Tracking of Recipients of Organs/Tissue from HIV-Infected Donors *Upon being notified that an organ ...
Ambassador for One Legacy: LA County Tissue and Organ Procurement Organization. Commissions and Task Forces: ...
Ambassador for One Legacy: LA County Tissue and Organ Procurement Organization. Commissions and Task Forces: ...
  • These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING , to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation. (
  • Organ procurement was started as a local endeavor when facilities performing kidney transplantation recovered organs from donors in the same facility. (
  • DCD had been the norm for organ donors until 'brain death' became a legal definition in the United States in 1981. (
  • In the United States, the match between human donors and recipients is coordinated by groups like United Network for Organ Sharing. (
  • Number of deceased and living organ donors and deceased tissue donors, United States, 1998-2012. (
  • Survey data for tissue donors includes only AATB-accredited tissue banks, except in 2007, when data were collected from accredited and nonaccredited tissue banks. (
  • No information is available regarding the number of organ and tissue donors. (
  • Organ donors have to meet extensive criteria, including dying in a hospital and on a ventilator, passing a host of medical tests, such as being free of most cancers and organ damage, having their organs accepted by the transplant teams, and most importantly, there must be authorization for donation. (
  • And, for any death that might have donor potential, OPOs send staff onsite to perform detailed medical record reviews of patient data to assess medical suitability and ensure potential organ donors are not missed. (
  • By law, OPOs are the only organizations that can perform the lifesaving mission of recovering organs from deceased donors for transplantation. (
  • Their commitment is evident 24-hours-a-day, 365 days a year in their care and compassion for organ donors and their families. (
  • The number of organ donors and lifesaving organ transplants continues to grow. (
  • And, based on data through the first nine months of this year, 2019 is on track to see a 9 percent increase in deceased organ donors over 2018. (
  • At the current pace, AOPO projects 2019 could see an additional 1,000 donors and 3,000 organs transplanted over last year. (
  • Opioid overdose deaths are not driving the increase in organ donors. (
  • Drug intoxication deaths, which includes opioid and others, have accounted for only about one-third of the growth in organ donors nationally since 2012. (
  • The increased use of organs from donors who have died from overdose illustrates both that OPOs are successful in their responsibilities of actualizing potential donors, and an important shift in perceptions among transplant professionals and the public about the acceptability of such organs. (
  • and recall of stored tissues from donors found after donation to have been infected. (
  • In 1985, when tests for HIV antibody became available, screening prospective donors of blood, organs, and other tissues also began (2,3). (
  • Additionally, the goal of creating a single, standardized instrument is to increase the assurance of safe donation by: 1) optimizing identification of suitable donors, 2) minimizing donor loss due to inappropriate exclusion, 3) accurately identifying an organ donor risk designation, and 4) reducing complexity to facilitate comprehension by a bereaved interviewee. (
  • In the general population, only three in 1,000 people die in a way that would enable their organs to be donated - if they were registered donors. (
  • They also provide employees and community members opportunities to sign up as organ donors. (
  • The Center for Organ Recovery & Education (CORE) recruited all of them to register organ, eye, and tissue donors during their 2019 Small Business Challenge. (
  • Business owners compete to sign up organ donors. (
  • In April 2019, Studio RAW, a Pittsburgh-area hair salon, offered free haircuts to 15 people who registered as organ, eye, and tissue donors. (
  • Ford volunteers also encourage DMV customers to sign up as organ donors as they renew their driver's licenses and ID cards. (
  • Arizona Brewery Taps Customers as Organ Donors. (
  • A brewery may not be an obvious site for recruiting organ, eye, and tissue donors. (
  • To date, Eurotransplant has focused its work on the allocation of organs from deceased donors. (
  • In order to mediate successfully in the allocation of organs from living donors and its VCA procedures Eurotransplant, together with all its partners, needs to develop proposals for objective, transparent, reliable and valid allocation policies for these new fields. (
  • The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) is the largest biorepository of human pancreata and associated immune organs from donors with type 1 diabetes (T1D), maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), gestational diabetes, islet autoantibody positivity (AAb+), and without diabetes. (
  • All three consider themselves to be "walking miracles," thanks to the gift of life they received from their organ donors. (
  • April is National Donate Life Month, and Ahlbrand, Hume and Elkins are sharing their stories as a way to encourage people to register as organ, eye and tissue donors. (
  • So far this year, 327 people have received organ transplants thanks to registered donors in Texas and thousands more have been given the gift of sight through cornea and ocular tissue transplants. (
  • The recognition of this risk led to the screening of donors for some infectious agents, such as, HIV, which made the organ supply substantially safer. (
  • Therefore, it may prove challenging to implement West Nile virus screening of potential organ donors. (
  • d cross-sectional study with data from the records of neurocritical patients and potential organ donors between 2018 and 2019, being analyzed by descriptive statistics and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. (
  • Objective: To map the global legislation regulating the donation, capture and distribution processes of organs and tissues from deceased donors for transplants. (
  • The procurement of organs and tissues from deceased donors is practically non-existent in Africa. (
  • 1984: The National Organ Transplant Act established a nationwide computer registry operated by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), authorizing financial support for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). (
  • Organ procurement organizations (OPOs) actively pursue donation possibilities. (
  • OPOs will screen more than 700,000 telephone death referrals from hospitals for the potential of organ donation this year alone. (
  • OPOs have absolutely no incentive to do anything but the best job possible and recover as many organs as possible. (
  • OPOs are only reimbursed when they succeed at their mission - assisting donor families in carrying out their decisions to save lives through organ donation and delivering organs to transplant programs for their patients on the transplant waiting list. (
  • OPOs), eye banks, and tissue banks is to address the lack of standardization among these organizations, which affects quality program review processes. (
  • On behalf of the nation's tissue banks, eye banks and organ procurement organizations (OPOs), we can assure everyone that the circumstances described in these articles simply do not exist as described. (
  • Through this Act, laws relating to organ and tissue donation and transplantation are consolidated and modified for the purpose of furthering this public policy, and for the purpose of establishing consistency between this Act and the core provisions of the Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act drafted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. (
  • Research into the positions of various religious groups reveals the underlying attitude that unless the group has taken action to prohibit organ or tissue donation and transplantation, it is usually assumed that such donation is permissible. (
  • Although this is a passive approach to affirming organ and tissue donation and transplantation, it seems to be the position of a large population of the religious community. (
  • All faith leaders are encouraged to research their religious group's tradition and position on organ and tissue donation and transplantation, as well as other biomedical ethical issues. (
  • The following summary of statements concerning various religious groups' positions on organ and tissue donation and transplantation may be of help to you. (
  • The promotion, support and coordination of organ donation and transplantation in the broadest sense. (
  • A number of transplant organisations from around the world continue their partnership to create a fourth educational webinar for the organ donation and transplantation communities. (
  • Our goal is to share experiences to date and respond to your questions about the impact of COVID-19 on organ donation and transplantation. (
  • This recognition is not just a win for LiveOnNY, it's a victory for all organ donor heroes and healthcare organizations across the nation and the paramount importance of organ donation and transplantation. (
  • For purposes of this Section, a non-transplant anatomic bank operating under the auspices of a hospital, accredited medical school, dental school, college or university, or federally designated organ procurement organization is not required to be accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks. (
  • The two were connected by LiveOnNY, New York City's federally designated organ procurement organization, ahead of Fisher's death. (
  • NEW YORK , Sept. 19, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- LiveOnNY, the federally designated organ procurement organization in the NY Metro region was named a finalist in the community service organizations category in the third annual "Defender Service Awards" presented by CHASE, which embraces the Defender inner spirit of heroism and recognizes those who embody this. (
  • LiveOnNY is a nonprofit, federally designated organ procurement organization (OPO) dedicated to saving lives, providing comfort, and strengthening legacies through organ, eye, and tissue donation. (
  • The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs , systems, or organizations . (
  • If you are writing about organ donation, we hope you will include the facts below and reach out to our organizations for additional information or to speak to experts. (
  • The DRAI project began in early 2006 with the purpose of creating a uniform donor history questionnaire for organ, tissue, and ocular donation organizations and professional associations in the United States. (
  • AETNA headquarters refers its offices to this website for a list of organ procurement organizations that can help with awareness programs. (
  • It is the world's largest processor of cellular bone allografts and delivers unparalleled expertise and customer service to its growing network of surgeons, partners and the country's most reputable organ procurement organizations. (
  • In Texas, 15 Donate Life Texas organizations perform the organ, eye and tissue recovery procedures. (
  • Legislative responses to organ transplantation / edited by World Health Organization. (
  • As SEROPP evolved, it was incorporated into a nonprofit organization in 1975 and renamed the South-Eastern Organ Procurement Foundation (SEOPF). (
  • As the organization and the field of transplantation grew, organ sharing became a nationwide responsibility. (
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), illegal organ trade occurs when organs are removed from the body for the purpose of commercial transactions. (
  • CORE, the organ procurement organization for parts of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and New York, launched the Small Business Challenge in 2018. (
  • Eurotransplant is a non-profit service organization which facilitates patient-oriented allocation and cross border exchange of deceased donor organs. (
  • Over time, the organization has extended its activities to other organs - such as the heart, lungs, the liver, the intestine and the pancreas. (
  • It's part of a larger organization called Donate Life that calls itself an organ procurement organization. (
  • If you have already registered with an organ procurement organization, like Donate Life Arizona or the University of Arizona Willed Body Program, that fact should be indicated on your document. (
  • There is also a separate section in the Arizona Revised Statutes that authorizes the Arizona Department of Transportation to transfer executed documents of anatomical gifts to an organ procurement organization that maintains an anatomical gift registry, i.e. (
  • Illinois recognizes that there is a critical shortage of human organs and tissues available to citizens in need of organ and tissue transplants. (
  • Since 1961, EBAA member eye banks have provided tissue for more than 2 million sight restoring, life-changing corneal transplants. (
  • About 114,000 people in the United States are on a waitlist for organ transplants. (
  • In 2016, doctors successfully completed more than 33,600 transplants in the United States, giving patients a second chance at life, according to the national Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. (
  • The risk for infections caused by pathogens transmitted through solid organ or tissue transplants, referred to here as donor-derived or transplant-transmitted infections, has been recognized for decades and remains a worldwide public health problem. (
  • It is likely that signs and symptoms of encephalitis among transplant recipients during a West Nile virus outbreak led to the recognition that West Nile virus had been transmitted through organ transplants. (
  • There is currently a significant amount of misinformation being spread about the process for deceased organ donation , and particularly, that the supply problem is easily solvable because 'thousands of transplantable organs go unrecovered each year. (
  • The salon also used social media to encourage organ donor sign-ups by sharing photos and stories of people on the transplant waiting list. (
  • But more than 119,000 men, women and children still are awaiting a transplant, and another person's name is added to the national organ transplant waiting list every 10 minutes. (
  • Also, the growing prevalence of diabetes and heart disease have increased the number of people on the organ transplant waiting list since these conditions can often only be cured by a transplant. (
  • The 1984 National Organ Transplant Act established today's system of organ donation and recovery to standardize the process for donation and ensure fair and equitable allocation of donated organs. (
  • Organ procurement is intimately tied to the history of organ transplantation and organ donation. (
  • The Young Professionals in Transplantation (YPT) is the Network for Junior Transplant professionals of ESOT, representing all young transplant clinicians and scientists who are beginning a career in transplantation and organ donation. (
  • Non-transplant anatomic bank" means any facility or program operating or providing services in this State that is accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks and that is involved in procuring, furnishing, or distributing whole bodies or parts for the purpose of medical education. (
  • Tissue donor data source: American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) survey data. (
  • Laboratory at the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in collaboration with the Office of Blood, Organ, and other Tissue Safety, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, CDC in collaboration with the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB). (
  • The company is accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks and is headquartered in Centennial, CO. For more information, please visit or our educational website, . (
  • As the need for organs increased and as the specialty expanded to include other solid organs (eg, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, small intestine), the need for improved sharing agreements and organ distribution was recognized. (
  • In July 2004, CDC was notified that 3 recipients of solid organs and 1 recipient of an iliac artery segment from a common donor had died from encephalitis, which was eventually found to be caused by rabies virus infection. (
  • Legal and ethical aspects of organ transplantation / David Price. (
  • As of 2015, there were more than 116,000 people on waiting lists for organs [source: OPTN]. (
  • Results: We identified 3302 records, of which 77 were analyzed which enabled mapping the type of consent adopted and the existence of current legislation for harvesting organs and tissues after circulatory and brain death. (
  • In 1969, Dr David Hume of the Medical College of Virginia, in cooperation with Dr Bernard Amos of Duke University, organized the South-Eastern Regional Organ Procurement Program (SEROPP) after determining that tissue typing provided increased graft survival for kidney recipients. (
  • There is established the Gift of Life Trust Fund, an eleemosynary corporation, the resources of which must be used to promote and encourage organ and tissue donation and education and to assess and assist with the needs of transplant recipients in South Carolina. (
  • Although previous recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through transplantation of human tissue and organs have markedly reduced the risk for this type of transmission, a case of HIV transmission from a screened, antibody-negative donor to several recipients raised questions about the need for additional federal oversight of transplantation of organs and tissues. (
  • A 1991 investigation determined that several recipients had been infected with HIV by an organ/tissue donor who had tested negative for HIV antibody at the time of donation (4). (
  • Since 2002, several types of emerging donor-derived infections have been reported with increasing frequency among solid organ transplant recipients seeking medical care for encephalitis. (
  • The Los Angeles Times, in its "Bodies of Evidence" articles, has done a tremendous disservice to the goal of increasing organ, eye and tissue donations in the United States. (
  • LiveOnNY has been selected as a finalist in the esteemed Land Rover "Defender Service Awards" for its outstanding contributions to raising awareness about organ donation, facilitating lifesaving organ donations across the nation, and providing support to donor hero families. (
  • The nation saw its eighth straight record year for organ donation in 2018. (
  • ESTATE PLANNING LAW REPORT: January, 2018 How Do You Make An Organ Donation As Part Of Your Estate Plan? (
  • If consent is obtained from the potential donor or the potential donor's survivors, the next step is to perform a match between the source (donor) and the target (recipient) to reduce rejection of the organ by the recipient's immune system. (
  • After organ procurement the organs are often rushed to the site of the recipient for transplantation or preserved for later study. (
  • The faster the organ is transplanted into the recipient, the better the outcome. (
  • If the recipient is a Christian, the resource of the organ has the potential to facilitate continued Christian service and the living witness of a fellow believer here on earth. (
  • Says Sister Michelle O'Brien, a liver recipient and employee, "Because we recognize the rare opportunity to donate life to someone awaiting a lifesaving transplant-Giving Life a Second Chance-we are partners in the crusade to educate our community about the importance of organ, eye, and tissue donation. (
  • As a mediator between donor and recipient, Eurotransplant plays a key role in the allocation of donor organs for transplantation. (
  • In these cases, two couples or even more can be brought together and the donor from one couple can donate an organ to the recipient from the second couple and vice versa. (
  • The person into whom the organ will be transplanted is the recipient . (
  • The Amish support organ donation if there's a relative certainty of success for the recipient, but they're more reluctant if the probable outcome is questionable. (
  • For these infections, the initial link to the transplanted organ was made by histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical testing of tissue from an organ recipient who died 4 weeks after undergoing transplantation. (
  • This Act is intended to implement the public policy of encouraging timely donation of human organs and tissue in Illinois, facilitating transplantation of those organs and tissue into patients in need of them, and encouraging anatomical gifts for therapy, research, or education. (
  • Laboratory testing is one method for detecting infectious disease and understanding expected organ function, however, laboratory tests cannot detect all aspects of infection and donation quality, and gaps that remain can be addressed by collecting accurate information from a proxy (or proxies) providing information on behalf of the deceased donor. (
  • A family says the California Transplant Donor Network pressured them into donating the organs of a recently deceased relative, then mutilated the body so badly they could not have a viewing at the funeral. (
  • Organ" means a human kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small bowel, or other transplantable vascular body part as determined by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, as periodically selected by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (
  • Because of someone's decision to be an organ donor, 61-year-old Leta Ahlbrand received a new liver and was able to go back to work and can now play with her grandchildren. (
  • The prospect of using living, non-human organs, and concerns over the infectiousness of pathogens either present in the tissues or possibly formed in combination with human genetic material, have prompted the Food and Drug Administration to issue detailed guidance on xenotransplantation research and development since the mid-1990s. (
  • This number then drops even further if consent is denied or if the organs are not clinically viable for transplantation. (
  • EDTCO aims to support health care professionals to provide clinically effective programmes on organ and tissue donation, procurement and transplantation. (
  • Organ procurement (also called organ harvesting) is a surgical procedure that removes organs or tissues for reuse, typically for organ transplantation. (
  • It was using proper surgical techniques to retrieve still viable tissues to help living patients. (
  • CENTENNIAL, Colo. , April 18, 2014 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- AlloSource ( ), one of the nation's largest providers of skin, bone and soft tissue allografts for use in surgical procedures, and the world's largest processor of cellular bone allografts, has been awarded the Rocky Mountain Performance Excellence (RMPEx) Timberline Performance Award during a ceremony held today. (
  • Improvements in immune-modulating therapy, critical care medicine, and surgical techniques have led to the increased success of organ transplantations, and more patients are now eligible for these procedures. (
  • With success in these early sharing agreements, SEROPP was awarded a contract to develop an organ procurement and sharing network among 9 medical centers in a 4-state area extending from Baltimore, Maryland, to Atlanta, Georgia. (
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network tracks the statistics. (
  • citation needed] In recent years novel methods of organ preservation have emerged that may be able to improve the quality of donated organs or assess their viability. (
  • There is ongoing research and development to improve machine perfusion and alternative approaches such as novel cryoprotectant solvents to improve organ viability and availability - such as by increasing preservation durations. (
  • The mission of ECTORS is to provide a forum for discussing and stimulating novel developments in the fields of cellular therapies in organ transplantation, organ regeneration and generation of new organs from stem cells and biomaterials. (
  • 1983: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of cyclosporine in solid-organ transplantations. (
  • 1972: The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act established the Uniform Organ Donor Card as a legal document in all 50 states, making it possible for all persons aged 18 years or older to legally donate their organs. (
  • If the organ donor is human, most countries require that the donor be legally dead for consideration of organ transplantation (e.g. cardiac death or brain death). (
  • Any needed parts or organs" and "any legally authorized purpose" are acceptable designations. (
  • LiveOnNY would utilize the vehicle to help facilitate the transportation of lifesaving gifted organs across the nation. (
  • Apparently, it received consent from a family for limited organ retrieval, but may have gone further than the family wanted or agreed to. (
  • Collecting an organ from a donor is known as retrieval or procurement . (
  • Eurotransplant will work together with the transplant centers and the competent authorities even more closely than before to collect relevant medical data on transplant operations, so that allocation - the organization's main focus - can be further improved and support can be given for national decisions on organ allocation. (
  • Eurotransplant provides services to transplant centers and their associated tissue typing laboratories and donor hospitals in its member states. (
  • Multiple-organ procurement models are also developed from slaughtered pigs to reduce the use of laboratory animals. (
  • Co-founded by George Church, Ph.D., and former HMS doctoral student Luhan Yang, Ph.D., eGenesis will use CRISPR genome engineering technology in pigs to create organs that can be used as compatible xenotransplants in human patients. (
  • Donation after cardiac death (DCD) involves surgeons taking organs within minutes of the cessation of respirators and other forms of life support for patients who still have at least some brain activity. (
  • While the organ is being transported, it is either stored in an icy cold solution to help preserve it or it is connected to a miniature organ perfusion system which pumps an icy solution (sometimes enriched with potassium) through the organ. (
  • The most widely used technique involves machine perfusion of the organ at either hypothermic (4-10 °C) or normothermic (37 °C) temperatures. (
  • The same applies to nascent techniques such as machine perfusion (in which oxygen and nutrients are pumped through organs outside the human body, in order to preserve them for longer or even make them suitable for transplantation). (
  • Encourage organ donor sign ups in your place of business. (
  • Of the 178,000+ people who passed away in Texas in 2013, only about 3,500 were potentially eligible for organ donation. (
  • DoNation partners educate their employees and communities about the importance of blood, bone marrow, organ, eye, and tissue donation. (
  • The National Association of Medical Examiners supports donation and concluded in its 2014 position paper, Medical Examiner Release of Organs and Tissues for Transplantation, that with proper communication and cooperation the medical examiner and coroner can allow for procurement of at least some, if not all, organs and/or tissues and fulfill their legal mandates without detriment to death investigations. (
  • To facilitate the development of safe and effective cells, tissues, and organs for future medical transplantation into human patients, Harvard's Office of Technology Development has now granted a technology license to Cambridge biotech startup eGenesis. (
  • AlloSource is a non-profit company that offers more than 200 types of precise bone, skin, soft-tissue and custom-machined allografts for use in an array of life-saving and life-enhancing medical procedures. (
  • As one of the leading innovators in maximizing tissue donation with the goal of offering optimal solutions for healthcare providers and their patients, AlloSource is recognized by the medical community for its ability to process and provide high quality tissue. (
  • And, each year in the U.S., more than a million people receive donor tissue for a wide variety of medical needs ranging from orthopedic surgery to burn recovery. (
  • Thanks to medical breakthroughs, more more lives than ever can be saved by treatments that rely on donor organs and tissues. (
  • However, also due to medical advances, fewer people are passing away from stroke and traumatic brain injury, the two most common causes of death which allow organ donation to occur. (
  • Almost anyone of nearly any age and average health can donate an organ. (
  • Heart and lungs should have less than 6 hours between organ procurement and transplantation. (
  • The heart , lungs and kidneys especially diminish over time, more so than other organs. (
  • An autopsy involves examination of the exterior of the body and opening of the body and examination of organs and tissues to determine the cause and manner of death, and occasionally assist with the positive identification of the decedent. (
  • A. An autopsy is the postmortem (after death) examination of a body, including the internal organs and structures after dissection, so as to determine the cause of death or the nature of pathological changes. (
  • 6). They note their estimates represent the "full potential of the system, assuming 100-percent donation rates and 100-percent organ utilization. (
  • After this waiting period, the organ procurement surgery begins as quickly as possible to minimize time that the organs are not being perfused with blood. (
  • Guide to safety and quality assurance for organs, tissues, and cells / [edited by Council of Europe Publishing]. (
  • Organs are systems of cells and tissues that perform a specific task -- respiration, for example, or ridding the body of waste. (
  • It may be that transmission is possible because of viral persistence in donated organs after peripheral viremia has cleared or because of intermittent viremia from a reservoir organ, such as a kidney. (