The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The biological objects that contain genetic information and that are involved in transmitting genetically encoded traits from one organism to another.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant family of the order Lecythidales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE.
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Fucaceae. It is found in temperate, marine intertidal areas along rocky coasts and is a source of ALGINATES. Some species of Fucus are referred to as KELP.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Sexual activities of animals.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Member species are ornamentals grown for their numerous small white, yellow, pink, or purplish flowers.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains julibroside (triterpenoid saponins).
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
Multiple natural mechanisms allow gene flow from one species to another.[27] These occur in nature on a large scale - for ... "The New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013.. *^ a b "USDA ERS - Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S." www.ers. ... It contained three bacterial genes, two CP4 EPSPS genes, and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli as ... This CP4 EPSPS gene was cloned and transfected into soybeans. The plasmid used to move the gene into soybeans was PV-GMGTO4. ...
Fusion protein Gene pool Gene flow Introgression Nucleic acid hybridization Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis "Transgene ... Harmon, Amy (2013-08-24). "Golden Rice: Lifesaver?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-24. Arias, D. M.; ... "Recent long-distance transgene flow into wild populations conforms to historical patterns of gene flow in cotton (Gossypium ... Kristin L. Mercer; Joel D. Wainwright (January 2008). "Gene flow from transgenic maize to landraces in Mexico: An analysis". ...
... found no evidence of gene flow in Oaxaca. However, other authors claimed to have found evidence of such gene flow. A 2010 study ... Simon B (May 22, 2004). "Monsanto Wins Patent Case On Plant Genes". The New York Times. Sheldon M (2002). "Regulation of ... Potential effects include gene flow/genetic pollution, pesticide resistance and greenhouse gas emissions. A major use of GM ... Genes from a GMO may pass to another organism just like an endogenous gene. The process is known as outcrossing and can occur ...
4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into ... 2016). "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals". Nature. 530 (7591): 429-33. Bibcode: 2016Natur. ... S. Beleza et al., "The Timing of Pigmentation Lightening in Europeans", Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 30, Issue 1, 1 ... This correlates in time to the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, the first significant warming period after the Glacial Maximum. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Sally N. Aitken; Jordan B. Bemmels (2016). "Time to get moving: assisted gene flow of ... "Will my forest look good in these genes?". Retrieved April 17, 2019. ...
Gene flow[edit]. The eusocial Hymenoptera order has a constrained effective population size compared to other orders. This is ... Logan, C. J.; O'Donnell, S.; Clayton, N. S. (2011). "A case of mental time travel in ant-following birds?". Behavioral Ecology ... This causes not only high colony population viscosity, but also restricted maternal gene flow among the colonies.[citation ... With the fragmented forest hindering the males' dispersal, gene flow is reduced among the Eciton burchellii populations.[24] ...
The challenge with this solution is the limitation of natural gene flow. Wild cheetahs appear in three locations in South ... The UVB sunburn index is highest at this time of the year, thereby it is recommended to apply sunscreen regularly. In winter, ... In order to avoid excessive interruptions to animals, people are allowed to do game drives only at certain times, one is when ... Over time, due to crop cultivation and urban development, the cheetah population has been insufficiently spaced. Most ...
Fragmented habitat create barriers in gene flow between populations. The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete ... but with time and further advancements in science and methodology it may well become a routine procedure not to far into the ... including the loss of individual genes, and the loss of particular recombinants of genes (or gene complexes) - such as those ... A new specimen can then be "resurrected" with the help of cloning, so as to give it another chance to breed its genes into the ...
The relatively low health of these hybrids relative to pure-breed individuals prevents gene flow between species. Thus, hybrid ... Recognizing that hybrid viability decreases with time, the researchers used molecular clocks to quantify divergence time. They ... The offspring fails to compete with purebred individuals, limiting genes flow between species. In the 1970s, Allan C. Wilson ... Both the regulatory genes of the sperm and egg contribute to the expression of other protein-coding genes in the zygote; if ...
The lower elevation populations of the pygmy salamanders documented exhibit little gene flow. This low gene flow reflects their ... Desmognathus wrighti populations appear to have stayed fragmented for some time due to their restriction to high elevation. ...
Queens in particular travel long distances in dispersal flights; this increases gene flow within the species. When traveling ... B. hortorum have been found to fly distances up to 2.5 kilometers in a relatively short period of time, approximately one to ... Bumblebee colonies that exhibit little variety in their gene pool, as a result of inbreeding, tend to have a higher occurrence ... up-regulated effector genes that defend the host. Bombus hortorum are frequent pollinators of many crops, including sunflowers ...
"Timing strains of the marine insect Clunio marinus diverged and persist with gene flow". Molecular Ecology. 30 (5): 1264-1280. ... no gene flow), and on the other extreme is sympatry, in which the ranges overlap completely (maximal gene flow). The varying ... He stated that gene flow is the inevitable result of sympatry, which is known to squelch genetic differentiation between ... It is thus is a refinement of sympatric speciation, with a behavioral, rather than geographical barrier to the flow of genes ...
gene flow The transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. gene pool The sum of all of the various alleles ... LUCA is not thought to have been the earliest life on Earth, but rather the only organism of its time to still have living ... A gene or allele present in a group of descendant organisms is said to be identical by descent to a gene or allele in a common ... In the absence of evolutionary forces such as natural selection, mutation, assortative mating, gene flow, and genetic drift, p ...
"Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature ... The evidence indicates that all of the extinctions took place in the same short time period, which was the time when humans ... Eurasian Pleistocene megafauna became extinct in roughly same time period despite having a much longer time to adapt to hunting ... "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals". Nature. 530 (7591): 429-433. Bibcode:2016Natur.530..429K ...
There was 11-13% of ancient gene flow into the golden jackal from the population that was ancestral to wolves and dogs, and an ... The peak times for their searches are the early morning and the late evening. When hunting in pairs or packs, jackals run ... There was evidence of gene flow between golden jackals and Middle Eastern wolves, less so with European and Asian wolves, and ... There is evidence of gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, and gray wolves. One African golden wolf from the ...
4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into ... The 13th century was the time of the great Mongol and Turkic migrations across Eurasia, where the Eurasian steppe has time and ... to the gene pool at that time)." Early humans migrated due to many factors, such as changing climate and landscape and ... These large migration flows influenced the process of nation state formation in many ways. Immigration restrictions have been ...
"Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature ...
July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals ... Jared Diamond in The Third Chimpanzee (1991), and Morris Goodman (2003) Hecht, Jeff (19 May 2003). "Chimps are human, gene ... The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2019. Curnoe D, Xueping J, Herries AI, Kanning B, Taçon PS, Zhende B, et al. (2012). " ... not known in Gray's time. In this suggestion, the new subtribe of Hominina was to be designated as including the genus Homo ...
4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into ... Wilford, John Noble (2 November 2011). "Fossil Teeth Put Humans in Europe Earlier Than Thought". New York Times. Ng, Stephen. " ... Chapter 1. Clottes, Jean (2003). Chauvet Cave: The Art of Earliest Times. Paul G. Bahn (translator). University of Utah Press. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hannon, G; Bradshaw, Richard H.W. (2000). "Impacts and Timing of the First Human ...
... although this does not disprove the presence of any Holocene gene flow or non-genetic influences from South Asia at that time, ... Human contact has thus been inferred, and genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support a gene flow from India to ... Gene flow across the island-dotted 150-kilometre (93 mi)-wide Torres Strait, is both geographically plausible and demonstrated ... excluded the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. The study authors sequenced 13 ...
Evidence for adaptation by time demands four factors: 1) time restricts gene flow, 2) the reproductive season expresses ... offspring will inherit the traits for reproductive time causing a decrease in gene flow while reproductive timing differences ... Adaptation by time is an extension of divergence due to limited gene flow between populations experiencing different selective ... This pattern indicates that daily allochrony is more prone to gene flow (closeness of breeding times can allow accidental ...
4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into ... A strong current flows from the Red Sea into the Indian Ocean and crossing would have been difficult without a land connection ... There is little time between Homo erectus' apparent arrival in South Caucasus around 1.8 Ma, and its probable arrival in East ... In colder Eurasian times, the hominin diet would have to be principally meat-based and Acheulean hunters must have competed ...
July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals ... February 2016). "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals". Nature. 530 (7591): 429-33. Bibcode: ... Hubisz MJ, Williams AL, Siepel A (August 2020). "Mapping gene flow between ancient hominins through demography-aware inference ... Gene. 530 (1): 83-94. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2013.06.005. PMID 23872234. This study raises the possibility of observed genetic ...
4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into ... Overbye, Dennis (16 October 2017). "LIGO Detects Fierce Collision of Neutron Stars for the First Time". The New York Times. ... technology for the first time. 14 December British doctors use a new form of gene therapy to treat haemophilia A, a genetic ... the hypothesis that matter and antimatter behave identical when time and space are reversed at the same time. 20 October - IBM ...
July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals ... February 2016). "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals". Nature. 530 (7591): 429-33. Bibcode: ... St Fleu N (19 July 2017). "Humans First Arrived in Australia 65,000 Years Ago, Study Suggests". The New York Times. Wood R (2 ... From an analysis of Mucin 7, a highly divergent haplotype that has an estimated coalescence time with other variants around 4.5 ...
"Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature ... suggesting that the gene flow came from a population that was more closely related to the Altai Neanderthal. However, Denny's ... "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals". Nature. 530 (7591): 429-433. Bibcode:2016Natur.530..429K ... Denisova Cave, over time of inhabitance, continually swung from a fairly warm and moderately humid pine and birch forest to a ...
"Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature ... 2017). A study on the timing of the diversification of placental mammals based on genomic data, indicating that the placentals ... 2017), who evaluate the implications of this finding for the knowledge of the timing of genetic introgression event from ... "Estimating the extinction time of two cave bears, Ursus spelaeus and U. ingressus" (PDF). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. 60 (2): ...
Bidirectional gene flow between domestic and wild reindeer continues today. The consequence of this introgression is that ... however this is the upper time-limit for domestication because it represents the time of divergence and not the time of ... This introgression can, in some cases, be regarded as adaptive introgression, as observed in domestic sheep due to gene flow ... One study has concluded that human selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from ...
2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". ... Admixture mapping Gene flow - The transfer of genetic variation from one population to another Hybrid - Offspring of cross- ... divergence time), estimating the separation of the human and Neanderthal ancestral populations to 370,000 years ago (split time ... placing modern humans there and then for the first time ever", pointing to a potential time and location when modern humans ...
... in FGFR genes) and mutations that lead to loss of function (in TWIST genes).[38][39] Craniosynostosis is therefore likely the ... Timing of surgeryEdit. The prevention of post-surgical complications, including those mentioned above, plays an important role ... This can be further complicated with a possible Arnold-Chiari malformation, which can partially obstruct the flow of cerebro- ... Gene Loeys-Dietz syndrome wide-set eyes • split uvula or cleft palate • arterial tortuosity • aortic root dilatation • ...
There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of ... Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and ... and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may ... Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 ...
Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... Cao, W., Demeler B. Modeling Analytical Ultracentrifugation Experiments with an Adaptive Space-Time Finite Element Solution for ... ultracentrifuges can separate molecules in batch or continuous flow systems. ... This is ideal in industrial and lab settings because particles that would naturally separate over a long period of time can be ...
Shown in common time and then in cut time with tied sixteenth & eighth note rather than rest. ... "Cross" (Eugene Novotney). The clave rhythm and clave concept have been used in some modern art music ("classical") compositions ... Clave has a natural flow with a certain tension and resolves points. I found if I kept these points in the new meters they ... Legend: Time signature: 2. 4; L=low bell, H=high bell, O = open surdo hit, X = muffled surdo hit, and , divides the measure: * ...
Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yury N.; McCracken, Kevin G. (2004). "Asymmetric hybridization and sex-biased gene flow between ... Since ancient times, the mallard has been eaten as food. The wild mallard was eaten in Neolithic Greece.[134] Usually, only the ... as gene flow with other populations is very limited.[15]. Also, the paucity of morphological differences between the Old World ... Over time, a continuum of hybrids ranging between almost typical examples of either species develop; the speciation process is ...
feed(lactose):-make(permease),make(galactosidase). make(Enzyme):-code(Gene,Enzyme),express(Gene). express(lac(X)):-amount( ... Such a constraint means that it is not possible for all A1,...,An to be true and at the same time all of B1,...,Bm to be false ... Like all enzymes, these are made if they are coded by a gene (Gene) that is expressed (described by the second rule). The two ... This restriction can be made without loss of generality.) Also in practice, many times, the integrity constraints in IC are ...
The HLA genes fall in two categories (Type I and Type II). In general, mismatches of the Type-I genes (i.e. HLA-A, HLA-B, or ... "New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012.. *^ The Bone Marrow Foundation. "Cancer Research Pioneer Dies". ... Ursodiol has been shown to help prevent VOD, presumably by facilitating the flow of bile. ... "New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010.. *^ Thomas ED, Lochte HL, Lu WC, et al. (1957). "Intravenous ...
"DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. 15 (4): 173-183. doi:10.1093/ ... At the time, sake still made up an astonishing 30% of Japan's tax revenue. Since home-brewed sake is tax-free sake, the logic ... "Weekend: Sake breweries go with the flow to survive". Retrieved December 29, 2009.. [dead link ... displaystyle {\text{SMV}}=\left(\left,{\frac {1}{\text{specific gravity}}}\right,-1\right)\times 1443}. Specific gravity is ...
First, the classic (rod or cone) photoreceptor is depolarized in the dark, which means many sodium ions are flowing into the ... Slow response to light, stimuli added over time Fast response to light, can perceive more rapid changes in stimuli ... NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed for both rod and cone development. ... These events take place at different time periods for different species and include a complex pattern of activities that bring ...
Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene ... Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death, type of ... Furthermore, surgical training can be very difficult and time-consuming. Internal specialty[edit]. Main article: Internal ... From ancient times, Christian emphasis on practical charity gave rise to the development of systematic nursing and hospitals ...
... have gained new subunits over time, how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... If this decay results in a situation where all of the genes are now required, the organism has been trapped in a new state ...
Tertiary gene pool: L. lamottei and L. tomentosus. Crosses generally fail between members of different gene pools. However, ... Rainfall during this time is limited. In West Asia and North Africa, some lentils are planted as a winter crop before snowfall ... A combination of gravity, screens and air flow is used to clean and sort lentils based on shape and density. After destoning, ... According to their inter-crossability Lens species can be divided into three gene pools: *Primary gene pool: L. culinaris (and ...
Kopaliani, N.; Shakarashvili, M.; Gurielidze, Z.; Qurkhuli, T.; Tarkhnishvili, D. (2014). "Gene Flow between Wolf and Shepherd ... "Times Union. Retrieved 14 August 2013.. *^ Galov, Anna; et al. (2015). "First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal ( ... This is now so widespread that in some areas, dingoes are now mostly mixed-breed dogs, crossed in recent times with dogs from ... DNA analysis consistently shows that all existing red wolves carry coyote genes. This has caused a problem for Canid taxonomy, ...
Neurosurgeons take the time to observe the evolution of the neoplasm before proposing a management plan to the patient and his/ ... Mutations and deletions of so-called tumor suppressor genes, such as P53, are thought to be the cause of some forms of brain ... caused by the blockage of the free flow of cerebrospinal fluid.[42] ... Experimental treatments include targeted therapy, gamma knife radiosurgery,[45] boron neutron capture therapy and gene therapy. ...
Difficult time swallowing. Common. Common. 3 years of age. Rehabilitation Difficulty chewing. Difficult time chewing. Common. ... The syndrome is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene.[1] This gene is located on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.2 ... Interrupted blood flow to the brain. Convulsions. Sudden, irregular body movements that can be violent. Common. Common. 1 year ... At this time more than 120 mutations have been found.[2] Some people with the features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome do not have ...
On 30 April 1989 cold fusion was declared dead by the New York Times. The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston ... Mallove, Eugene (1991), "Fire from Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor", London: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-53139- ... Shanahan, Kirk L. (23 May 2002), "A systematic error in mass flow calorimetry demonstrated", Thermochimica Acta, 382 (2): 95- ... "New York Times. Retrieved 27 November 2013.. *^ Taubes 1993, pp. 410-411, Close 1992, pp. 270, 322, Huizenga 1993, pp. 118-119 ...
The studies on fungal evolutionary genomics will further elucidate the earliest stages of divergence as a result of gene flow, ... Over time, that locus would affect two traits by interacting with a second locus. Directional selection for both traits during ... Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene . Therefore mutation in a pleiotropic ... Gene pleiotropy occurs when a gene product interacts with multiple other proteins or catalyzes multiple reactions. ...
... decreasing expensive FISH probe consumption and reduce the hybridization time. MA-FISH is applied for detecting the HER2 gene ... Flow-FISH[edit]. Flow-FISH uses flow cytometry to perform FISH automatically using per-cell fluorescence measurements. ... RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA,[3][4][5] lncRNA[6][7][8] and ... The technology has potential applications in cancer diagnosis,[14] neuroscience, gene expression analysis,[15] and companion ...
Kant's proof in Critique of Pure Reason (which referenced time and time ordering of causes and effects)[137] ... Nora D Volkow; Joanna S Fowler; Gene-Jack Wang (2007). "The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies". In Andrew R ... "Solving the hard problem of consciousness involves determining how physiological processes such as ions flowing across the ... Although at the time quantum mechanics (and physical indeterminism) was only in the initial stages of acceptance, in his book ...
The overall charge dynamic range of the QTC is 0.2-2500 pC, five times larger than the old . The charge and timing resolution ... Typical flow rates, dew point, and residual radon concentration are 18 m3/h, −65 °C (@+1 kg/cm2), and a few mBq m−3, ... Charles Kane and Eugene Mele (2019). Life sciences. *Cornelia Bargmann, David Botstein, Lewis C. Cantley, Hans Clevers, Titia ... This led to the construction of Super-Kamiokande, with fifteen times the water and ten times as many PMTs as Kamiokande. Super- ...
So a myocardial infarction or heart attack is when blood flow to part of the heart stops. Then that part of the heart dies. ... Use of fibrates and statins at the same time makes rhabdomyolysis happen much more often. ... Genetics (whether people have good genes or bad ones from their parents.) ... When atherosclerosis gets bad enough, it can cause blockage of blood flow in arteries. This can hurt whatever the artery brings ...
My time on earth is drawing to a close. But Christ lives on and continues his work in the Church. Souls, souls, ut omnes unum ... Upon his election, Cardinal Eugene Tisserant asked him the ritual questions of whether he would accept and if so, what name he ... and the lack of air flow in his sealed triple coffin rather than a miracle. When John XXIII's body was moved in 2001, the ... "The Times of Israel. Retrieved 23 June 2013.. *^ Hebblethwaite, Peter (1994), John XXIII, Pope of the Council (rev ed.), ...
Some degree of gene flow is normal, and preserves constellations of genes and genotypes.[118][119] An example of this is the ... Invading species have been shown to adapt to their new environments in a remarkably short amount of time.[115] The population ... resulting from invasive species interbreeding with native species can incorporate their genotypes into the gene pool over time ... Holden, Matthew H.; Nyrop, Jan P.; Ellner, Stephen P. (2016-06-01). "The economic benefit of time-varying surveillance effort ...
Mutation in the CACNA1C gene, the single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the third intron of the Cav1.2 gene,[18] are ... When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. The Calcium/Calmodulin binding ... This results in channels working cooperatively when they open at the same time to allow more calcium ions to enter and then ... "Entrez Gene: voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit".. *^ Narayanan D, Xi Q, Pfeffer LM, Jaggar JH (Sep 2010). " ...
Timing[edit]. Although neural mechanisms involved in timing movement have been studied rigorously over the past 20 years, much ... They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... Peretz, Isabelle (2008). "Musical Disorders: From Behavior to Genes". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17 (5): 329- ... The ability to phrase movements in precise time has been accredited to a neural metronome or clock mechanism where time is ...
"Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians", GMR, 2007, Vol. 12, No. 6. ... uses the terms negro fifteen times and black four times. Each time he uses black it is in parallel construction with white; for ... "Los Angeles Times. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 6 May 2018.. *^ University of the Andes (Venezuela) (3 March 2011), Historia de ... "The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2018.. *^ Hatred for Black People; by Shehu Sani; Xlibris Corporation, 2013; ISBN ...
... is used as a rather conservative flow tracer in hydrological tracer tests to help in understanding of water flow of ... The risk of an adverse reaction is 25 times higher if the person has had a prior adverse reaction.[19] The risk can be reduced ... The latter is a common alternative to digoxigenin, and the two are used together for labelling two genes in one sample.[3] ... Fluorescein has often been used to track water movement in groundwater to study water flow and observe areas of contamination ...
One study demonstrated that normal autorelation of cerebral blood flow does not cause HACE.[18] What role the sympathetic ... HACE can be prevented by ascending to heights slowly to allow the body more time to acclimatize. Acetazolamide also helps ... Several genes are being examined for the role they may play in the development of the condition.[39] ... Kruse was having an incredibly difficult time simply trying to dress himself. He put his climbing harness on inside out, ...
... but instead the density of the number of cells present in the organism at a given time. Cell growth pertains to the increase in ... proteins and lipids which are either free flowing or membrane bound, along with different internal compartments known as ... Transcription and mRNA splicing - Gene expression.. Notable cell biologistsEdit. *Jean Baptiste Carnoy ...
Early times[edit]. A small natural gas industry in Central Canada had already been around for several decades, but the most ... In this spectacular event, sour gas flowed at an estimated rate of 150 million cubic feet (4,200,000 m3) per day. The H2S ... In a parallel development Eugene Coste, who had been a pioneer in the development of Ontario's natural gas industry, moved west ... During that time hydrogen sulphide from the blowout took the lives of two blowout specialists and sent another 16 people to ...
... to modern humans than Denisovans has recently been suggested as the result of gene flow from an African source into ... We demonstrate that a complete Neanderthal mtDNA replacement is feasible over this time interval even with minimal hominin ... providing a lower boundary for the time of the putative mtDNA introgression event. ... While the upper bound for the time of this putative gene flow event would be the divergence time between Neanderthal and modern ...
... by a field genetically modified with a gene to express a natural toxin against pests. Nasty weeds sometimes evolve directly ... So how much gene flow is there between plant populations? How important is gene flow for maintaining a species identity and ... They illustrate the important role of gene flow among populations and its potential consequences. Gene flow has been recognized ... and can be as low as no gene flow at all to very high rates of gene flow. ...
Implications of Gene Flow from North Africa to Europe.. Time since admixture estimates.. The variance in ancestry assignments ... these results support the hypothesis that Sub-Saharan gene flow detected in Europe entered with North African gene flow. We ... the times required to achieve the observed variance in the population given a single gene flow event in a randomly mating ... the timing and duration of gene flow, population structure and/or assortative mating within the population, and errors in ...
Routes of Gene Flow Through Time.. The reconstructions of human demography presented in this paper are the most realistic ... Routes of gene flow during the expansion represented by the distribution of coalescence events; 100 gene trees were sampled ... There is also a clear signal for two separate axes of gene flow into Europe on either side of the Black Sea (Fig. 3A, Inset), ... Generating Gene Genealogies from Simulated Demographies.. To generate stochastic gene genealogies for individuals sampled at ...
time series (20) * aquatics (20) * snowshoe hares (20) * Meleagris gallopavo merriami (20) ... Sex-biased dispersal and spatial heterogeneity affect landscape resistance to gene flow in fisher. Publications Posted on: June ... Gene flow is an evolutionary process that supports genetic connectivity and contributes to the capacity of species to adapt to ... Quantifying functional connectivity: The role of breeding habitat, abundance, and landscape features on range-wide gene flow in ...
... and how restricted gene flow can lead to the formation of new species. Video by California Academy of Sciences. ... With time, and thats the crucial ingredient here, time, enough time to make generations of reproduction, the two populations ... What happens if gene flow is slowed down or somehow prevented? Imagine a population in which sexual reproduction and variation ... Therefore, we now have what is called a restriction of gene flow between the two separated groups. What had once been a single ...
Theory predicts that gene flow hinders local adaptation, unless it is coupled with habitat choice. Here, the authors show that ... Our study challenges the idea that high gene flow precludes local adaptation, and provides unique experimental evidence of ... Local adaptation is assumed to occur under limited gene flow. However, habitat-matching theory predicts dispersal should favour ... Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.. from$8.99. Rent or Buy ...
measuring gene flow between different pheromone races of ECB.. * establishment of a central collection of specimens from all ... monitoring Bt-susceptibility patterns in time and space. * elucidating dispersal rates and genetic population structure of ECB ... The introduction into the EU market of transgenic Bt-maize, bearing a gene encoding an insecticidal endotoxin (Bt), has many ... determining initial allele frequencies at candidate resistance genes.. * development of resistant strains by laboratory ...
Number of times cited: 6. *1. Jia Yang, Lucía Vázquez, Xiaodan Chen, Huimin Li, Hao Zhang, Zhanlin Liu, Guifang Zhao, ... Plant DNA barcodes and the influence of gene flow. Authors. *. YAMAMA NACIRI,. * Unité de Phylogénie et de Génétique ... We show that the genome experiencing the highest gene flow is, in the majority of the cases, the best suited for species ... In this study, we confirm the theoretical prediction that gene flow influences species assignment with simulations and a ...
Number of times cited: 100. *1. Youhui Gong, Qingyun Diao, Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in ... Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats. Authors. *. Manja M. Kwak,. Corresponding author. *Laboratory of Plant Ecology and ... Shenhua Qian, Waka Saito, Makiko Mimura, Shingo Kaneko, Yuji Isagi, Eri Mizumachi, Akira S. Mori, Asymmetric gene flow and the ... In the absence of stepping stones even short distances between populations act as strong barriers for gene flow. ...
Multiple natural mechanisms allow gene flow from one species to another.[27] These occur in nature on a large scale - for ... "The New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013.. *^ a b "USDA ERS - Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S." www.ers. ... It contained three bacterial genes, two CP4 EPSPS genes, and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli as ... This CP4 EPSPS gene was cloned and transfected into soybeans. The plasmid used to move the gene into soybeans was PV-GMGTO4. ...
... but high levels of Y chromosome gene flow. In particular, Y chromosome gene flow appears to be asymmetric, i.e., from the Bantu ... but high levels of Y chromosome gene flow. In particular, Y chromosome gene flow appears to be asymmetric, i.e., from the Bantu ... but high levels of Y chromosome gene flow. In particular, Y chromosome gene flow appears to be asymmetric, i.e., from the Bantu ... but high levels of Y chromosome gene flow. In particular, Y chromosome gene flow appears to be asymmetric, i.e., from the Bantu ...
... we would predict ancient divergence time estimates, allowing time for drift to drive divergence, and high levels of gene flow ... For all sets of SNPs, divergence with gene flow was a better fit to the data than the no gene flow model (LRT p , 0.001; table ... First, we tested a divergence with gene flow model against a null hypothesis of divergence without gene flow. For each of four ... In addition to asymmetric gene flow between the two subspecies, we find that gene flow is heterogeneous across the genome. ...
The dates in the Jewish groups are older, consistent with events in classical or biblical times that may have occurred in the ... but there has been no estimate of the exact proportion of this gene flow, or of its date. Here, we apply genomic methods to ... Gene flow Is the Subject Area "Gene flow" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... where the gene flow occurs in an interval I = [a,b] where 0 , a ≤ b and the time is in generations. In each generation during I ...
Inferring human population sizes, divergence times and rates of gene flow from mitochondrial, x and y chromosome resequencing ... but high levels of Y chromosome gene flow. In particular, Y chromosome gene flow appears to be asymmetric, i.e., from the Bantu ... "the speech and language gene.". Its the only gene known so far that plays a key role in language. When mutated, the gene ... Conversely, mitochondrial gene flow is more extensive between non-African populations, but appears to be absent between ...
There has been ancient gene flow between all of the oceans. The 3 populations have had connections and the Southern Hemisphere ... Genetic diversity of mtDNA in the humpback may imply large ancestral populations or simply a restricted gene flow. Nuclear DNA ... Earth Times Categories Business. Climate. Conservation. Energy. Health. Nature. Politics. Pollution. SciTech. Going Green. ... Earth Times loves the humpback, from its hit songs to those great fins. Of any mammal, the many humpback migrations from the ...
Slatkin M (1991) Inbreeding coefficients and coalescence times. Genet Res 58:167-175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Pleistocene isolation, secondary introgression and restricted contemporary gene flow in the pig-eye shark, Carcharhinus ... indicates Pleistocene range expansion around northern Australia but low contemporary gene flow. Mol Ecol 16:3406-3422PubMed ... until current day with restricted contemporary gene flow maintaining population genetic structure. Our results show the need ...
Solving the IP problem, one rupee at a time. Gene flow, IP, and the terminator. ... Talks & Interviewsgene editing, gene flow, GMO, Talks & Interviews, transgene Those naughty plants!. by Anastasia Bodnar. 22 ... Tag: gene flow. Better Know a Scientist: Estefania Elorriaga. by Layla Katiraee. 22 June 2015. 5 Comments ... Sciencegene flow, Genetic Engineering, Genetics, Plant Breeding Biology Fortified, Inc. is an independent non-profit ...
2017 Population-genomic inference of the strength and timing of selection against gene flow. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114: ... gene flow from lineage C into lineage B does not change our expectations for the coalescence time of A and C relative to those ... as the frequency of discordant topologies are the same under many different scenarios for the timing and direction of gene flow ... For the gene tree AB11 in parent tree 1, the expected time to coalescence between A and B (tA-B) is:. (1)(Equation A.7 in ...
Solving the IP problem, one rupee at a time. Gene flow, IP, and the terminator. ... Most of the time scientists can rely on publications that go through the careful critical review by other scientists. But ... BGI Sequencing news: German EHEC strain is a chimera created by horizontal gene transfer. ...
It is not clear when the African gene flow, present in modern Egyptians, occurred. Nor could the study determine the origin of ... They also shared genetic material with residents of the Turkish peninsula at the time and Europe. ... Cool, dry permafrost can preserve prehistoric DNA like a natural freezer, but Egypt is a gene incinerator. The region is hot. ... To answer that, scientists will have to find genomes "back further in time, in prehistory." ...
4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into ... 2016). "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals". Nature. 530 (7591): 429-33. Bibcode: 2016Natur. ... S. Beleza et al., "The Timing of Pigmentation Lightening in Europeans", Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 30, Issue 1, 1 ... This correlates in time to the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, the first significant warming period after the Glacial Maximum. ...
Gene flow moves in the direction of what resources are abundant at a given time. Island Population: The marine iguana is an ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or geneflow and allele flow) is the transfer of genetic ... because there is little to no gene flow to provide recombination of the gene pools. Barriers to gene flow need not always be ... The population is so strongly isolated that lack of gene flow has led to high rates of inbreeding. The level of gene flow among ...
... concordant moving directions of potato products and net gene flow and the highest gene diversity in the region with the most ... These results indicate that in addition to natural dispersal, human-mediated gene flow also contributes to the generation and ... These results indicate that in addition to natural dispersal, human-mediated gene flow also contributes to the generation and ... concordant moving directions of potato products and net gene flow and the highest gene diversity in the region with the most ...
You do not need much gene flow to remove population structure (sometimes only 1 or 2 individuals are needed to rescue a ... t0.5=1.38x10to the power of 6 generations (the time it takes to lose half the heterozygosity via drift).. - This means that it ... The generation time effect. - Expected and Observed are so different. - Expect: many organisms have extreme levels of ... Allows us to accommodate the dramatic fluctuations of population sizes over time. - The harmonic mean of the population sizes ...
New traits are introduced into populations by gene flow from other populations or by mutation. Mutation is a change in the ... Like individuals in a population, species also struggle amongst themselves to survive, and most become extinct over time. ... Most genes come in a variety of forms, one inherited from each parent. The varieties are known as alleles, and encode slightly ... We now know that most traits, such as skin colour, eye colour and blood group are determined by our DNA and genes. During the ...
For more restricted gene flow (M* , 1), this rescaling is not constant throughout the coalescent process, leading to the same ... To construct the distribution of coalescence times, we need to consider the locations of the two lineages back through time, ... Slatkin, M., and N. H. Barton, 1989 A comparison of three indirect methods for estimating average levels of gene flow. ... In attempting to assess the likelihood of the existence of a barrier to gene flow, the best course of action is to consider ...
A) Total gene copy numbers and flow-cytometric cell counts, normalized to sample volume. (B) Relative abundance of sulfonamide ... we directly quantified the sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 from environmental DNA extracts using TaqMan real-time ... In the present work we have studied the prevalence of MRB and resistance genes in the wastewater stream of Lausanne. Samples ... At present, very little is known about the fate and persistence of multiresistant bacteria (MRB) and their resistance genes in ...
Collecting seed from 30 trap trees each year will provide good estimates of between-tree gene flow, while collecting 30 or more ... Each simulation was run 30 times, and means and standard deviations (sd) were used to compare the results between the control ... Phenology is an important component of tree reproductive behaviour, because patterns of flowering may constrain gene flow. ... Temporal differences in flowering can thus limit or even prevent gene flow between individuals. Detailed phenological ...
Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals. ... Selective sweep on human amylase genes postdates the split with Neanderthals.. Inchley CE, Larbey CD, Shwan NA, Pagani L, Saag ... Disentangling Timing of Admixture, Patterns of Introgression, and Phenotypic Indicators in a Hybridizing Wolf Population. ... Evidence of Early-Stage Selection on EPAS1 and GPR126 Genes in Andean High Altitude Populations. ...
  • However, the exact timing of the proposed gene flow is unknown and merely based on possible archaeological evidence for contacts between African and Eurasian populations 8 . (
  • They illustrate the important role of gene flow among populations and its potential consequences. (
  • So how much gene flow is there between plant populations? (
  • Although it was first seen in the 1940s to be the evolutionary glue that held species together, and thus a significant evolutionary force, a few decades later when quantitative data on gene flow in plant populations began being collected, this view changed as evidence seemed to indicate that gene flow was not all that significant. (
  • Not only was intra-specific gene flow among populations seen to be minimal at that time, but, somewhat incongruously, inter-specific hybridization, or the movement of genes among species, was seen to be a much larger force in evolution than intra-specific allele movement. (
  • With the advent of more and more sophisticated ways to measure genetic variation and relatedness using molecular markers, such as allozyme polymorphisms and DNA-based markers, not only can individuals be tracked as to their parentage, but changes in allele patterns over time and thus the effects of evolution on populations can be "seen" in the genetic information. (
  • As it turns out, despite the initial skepticism about the importance of gene flow, modern empirical and theoretical research using up-to-date molecular and DNA techniques have shown us not only how surprisingly far the flow of genes between distant plant populations can be, but also that the flow of alleles among populations is just as important, if not more so in some cases, as natural selection. (
  • Indeed, even just a low level of gene flow between populations can counter opposing forces of mutation, genetic drift, and selection. (
  • Using SNP data from 2,099 individuals in 43 populations, we show that estimates of recent shared ancestry between Europe and Africa are substantially increased when gene flow from North Africans, rather than Sub-Saharan Africans, is considered. (
  • rather than relying on the appearance of fossils or archaeological evidence to determine arrival times in different parts of the world, we use patterns of genetic variation in modern human populations to determine the plausibility of past demographic parameters. (
  • A European-wide programme to monitor ECB/MCB susceptibility levels to Bt-toxins in populations of a member state, and determining initial allele frequencies at candidate resistance genes to which at least one project participant of each country will contribute. (
  • In the absence of stepping stones even short distances between populations act as strong barriers for gene flow. (
  • African populations are shown to experience low levels of mitochondrial DNA gene flow, but high levels of Y chromosome gene flow. (
  • In particular, Y chromosome gene flow appears to be asymmetric, i.e., from the Bantu-speaking population into other African populations. (
  • Conversely, mitochondrial gene flow is more extensive between non-African populations, but appears to be absent between European and Asian populations. (
  • Mayr [ 1 ] defined species as 'interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups', and since that time, introgression is often portrayed as a mechanism causing the breakdown of reproductive isolation. (
  • Previous genetic studies have suggested a history of sub-Saharan African gene flow into some West Eurasian populations after the initial dispersal out of Africa that occurred at least 45,000 years ago. (
  • Southern Europeans and Middle Eastern populations are known to have inherited a small percentage of their genetic material from recent sub-Saharan African migrations, but there has been no estimate of the exact proportion of this gene flow, or of its date. (
  • The dates in the Jewish groups are older, consistent with events in classical or biblical times that may have occurred in the shared history of Jewish populations. (
  • Through time, this unique whale has become semi-speciated into 3 populations, according to DNA analysis that is also able to probe the humpback's ancient populations, back to the Pleistocene. (
  • Genetic diversity of mtDNA in the humpback may imply large ancestral populations or simply a restricted gene flow. (
  • It is more likely that the observed pattern represents ancient populations repeatedly isolated and connected during episodic sea level changes during the Pleistocene epoch, until current day with restricted contemporary gene flow maintaining population genetic structure. (
  • If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations will have equivalent allele frequencies and therefore can be considered a single effective population. (
  • Gene flow is an important mechanism for transferring genetic diversity among populations. (
  • Migrants change the distribution of genetic diversity among populations, by modifying allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a particular variant of a gene). (
  • There are a number of factors that affect the rate of gene flow between different populations. (
  • Gene flow is expected to be lower in species that have low dispersal or mobility, that occur in fragmented habitats, where there is long distances between populations, and when there are small population sizes. (
  • For example, many island populations have low rates of gene flow due to geographic isolation and small population sizes. (
  • The level of gene flow among populations can be estimated by observing the dispersal of individuals and recording their reproductive success. (
  • The more genetically differentiated two populations are, the lower the estimate of gene flow, because gene flow has a homogenizing effect. (
  • When gene flow is blocked by physical barriers, this results in Allopatric speciation or a geographical isolation that does not allow populations of the same species to exchange genetic material. (
  • In some cases, they can be artificial, man-made barriers, such as the Great Wall of China, which has hindered the gene flow of native plant populations. (
  • Marzieh Asadi Aghbolaghi and her colleagues in their research titled " Low gene flow between Iranian Grey Wolves (******Canis lupus*****) and dogs documented using uniparental genetic markers" pinpointed to the populations' decline and hybridization problem. (
  • Migrate analysis estimated extensive gene flow between almost all genetic cluster pairs and BOTTLENECK analysis showed that few populations experienced severe bottlenecks. (
  • Boutilier, R. G. 1995-01-01 00:00:00 G. H. Pogson, K. A. Mesa and R. G. Boutilier Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, England High levels of gene flow have been implicated in producing uniform patterns of allozyme variation among populations of many marine fish species. (
  • The discrepancy between gene flow estimates, combined with the observation of a large excess of rare RFLP alleles, suggests that the Atlantic cod has undergone a recent expansion in population size and that populations are significantly displaced from equilibrium. (
  • Because gene flow is a process that affects all loci equally, the heterogeneity observed among populations at the DNA level eliminates gene flow as the explanation for the homogeneous allozyme patterns. (
  • The researchers were able to track adaptations that arose in both bacteria and virus populations and show that the pattern of adaptations depended on both the environment in which the organisms were growing and the spread of genes between different populations. (
  • If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to have equivalent allele frequencies and therefore effectively be a single population. (
  • I've long thought it unlikely that Neandertals could have existed alongside evolving African, Denisovan, and possibly other populations for a half million years without ever receiving any genes from those other people. (
  • Yet despite its simplification of events, what I think is important in this paper is its clear quantification of the asynchronous and asymmetric nature of gene flow among archaic and modern human populations. (
  • So with previous data, it was possible that gene flow did happen synchronously and symmetrically between modern and Neandertal populations when they came into contact, and we fail to observe the consequences in Neandertals because the Neandertal samples do not represent the period subsequent to introgression . (
  • If there is no gene flow between populations that were isolated from each other in some way, then one could conclude that speciation had occurred because members of the two populations were not interbreeding. (
  • If there is a high rate of gene flow between two populations, then speciation will occur at a very low rate because a significant amount of genetic material is being exchanged between the two populations. (
  • Conversely, if there is a low rate of gene flow between two populations, it is likely that speciation would occur at a much faster rate because those two populations would be more isolated from each other and less exchange of genetic material would occur. (
  • Analyzing fragments of conserved gene sequences can give us a deeper picture of how populations were historically connected and a more conservative definition of populations. (
  • This allowed the researchers first to establish that the Ancient Beringian group was more closely related to early Native Americans than their Asian and Eurasian ancestors, and then to determine the precise nature of that relationship and how, over time, they split into distinct populations. (
  • Constant contact with Asian populations continued until around 25,000 years ago, when the gene flow between the two groups ceased. (
  • This description of stasis provides a counterpoint to studies of how populations change over time. (
  • They, with many others, clearly established the basic processes which caused populations to change over time: selection, genetic drift, migration, and mutation. (
  • For this reason, population genetics provides the groundwork for scientists' understanding of evolution, in particular microevolution, or changes within one or several populations over a limited time span. (
  • Sympatric seasonal populations have been shown to be each other's closest relatives, implying that ecological divergence into two seasonal foraging types has taken place several times independently across the species' range, each time in the absence of geographical barriers to gene flow. (
  • One prerequisite for the release of such organisms into the environment is that the new gene variant does not spread uncontrollably, suppressing natural populations. (
  • The new gene variant may remain confined to one of the two populations. (
  • The migration rate between the populations determines how long the new gene variant is expected to survive in the environment. (
  • If such genes are joined to resistance genes to combat pathogens, mosquito populations could be rendered resistant to Malaria, for example. (
  • and histories with high levels of gene flow are particularly difficult with more than two populations. (
  • However, for histories with modest levels of gene flow, or for very large data sets, it is possible to study large complex divergence problems that involve multiple closely related populations or species. (
  • Threespine stickleback populations provide a striking example of local adaptation to divergent habitats in populations that are connected by recurrent gene flow. (
  • It is important to remember that the populations on the chart are not discrete - i.e., they do not represent different species, but are samples within a long lineage experiencing extensive gene flow. (
  • Some populations became isolated for periods of time, developing in different directions, but through continuous interbreeding, replacement, genetic drift and selection , adaptations that were an advantage anywhere on earth would spread, keeping the development of the species in the same overall direction while maintaining adaptations to regional factors. (
  • At the same time, we found substantial allelic heterogeneity within shared loci, characterized both by population-specific rare variants and variants shared among multiple populations that occur at disparate frequencies. (
  • By the time we find "modern" humans in West Asia, the African population had long since diversified into regional populations. (
  • The populations got genetically closer over time," 2) "No historical linguist has ever successfully demonstrated a system of sound changes or detailed correspondences among these [click-G.D.] languages, the genetic relations are just the opposite that would be expected if speakers of these click languages had shared a common origin. (
  • the hunter-gatherer Sandawe and ≠Khomani San groups have elevated haplotype heterozygosity, possibly in part due to recent gene flow from agriculturalist into these populations. (
  • Most likely, Hadza is one of the earliest African populations, and it still preserves the low intragroup/high intergroup diversity factor otherwise so well attested for other foraging (with some exceptions) populations outside of Africa (especially in the Americas), while South Khoisan and Bantu acquired high diversity through millennia of gene flow. (
  • 1. Gene flow in populations of stream insects is expected to depend on the distance between and the connectedness of sites in stream networks, and on dispersal ability (i.e. larval drift and adult flight). (
  • There is some migration (ths gene-flow) between populations. (
  • Gene flow has been recognized as a significant evolutionary force since the 1940s but its relative role in maintaining a species' genetic integrity and/or its diversity has been debated. (
  • How important is gene flow for maintaining a species' identity and diversity, and what are the implications of these processes for evolution, conservation of endangered species, invasiveness, or unintentional gene flow from domesticated crops to wild relatives? (
  • Scientists studying genes know that changes of various types happen in the genetic code itself, which introduces variations among individuals and among species. (
  • In this study, we confirm the theoretical prediction that gene flow influences species assignment with simulations and a literature survey. (
  • We show that the genome experiencing the highest gene flow is, in the majority of the cases, the best suited for species delimitation. (
  • Multiple natural mechanisms allow gene flow from one species to another. (
  • In animals, introgression between species is often perceived as the breakdown of reproductive isolating mechanisms, but gene flow between incipient species can also represent a source for potentially beneficial alleles. (
  • In this case, beak size is so highly selected during drought seasons that hybrids are favoured and gene flow levels between species greatly increase [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • If islands represent opportunities for adaptive introgression, then counter to divergence with gene flow models, one would predict these divergent regions to exhibit higher than neutral levels of gene flow between species in the early stages of the speciation process. (
  • For example, Figure 1 shows three ways in which introgression events can be depicted in a network, with species B and C involved in gene exchange in each. (
  • Figure 1a represents an introgression event between species B and C, after A and B have diverged and B has evolved independently for some period of time. (
  • Despite clearly representing different evolutionary scenarios-including in the timing of introgression relative to speciation, and the direction of introgression-species networks such as these are often used to represent introgression as a general process. (
  • In some cases dispersal resulting in gene flow may also result in the addition of novel genetic variants under positive selection to the gene pool of a species or population (adaptive introgression. (
  • Like individuals in a population, species also struggle amongst themselves to survive, and most become extinct over time. (
  • here, the evolutionary history of Schisandra chinensis , a climber species with a generation time of five years, was investigated using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), nuclear single copy gene (nSCG), and nuclear single sequence repeats (nSSRs, i.e., microsatellite) markers, along with ecological niche modeling (ENM), which predicted a suitable habitat in Korea Peninsula (KP) during the LGM. (
  • While recent work has shown that species can be delimited when the amount of gene flow between lineages is low, the accuracy of these methods declines with increasing gene flow. (
  • Simple plots of species' diversity through time reveal coarse dynamical patterns of how the diversity of life on Earth has fluctuated [ 5 ], but do not uncover which underlying mechanisms generate such higher level patterns [ 6 ]. (
  • Gene contents were conserved among four newly sequenced cp genome in Lilium species, the only differences being in two pseudogenes. (
  • We identified 112 genes in 13 functional categories, 18 of which carried introns that were conserved among the species in Liliales. (
  • Gene flow between species may last a long time in plants. (
  • In this study, we looked into the genetic divergence and phylogeny of 20 Lilium species based on multilocus analyses of 8 genes of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), the internally transcribed nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrITS) spacer and 20 loci extracted from the expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of L. longiflorum Thunb. (
  • In contrast, systematic inconsistency occurred across the EST loci, with up to 19 genes (95%) displaying tree topologies deviating from the hypothetical species tree. (
  • Nevertheless, multilocus analysis could provide complementary information among the loci on the species split and the extent of gene flow between the species. (
  • In conclusion, this study not only detected frequent gene flow among Lilium sections that resulted in phylogenetic incongruence but also reconstructed a hypothetical species tree that gave insights into the nature of the complex relationships among Lilium species. (
  • The discovery of this species in these wetlands is a very surprising event," Gastezzi told The Tico Times. (
  • Yet, global phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and estimation of the rates of gene flow within this whitefly species remain largely unexplored. (
  • A population of organisms is a sum of all individuals of a single species living in one area at one time. (
  • Studies of these fossils show that several species of hominids co-existed for long periods of time. (
  • The estimate for the population split time between the two archaic hominin groups and modern humans was calculated to 765,000-550,000 years ago (765-550 ka) based on a recent estimate of the genome-wide human mutation rate 5 . (
  • Recently, genome-wide datasets have revealed clusters of differentiated loci ('genomic islands of divergence') that are thought to play a role in reproductive isolation and therefore have reduced gene flow. (
  • In many cases, these regions are thought to have arisen at loci under divergent selection or involved in reproductive isolation, whereas gene flow works to homogenize the rest of the genome [ 2 , 3 , 6 ]. (
  • We analyze genome-wide polymorphism data from about 40 West Eurasian groups to show that almost all Southern Europeans have inherited 1%-3% African ancestry with an average mixture date of around 55 generations ago, consistent with North African gene flow at the end of the Roman Empire and subsequent Arab migrations. (
  • However, they are completely different in their purposes, as gene therapy aims to cure a defect in cells, and transgenesis seeks to produce a genetically modified organism by incorporating the specific transgene into every cell and changing the genome. (
  • It utilizes an "ancestral recombination graph" (so a model of the genealogy of genes in the genome) and MCMC generate Bayesian probabilities of particular events (e.g., introgression of a lineage that diverged x years ago at fraction y ). (
  • We identify 3% of the Neanderthal genome that is putatively introgressed from ancient humans, and estimate that the gene flow occurred between 200-300kya. (
  • We also identify 1% of the Denisovan genome which was likely introgressed from an unsequenced hominin ancestor, and note that 15% of these regions have been passed on to modern humans through subsequent gene flow. (
  • This Neandertal-the Altai high-coverage genome-was found far from Africa, so evidence for modern human introgression in this genome shows the strength of gene dispersal across substantial geographic distances in archaic humans, at a surprisingly early date, probably more than 100,000 years ago. (
  • There was always a perfectly reasonable hypothesis to explain the lack of modern genes in Neandertals: the few Neandertal genome samples may all come from individuals who lived before modern humans came into contact with them. (
  • For example, eye color is coded by different alleles of the same gene. (
  • Estimates of gene flow from the private alleles method were similar for the allozymes and nuclear RFLPs. (
  • Self pollinating plants plants over time tend to be more homozygous alleles with less genetic diversity. (
  • There also cannot be very much gene flow - there is no source of external alleles. (
  • Alternatively, an individual carrying two different alleles for the same gene (a heterozygote) may have advantages, as exemplified by the well-known example of the sickle-cell allele in Africa, in which heterozygotes are more resistant to malaria. (
  • Examining these simulations more deeply reveals how lower levels of gene flow leads to slow, independent adaptation to different habitats, whereas higher levels of gene flow leads to significant mutation load - but an increased probability of successful population genomic scans for locally adapted alleles. (
  • HST carries the deepest divergent mtDNA lineage that splits from other Neanderthals ∼ 270,000 years ago, providing a lower boundary for the time of the putative mtDNA introgression event. (
  • We demonstrate that a complete Neanderthal mtDNA replacement is feasible over this time interval even with minimal hominin introgression. (
  • Here, we develop a model for the timing and direction of introgression based on the multispecies network coalescent, and from it suggest new approaches for testing introgression hypotheses. (
  • We suggest two new statistics, D 1 and D 2 , which can be used in conjunction with other information to test hypotheses relating to the timing and direction of introgression, respectively. (
  • These methods provide new and powerful ways to address questions relating to the timing and direction of introgression. (
  • In the absence of reproductive isolation, results of secondary contact can vary from zones of intergradation to complete admixture of parental taxa, while prezygotic (behaviour, ecological adaptations) and postzygotic (genetic incompatibilities) isolation mechanisms are expected to maintain the distinctiveness of parental gene pools via limited introgression across hybrid zones (Barton & Hewitt, 1985). (
  • While much attention has been paid to the relatively recent gene flow from Neanderthals and Denisovans into modern humans, other instances of introgression leave more subtle genomic evidence and have received less attention. (
  • Every time new findings of Neandertal introgression have come out, the apparent lack of reciprocity has seemed puzzling. (
  • In contrast, the corresponding divergence time for mtDNA has been dated to ∼ 400 ka (95% highest posterior density (HPD), 498-295 ka) 10 , 11 and was thus found to be considerably younger compared to the time estimates obtained from autosomal and Y-chromosome data. (
  • Application of a coalescent-based Markov chain Monte Carlo technique allows simultaneous inference of divergence times, rates of gene flow, as well as changes in effective population size. (
  • This 'divergence with gene flow' model has often been invoked in cases of ecological speciation [ 3 , 6 - 8 ]. (
  • In both selection in allopatry and divergence with gene flow models, high levels of linkage disequilibrium promote hitchhiking and therefore broaden regions of differentiation. (
  • Contrary to geneticists' naive assumption that genes are all about ancient kinship, while languages are all about elite dominance, the genetics of Sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of Hadza, captures the history of admixture and not divergence, hence high levels of allele diversity is no indication of age. (
  • In this thesis, I used ecological surveys, field experiments and molecular methods to study the range of possible responses at a very local scale in the alpine dwarf willow Salix herbacea L. Since gene flow may impact the potential for adaptation and migration, I first explored whether phenological divergence driven by snowmelt patterns impacts gene flow. (
  • Overall, fast-evolving microhabitat-driven genomic divergence and, at the same time, genetically-based trait variation at a larger scale may play a role for the ability of S. herba cea to persist in diverse and variable conditions. (
  • [34] Since then traits including dwarfing genes and rust resistance have been introduced in that manner. (
  • Traits such as drought tolerance are polygenic, determined by the interaction of multiple genes. (
  • The second law of thermodynamics suggests that when you tinker with multiple genes to create a desired trait, you inevitably end up with sacrificing other traits, such as productivity. (
  • While catabolic traits of this sort are not uncommon in many other environmental isolates, what makes the TOL system special is the extraordinary regulatory intricacy that controls expression of the xyl genes and their high-level interplay with the host's physiological regulons. (
  • The domestication of plants is underscored by the selection of agriculturally favorable developmental traits, including flowering time, which resulted in the creation of varieties with altered growth habits. (
  • What traits predispose the Band-rumped Storm-petrel, Oceanodroma castro, to ecological speciation in the absence of physical barriers to gene flow? (
  • A comparison of birds breeding in June and November revealed significant differences in a suite of morphological traits related to foraging strategy (tarsus length, bill length, bill depth, head length, wing length and tail shape), and even significant variation among birds breeding in the same month, despite evidence for gene flow between these groups. (
  • Physical barriers to gene flow are usually, but not always, natural. (
  • This group, however, has been isolated for some time due to geographic obstacles and cultural barriers. (
  • over time, such barriers differentiate gene pools. (
  • In particular, nonadaptive plasticity and environmentally induced barriers to gene flow deserve greater attention. (
  • 2. However, the temporal configuration of suitable habitat may also influence dispersal and gene flow in fragmented landscapes. (
  • Corridors of natural habitat are often sought to maintain dispersal and gene flow among habitat patches. (
  • To answer that, scientists will have to find genomes "back further in time, in prehistory. (
  • That's what early studies of Neandertal genomes always showed: We have their genes, but they didn't get ours. (
  • The gradient of North African ancestry accounts for previous observations of low levels of sharing with Sub-Saharan Africa and is independent of recent gene flow from the Near East. (
  • In addition, analysis using migrate-n gave evidence for recent gene flow between the two groups. (
  • Ellstrand says that evolutionary biologists' view on the importance of gene flow has waxed and waned over the last century. (
  • Just like selection, gene flow is one of the evolutionary forces-and a potentially important one," notes Ellstrand. (
  • [29] [30] Movement occurs over an evolutionary time scale. (
  • Attempts to infer the ecological drivers of macroevolution in deep time have long drawn inspiration from work on extant systems, but long-term evolutionary and geological changes complicate the simple extrapolation of such theory. (
  • The challenge is to disentangle how environmental, ecological and evolutionary processes interact in deep time when they cannot be observed directly. (
  • By working with microbes that go through about ten generations per day in the laboratory, we were able to track evolutionary changes through time and answer questions that previously had only been addressed theoretically," said Samantha Forde, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and first author of the paper. (
  • Studying the interaction of these regulators in B. distachyon provides insights into the evolutionary context of flowering time regulation in the Poaceae as well as elucidates the way humans have utilized the natural variation present in grasses to create modern temperate cereals. (
  • The change in the genetic makeup of a population over time, usually measured in terms of allele frequencies, is equivalent to evolutionary change. (
  • Mutants with a heterozygote disadvantage, as it is known, reduce the evolutionary fitness of their carriers to varying degrees if they are only available to one gene copy (heterozygote) or exist in both gene copies (homozygote). (
  • Development of tools to detect resistance genes. (
  • determining initial allele frequencies at candidate resistance genes. (
  • First is the necessity of having one specialised researcher in each European country to perform the basic susceptibility studies as demanded by the Scientific Committee on Plants (Opinion of the SCP on Bt - Resistance monitoring, expressed on 4 March 1999, ), and to perform the additional F2-screens. (
  • the first set of initial allele frequencies of several candidate resistance genes. (
  • Increased levels of multiresistant bacteria and resistance genes after wastewater treatment and their dissemination into lake geneva, Switzerland. (
  • At present, very little is known about the fate and persistence of multiresistant bacteria (MRB) and their resistance genes in natural aquatic environments. (
  • In the present work we have studied the prevalence of MRB and resistance genes in the wastewater stream of Lausanne. (
  • Selected isolates were identified (16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing) and characterized with regards to further resistances, resistance genes, and plasmids. (
  • Here we directly quantified the sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 from environmental DNA extracts using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. (
  • Hospital sewage contained the highest load of MRB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). (
  • Wastewater treatment reduced the total bacterial load up to 78% but evidence for selection of extremely multiresistant strains and accumulation of resistance genes was observed. (
  • (B) Relative abundance of sulfonamide resistance gene copy numbers normalized to 16S rRNA gene copies. (
  • We have the Chinese fused genes and also Bollgard II with two genes, each of which have different mechanisms of resistance. (
  • Even before resistance to the single gene is broken down, two more genes are available. (
  • In particular, models have evaluated the impact of reduced refuges required for multi-gene corn coupled with increased selection pressure on corn earworm (bollworm) on the risk of developing resistance to the Bt toxins. (
  • Our model indicates that the risk of resistance from dual-gene corn using similar toxins to those found in Bt-cotton combined with reduced refuges may be somewhat higher than for single-gene corn with a larger refuge. (
  • Resistance genes linked to such mutants would therefore be more efficient. (
  • The first transgenic animals were only intended for genetic research to study the specific function of a gene, and by 2003, thousands of genes had been studied. (
  • Let us consider the mind-blasting madness of dealing with tens of thousands of genes interacting epistatically with one another . (
  • The second hypothesis is that gene flow from the Near East, associated with the demic diffusion of agriculture, differentially affected geographic regions and in particular introduced additional genetic diversity to southeastern Europe ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Here we use Bayesian coalescent inference methods, together with a global dataset of 357 human mtDNA coding region sequences, to infer human population sizes through time across eight major geographic regions. (
  • In this framework, models of population structure are analyzed to make probabilistic statements about the times to common ancestry for samples drawn from specific geographic locations. (
  • The coordination of flowering time with geographic location and seasonal weather patterns has a profound effect on flowering and reproductive success ( Amasino, 2010 ). (
  • This created a "trellis" (as Wolpoff called it) or a "network" that emphasized gene flow between geographic regions and within time. (
  • Mutation, migration (gene flow), genetic drift, and natural selection are the four mechanisms that lead to biological evolution, or a change in allele frequencies in a population over time. (
  • In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or geneflow and allele flow) is the transfer of genetic material from one population to another. (
  • Gene flow can be measured by using the effective population size ( N e {\displaystyle N_{e}} ) and the net migration rate per generation (m). (
  • When gene flow occurs via migration the deleterious effects of inbreeding can be ameliorated. (
  • These represent migration and/or gene flow between the primary lineages. (
  • This entry was posted in reading the literature and tagged assisted gene flow , assisted migration . (
  • However, some biologists promote plasticity as a source of novelty and a factor in evolution on par with mutation, drift, gene flow, and selection. (
  • At times, such a mutation can survive in a stable state in a population. (
  • Initially it has been suggested that mutation in SOD1 gene led to a decrease in the protein enzymatic activity (loss of function hypothesis). (
  • High rates of gene flow can reduce the genetic differentiation between the two groups, increasing homogeneity. (
  • This direct method is only suitable for some types of organisms, more often indirect methods are used that infer gene flow by comparing allele frequencies among population samples. (
  • Here we use individual-based, spatially explicit simulations to determine the levels of gene flow that best match observed patterns of allele sharing among habitats in stickleback. (
  • Secondary contact, gene flow and clinal variation between two mtDNA lineages of the Northeastern. (
  • The horizontal lines represent 'multiregional evolution' gene flow between regional lineages. (
  • At the time the main concern for plant breeders was pollen movement between different strains of crops-if a variety of sweet corn was contaminated by pollen from a popcorn variety, then the resulting hybrid offspring would produce seeds that were unusable for market purposes or for selecting new varieties. (
  • This technique is routinely used to introduce human disease genes or other genes of interest into strains of laboratory mice to study the function or pathology involved with that particular gene. (
  • monitoring Bt-susceptibility patterns in time and space. (
  • We have examined whether gene flow is responsible for the limited population structure in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., by comparing the previously published patterns of variation at 10 allozyme loci to 17 nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci scored by 11 anonymous cDNA clones. (
  • Correlate gene expression levels with clinical and laboratory variablesincluding flow cytometry and soluble biomarkers. (
  • C) Intracytoplasmatic expression of Aurora-A and -B as determined by flow cytometry. (
  • Is Flow Cytometry Next Big Drug-Discovery Tool? (
  • QUEBEC CITY, Canada - Flow cytometry, long regarded as a useful method for clinical diagnostics and basic biological research, has been slow to take hold as a tool for high-throughput cell-based drug screening, despite having qualities that would seemingly make it attractive for such an application. (
  • Recently, however, scientists from academia and industry have begun to consider flow cytometry more seriously as a high-throughput drug-discovery tool, as evidenced by an increase in the number of presentations devoted to the subject at the International Society for Analytical Cytometry congress, held here this week. (
  • In fact, some of these presenters feel that flow cytometry used as a drug-screening tool has a lot in common with high-content cell-based screening in terms of capabilities and challenges. (
  • This, in turn, has led people in the industry to believe that drug makers will increasingly adopt flow cytometry in the way that they have HCS over the past decade. (
  • The number of presentations on flow cytometry for drug discovery was noticeably larger at this year's ISAC meeting as compared with the last ISAC meeting, held in 2004 in Montpelier, France. (
  • No one believes that there is this capability [to use flow cytometry as a drug-screening tool]. (
  • Flow cytometry has several built-in attributes that make it attractive for drug screening: the ability to perform single-cell and multiplexed analyses, its high degree of sensitivity, and extremely fast data acquisition. (
  • My supervisors have asked me for years whether flow cytometry would ever be used for drug discovery," Phil Marder, a researcher advisor for Eli Lilly, said at the conference. (
  • For example, Marder himself has recently begun to champion flow cytometry as a tool for drug activity biomarker assays, and co-authored multiple posters or other presentations at the conference covering topics such as the development of a flow-based assay for drug inhibition or stimulation of the p38 MAP kinase signaling cascade in monocytes, which has implications in inflammatory diseases and cancer. (
  • Garry Nolan of Stanford University is another researcher whose recent work may help open the door for flow cytometry as a drug-screening tool. (
  • This work has been enabled by a "barcoding" technique for multiplexed flow cytometry developed by Nolan and graduate student Peter Krutzik that was published in a recent issue of Nature Methods (see CBA News, 4/28/2006 ). (
  • In another lecture, Mario Roederer, chief of the Immunotechnology section in the laboratory of immunology at the National Institutes of Health's Vaccine Research Center, discussed how his lab has been using flow cytometry to evaluate T-cell response to various HIV-related challenges, which is an active front in HIV vaccine development. (
  • Specifically, Roederer and colleagues use flow cytometry to measure functional responses, such as cytokine profile, cytotoxicity, and proliferation from individual T-cells, with the aim of discovering a combination of challenges that would provoke an ideal immunoprotective T-cell response. (
  • To validate gene expression data, quantitative real-time PCR for Aurora-A, -B, -C in (A1) 10 myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and (A2) 10 primary myeloma cells (pMMC) was performed. (
  • The fundamental assumptions of this approach include the view that quantitative genetic parameters such as the additive genetic, or at least the mutational, variance parameters remain stable over long stretches of time, allowing rather simple extrapolations of single-generation responses to selection. (
  • However, the identification of additional quantitative trait loci suggests that greater complexity underlies flowering time in this nondomesticated system. (
  • Along with graduate student Yun Zhang and professor of veterinary medicine Gregory J. Phillips, Yeung used the chemiluminescence technique to perform quantitative studies of gene expression in two bacterial lines. (
  • For this reason, gene flow has been thought to constrain speciation and prevent range expansion by combining the gene pools of the groups, thus preventing the development of differences in genetic variation that would have led to differentiation and adaption. (
  • Explain gene flow's significance in terms of its role in a) determining if speciation has occurred and b) in determining the rate at which speciation will occur. (
  • the entire question is: In speciation, gene flow is a key concept that must always be considered. (
  • If you are an organic farmer, you may be worried your crops can be "contaminated" by a field genetically modified with a gene to express a natural toxin against pests. (
  • Mark Doyle, the article's lead author, says the discovery may aid agriculture, as farmers want to maximize vegetative growth from crops such as alfalfa and spinach, or control the timing of flowering and seed production. (
  • University of Florida researchers have identified a gene variation in heart disease patients who appear especially vulnerable to the physical effects of mental stress - to the point where blood flow to the heart is greatly reduced. (
  • Those with the gene variation are three times more likely to experience dangerous decreases in blood flow to the heart - a condition doctors call ischemia - than heart disease patients without it. (
  • About a fourth of the patients experienced mental stress-induced reduced blood flow to the heart, and about two-thirds of them harbored a particular variation of the adrenergic beta-1 receptor genotype that was associated with a three-fold increased risk of this phenomenon, said Mustafa Hassan, M.D., the study's lead author and a research fellow in UF's division of cardiovascular medicine. (
  • However it is still largely unknown how gene flow, recombination, and selection jointly impact the standing variation that might fuel this adaptation. (
  • We aim to better understand how gene flow and local adaptation in large metapopulations determine the speed of adaptation and re-use of standing genetic variation. (
  • In particular, we found that a disproportionate fraction of lipid variation in African Americans and Hispanic Americans can be attributed to genomic loci exhibiting statistical evidence of association in Europeans, even though the precise genes and variants remain unknown. (
  • However, the closer affinity of the Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to modern humans than Denisovans has recently been suggested as the result of gene flow from an African source into Neanderthals before 100,000 years ago. (
  • Analyses of the mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and autosomal gene pool of contemporary Shompen have revealed low diversity, illustrating a founder effect in the island population. (
  • This process occurs over a realistic range of intermediate levels of gene flow that match previous empirical population genomic studies in stickleback. (
  • These time intervals largely overlap, suggesting that the Neanderthal Y chromosome differentiated through the population split from the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of modern humans and Neanderthals. (
  • Neanderthals became extinct shortly after this time, presumably being outcompeted or actively killed by the advancing EEMH. (
  • A new paper by Martin Kuhlwilm and colleagues ( "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals" demonstrates that some modern humans really did contribute their genes to at least one Neandertal population. (
  • The Wisconsin scientists discovered the gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, a small plant used worldwide to study plant genetics, physiology and molecular biology. (
  • Arabidopsis plants typically flower quickly when days have 12 hours of light or more but take a long time to begin flowering when the day length is eight hours. (
  • The microsatellite loci, while highly variable, failed to infer a pattern consistent with the mtDNA data and showed considerable gene flow across areas of overlapping niche space. (
  • Flowering time was evaluated in F4:5 families in five environmental conditions, and three major loci were found to govern flowering time. (
  • Interestingly, two of these loci colocalize with the B. distachyon homologs of the major flowering pathway genes VRN2 and FT , whereas no linkage was observed at VRN1 . (
  • This study provides the first direct empirical evidence that gene flow across a heterogeneous landscape can alter the dynamics of coevolution. (
  • Most of the time scientists can rely on publications that go through the careful critical review by other scientists. (
  • To combat this, scientists used biolistics to insert the daffodil phytoene synthase gene into Asia indigenous rice cultivars. (
  • Now, scientists led by University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers report that they have discovered a gene that regulates when plants flower and is critical for keeping a plant's 24-hour clock running accurately. (
  • So far, scientists haven't found any genes similar to ELF4 outside the plant kingdom," Amasino says. (
  • It also promotes gene flow because this technique allows scientists to breed sexually incompatible cheetahs (zoos). (
  • We also found weak isolation-by-distance, lower among than within cropping region population differentiation, concordant moving directions of potato products and net gene flow and the highest gene diversity in the region with the most potato imports. (
  • This leads to a regular gene flow and the maintenance of the genetic diversity. (
  • The regular gene flow reflects a genetic diversity that is usually found only in wild animals. (
  • Extensive postglacial gene flow among the three nSSRs clusters led to uniformly distributed genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation. (
  • If you take an admixed population and assume that it was a single population random-mating indefinitely, and then work backward in time, you're probably going to produce rather strange effective population sizes (if the two groups are about the same genetic diversity beforehand, they'll probably show an inflated effective population, because you are assuming the two groups were a big random-mating population long before they were randomly mating! (
  • To investigate the natural diversity governing flowering time pathways in a nondomesticated grass, the reference B. distachyon accession Bd21 was crossed with the vernalization-dependent accession ABR6. (
  • Using time-lapse microscopy, we found that Crz1 exhibited short bursts of nuclear localization (~2 minutes) that occurred stochastically in individual cells and propagated to the expression of downstream genes. (
  • This theme issue aims to exemplify this progress, providing a series of case studies of how novel modelling approaches are helping infer the regulators of biodiversity in deep time. (
  • There are many ways to infer effective population, and the identity by descent method seems reasonable for recent time periods. (
  • In 1978, yeast cells were the first eukaryotic organisms to undergo gene transfer. (
  • Ecologists use the term "gene flow" to describe the spread of genetic variants that accompanies the movements of individuals. (
  • Conversely, genetic intermixture bring separate gene pools closer together, but also serves to homogenize cultures. (
  • Genetic Population Structure and Gene Flow in the Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua: A Comparison of. (
  • Secondary objectives will include correlating gene expression levels with clinical outcomes and soluble biomarkers. (
  • Given a set of sequences, we can use coalescent theory to estimate past population size through time and draw inferences about human population history. (
  • I don't put much stock in the specific estimate of the date, but rather the relative time. (
  • The extent to which past climate change has dictated the pattern and timing of the out-of-Africa expansion by anatomically modern humans is currently unclear [Stewart JR, Stringer CB (2012) Science 335:1317-1321]. (
  • Kuhlwilm and colleagues looked at a different scenario: What if the Neandertal looks more like living Africans because it received some gene flow from early modern humans , who had originated in Africa? (
  • The general result of these analyses is that proximity to the edge of the deme array increases probabilities of identity and the covariance in gene frequency across demes. (
  • Using an analytic model, we found that this frequency modulation (FM) of bursts ensures proportional expression of multiple target genes across a wide dynamic range of expression levels, independent of promoter characteristics. (
  • Above this value, it can suppress the non-mutated gene variant completely and the mutated form becomes extinct. (
  • Early migrants may have been replaced through competition or changed through gene flow by later arrivals. (
  • This problem is exacerbated by the fact that the genes are linked, and in linkage disequilibrium. (
  • When it comes time to pass on your DNA to the next generation, you in turn package up a single copy of each chromosome into a sperm/egg. (
  • The above figure is from a new preprint, Mapping gene flow between ancient hominins through demography-aware inference of the ancestral recombination graph . (
  • Local adaptation is assumed to occur under limited gene flow. (
  • Our study challenges the idea that high gene flow precludes local adaptation, and provides unique experimental evidence of habitat choice as an overlooked mechanism responsible for adaptation under rapid environmental changes. (
  • To understand how Crz1 phosphorylation dynamics respond to calcium and regulate the more than 100 different targets necessary for calcium adaptation 5 , we acquired time-lapse movies of Crz1 localization dynamics, using a strain in which the Crz1 protein was tagged with GFP 6 . (
  • The theory contends that humans evolve through a combination of adaptation within various regions of the world and gene flow between those regions. (
  • Mud in wetlands can trap up to three times as much carbon dioxide - a major contributor to climate change - as a tropical forest. (
  • This difference has been attributed to postglacial expansions, the demic diffusion of agriculture from the Near East, and gene flow from Africa. (
  • however, we focus on testing a hypothesis of gene flow from Africa to Europe, which has received the least amount of attention and may be the easiest to detect due to the recent time frame of the proposed demographic event. (
  • thus, we are not referring to the much older dispersal out of Africa ∼45,000 years ago but instead to migrations that have occurred since that time. (
  • The relative timing and size of regional human population growth following our expansion from Africa remains unknown. (
  • It means that, even if Hadza and San languages are not related, the areas in East and South Africa that are now occupied by click-speaking languages were once part of a continuous language area conducive to both gene flow and language borrowing. (
  • But it is not known in general how the expression levels of target genes are coordinated, allowing them to be regulated together, despite diverse promoter architectures 3 . (
  • Kallikrein gene transfer resulted in increases in urinary kinin, cGMP, and cAMP levels. (
  • 12 13 14 15 Recently, adenovirus-mediated human tissue kallikrein (HK) gene delivery proved to be an efficient strategy to increase local or circulating kinin levels for a limited period of time. (
  • Furthermore, although we did not use any archaeological and anthropological data to inform the model, the arrival times in different continents predicted by our model are also broadly consistent with the fossil and archaeological records. (
  • B) Gene expression data were further validated by western blotting. (
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 28, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Voyager Therapeutics , Inc. (Nasdaq: VYGR), a clinical-stage gene therapy company focused on developing life-changing treatments for severe neurological diseases, today announced multiple data presentations at the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy (ASGCT) 24th Annual Meeting taking place virtually on May 11-14, 2021. (
  • Applying time course expression data and parsimonious gene correlation network analysis (PGCNA), a new approach established by our group, we map expression changes that occur during the maturation of proliferating plasmablast to quiescent plasma cell under survival conditions including the potential niche signal TGF-β3. (
  • Recent discoveries in New World archaeology along with new scientific methods for analyzing data have led to new ideas regarding the origin of the first peoples of the Americas and their time of arrival. (
  • An approximate expression is derived for the distribution of coalescence times for a pair of sequences sampled from specific locations in a rectangular habitat. (
  • The results expose that-similarly to computers-the material components that enable the expression flow are well separated physically and they decipher the sequences through a distinct tridimensional arrangement with no indication of transcription/translation coupling. (
  • The results provide further insight into European population genetic substructure and show that this information can be used for improving error rates in association testing of candidate genes and in replication studies of WGA scans. (
  • Unlike RTA, however, hNIC was not capable of evoking the full repertoire of lytic viral gene expression and thereby lytic replication. (
  • This means that it will take around 28 million years to loose half the heterozygosity in humans (with a generation time of 20 years. (
  • Second, transcription factors activate the expression of downstream genes that will implement cellular responses 1 , 2 , 3 . (
  • Recently, blood transcriptional signatures capable of distinguishing active and latent TB infection have been identified using highly parallelized analytical platforms capable of simultaneous survey of transcription of known genes. (
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) RTA transcription factor is recruited to its responsive elements through interaction with a Notch-mediated transcription factor, RBP-Jκ, indicating that RTA mimics cellular Notch signal transduction to activate viral lytic gene expression. (
  • To test whether cellular Notch signal transduction and RTA are functionally exchangeable for viral gene expression, human Notch intracellular (hNIC) domain that constitutively activates RBP-Jκ transcription factor activity was expressed in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma BCBL1 cells (TRExBCBL1-hNIC) in a tetracycline-inducible manner. (