Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Mice, Inbred BALB CSalmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mice, Inbred C57BLBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C3HSpores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
... (RRBS) is an efficient and high-throughput technique used to analyze the genome-wide methylation profiles on a single nucleotide level. This technique combines restriction enzymes and bisulfite sequencing in order to enrich for the areas of the genome that have a high CpG content. Due to the high cost and depth of sequencing needed to analyze methylation status in the entire genome, Meissner et al. developed this technique in 2005 in order to reduce the amount of nucleotides needed to be sequenced to 1% of the genome. The fragments that comprise the reduced genome still include the majority of promoters, as well as regions such as repeated sequences that are difficult to profile using conventional bisulfite sequencing approaches. Enzyme digestion: First, genomic DNA is digested using a methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme. It is integral for the enzymes to not be influenced by the methylation status of the CpGs (sites within the genome where a ...
... is a high throughput sequencing technology that is used to determine the entire genomic sequence of an organism. The method uses rolling circle replication to amplify small fragments of genomic DNA into DNA nanoballs. Fluorescent probes bind to complementary DNA and the probes are then ligated to anchor sequences bound to known sequences on the DNA template. The base order is determined via the fluorescence of the ligated and bound probes. This DNA sequencing method allows large numbers of DNA nanoballs to be sequenced per run at lower reagent costs compared to other next generation sequencing platforms. However, a limitation of this method is that it generates only short sequences of DNA, which presents challenges to mapping its reads to a reference genome. The company Complete Genomics uses DNA nanoball sequencing to sequence samples submitted by researchers. DNA Nanoball Sequencing involves isolating DNA that is to be sequenced, shearing it into small 400 - 500 base ...
In the fields of bioinformatics and computational biology, Genome Survey Sequences (GSS) are nucleotide sequences similar to EST's that the only difference is that most of them are genomic in origin, rather than mRNA. Genome Survey Sequences are typically generated and submitted to NCBI by labs performing genome sequencing and are used, amongst other things, as a framework for the mapping and sequencing of genome size pieces included in the standard GenBank divisions. Genome survey sequencing is a new way to map the genome sequences since it is not dependent on mRNA. Current genome sequencing approaches are mostly high-throughput shotgun methods, and GSS is often used on the first step of sequencing. GSSs can provide an initial global view of a genome, which includes both coding and non-coding DNA and contain repetitive section of the genome unlike ESTs. For the estimation of repetitive sequences, GSS plays an important role in the early assessment of a sequencing project since these data can ...
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. Sequencing results in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the sequenced molecule. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment. So far, most DNA sequencing has been performed using the chain termination method developed by Frederick Sanger. This technique uses sequence-specific termination of a DNA synthesis reaction using modified nucleotide substrates. However, new sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing are gaining an increasing share of the sequencing market. More genome data are now being produced by pyrosequencing than Sanger DNA sequencing. Pyrosequencing has enabled rapid genome sequencing. Bacterial genomes can be sequenced in a single run with several times coverage with this ...
... s are similar to cosmids but are based on the bacterial F-plasmid. The cloning vector is limited, as a host (usually E. coli) can only contain one fosmid molecule. Fosmids can hold DNA inserts of up to 40 kb in size; often the source of the insert is random genomic DNA. A fosmid library is prepared by extracting the genomic DNA from the target organism and cloning it into the fosmid vector. The ligation mix is then packaged into phage particles and the DNA is transfected into the bacterial host. Bacterial clones propagate the fosmid library. The low copy number offers higher stability than vectors with relatively higher copy numbers, including cosmids. Fosmids may be useful for constructing stable libraries from complex genomes. Fosmids have high structural stability and have been found to maintain human DNA effectively even after 100 generations of bacterial growth. Fosmid clones were used to help assess the accuracy of the Public Human Genome Sequence. The fertility plasmid or F-plasmid ...
Brenchley, R; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Barker, G. L.; d'Amore, R.; Allen, A. M.; McKenzie, N.; Kramer, M.; Kerhornou, A.; Bolser, D.; Kay, S.; Waite, D.; Trick, M.; Bancroft, I.; Gu, Y.; Huo, N.; Luo, M. C.; Sehgal, S.; Gill, B.; Kianian, S.; Anderson, O.; Kersey, P.; Dvorak, J.; McCombie, W. R.; Hall, A.; Mayer, K. F.; Edwards, K. J.; Bevan, M. W.; Hall, N. (2012). „Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing". Nature. 491 (7426): 705-10. doi:10.1038/nature11650. PMC 3510651. PMID 23192148 ...
... is a method of sequencing DNA that simultaneously generates information about both identity and location of nucleotide sequences. The method involves detecting the location of sequence specific recognition events (e.g., such as hybridization of probes of known sequence) on single DNA molecules in each read, and generating maps of the location of such events. Multiple reads can be assembled into a consensus map that identifies the multiple locations of a specific sub-sequence. The assembly process is greatly facilitated by knowledge of the location of each sub-sequence, as well as the fact that individual reads produce non-contiguous sequence data over length scales that can be orders of magnitude greater than what can be achieved with Sanger sequencing or nextgen sequencing by synthesis. A collection of maps may be used to reconstruct single-base resolved sequence in a process analogous to sequence reconstruction in sequencing by hybridization. Ambiguities in the ...
Shotgun sequencing is a sequencing method designed for analysis of DNA sequences longer than 1000 base pairs, up to and including entire chromosomes. It is named by analogy with the rapidly expanding, quasi-random firing pattern of a shotgun. Since this method can only be used for fairly short sequences (100 to 1000 base pairs), longer DNA sequences must be broken into random small segments which are then sequenced to obtain reads. Multiple overlapping reads for the target DNA are obtained by performing several rounds of this fragmentation and sequencing. Computer programs then use the overlapping ends of different reads to assemble them into a continuous sequence. Shotgun sequencing is a random sampling process, requiring over-sampling to ensure a given nucleotide is represented in the reconstructed sequence; the average number of reads by which a genome is over-sampled is referred to as coverage.. For much of its history, the technology underlying shotgun sequencing was the ...
Constitutive coactivator of PPAR-gamma-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM120A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000048828 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000038014 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Holden S, Raymond FL (Oct 2003). "The human gene CXorf17 encodes a member of a novel family of putative transmembrane proteins: cDNA cloning and characterization of CXorf17 and its mouse ortholog orf34". Gene. 318: 149-61. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(03)00770-4. PMID 14585507. "Entrez Gene: FAM120A family with sequence similarity 120A". Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474. Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, et al. (1996). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) ...
Nagase T، Ishikawa K، Nakajima D، Ohira M، Seki N، Miyajima N، Tanaka A، Kotani H، Nomura N، Ohara O (Apr 1997). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 4 (2): 141-50. PMID 9205841. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.2.141. ...
Ishikawa K، Nagase T، Suyama M، وآخرون. (1998). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.". DNA Res. 5 (3): 169-76. PMID 9734811. doi:10.1093/dnares/5.3.169. ...
Nagase T، Ishikawa K، Kikuno R، وآخرون. (2000). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.". DNA Res. 6 (5): 337-45. PMID 10574462. doi:10.1093/dnares/6.5.337. الوسيط ...
Nagase T، Seki N، Ishikawa K، وآخرون. (1997). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VI. The coding sequences of 80 new genes (KIAA0201-KIAA0280) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from cell line KG-1 and brain". DNA Res. 3 (5): 321-9, 341-54. PMID 9039502. doi:10.1093/dnares/3.5.321. ...
Professor OG in 2002 as a project to create high-quality seeds that were different from those coming out of Holland at the time ... He has selected High Times annual Top 10 Strains of the Year since 2005 and is also the creator and founder of the High Times ... I recommend 20 hours on and four hours off throughout both the vegetative and flowering times for our autoflowering strains. At ... author of The Official High Times Field Guide to Marijuana Strains and the forthcoming book Cannabis: A Beginners Guide to ...
Veterans and others suffering from post traumatic stress tend to favor a variety of marijuana strains. Soothing and relaxing, ... This five-time High Times Cannabis Cup winner simply had to be on this list. The sheer power of the True OG, as well as the way ... Medicinally speaking, this strain can be used to treat depression, ADD and ADHD. The G-13 Haze is also available in feminized ... Another strain that requires some patience, the Nigerian grows long and lanky and tends to stretch, but its typical spear-like ...
Virus upheaval strains integrity of college football season Nov. 12, 2020 at 2:22 pm Updated Nov. 13, 2020 at 3:58 am ... The Seattle Times does not append comment threads to stories from wire services such as the Associated Press, The New York ... Copyright © 2020 The Seattle Times , Privacy Statement , Notice At Collection , Do Not Sell My Information , Terms of Service ... Alabama quarterback Mac Jones wont get a nationally televised, prime-time game Saturday against LSU. Does all this help ...
AP PHOTOS: Rapidly advancing coronavirus strains health care March 23, 2020 at 8:51 am Updated March 24, 2020 at 7:31 am ... The Seattle Times does not append comment threads to stories from wire services such as the Associated Press, The New York ... Copyright © 2020 The Seattle Times , Privacy Statement , Notice At Collection , Do Not Sell My Information , Terms of Service ... These are the scenes playing out in different countries as health systems strain to cope with the rapidly spreading global ...
... a strained flexor tendon will continue to sideline him until hes pain-free. ...
All site contents © Copyright 2020 The Washington Times, LLC , 3600 New York Avenue NE , Washington, DC 20002 , 202-636-3000. ... The Heat announced via Twitter after their 109-92 loss that Jones had a neck strain and had undergone an MRI, CT scan and ... Jones appeared to have movement in most of his extremities, and was tapping the toes of his sneakers on the court several times ...
... arts and culture have made Phoenix New Times a vital resource for readers who want to understand and engage with their ... Popular Strains. More * Brainstorm Haze [sativa] Top Effects:. Creative, Focused, Happy, Relaxed, Uplifted May Relieve:. ... The Phoenix New Times may earn a portion of sales from products & services purchased through links on our site from our ... This is an optimal strain for nighttime smoking when you donâ t have a lot to do, because the potential for couch-lock is high ...
... arts and culture have made Phoenix New Times a vital resource for readers who want to understand and engage with their ... Popular Strains. More * Lemon Haze [sativa] Top Effects:. Energetic, Euphoric, Happy, Relaxed, Uplifted May Relieve:. ... The Phoenix New Times may earn a portion of sales from products & services purchased through links on our site from our ... In fact, Durban Poison is the perfect strain for a warm summer night at Red Rocks. Weâ re also big fans of making cooking oil ...
Coronavirus strainMarijuana strains2020Bacterial strainsKushPandemicInfluenzaDanny DankoYeastHazeGenomicSativaCannabisSequencesVaccineGrowersFlightsContentNeck strainGuillermoShuffleInfectiousVirusReadAntibodiesAnalyzeFoundLaboratoryAmidDroughtEaseReutersUnsubscribeScientistsSeattle TimesSymptomsNewsShiftsScientificOptimalZealandExcitationDaysMoistureTypicallyUltrafastRemainReal-timeMutationsMakesSimilarGrowAngelesPopularityFind
- Veterans and others suffering from post traumatic stress tend to favor a variety of marijuana strains. (hightimes.com)
- He has selected High Times' annual Top 10 Strains of the Year since 2005 and is also the creator and founder of the High Times Seed Bank Hall of Fame , author of The Official High Times Field Guide to Marijuana Strains and the forthcoming book Cannabis: A Beginner's Guide to Growing Marijuana . (hightimes.com)
- Boing Boing pal Jody Radzik designed this incredible infographic of marijuana strains for Berkeley, California's Patient's Care Collective who claim to be "the longest continuously operating medical marijuana dispensary on the planet. (boingboing.net)
- Some of its latest autoflowering strains, such as Moby Dick XXL Auto, Cheese XXL Auto and Bubba Kush XXL Auto, yield as much as regular seeds. (hightimes.com)
- The results of this testing shape all of their breeding decisions and, most importantly, their newest and most exciting development: CBD-rich versions of popular strains like OG Kush, Haze, Amnesia and Cheese. (hightimes.com)
- The sheer power of the True OG, as well as the way it represents all of the best of OG Kush genetics, makes this strain a keeper for any grower looking for the real deal in seed form. (hightimes.com)
- These are the scenes playing out in different countries as health systems strain to cope with the rapidly spreading global pandemic amid a staggering rise in caseloads. (seattletimes.com)
- Since the early stages of the COVID-19 crisis, The Japan Times has been providing free access to crucial news on the impact of the novel coronavirus as well as practical information about how to cope with the pandemic . (japantimes.co.jp)
- use samples obtained over a 20-year period from 40 individuals involved in the Framingham Heart Study to look at antibody titers to seasonal and pandemic influenza strains over time. (sciencemag.org)
- The authors find longitudinal increases in neutralizing antibodies to previously encountered seasonal and pandemic flu strains. (sciencemag.org)
- But homeless providers now worry the coronavirus pandemic and recent earthquake will upend those normal seasonal rhythms, adding pressure to an already-strained shelter system just as that temporary center is slated to close April 15. (sltrib.com)
- Mr Mason said new strains of the virus were expected, similar to new strains of influenza which circulated in the community each year. (gympietimes.com.au)
- These results suggest that antigenic variation may drive the hierarchical humoral immune response to influenza strains. (sciencemag.org)
- The contribution of antigenic variation to antibody titers to the conserved stalk region supports the pursuit of vaccine strategies that increase exposure to antigenically diverse strains of influenza. (sciencemag.org)
- Data have been shared with international counterparts, including the WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), and the genome sequences of the mutated virus strains have been logged in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). (reuters.com)
- For the most part, I've stopped experimenting with new yeast and stuck to repeatedly using 3 or 4 strains (1056, 1214, 1968, and 3711, if you're interested). (homebrewersassociation.org)
- I use WLP001 for most of my pale ales, IPAs and wheat beers but I want to find another couple strains that diversify the flavour profile of the beers I make (not all just Chico yeast for every beer). (homebrewersassociation.org)
- In my case, in an effort to consistently make the beers I enjoy, I zeroed in on just a couple of strains to use other than my preferred house yeast. (homebrewersassociation.org)
- Dinafem strains like Critical+, Moby Dick, Original Amnesia, Haze Automatic, and many more changed the grow game and introduced a new blend of the finest Dutch, Spanish, and Californian genetics for an entirely different flavor and terpene profile. (hightimes.com)
- Great sativa hybrid that isn't too racy, and wont give paranoia, and at the same time it wont give you that tired, lazy, lethargic, couch-lock feeling that certain Sativa-hybrids might possess like Ghost Train Haze, or Blue Dream. (hightimes.com)
- This strain is not known to New Zealand or Australia, so it may have originated from somewhere without full genomic testing. (gympietimes.com.au)
- We have the ability to do genomic sequencing almost in real-time to see what strains or lineages are circulating," he said. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- To analyze this strain of WNV KUN , we conducted genomic sequencing, antigenic profiling, in vitro growth kinetics, and mouse virulence studies on virus isolates from diseased animals and mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
- Adam named this spicy strain Sativa Afghani Genetic Equilibrium, but everyone calls it the S.A.G.E. for short. (hightimes.com)
- Another strain that requires some patience, the Nigerian grows long and lanky and tends to stretch, but its typical spear-like colas fill out when fed properly, and the yields can be considered decent for a sativa. (hightimes.com)
- Itâ s a powerful indica-dominant strain with a good flavor and an earthy, skunky, pungent smell, but breeders have always noted some sativa in the genetics, leading to a cerebral high with a strong body buzz. (phoenixnewtimes.com)
- But then it involves a certain amount of development time and all the issues with producing a new vaccine. (abc.net.au)
- Just in time for new COVID19 vaccine administration and treatment codes.The post Medicare Finalizes COVID19 Vaccine Payment Amounts appeared first on AAPC Knowledge Center. (aapc.com)
- The prevailing view among some growers is that feminized strains are weak and that autoflowering plants produce smaller yields of less potent buds. (hightimes.com)
- Growers and patients searching for a CBD-rich strain that works wonders should look no further than the CBD God. (hightimes.com)
- The plant was loved and care for very much, and the growers passion shines through revealing the pride they had in growing this strain. (hightimes.com)
- At this time, Cheapflights has noticed price decreases for many domestic flights due to COVID-19. (cheapflights.com)
- What is the fare range for flights from EWR to STR? (onetravel.com)
- With one goal in mind, OneTravel will help you to effortlessly search hundreds of airlines and routes to find the best price on flights to STR. (onetravel.com)
- We are continually negotiating with major airlines to offer our customers the best in value, including exclusive deals and offers on STR flights. (onetravel.com)
- The Heat announced via Twitter after their 109-92 loss that Jones had a neck strain and had undergone an MRI, CT scan and concussion test. (washingtontimes.com)
- Tiger Woods has pulled out of this week's Arnold Palmer Invitational in Florida due to a neck strain. (irishtimes.com)
- Unfortunately due to a neck strain that I've had for a few weeks, I'm forced to withdraw from the API," Woods tweeted. (irishtimes.com)
- As noted in this documentation str_shuffle is NOT cryptographically secure, however I have seen many code examples online of people using nothing more than this to generate say random passwords. (php.net)
- So I though I'd share my function which while it makes use of str_shuffle also rely's on random_int() for added security. (php.net)
- The virus mutates so slowly that the virus strains are fundamentally very similar to each other," said Charles Chiu, a professor of medicine and infectious disease at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- As the world is already battling to the increasing cases of COVID-19 day by day, Malaysia has claimed that it has detected a strain of the new coronavirus which is 10 times more infectious. (freepressjournal.in)
- State epidemiologist Kare Molbak said cluster 5 was not more dangerous than other strains or more infectious. (reuters.com)
- Mr Mason said he knew of at least half a dozen strains of the virus but said there could easily be more. (gympietimes.com.au)
- Huddled in once bustling and now almost empty labs, researchers who oversaw dozens of projects are instead focused on one goal: tracking the current strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that cause the illness COVID-19. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- While researchers caution they're only seeing the tip of the iceberg, the tiny differences between the virus strains suggest shelter-in-place orders are working in some areas and that no one strain of the virus is more deadly than another. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- This isn't the first time scientists have scrambled to do genetic analysis of a virus in the midst of an epidemic. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- Chiu says it appears unlikely the differences are related to people being infected with different strains of the virus. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen said the new virus strain was found in 12 people who got infected by mink. (abc.net.au)
- Results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant West Nile virus (WNV) strain, WNV NSW2011 , that is most closely related to WNV Kunjin (WNV KUN ), the indigenous WNV strain in Australia. (cdc.gov)
- Known distribution of West Nile virus infection and disease caused by Kunjin strain (A) and distribution of encephalitis cases among equids (B), New South Wales, Australia, 2011. (cdc.gov)
- In Australia, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) Kunjin (KUN) strain are the main etiologic agents of arboviral encephalitis in humans, which usually occurs as isolated sporadic cases or occasional small outbreaks, mainly in northwestern Australia and rarely in southern regions ( Figure 1 , panel A) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- The strain has crossed European borders and accounted for 40-70% of new infections in Switzerland, Ireland and the United Kingdom in September, they found. (fijitimes.com)
- So far even in the virus's most divergent strains scientists have found only 11 base pair changes. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- The strain, which the World Health Organization said was identified in February and has been circulating in Europe and the Americas, has also been found in neighbouring Singapore and Malaysia. (channelnewsasia.com)
- A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. (frontiersin.org)
- While it's true that different strains can produce quite different results, after experimenting around for quite a few years I've found that they can be coaxed into producing similar results to each other with minor tweaks to recipe and procedure. (homebrewersassociation.org)
- Cluster 5 makes up around 5% of the strains found in Northern Denmark, but it has not appeared outside the country and it was not immediately clear why it emerged in Denmark. (reuters.com)
- In WNV NSW2011 , this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNV KUN . (cdc.gov)
- But SSI's initial laboratory studies show the new strain had mutations on its so-called spike protein, which invades and infects healthy cells. (reuters.com)
- Speaking to Chinese state media, Wang Yanyi confirmed reports that the facility held three strains of coronavirus inside the laboratory. (investmentwatchblog.com)
- By showing rather than just telling peers about their methods, scientists make their work easier to reproduce, JoVE 's chief executive Moshe Pritsker told Times Higher Education . (timeshighereducation.com)
- Scientists are supposed to be able to replicate each other's work based on articles alone, but when following new methods, nine times out of 10 they fail, said Dr Pritsker, who before founding the journal was a postdoctoral researcher at Harvard Medical School. (timeshighereducation.com)
- SAN FRANCISCO - At least eight strains of the coronavirus are making their way around the globe, creating a trail of death and disease that scientists are tracking by their genetic footprints. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- He could only speculate to how this strain had not yet been detected, but said it may have come from a country that did not have the testing capacity of Australia or New Zealand. (gympietimes.com.au)
- Albino strains of Ophiostoma floccosum , O. piceae and O. pluriannulatum were selected and screened for biological control of sapstaining fungi on New Zealand radiata pine ( Pinus radiata ). (degruyter.com)
- Albino strains were obtained through matings and single ascospore isolations from cultures of prevalent species in New Zealand. (degruyter.com)
- Here, we directly observe the coupling of magnons and phonons in both time and frequency domains upon femtosecond laser excitation. (sciencemag.org)
- Strain can be launched by an ultrafast optical excitation, specifically femtosecond laser pulses, through thermal expansion ( 2 , 11 - 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Litvack said there's also not an appetite to open a separate overflow facility to serve homeless clients at this time, since demand for shelter services typically decreases in the spring and summertime - though he acknowledged it's not clear if that will hold true under the new resource center system . (sltrib.com)
- With its European-inspired, tulip-shaped design, the Anolon Nouvelle Copper Stainless Steel 3-1/2-Quart Covered Straining Saucepan makes an elegant statement on stovetops. (younkers.com)
- Considering that we will not be required to shelter in place forever, it makes sense to put in the effort now to preserve and promote healthy relationships that will last far beyond the time of COVID-19. (ecowatch.com)
- Grow Q&A: Can I Grow High-CBD Pot Plants Next To THC-Rich Strains? (hightimes.com)
- I'm about to grow the CBD Therapy strain from The CBD Crew and was wondering if I can grow this strain in the same growroom as high THC strains? (hightimes.com)
- There's no reason why you can't grow your high-CBD strain next to other high THC varieties. (hightimes.com)
- They also say it does not appear the strains will grow more lethal as they evolve. (leavenworthtimes.com)
- strain BCP1 was initially isolated for its ability to grow on gaseous n -alkanes, which act as inducers for the co-metabolic degradation of low-chlorinated compounds. (frontiersin.org)
- ANAHEIM, Calif. (AP) - Shohei Ohtani has a right forearm strain that will prevent the Los Angeles Angels' two-way star from throwing for at least four to six weeks, possibly ending his season as a pitcher after just two starts. (seattletimes.com)
- Grappling with serious structural damage and the onslaught of hundreds of injured people, many hospitals and clinics across Los Angeles continued Tuesday to buckle under the strain of Monday's shattering earthquake. (latimes.com)