Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Hyperacusis: An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Hearing Loss, High-Frequency: Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Hearing Loss, Unilateral: Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Hearing Loss, Sudden: Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Betahistine: A histamine analog and H1 receptor agonist that serves as a vasodilator. It is used in MENIERE DISEASE and in vascular headaches but may exacerbate bronchial asthma and peptic ulcers.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Cochlear Diseases: Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Hearing Loss, Functional: Hearing loss without a physical basis. Often observed in patients with psychological or behavioral disorders.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Tympanoplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.MP3-Player: Portable electronics device for storing and playing audio and or media files. MP3 for MPEG-1 audio layer 3, is a digital coding format.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.Speech Reception Threshold Test: A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Trigger Points: Discrete spots in taut bands of muscle that produce local and referred pain when muscle bands are compressed.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural: Hearing loss due to damage or impairment of both the conductive elements (HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE) and the sensorineural elements (HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL) of the ear.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Narrative Therapy: A form of PSYCHOTHERAPY that centers on the individuals as the experts in their own lives and views problems as separate from people. It is assumed that people have many skills, competencies, beliefs, values, commitments, and abilities that will assist them to reduce the influence of problems in their lives.Otoscopy: Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Personal Narratives as Topic: Works about accounts of individual experience in relation to a particular field or of participation in related activities.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Transverse Sinuses: The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.Vestibular Aqueduct: A small bony canal linking the vestibule of the inner ear to the posterior part of the internal surface of the petrous TEMPORAL BONE. It transmits the endolymphatic duct and two small blood vessels.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Sodium Salicylate: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Tensor Tympani: A short muscle that arises from the pharyngotympanic tube (EUSTACHIAN TUBE) and inserts into the handle of the MALLEUS. This muscle pulls the handle medially thus controlling the tension and movement of TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Diagnostic Techniques, Otological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.Auditory Fatigue: Loss of sensitivity to sounds as a result of auditory stimulation, manifesting as a temporary shift in auditory threshold. The temporary threshold shift, TTS, is expressed in decibels.Hemifacial Spasm: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Microvascular Decompression Surgery: Surgery performed to relieve pressure from MICROVESSELS that are located around nerves and are causing NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES.Ear Ossicles: A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.Stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).Earache: Pain in the ear.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Cerumen: The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.WisconsinAcoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Dizziness: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Trazodone: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Cohort Effect: Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Usher Syndromes: Autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by congenital SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Genetically and symptomatically heterogeneous, clinical classes include type I, type II, and type III. Their severity, age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and the degree of vestibular dysfunction are variable.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Labyrinthitis: Inflammation of the inner ear (LABYRINTH).United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Tympanic Membrane Perforation: A temporary or persistent opening in the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Clinical signs depend on the size, location, and associated pathological condition.Stereocilia: Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mefenamic Acid: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
  • Tinnitus is usually not considered a disease in itself but an indication of something else taking place in one if not more of the four portions of the auditory system - the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain. (prweb.com)
  • Tinnitus is generally not regarded as a disease in itself but a symptom of something else taking place in one or even more of the four portions of the auditory system - the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain. (prweb.com)
  • And some people only hear tinnitus if they're in a completely quiet setting, where little sound is coming into their auditory system from the outside. (american-hearing.org)
  • The present study was taken up to evaluate auditory working memory using digit span tasks in adults with tinnitus. (springer.com)
  • Tinnitus Handicap Inventory questionnaire was administered on all the individuals with tinnitus, and also, it was attempted to correlate the scores of auditory working memory with that of tinnitus handicap inventory. (springer.com)
  • There was no correlation between auditory working memory tasks and overall tinnitus handicap scores along with its sub-scales. (springer.com)
  • The relatively good hearing in this group was probably because they had developed strong auditory and cognitive skills through years of musical listening and training . (theconversation.com)
  • While some veterans do pass hearing tests, they might still have difficulty understanding speech, a condition known as an auditory processing disorder . (simmonsfirm.com)
  • Employing an established computational model, we demonstrate how tinnitus could arise from a homeostatic response of neurons in the central auditory system to reduced auditory nerve input in the absence of elevated hearing thresholds. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques and functional approaches indicated that chronic tinnitus is a neural consequence of acoustic acquired sensory deprivation ( 2 - 5 ) leading to an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neural networks in the central auditory pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • These alterations result in elevated spontaneous activity ( 6 ) and synchronization of neurons ( 7 , 8 ) in the auditory cortex, virtually a "tinnitus generator," which is perceived as tinnitus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Various therapies for chronic tinnitus have been developed aiming to manipulate the hyperactive "tinnitus generator" in the auditory cortex by neuromodulation via acoustic stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • But when the brain's limbic system, which is involved in processing emotions and other functions, fails to stop these sounds from reaching conscious auditory processing, tinnitus results. (healthcanal.com)
  • We believe that a dysregulation of the limbic and auditory networks may be at the heart of chronic tinnitus," says the study's lead investigator, Josef P. Rauschecker, Ph.D., a neuroscientist. (healthcanal.com)
  • They found that moderate hyperactivity was present in the primary and posterior auditory cortices of tinnitus patients, but that the nucleus accumbens exhibited the greatest degree of hyperactivity, specifically to sounds that were matched to frequencies lost in patients. (healthcanal.com)
  • Based on their findings, the researchers argue that the key to understanding tinnitus lies in understanding how the auditory and limbic systems interact to influence perception - be it sound, emotions, pain, etc. (healthcanal.com)
  • This critical review examines the effects of notched-sound therapy on the human auditory system and its' potential as a novel and effective treatment option for tinnitus. (amazonaws.com)
  • Hearing aids help facilitate improved stimulation between the brain and the auditory pathways, which may help support a reduction in this noise. (hearingaid.org.uk)
  • This is an important subject to evaluate as there are two auditory pathways (i.e., air-conduction pathway and bone-conduction pathway) that are responsible for hearing perception. (acoustics.org)
  • When there does not seem to be a connection with a disorder of the inner ear or auditory nerve, the tinnitus is called nonotic (i.e. not otic). (banishtinnitus.net)
  • Some forms of tinnitus can also be related to muscle movements near the ear, or problems with bloodflow in the face or neck. (widex.com)
  • Individuals with tinnitus may have decreased cognitive efficiency because tinnitus can adversely affect the other tasks being performed. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we provide evidence that these limbic structures, specifically the nucleus accumbens and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, do indeed differ in the brains of individuals with tinnitus. (healthcanal.com)
  • There is no known cure for tinnitus, but there are tinnitus treatment options available that can help a great deal. (prweb.com)
  • Although is no cure for tinnitus, several interventions are available, including dietary modification, the use of specific herbs and supplements, sound therapies, centrally acting medications and electrical stimulation of the cochlea and brain using implantable electrodes and an implantable pulse generator. (medindia.net)
  • Although there is no cure for tinnitus, Miracle-Ear hearing aids can function as a sound generator or, combined with the hearing aid microphone, can offer tinnitus relief. (miracle-ear.com)
  • There's no known cure for tinnitus, but there are several types of tinnitus management options available that can give you relief. (resound.com)
  • One patient developed polyarthritis, fever, and bilateral deafness four days after starting propylthiouracil, with incomplete recovery of hearing on drug withdrawal. (bmj.com)
  • 1 The other patient developed unilateral deafness, tinnitus, and polyarthritis 10 months after starting propylthiouracil, the tinnitus persisting after complete recovery of hearing. (bmj.com)
  • In our patient deafness and tinnitus developed in association with serological evidence of lupus, both of which improved on drug withdrawal. (bmj.com)
  • Hearing aids can help, but according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders , only 20 percent of those who would benefit from hearing aids actually use them. (simmonsfirm.com)
  • Grant support was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, the Tinnitus Research Consortium, the Tinnitus Research Initiative, and the Skirball Foundation. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dr. Lou Cheek is certified by the American Speech and Hearing Association and is an expert in audiological care for infants, children, adolescents and adults. (prweb.com)
  • Roughly one in 10 U.S. adults have experienced tinnitus (pronounced "tin-it-us") in the past year. (american-hearing.org)
  • Shargorodsky J, Curhan GC, Farwell WR (2010) Prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus among US adults. (springer.com)
  • Incident tinnitus was frequent, with nearly one in five older adults suffering from this condition after 5 yrs. (nih.gov)
  • A study of 1823 adults age 45-60 in France over 13 years showed hearing levels were better among those individuals who consumed the most vitamin A, vitamin B12 from foods and red meat (women). (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • Another study involving 2592 adults 20-69 years of age showed higher dietary intake of beta carotene (that converts to vitamin A), vitamin C and magnesium were associated with better hearing scores. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • 28.02.2014 at 21:31:59 Exhaustion from Tinnitus vanished depression is both prevalent. (amazonaws.com)
  • A new study from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) examines hearing difficulty and tinnitus as two potentially debilitating physical conditions that are prevalent in the United States, especially among workers occupationally-exposed to noise. (cdc.gov)
  • Hearing difficulty, tinnitus and their co-occurrence are prevalent in the U.S., but especially among noise-exposed workers. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2011, the United States Government Accountability Office report on noise indicated that tinnitus was the most prevalent service-connected disability. (acoustics.org)
  • The NIOSH study is the first to report prevalence estimates for tinnitus by U.S. industry sector and occupation, and provide these estimates side by side with prevalence estimates of hearing difficulty. (cdc.gov)
  • They also report a relatively large prevalence of persons with normal hearing, however, this is likely based on how normal hearing was defined and lack of extended high -testing. (audiology.org)