A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Thiophenes are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom, which are found in various natural substances and synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in ERYTHROCYTES, vascular endothelial cells, and the gastrointestinal mucosa. EC 4.2.1.-
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)

Central injections of capsaicin cause antidiuresis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in rat hypothalamus and vasopressin release. (1/309)

Intracerebroventricular injections of capsaicin at 100-500 nmol elicited dose-dependent decreases in urine outflow volume in anesthetized, hydrated rats. The capsaicin (500 nmol)-induced antidiuresis was inhibited by pretreatment with CP96345 (30 nmol, a neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist), but not by that with phenoxybenzamine (20 nmol, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist), timolol (100 nmol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) or atropine (300 nmol, a muscarinic antagonist) into the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON). Intravenous injections of d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (50 microg/kg, a vasopressin-receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidiuresis. In intra-SON microdialysis experiments, acetylcholine concentration in the perfusate of the capsaicin-injected rats was not different from that of the vehicle-injected rats. These findings suggested that capsaicin stimulated substance P release in the SON and caused the antidiuresis as a result of the increased release of vasopressin into the circulation from the neurohypophysis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in the SON.  (+info)

Mitigation of caffeine-induced fetopathy in mice by pretreatment with beta-adrenergic blocking agents. (2/309)

In a previous experiment, fetopathic effects of caffeine were significantly reduced by pretreatment with propranolol at dosage levels of 2.5 to 10 mg/kg. The present experiments were undertaeken to investigate the relation between time intervals of propranolol pretreatment and its effect on reducing fetopathy. Furthermore, the effect of timolol, another beta-adrenergic blocking agent, on reducing fetopathy was compared with that of propranolol. Propranolol (5 mg/kg) administered 15, 30 or 60 minutes before caffeine treatment significantly reduced the caffeine-induced fetopathy. The optimal effect was found when propranolol was given 30 minutes before caffine. The reduction in fetopathy by timolol pretreatment was comparable to that of propranolol. The results lend support to the hypothesis that the fetopathic effect of caffeine is linked with released catecholamines in material or fetal issues of mice.  (+info)

Constitutively active mutants of the beta1-adrenergic receptor. (3/309)

We provide the first evidence that point mutations can constitutively activate the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR). Leucine 322 of the beta(1)-AR in the C-terminal portion of its third intracellular loop was replaced with seven amino acids (I, T, E, F, C, A and K) differing in their physico-chemical properties. The beta(1)-AR mutants expressed in HEK-293 cells displayed various levels of constitutive activity which could be partially inhibited by some beta-blockers. The results of this study might have interesting implications for future studies aiming at elucidating the activation process of the beta(1)-AR as well as the mechanism of action of beta-blockers.  (+info)

Comparison of the intraocular pressure lowering effect of latanoprost and a fixed combination of timolol-pilocarpine eye drops in patients insufficiently controlled with beta adrenergic antagonists. French Latanoprost Study Group, and the Swedish Latanoprost Study Group. (4/309)

AIMS: To compare the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of latanoprost monotherapy and timolol-pilocarpine in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension with inadequately controlled IOP on topical beta adrenergic antagonists. METHODS: This was a multicentre, randomised, observer masked, 6 week study performed in France and Sweden. 23 centres enrolled 237 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension and an IOP of at least 22 mm Hg on treatment with topical beta adrenergic antagonists, alone or in combination. After a 21 day run in period on timolol 0.5% twice daily, patients were randomised either to latanoprost 0.005% once daily or to a fixed combination of timolol-pilocarpine twice daily. Changes in mean diurnal IOP from the baseline to the 6 week visit were determined with an analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Mean diurnal IOP was statistically significantly decreased from baseline in both groups (p<0.001). Switching to latanoprost treatment reduced mean diurnal IOP by 5.4 (SEM 0.3) mm Hg (ANCOVA -22%) and switching to timolol-pilocarpine treatment reduced mean diurnal IOP by 4.9 (0.4) mm Hg (-20%). Blurred vision, decreased visual acuity, decreased twilight vision, and headache were statistically significantly more frequent in the timolol-pilocarpine group. CONCLUSIONS: Latanoprost monotherapy was at least as effective as fixed combination timolol-pilocarpine twice daily treatment in reducing mean diurnal IOP in patients not adequately controlled on topical beta adrenergic antagonists. Latanoprost was better tolerated than timolol-pilocarpine regarding side effects. These results indicate that a switch to latanoprost monotherapy can be attempted before combination therapy is initiated.  (+info)

Effects of topical nipradilol, a beta blocking agent with alpha blocking and nitroglycerin-like activities, on intraocular pressure and aqueous dynamics in humans. (5/309)

AIMS: To study the effects of topical nipradilol, a non-selective beta blocker with alpha blocking and nitroglycerin-like activities, on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humour dynamics in normal humans and in patients with ocular hypertension. METHODS: Nipradilol (0.06%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%) was applied to normal volunteers (n = 12) to test for IOP lowering effects. In a second group of normal volunteers (n = 11), nipradilol (0.125% and 0.25%) and timolol (0. 5%) were compared for IOP lowering effects. After a single administration of 0.25% nipradilol, IOP, flare intensity in the anterior chamber, aqueous flow, uveoscleral outflow, tonographic outflow facility, and episcleral venous pressure were either directly measured or mathematically calculated. Topical nipradilol (0.25%) was administered to 24 patients with ocular hypertension twice daily for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Administration of 0.25% nipradilol decreased IOP with a maximum reduction of 4.2 mm Hg lasting 12 hours. A single instillation of both 0.25% nipradilol and 0.5% timolol reduced the IOP in normotensive human subjects to the same degree. A single instillation of 0.25% nipradilol decreased the aqueous flow rate in the treated eye by 20%. Nipradilol produced no significant effect in tonographic outflow facility or episcleral venous pressure, but uveoscleral outflow was increased. In patients with ocular hypertension, twice daily instillation of 0.25% nipradilol decreased IOP without tachyphylaxis for the 8 week test period. CONCLUSION: Topical nipradilol (0.25%) reduced IOP by decreasing the aqueous flow rate and probably also by increasing uveoscleral outflow. Nipradilol should be further investigated as a new antiglaucoma drug.  (+info)

Meal-induced insulin secretion in dogs is mediated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system. (6/309)

We investigated the relationship between autonomic activity to the pancreas and insulin secretion in chronically catheterized dogs when food was shown, during eating, and during the early absorptive period. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) output, pancreatic norepinephrine spillover (PNESO), and arterial epinephrine (Epi) were measured as indexes for parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activity to the pancreas and for adrenal medullary activity, respectively. The relation between autonomic activity and insulin secretion was confirmed by autonomic blockade. Showing food to dogs initiated a transient increase in insulin secretion without changing PP output or PNESO. Epi did increase, suggesting beta(2)-adrenergic mediation, which was confirmed by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eating initiated a second transient insulin response, which was only totally abolished by combined muscarinic and beta-adrenoceptor blockade. During absorption, insulin increased to a plateau. PP output showed the same pattern, suggesting parasympathetic mediation. PNESO decreased by 50%, suggesting withdrawal of inhibitory sympathetic neural tone. We conclude that 1) the insulin response to showing food is mediated by the beta(2)-adrenergic effect of Epi, 2) the insulin response to eating is mediated both by parasympathetic muscarinic stimulation and by the beta(2)-adrenergic effect of Epi, and 3) the insulin response during early absorption is mediated by parasympathetic activation, with possible contribution of withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone.  (+info)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. (7/309)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of glaucoma, is known to be neuroprotective in paradigms of ischaemia/excitotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether betaxolol and other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists interact directly with neurotoxin binding to sites 1 and 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Na(+) channel) in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Betaxolol inhibited specific [(3)H]-batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate ([(3)H]-BTX-B) binding to neurotoxin site 2 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 9.8 microM. Comparison of all the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists tested revealed a potency order of propranolol>betaxolol approximately levobetaxolol>levobunolol approximately carteolol>/=timolol>atenolol. None of the drugs caused a significant inhibition of [(3)H]-saxitoxin binding to neurotoxin receptor site 1, even at concentrations as high as 250 microM. Saturation experiments showed that betaxolol increased the K(D) of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding but had no effect on the B(max). The association kinetics of [(3)H]-BTX-B were unaffected by betaxolol, but the drug significantly accelerated the dissociation rate of the radioligand. These findings argue for a competitive, indirect, allosteric mode of inhibition of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding by betaxolol. Betaxolol inhibited veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx in rat cortical synaptosomes with an IC(50) value of 28. 3 microM. Carteolol, levobunolol, timolol and atenolol were significantly less effective than betaxolol at reducing veratridine-evoked Na(+) influx. The ability of betaxolol to interact with neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel and inhibit Na(+) influx may have a role in its neuroprotective action in paradigms of excitotoxicity/ischaemia and in its therapeutic effect in glaucoma.  (+info)

Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. (8/309)

AIMS: To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. METHODS: 141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis, performed using analysis of variance and the chi(2) test. RESULTS: Latanoprost had the greatest mean IOP lowering effect in both the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (p = 0.005) and the "presumed" normal tension glaucoma (NTG) groups (p = 0.33), reducing the IOP by 8.9 mm Hg and 4.1 mm Hg respectively. Timolol was associated with lowered pulse rates and reductions in the spirometry measurements. 41% of patients using brimonidine complained of systemic side effects and over 55% of patients using betaxolol complained of ocular irritation. 28% of patients required an alteration in their glaucoma management. CONCLUSIONS: Latanoprost appears to be a useful primary treatment for glaucoma patients, in view of superior IOP control and a low incidence of local and systemic side effects. Timolol causes a reduction in measurements of respiratory function, a concern in view of the potential subclinical reversible airways disease in the elderly glaucoma population. Brimonidine is associated with substantial, unpredictable systemic side effects and betaxolol causes ocular irritation and weak IOP control. Spirometry is advised in all patients receiving topical beta blocker therapy to control their glaucoma.  (+info)

Timolol is a non-selective beta blocker drug that is primarily used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) on the heart and blood vessels, which helps to lower heart rate, reduce the force of heart muscle contraction, and decrease blood vessel constriction. These effects can help to lower blood pressure, reduce the workload on the heart, and improve oxygen supply to the heart muscle. In glaucoma treatment, timolol reduces the production of aqueous humor in the eye, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure.

The medical definition of Timolol is:

Timolol (tim-oh-lol) is a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of epinephrine on the heart and blood vessels, which results in decreased heart rate, reduced force of heart muscle contraction, and decreased blood vessel constriction. In glaucoma treatment, timolol reduces aqueous humor production, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure. Timolol is available as an oral tablet, solution for injection, and ophthalmic solution.

Ophthalmic solutions are sterile, single-use or multi-dose preparations in a liquid form that are intended for topical administration to the eye. These solutions can contain various types of medications, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, or lubricants, which are used to treat or prevent ocular diseases and conditions.

The pH and osmolarity of ophthalmic solutions are carefully controlled to match the physiological environment of the eye and minimize any potential discomfort or irritation. The solutions may be packaged in various forms, including drops, sprays, or irrigations, depending on the intended use and administration route.

It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by a healthcare professional when administering ophthalmic solutions, as improper use can lead to eye injury or reduced effectiveness of the medication.

Prostaglandins F (PGF) are a type of prostaglandin, which are naturally occurring hormone-like substances that have various effects on the body. They are produced in response to injury or infection and play a role in inflammation, fever, and pain. Prostaglandins F are synthesized for medical use and are available as drugs known as dinoprost and cloprostenol.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of PGF2α (prostaglandin F2 alpha) used to induce labor and treat postpartum hemorrhage. It works by causing the uterus to contract, helping to expel the placenta and reduce bleeding.

Cloprostenol is a synthetic form of PGF2α used in veterinary medicine as a reproductive hormone to synchronize estrus cycles in cattle and sheep, as well as to induce parturition (giving birth) in cows. It works by stimulating the contraction of the uterus and promoting the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), which triggers ovulation.

It is important to note that these synthetic prostaglandins should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional or veterinarian, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure within the eye, specifically within the anterior chamber, which is the space between the cornea and the iris. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The aqueous humor, a clear fluid that fills the anterior chamber, is constantly produced and drained, maintaining a balance that determines the IOP. Normal IOP ranges from 10-21 mmHg, with average values around 15-16 mmHg. Elevated IOP is a key risk factor for glaucoma, a group of eye conditions that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss if not treated promptly and effectively. Regular monitoring of IOP is essential in diagnosing and managing glaucoma and other ocular health issues.

Ocular hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pressure within the eye (intraocular pressure or IOP), which is higher than normal but not necessarily high enough to cause any visible damage to the optic nerve or visual field loss. It serves as a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma, a sight-threatening disease.

The normal range of intraocular pressure is typically between 10-21 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). Ocular hypertension is often defined as an IOP consistently above 21 mmHg, although some studies suggest that even pressures between 22-30 mmHg may not cause damage in all individuals. Regular monitoring and follow-up with an ophthalmologist are essential for people diagnosed with ocular hypertension to ensure early detection and management of any potential glaucomatous changes. Treatment options include medications, laser therapy, or surgery to lower the IOP and reduce the risk of glaucoma onset.

Betaxolol is a selective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker, which is primarily used in the treatment of glaucoma. It works by reducing the production of aqueous humor inside the eye, thereby decreasing the intraocular pressure (IOP). This can help prevent optic nerve damage and vision loss associated with glaucoma.

Betaxolol ophthalmic solution is usually administered as eyedrops, one or two times per day. Common side effects of betaxolol may include stinging or burning in the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and a bitter taste in the mouth. Serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, slow heart rate, and difficulty breathing.

It is important to note that betaxolol should not be used by people with certain medical conditions, such as severe heart block, uncontrolled heart failure, or asthma. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting treatment with betaxolol.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Adrenergic beta-antagonists, also known as beta blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) on beta-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and blood vessels.

Beta blockers work by binding to these receptors and preventing the activation of certain signaling pathways that lead to increased heart rate, force of heart contractions, and relaxation of blood vessels. As a result, beta blockers can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate, and decrease the workload on the heart.

Beta blockers are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), heart failure, irregular heart rhythms, migraines, and certain anxiety disorders. Some common examples of beta blockers include metoprolol, atenolol, propranolol, and bisoprolol.

It is important to note that while beta blockers can have many benefits, they can also cause side effects such as fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Additionally, sudden discontinuation of beta blocker therapy can lead to rebound hypertension or worsening chest pain. Therefore, it is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a healthcare provider carefully when taking these medications.

Open-angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive type of glaucoma characterized by the gradual loss of optic nerve fibers and resulting in visual field defects. It is called "open-angle" because the angle where the iris meets the cornea (trabecular meshwork) appears to be normal and open on examination. The exact cause of this condition is not fully understood, but it is associated with increased resistance to the outflow of aqueous humor within the trabecular meshwork, leading to an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). This elevated IOP can cause damage to the optic nerve and result in vision loss.

The onset of open-angle glaucoma is often asymptomatic, making regular comprehensive eye examinations crucial for early detection and management. Treatment typically involves lowering IOP using medications, laser therapy, or surgery to prevent further optic nerve damage and preserve vision.

Propanolamines are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that contain a propan-2-olamine functional group, which is a secondary amine formed by the replacement of one hydrogen atom in an ammonia molecule with a propan-2-ol group. They are commonly used as decongestants and bronchodilators in medical treatments.

Examples of propanolamines include:

* Phenylephrine: a decongestant used to relieve nasal congestion.
* Pseudoephedrine: a decongestant and stimulant used to treat nasal congestion and sinus pressure.
* Ephedrine: a bronchodilator, decongestant, and stimulant used to treat asthma, nasal congestion, and low blood pressure.

It is important to note that propanolamines can have side effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and insomnia, so they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Benzalkonium compounds are a group of related chemicals that have antimicrobial properties. They are commonly used as disinfectants and preservatives in various products such as eye drops, nasal sprays, skin creams, and household cleaners. Benzalkonium compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, leading to their death. They are often used in low concentrations and are generally considered safe for topical use, but they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Prolonged or frequent use of products containing benzalkonium compounds may also lead to the development of bacterial resistance.

Pharmaceutical preservatives are substances that are added to medications, pharmaceutical products, or biological specimens to prevent degradation, contamination, or spoilage caused by microbial growth, chemical reactions, or environmental factors. These preservatives help extend the shelf life and ensure the stability, safety, and efficacy of the pharmaceutical formulation during storage and use.

Commonly used pharmaceutical preservatives include:

1. Antimicrobials: These are further classified into antifungals (e.g., benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, thimerosal), antibacterials (e.g., parabens, phenol, benzyl alcohol), and antivirals (e.g., phenolic compounds). They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
2. Antioxidants: These substances prevent or slow down oxidation reactions that can degrade pharmaceutical products. Examples include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherols (vitamin E), sulfites, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
3. Chelating agents: These bind to metal ions that can catalyze degradation reactions in pharmaceutical products. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an example of a chelating agent used in pharmaceuticals.

The choice of preservative depends on the type of formulation, route of administration, and desired shelf life. The concentration of the preservative should be optimized to maintain product stability while minimizing potential toxicity or adverse effects. It is essential to conduct thorough safety and compatibility studies before incorporating any preservative into a pharmaceutical formulation.

Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of various conditions. The main therapeutic uses of Cloprostenol include:

1. Induction of parturition (labor) in cows, helping to synchronize calving in managed herds.
2. Termination of pregnancy in cattle, especially in cases where the fetus is nonviable or the pregnancy poses a risk to the animal's health.
3. Treatment of uterine and oviductal disorders, such as pyometra (infection of the uterus) and salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), in cattle and pigs.
4. Prevention of postpartum disorders, like endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus) and mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), by promoting uterine involution and improving overall reproductive performance in cattle.
5. Control of estrus (heat) in cattle, as an aid in estrous synchronization programs for artificial insemination.

Cloprostenol is available in various formulations, such as intramuscular or subcutaneous injectable solutions, and is typically administered by a veterinarian or trained personnel. It is important to note that the use of Cloprostenol and other prostaglandin analogs should be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a veterinary professional, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects or complications.

Aqueous humor is a clear, watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It is produced by the ciliary processes in the posterior chamber and circulates through the pupil into the anterior chamber, where it provides nutrients to the cornea and lens, maintains intraocular pressure, and helps to shape the eye. The aqueous humor then drains out of the eye through the trabecular meshwork and into the canal of Schlemm, eventually reaching the venous system.

Metipranolol is a non-selective beta blocker, which is a type of medication that works by blocking the effects of certain hormones like adrenaline (epinephrine) on the heart and blood vessels. This results in a slower heart rate, decreased force of heart contractions, and reduced blood vessel contraction, leading to lower blood pressure and improved oxygen supply to the heart.

Metipranolol is primarily used to treat open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension by reducing the production of fluid within the eye, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure. It is available as an ophthalmic solution for topical application.

It's important to note that systemic absorption of metipranolol can occur after ophthalmic use, and it may cause systemic side effects such as bradycardia (slow heart rate), hypotension (low blood pressure), and bronchospasm (narrowing of the airways) in some individuals. Therefore, patients should be monitored for potential systemic side effects during treatment with metipranolol.

Carteolol is a beta-blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances in the body, such as adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce heart rate, lower blood pressure, and increase the amount of fluid that drains from the eye, which can help to lower intraocular pressure in people with glaucoma.

Like other beta-blockers, carteolol may cause side effects such as dizziness, fatigue, and cold hands or feet. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking before starting carteolol. Your doctor will also need to monitor your heart function regularly while you are taking this medication, especially if you have a history of heart disease or other medical conditions.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often caused by an abnormally high pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure). This damage can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma, which has no warning signs and progresses slowly. Angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, can cause sudden eye pain, redness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as rapid vision loss. Other less common types of glaucoma also exist. While there is no cure for glaucoma, early detection and treatment can help slow or prevent further vision loss.

Thiophenes are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring made up of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom. The structure of thiophene is similar to benzene, with the benzene ring being replaced by a thiophene ring. Thiophenes are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable, planar ring structure and delocalized electrons.

Thiophenes can be found in various natural sources such as coal tar, crude oil, and some foods like onions and garlic. They also occur in certain medications, dyes, and pesticides. Some thiophene derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential therapeutic uses, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor activities.

In the medical field, thiophenes are used in some pharmaceuticals as building blocks to create drugs with various therapeutic effects. For example, tipepidine, a cough suppressant, contains a thiophene ring. Additionally, some anesthetics and antipsychotic medications also contain thiophene moieties.

It is important to note that while thiophenes themselves are not typically considered medical terms, they play a role in the chemistry of various pharmaceuticals and other medical-related compounds.

Synthetic prostaglandins are human-made versions of prostaglandins, which are naturally occurring hormone-like substances in the body that play many roles in health and disease. Prostaglandins are produced in various tissues throughout the body and have diverse effects, such as regulating blood flow, promoting inflammation, causing muscle contraction or relaxation, and modulating pain perception.

Synthetic prostaglandins are developed to mimic the effects of natural prostaglandins and are used for therapeutic purposes in medical treatments. They can be chemically synthesized or derived from animal tissues. Synthetic prostaglandins have been used in various clinical settings, including:

1. Induction of labor: Synthetic prostaglandin E1 (dinoprostone) and prostaglandin E2 (misoprostol) are used to ripen the cervix and induce labor in pregnant women.
2. Abortion: Misoprostol is used off-label for early pregnancy termination, often in combination with mifepristone.
3. Prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcers: Misoprostol is sometimes prescribed to protect the stomach lining from developing ulcers due to long-term NSAID use.
4. Treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: Synthetic prostaglandins like carboprost (15-methyl prostaglandin F2α) and dinoprostone are used to manage severe bleeding after childbirth.
5. Management of dysmenorrhea: Misoprostol is sometimes prescribed for the treatment of painful periods or menstrual cramps.
6. Treatment of erectile dysfunction: Alprostadil, a synthetic prostaglandin E1, can be used as an intracavernosal injection or urethral suppository to treat erectile dysfunction.

It is important to note that while synthetic prostaglandins mimic the effects of natural prostaglandins, they may also have additional or different properties and potential side effects. Therefore, their use should be under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

Fluorophotometry is a medical diagnostic technique that measures the concentration of fluorescein dye in various tissues, particularly the eye. This technique utilizes a specialized instrument called a fluorophotometer which emits light at a specific wavelength that causes the fluorescein to emit light at a longer wavelength. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of fluorescein in the tissue.

Fluorophotometry is often used in ophthalmology to assess the permeability of the blood-retinal barrier, which can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and uveitis. It may also have applications in other medical fields for measuring the concentration of fluorescent markers in various tissues.

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Carbonic anhydrase I is a specific type of carbonic anhydrase, which is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme is primarily found in red blood cells and plays a crucial role in maintaining pH balance and regulating respiration.

Carbonic anhydrase I, also known as CA I or CA-I, is responsible for hydrating carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate ions and protons, which helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body. It has a relatively slower reaction rate compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms.

Defects or mutations in the CA I gene can lead to reduced enzymatic activity and may contribute to certain medical conditions, such as distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disorder characterized by impaired kidney function and acid-base imbalances. However, other carbonic anhydrase isoforms can compensate for the loss of CA I activity in most cases, so its deficiency rarely causes severe symptoms on its own.

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by binding to muscarinic receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by radiation therapy or Sjögren's syndrome, as well as in the management of glaucoma due to its ability to construct the pupils and reduce intraocular pressure. Pilocarpine can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions and chronic bronchitis. It is available in various forms, including tablets, ophthalmic solutions, and topical gels.

"Pharmaceutical vehicles" is not a standard term in medical or pharmaceutical sciences. However, I can provide some context based on the phrase's possible meaning. If by "pharmaceutical vehicles," you mean the carriers or delivery systems for drugs or medications, then the definition would be:

Pharmaceutical vehicles refer to various formulations, preparations, or technologies that facilitate and control the administration of a drug or therapeutic agent to its target site in the body. These can include different types of drug delivery systems such as tablets, capsules, liposomes, nanoparticles, transdermal patches, inhalers, injectables, and other innovative drug carrier technologies.

These pharmaceutical vehicles ensure that the active ingredients are safely and effectively transported to their intended site of action within the body, enhancing therapeutic efficacy while minimizing potential side effects.

... timolol and latanoprost timolol and travoprost Timolol is marketed under many trade names worldwide. Timolol eye drops are ... For ophthalmic use, timolol is also available combined: with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: timolol and brinzolamide timolol ... Timolol is a non-selective beta blocker. Timolol was patented in 1968, and came into medical use in 1978. It is on the World ... "Timolol". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016. "Timolol eent". The American ...
Kaufman identified timolol as a possible therapeutic agent to treat glaucoma and with Thomas Zimmerman, conduct basic science ... Yale researcher Marvin Sears, observed that timolol, a beta-adrenergic agent, had an intraocular pressure lowering effect in ... PMID 14064628.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Zimmerman TJ, Kaufman HE (1977). "Timolol. A ... co-developed timolol with Thomas Zimmerman, a new class of medications to treat glaucoma; corneal storage media for eye banks; ...
Topical Timolol Maleate Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas. Püttgen K, Lucky A, Adams D, Pope E, McCuaig C, Powell J, ... These should not be used in conjunction with oral beta blockers given systemic absorption of topical timolol is known to occur ... PMID 27527799 Systemic timolol exposure following topical application to infantile hemangiomas. Drolet BA, Boakye-Agyeman F, ... Topical beta blockers such as timolol. They are most helpful for thin superficial hemangiomas. ...
Topical timolol maleate, a nonselective beta blocker available in a gel-forming solution approved for the treatment of glaucoma ... 2013). "Topical timolol for small hemangiomas of infancy". Pediatr Dermatol. 30 (2): 245-9. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01723. ... 2012). "Timolol maleate 0.5% or 0.1% gel-forming solution for infantile hemangiomas: a retrospective multicenter cohort study ... Since that time, topical timolol maleate in addition to oral propranalol has become a common therapy for infantile hemangiomas ...
Timolol Niridazole Fenclozic acid Strosberg AM (August 1976). "The cardiovascular pharmacology and hemodynamic activity of ...
... typically timolol. Studies have shown bimatoprost to be more effective than timolol in reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) ... Bimatoprost does not negatively interact with timolol eye drops. Bimatoprost is a structural analog of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ...
"Comparison of the effects of topical administration of a fixed combination of dorzolamide-timolol to monotherapy with timolol ... It is also available as the combination dorzolamide/timolol. Common side effects include eye discomfort, eye redness, taste ...
March 2003). "Dorzolamide/timolol combination versus concomitant administration of brimonidine and timolol: six-month ... Croxtall JD, Scott LJ (2009). "Brinzolamide/timolol: in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension". Drugs & Aging. 26 (5): ... anhydrase inhibitors Moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease or liver disease The combination of brinzolamide with timolol is ...
A 2013 Cochrane systematic review compared the effect of brimonidine and timolol in slowing the progression of open angle ... These include: Topical beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, such as timolol, levobunolol, and betaxolol, decrease aqueous ... Beta-blockers, such as timolol, work by decreasing aqueous formation. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate ... in the brimonidine group had a higher occurrence of side effects caused by medication than participants in the timolol group. A ...
Examples beta blockers are atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol, pindolol, propranolol, and timolol. Metoprolol is used to treat ...
It is available as a combination with netarsudil and with timolol. In the United States, latanoprost is indicated for patients ... Latanoprost is more effective than timolol 0.5% twice daily in 3 of 4 large (n = 163 to 267) randomised, double-blind trials. ... Meta-analysis suggests that latanoprost is more effective than timolol in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP). However, it ... 8.2 and 8.8 mm Hg vs 5.2 and 5.7 mm Hg for latanoprost vs timolol at 12 and 2 weeks, respectively). Listed from most to least ...
In particular, metoprolol, timolol and propranolol have the most strength of efficacy. The timeframe to effectiveness in ...
All β-blockers used systemically are delivered as racemate, except for timolol. Three different types of β-adrenergic receptors ...
Timolol, Levobunolol, and Betaxolol are common beta blockers prescribed to treat glaucoma. Alpha-adrenergic agonists work by ...
Propranolol, Atenolol, Bupranolol, Timolol, are some examples of clinically available beta-blockers. "High blood pressure ( ...
Limited basic and clinical evidence suggest that topical beta-blockers, such as timolol, may induce regression of localized ... topical timolol gel". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 76 (1): 153-155. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2016.08.041. PMID ...
Mori M, Sakurai M, Araie M (1993). "[Topical timolol and blood-aqueous barrier permeability to protein in human eyes]". Nippon ...
It is also the active ingredient of brimonidine/timolol along with timolol maleate. A 2017 Cochrane review found insufficient ...
The combination of brinzolamide with timolol is marketed under the trade name Azarga.[citation needed] Some diuretics inhibit ...
... as timolol may. Betaxolol also shows greater affinity for beta1 receptors than metoprolol. In addition to its effect on the ... "The beta-adrenoceptor antagonists metipranolol and timolol are retinal neuroprotectants: comparison with betaxolol". ...
Herbette LG, Katz AM, Sturtevant JM (1983). "Comparisons of the interaction of propranolol and timolol with model and ...
"Carbopol/Chitosan Based pH Triggered In Situ Gelling System for Ocular Delivery of Timolol Maleate". Sci Pharm. 78 (4): 959-76 ...
Allergies are rare, but seem to be more common than under the related drug timolol. If the substance reaches the nasal mucosa ... "Comparison of the effects of topical levobunolol and timolol solution on the human ocular surface". Cornea. 22 (8): 709-15. doi ...
... timolol, metoprolol, and atenolol. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with the use of beta blockers include: nausea, ...
Barnes, James; Moshirfar, Majid (2021), "Timolol", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 31424760, ... Phenoxybenzamine Phentolamine Prazosin Tamsulosin Yohimbine Propranolol Timolol Atenolol Metoprolol Butaxamine Still under ...
Timolol eye drops, a common kind of glaucoma medication, does not negatively interact with this drug. No interactions with ...
The principal medication known to affect the retina are:- latanoprost, epinephrine, rosiglitazone, timolol and ...
Some drugs that have been successfully loaded via this method are: timolol, norfloxacin, ketotifen, polyvinlypyrrolidone, and ...
The beta blocker timolol is also effective for migraine prevention and in reducing migraine attack frequency and severity. ...
The US Headache Consortium lists five drugs as having medium to high efficacy: amitriptyline, divalproex, timolol, propranolol ...
... timolol and latanoprost timolol and travoprost Timolol is marketed under many trade names worldwide. Timolol eye drops are ... For ophthalmic use, timolol is also available combined: with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: timolol and brinzolamide timolol ... Timolol is a non-selective beta blocker. Timolol was patented in 1968, and came into medical use in 1978. It is on the World ... "Timolol". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016. "Timolol eent". The American ...
Timolol: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Timolol helps control your condition but will not cure it. Continue to take timolol even if you feel well. Do not stop taking ... Before taking timolol,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to timolol, any other medications, or any of the ... Timolol may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *dizziness or ...
timolol 0.5 % 12 HR Ophthalmic Solution. SY. 4. 1992303. timolol 0.5 % (as timolol maleate 6.8 MG/ML) 12 HR Ophthalmic Solution ... Each mL of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% contains 5 mg of timolol (6.8 mg of timolol maleate). ... TIMOLOL MALEATE (UNII: P8Y54F701R) (TIMOLOL ANHYDROUS - UNII:5JKY92S7BR) TIMOLOL ANHYDROUS. 5 mg in 1 mL. ... Each mL of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.25% contains 2.5 mg of timolol (3.4 mg of Timolol Maleate). The pH of the ...
DORZOLAMIDE; TIMOLOL (dor ZOLE a mide; TIM oh lol) treats conditions with increased pressure of the eye, such as glaucoma. It ... An unusual or allergic reaction to dorzolamide, sulfa drugs, timolol, other medications, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Timolol Equivalent (Timolol Maleate 3.4 mg/mL equivalent to 2.5 mg/mL timolol) ... Timolol Equivalent (Timolol Maleate 6.8 mg/mL equivalent to 5 mg/mL timolol) ... Timolol Maleate (UNII: P8Y54F701R) (Timolol Anhydrous - UNII:5JKY92S7BR) Timolol Anhydrous. 2.5 mg in 1 mL. ... Timolol Maleate (UNII: P8Y54F701R) (Timolol Anhydrous - UNII:5JKY92S7BR) Timolol Anhydrous. 5 mg in 1 mL. ...
... timolol AN 50/5 eye dropsLatanoprost/Timolol maleateConsumer Medicine InformationWhat is in this leafletThis leaflet answers ... Do not use Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 if:. *you have an allergy to Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 or any of the ingredients ... While you are taking Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5. Things you must do. To make sure Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 is working ... Be careful driving or operating machinery until you know how Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 affects you. Latanoprost/ timolol AN ...
Persistence. The potential for persistence of timolol cannot be excluded, due to lack of data.. Bioaccumulation. Timolol has ... Below is information about timolol from scientific discussion for Ganfort (bimatoprost, timolol) EMA 2006. The PECsurfacewater ... Fass environmental information for timolol from Azarga (brinzolamide, timolol) (downloaded 2021-01-19). ... Therefore, the following phrase is used: Risk of environmental impact of Timolol cannot be excluded, since no ecotoxicity data ...
This Timolol Maleate Oral Coupon is accepted at Walmart, Walgreens, CVS, RiteAid and 59,000 other pharmacies nationwide. ... Timolol Maleate Oral Coupon discounts will vary by location, pharmacy, medication, and dosage. ...
... colourless-to-pale-yellow ophthalmic solution contains timolol maleate equivalent to 2.5 mg of timolol (0.25%). Nonmedicinal ... colourless-to-pale-yellow ophthalmic solution contains timolol maleate equivalent to 5 mg of timolol (0.5%). Nonmedicinal ... are allergic to timolol or any ingredient of the medication. *are in overt heart failure or cardiogenic shock (shock due to ... Overactive thyroid: Timolol may mask the signs of overactive thyroid, such as rapid heartbeat. If you have been told that you ...
Free coupons for dorzolamide/timolol eye drops (cosopt eye drops). Discounts up to 80% off the retail price. ... Compare Dorzolamide/timolol eye drops (cosopt eye drops) 2/0.5 %/% prices from verified online pharmacies or local U.S. ... Dorzolamide/timolol eye drops Prices - (Cosopt Eye Drops) Compare Dorzolamide/Timolol Eye Drops (Cosopt Eye Drops) prices ... Compare Dorzolamide/Timolol Eye Drops (Cosopt Eye Drops) prices available at Canadian and international online pharmacies with ...
Indication-specific dosing for timolol, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, ... timolol ophthalmic (eye) TIMOLOL SOLUTION - OPHTHALMIC (TIE-moh-lohl) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Timoptic USES: This medication is ... timolol and aspirin rectal both increase serum potassium. Use Caution/Monitor.. aspirin rectal decreases effects of timolol by ... timolol and mefenamic acid both increase serum potassium. Use Caution/Monitor.. mefenamic acid decreases effects of timolol by ...
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... and several studies of fixed-combination medications containing the beta-blocker timolol maleate have shown a lower prevalence ... with conjunctival hyperemia and ocular allergy being less frequent in some timolol-containing fixed-combination therapies. This ... we examined clinical data pertaining to the ocular surface tolerability of fixed-combination medications containing timolol ... The impact of timolol maleate on the ocular tolerability of fixed-combination glaucoma therapies Nathan M Radcliffe ...
... double-masked study of fixed combination latanoprost/timolol versus latanoprost or timolol monotherapy. ... PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed combination latanoprost/timolol versus latanoprost or timolol monotherapy ... Fixed combination latanoprost/timolol safely reduces IOP levels in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension, though only ... or timolol monotherapy in the morning (n = 165). At weeks 2, 6, and 12, each subjects IOP level was measured in triplicate at ...
A client who has glaucoma of the right eye self-administers timolol eye drops by looking at the ceiling, ... A client who has glaucoma of the right eye self-administers timolol eye drops by looking at the ceiling, instilling a drop onto ...
Brinzolamide/Timolol) from Canada, at lower prices to the U.S. Available in . Call toll FREE 1-877-303-3784 to talk with our ... Azarga (Brinzolamide/Timolol). Rx Prescription Required Select your dosage. Azarga (Brinzolamide/Timolol) 1 %/0.5 %/5 ml Check ...
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (-)-s-timolol (C13H24N4O3S) from the PQR.
Do you need to raise your next Funding round ? In-Licensing / Out-Licensing of your assets ? Want to create a spin-off with your IP ? Contact us!. ...
... timolol including side effects, age restrictions, food interactions, whether the medicine is available at a government ... Active ingredient: dorzolamide + timolol. The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): dorzolamide + ... timolol. You can select a medicine from this list to find out more - including side effects, age restrictions, food ...
... timolol, eye drops, solution 0,005%/0,5% 2,5ml Latanoprost - is a topical medication used for controlling the progression of ... latanoprost / timolol, eye drops, solution 0,005%/0,5% 2,5ml. Latanoprost - is a topical medication used for controlling the ... Timolol is a nonselective beta-blocker that decreases the production of aqueous humor and consequently reduce elevated or ...
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... dorzolamide and timolol. Dorzolamide is a member of the family of medications known as ... Do not use dorzolamide - timolol eye drops if you:. *are allergic to dorzolamide, timolol, or any ingredients of the medication ... Medical conditions: Timolol belongs to the family of medications known as beta-blockers. Although timolol is given as an eye ... The recommended adult dose of dorzolamide - timolol eye drops is one drop in the affected eye(s) twice daily. ...
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DGIdb, The Drug Gene Interaction Database, is a research resource that can be used to search candidate genes or drugs against the known and potentially druggable genome.
Find information on Timolol (Blocadren) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... "Timolol†." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/ ... view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51746/all/timolol†. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Timolol†. Daviss Drug Guide. F.A. Davis ... Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Quiring, C. (2023). Timolol†. In Daviss Drug Guide (18th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. https ...
Timolol maleate. ID. 75359005. Name. Timolol maleate. 26 Virtual products *Bimatoprost 300micrograms/ml / Timolol 5mg/ml eye ... Dorzolamide 20mg/ml / Timolol 5mg/ml eye drops. *Dorzolamide 20mg/ml / Timolol 5mg/ml eye drops 0.2ml unit dose preservative ... Latanoprost 50micrograms/ml / Timolol 5mg/ml eye drops. *Latanoprost 50micrograms/ml / Timolol 5mg/ml eye drops 0.2ml unit dose ... Bimatoprost 300micrograms/ml / Timolol 5mg/ml eye drops 0.4ml unit dose preservative free ...
Trifluridine decreases ocular HSV-1 recovery, but not herpetic lesions after timolol iontophoresis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. ... Trifluridine decreases ocular HSV-1 recovery, but not herpetic lesions after timolol iontophoresis. ... Trifluridine decreases ocular HSV-1 recovery, but not herpetic lesions after timolol iontophoresis. ...
  • For ophthalmic use, timolol is also available combined: with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: timolol and brinzolamide timolol and dorzolamide with α2 agonists: timolol and brimonidine with prostaglandin analogs: timolol and latanoprost timolol and travoprost Timolol is marketed under many trade names worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timolol maleate ophthalmic solution is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent. (nih.gov)
  • Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution is supplied as a sterile, isotonic, buffered, aqueous solution of Timolol maleate in two dosage strengths: Each mL of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.25% contains 2.5 mg of timolol (3.4 mg of Timolol Maleate). (nih.gov)
  • Each mL of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% contains 5 mg of timolol (6.8 mg of timolol maleate). (nih.gov)
  • Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution, when applied topically on the eye, has the action of reducing elevated as well as normal intraocular pressure, whether or not accompanied by glaucoma. (nih.gov)
  • The onset of reduction in intraocular pressure following administration of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution can usually be detected within one-half hour after a single dose. (nih.gov)
  • Repeated observations over a period of one year indicate that the intraocular pressure-lowering effect of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution is well maintained. (nih.gov)
  • The precise mechanism of the ocular hypotensive action of Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution is not clearly established at this time. (nih.gov)
  • In controlled multiclinic studies in patients with untreated intraocular pressures of 22 mmHg or greater, Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.25 percent or 0.5 percent administered twice a day produced a greater reduction in intraocular pressure than 1, 2, 3, or 4 percent pilocarpine solution administered four times a day or 0.5, 1, or 2 percent epinephrine hydrochloride solution administered twice a day. (nih.gov)
  • We are a leading Wholesale Trader of Brimonidine Tartrate & Timolol Mileate Ophthalmic Eye Drop, Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution, Timolol Maleate Eye Drops IP. (indiamart.com)
  • Brimoridine Tartrate & Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution Eye Drops. (indiamart.com)
  • Timolol Maleate Eye Drops and Brimondine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution Eye Drops from Surat, India. (indiamart.com)
  • A randomized, double-masked trial of various concentrations of timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) vs placebo demonstrated that all concentrations of timolol effectively lowered intraocular pressure (IOP). (jamanetwork.com)
  • Ophthalmic timolol is indicated for the treatment of increased intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. (drugbank.com)
  • Timolol, when administered by the ophthalmic route, rapidly reduces intraocular pressure. (drugbank.com)
  • The peak concentration of ophthalmic timolol in plasma, Cmax was about 1.14 ng/ml in most subjects within 15 minutes following the administration of timolol by the ophthalmic route. (drugbank.com)
  • Patients with glaucoma who require further reduction in intraocular pressure while undergoing monotherapy with prostaglandin analogue ophthalmic solution have been prescribed two enhanced treatment options: 0.1% brimonidine/0.5% timolol fixed combination ophthalmic solution (BTFC) and 1% dorzolamide/0.5% timolol fixed combination ophthalmic solution (DTFC). (bvsalud.org)
  • Timolol is a beta blocker medication used either by mouth or as eye drops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timolol eye drops are marketed under the brand name Istalol among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compare Dorzolamide/Timolol Eye Drops (Cosopt Eye Drops) prices available at Canadian and international online pharmacies with local U.S. pharmacy coupon prices. (pharmacychecker.com)
  • Timolol Maleate Eye Drops IP. (indiamart.com)
  • Bimatoprost & Timolol Eye Drops. (indiamart.com)
  • A client who has glaucoma of the right eye self-administers timolol eye drops by looking at the ceiling, instilling a drop onto the center of the conjunctival sac, and applying gentle pressure to the lower lid with a facial tissue. (coursehero.com)
  • The recommended adult dose of dorzolamide - timolol eye drops is one drop in the affected eye(s) twice daily. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Dorzolamide - timolol eye drops should be used at least 10 minutes before or after other eye drops that are being used. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). (bvsalud.org)
  • Timolol is a nonselective beta-blocker that decreases the production of aqueous humor and consequently reduce elevated or normal intraocular pressure. (rompharm.ro)
  • Timolol: Intraocular pressure reduction: 30 minutes. (azurewebsites.net)
  • Timolol is a non-selective beta adrenergic blocker used in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in ocular hypertension or open angle glaucoma. (drugbank.com)
  • Timolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist given in an eye drop solution to reduce intraocular pressure, or pressure in the eyes. (drugbank.com)
  • Purpose: To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) after adding either latanoprost or pilocarpine to timolol treatment or switching to latanoprost monotherapy in glaucomatous eyes in which IOP was inadequately controlled with timolol. (unict.it)
  • BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to assess the central corneal epithelial thickness (CET), central corneal stromal thickness (CST), and total central corneal thickness (CCT) thinning relationships with dry eye development monitoring and underestimated measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients treated with timolol, dorzolamide, and brimonidine. (bvsalud.org)
  • A Cochrane review compared the effect of timolol versus brimonidine in slowing the progression of open angle glaucoma in adults but found insufficient evidence to come to conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 is used to lower raised pressure in the eye and to treat glaucoma. (mydr.com.au)
  • Although Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 helps control your glaucoma it does not cure it. (mydr.com.au)
  • Fixed combination latanoprost/timolol safely reduces IOP levels in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension, though only slightly more than does latanoprost monotherapy. (druglib.com)
  • The combination of dorzolamide and timolol is used to treat eye conditions, including glaucoma and ocular hypertension, in which increased pressure can lead to a gradual loss of vision. (optionrx.com)
  • Dorzolamide/timolol maleate is a medication used to reduce high pressure in the eye due to glaucoma or ocular hypertension. (optionrx.com)
  • [ 18 , 19 ] A systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 randomized clinical trials studying IOP-lowering agents for treatment of normal-tension glaucoma determined that latanoprost, bimatoprost, and timolol were most effective. (medscape.com)
  • Nyolol (Timolol) is a beta blocker used to treat glaucoma. (comprar-medicina.com)
  • Timolol maleate can exert pharmacological actions for as long as 24 hours if given in the 0.5% or 0.25% doses. (drugbank.com)
  • Fass environmental information for timolol from Azarga (brinzolamide, timolol) (downloaded 2021-01-19). (janusinfo.se)
  • Azarga (Brinzolamide/Timolol) suspension is used to treat high pressure in the eye. (canadianpharmacyking.com)
  • Brinzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and timolol is a beta-blocker. (canadianpharmacyking.com)
  • Both brinzolamide and timolol work by reducing the production of fluid within the eye. (canadianpharmacyking.com)
  • The Alphagan group received monotherapy with purite-preserved brimonidine, and the Combigan group received monotherapy with BAK-preserved timolol + brimonidine fixed combination. (bvsalud.org)
  • This drug contains a beta blocker (timolol) and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (dorzolamide). (optionrx.com)
  • The mechanism of action of timolol is probably the reduction of the formation of aqueous humor in the ciliary body in the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • artemether/lumefantrine will increase the level or effect of timolol by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP2D6 metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • dacomitinib will increase the level or effect of timolol by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP2D6 metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • fluoxetine will increase the level or effect of timolol by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP2D6 metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • This is a combination medication that contains two ingredients: dorzolamide and timolol. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Dorzolamide and timolol is used for patients whose eye condition has not responded to another medication. (optionrx.com)
  • Dorzolamide and timolol lowers pressure in the eye by decreasing the production of natural fluids in the eye. (optionrx.com)
  • Timolol (systemic): Bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm and cardiac arrest. (azurewebsites.net)
  • A 12-week, randomized, double-masked study of fixed combination latanoprost/timolol versus latanoprost or timolol monotherapy. (druglib.com)
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed combination latanoprost/timolol versus latanoprost or timolol monotherapy. (druglib.com)
  • 37 mmHg were randomized to fixed combination latanoprost-timolol in the evening (n = 170), latanoprost monotherapy in the evening (n = 165), or timolol monotherapy in the morning (n = 165). (druglib.com)
  • The Tomec group received monotherapy with benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved timolol + dorzolamide fixed combination. (bvsalud.org)
  • In its by mouth or oral form, it is used: to treat high blood pressure to prevent heart attacks to prevent migraine headaches The combination of timolol and the alpha-1 blocker prazosin has sedative effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • 16 , 17 In certain cases, timolol is used in the prevention of migraine headaches. (drugbank.com)
  • Nonselective beta-blockers (eg, timolol maleate, levobunolol) are controversial because as visual-field progression is possibly due to secondary aggravated nocturnal arterial hypotension. (medscape.com)
  • Timolol is available as a generic medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medication should not be taken by individuals with: An allergy to timolol or any other beta-blockers Asthma or severe chronic obstructive bronchitis A slow heart rate (bradycardia), or a heart block Heart failure The most serious possible side effects include cardiac arrhythmias and severe bronchospasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor may start you on a low dose of timolol and gradually increase your dose to allow your body to adjust to the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Be sure to let your doctor and pharmacist know that you are taking this medication before you start taking timolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not start this medication while taking timolol without discussing with your healthcare provider. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dorzolamide/timolol maleate is a generic medication also sold under the brand name Cosopt. (optionrx.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: This multicenter, randomized, comparative, and investigator-masked crossover clinical trial sought to compare the efficacy and tolerability of fixed combinations of 0.1% brimonidine/0.5% timolol (BTFC) versus 1% dorzolamide/0.5% timolol (DTFC) as adjunctive therapies to prostaglandin analogues. (bvsalud.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to timolol, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in timolol tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 is made up of 2 active ingredients, latanoprost and timolol maleate. (mydr.com.au)
  • One of the active ingredients in Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 has been detected in breast milk. (mydr.com.au)
  • Timolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take while taking timolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The following nonprescription or herbal products may interact with timolol: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, others). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conclusion: A significantly greater reduction in diurnal IOP was achieved after addition of latanoprost than after addition of pilocarpine in patients in whom IOP was not adequately controlled with timolol alone. (unict.it)
  • The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): dorzolamide + timolol. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Another study measured the bioavailability of timolol eyedrops to be 60% in healthy volunteers. (drugbank.com)
  • The usual dose is 1 drop of timolol solution in the affected eye(s) twice daily. (pharmasave.com)
  • There was a dose-dependent decrease in resting pulse rate with increasing concentrations of timolol. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Timolol maleate lowers the pressure in the eye by reducing the production of fluid. (mydr.com.au)
  • Timolol maleate is a beta 1 and beta 2 (non-selective) adrenergic receptor blocking agent that does not have significant intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct myocardial depressant, or local anesthetic (membrane-stabilizing) activity. (nih.gov)
  • Timolol maleate is a beta1 and beta2 (non-selective) adrenergic receptor blocking agent that does not have significant intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct myocardial depressant, or local anesthetic (membrane-stabilizing) activity. (nih.gov)
  • Timolol, a non-selective adrenergic receptor antagonist, reduces IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous humour in the ciliary epithelium. (azurewebsites.net)
  • Timolol competes with adrenergic neurotransmitters for binding to beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and the beta(2)-receptors in the vascular and bronchial smooth muscle. (drugbank.com)
  • Each mL of sterile, isotonic, slightly opalescent, colourless-to-nearly-colourless, slightly viscous solution contains 20 mg of dorzolamide (as 22.3 mg of dorzolamide hydrochloride) and 5 mg of timolol (as 6.83 mg of timolol maleate). (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • A 0.5% solution of timolol was as effective in reducing IOP as the 1.0% concentration. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Efficacy of timolol in lowering IOP during the sleep period may be limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The statistical superiority of the fixed combination was demonstrated at 7/9 time points versus latanoprost and 9/9 time points versus timolol. (druglib.com)
  • Timolol maleate belongs to a family of medicines called beta- blockers. (mydr.com.au)
  • Some medicines and Latanoprost/ timolol AN 50/5 may interfere with each other. (mydr.com.au)
  • However, according to the European Medicines Agency guideline on environmental risk assessment of medicinal products (EMA/CHMP/SWP/44447/00 corr2), the use of Timolol is unlikely to represent a risk for the environment, given that its predicted environmental concentration (PEC) is below the action limit 0.01 μg/L. (janusinfo.se)
  • Blood pressure, visual acuity, and pupillary diameter were not altered significantly by any concentration of timolol tested during this study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Timolol applied topically twice daily in concentrations of 0.1% to 0.5% appeared to be an effective and safe ocular hypotensive agent. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Timolol Maleate is stable at room temperature. (nih.gov)
  • The exact mechanism by which timolol reduces ocular pressure is unknown at this time, however, it likely decreases the secretion of aqueous humor in the eye. (drugbank.com)
  • Risk of environmental impact of timolol cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. (janusinfo.se)
  • timolol will decrease the level or effect of iobenguane I 131 by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
  • 6 Beta(1)-receptor blockade by timolol leads to a decrease in both heart rate and cardiac output during rest and exercise, and a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (drugbank.com)
  • The blockade of beta(2) receptors by timolol in the blood vessels leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, reducing blood pressure. (drugbank.com)
  • Timolol maleate 0.5 price advantages for the drug misuse, diet and contraindications. (oirp-sport.pl)