Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
The act of BREATHING out.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
A tight junction-associated MARVEL protein that may play a role in separating the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces of the ORGAN OF CORTI. Defects in the gene that codes for MARVELD2 protein are a cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 49.

Characterization of ZO-2 as a MAGUK family member associated with tight as well as adherens junctions with a binding affinity to occludin and alpha catenin. (1/1902)

ZO-2, a member of the MAGUK family, was thought to be specific for tight junctions (TJs) in contrast to ZO-1, another MAGUK family member, which is localized at TJs and adherens junctions (AJs) in epithelial and nonepithelial cells, respectively. Mouse ZO-2 cDNA was isolated, and a specific polyclonal antibody was generated using corresponding synthetic peptides as antigens. Immunofluorescence microscopy with this polyclonal antibody revealed that, similarly to ZO-1, in addition to TJs in epithelial cells, ZO-2 was also concentrated at AJs in nonepithelial cells such as fibroblasts and cardiac muscle cells lacking TJs. When NH2-terminal dlg-like and COOH-terminal non-dlg-like domains of ZO-2 (N-ZO-2 and C-ZO-2, respectively) were separately introduced into cultured cells, N-ZO-2 was colocalized with endogenous ZO-1/ZO-2, i.e. at TJs in epithelial cells and at AJs in non-epithelial cells, whereas C-ZO-2 was distributed along actin filaments. Consistently, occludin as well as alpha catenin directly bound to N-ZO-2 as well as the NH2-terminal dlg-like portion of ZO-1 (N-ZO-1) in vitro. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the second PDZ domain of ZO-2 was directly associated with N-ZO-1. These findings indicated that ZO-2 forms a complex with ZO-1/occludin or ZO-1/alpha catenin to establish TJ or AJ domains, respectively.  (+info)

Comparative cytotoxicity of ionic and non-ionic radiocontrast agents on MDCK cell monolayers in vitro. (2/1902)

BACKGROUND: Intravascular radiocontrast agents may cause acute renal failure, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. Direct cytotoxic effects of radiocontrast agents on renal tubular cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. METHODS: We analysed the cytotoxicity of the ionic radiocontrast agents diatrizoate (monomeric) and ioxaglate (dimeric), as well as of the non-ionic radiocontrast agents iohexol (monomeric) and iodixanol (dimeric) on the renal epithelial Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line grown on permeable supports. The toxicity assays assessed cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability between the apical and basal cell culture compartment. In addition, the distribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin was analysed using immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: In all assays the high osmolal ionic compound diatrizoate had significant cytotoxic effects that included the partial redistribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins into a cytoplasmic compartment. To a lesser extent this redistribution also occurred with the dimeric ionic compound ioxaglate, but not with the non-ionic radiocontrast agents. With regards to cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability the radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality were significantly less toxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionic strength. CONCLUSIONS: Physicochemical factors contribute to the cytotoxicity of radiocontrast agents in vitro. The redistribution of tight-junction-associated membrane proteins by the ionic radiocontrast agents corresponds with the loss of the barrier function of the epithelial cell monolayer, which is a major pathophysiological mechanism in acute renal failure. The radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality are less cytotoxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionicity. Hyperosmolality appears to be a more important determinant of the cytotoxicity of diatrizoate than ionic strength.  (+info)

The isoflavone genistein inhibits internalization of enteric bacteria by cultured Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes. (3/1902)

The dietary isoflavone genistein is the focus of much research involving its role as a potential therapeutic agent in a variety of diseases, including cancer and heart disease. However, there is recent evidence that dietary genistein may also have an inhibitory effect on extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. To study the effects of genistein on bacterial adherence and internalization by confluent enterocytes, Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes (cultivated for 15-18 d and 21-24 d, respectively) were pretreated for 1 h with 0, 30, 100, or 300 micromol/L genistein, followed by 1-h incubation with pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, or Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes with genistein inhibited bacterial internalization in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.60-0.79). Compared to untreated enterocytes, 1-h pretreatment with 300 micromol/L genistein was generally associated with decreased bacterial internalization (P < 0. 05) without a corresponding decrease in bacterial adherence. Using Caco-2 cell cultures, decreased bacterial internalization was associated with increased integrity of enterocyte tight junctions [measured by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)], with alterations in the distribution of enterocyte perijunctional actin filaments (visualized by fluorescein-labeled phalloidin), and with abrogation of the decreased TEER associated with S. typhimurium and E. coli incubation with the enterocytes (P < 0.01). Thus, genistein was associated with inhibition of enterocyte internalization of enteric bacteria by a mechanism that might be related to the integrity of the enterocyte tight junctions, suggesting that genistein might function as a barrier-sustaining agent, inhibiting extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria.  (+info)

Infectious human immunodeficiency virus can rapidly penetrate a tight human epithelial barrier by transcytosis in a process impaired by mucosal immunoglobulins. (4/1902)

Mucosal surfaces are the main natural site of entry into the body for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Herein, an alternative mechanism for virus spread is described. The mechanism, which involves transcytosis of endosome-internalized HIV-particles, was generated by contact of HIV-infected cells with the apical surface of an epithelial cell line. Transcytosed viruses rapidly (in 20-30 min) access the serosal side of the epithelial barrier without infecting the epithelium itself. In turn, transcytosed HIV could infect host submucosal mononucleated target cells, and thus the infection could spread. An investigation was done to determine whether mucosal antibodies could block HIV transcytosis. Both secretory IgA (S-IgA) and IgG that were purified from colostrum from HIV-seropositive women impaired HIV transcytosis, irrespective of the level of the recombinant HIV envelope anti-gp160-specific activities in an ELISA. However, specific S-IgAs were more efficient than IgG. Therefore, mucosal-specific S-IgA to HIV-1 could be relevant to reducing infectivity of HIV-1 in corporeal fluids.  (+info)

Different behavior of l-afadin and neurabin-II during the formation and destruction of cell-cell adherens junction. (5/1902)

We have recently isolated two novel actin filament-binding proteins, l-afadin and neurabin-II and shown that they are localized at cell-cell adherens junction (AJ) in epithelial cells. We found here that l-afadin, neurabin-II, ZO-1, and E-cadherin showed similar and different behavior during the formation and destruction of cell-cell AJ in MDCK cells. In MDCK cells, the accumulation of both l-afadin and E-cadherin, but not that of ZO-1, changed in parallel depending on Rac small G protein activity. Dissociation of MDCK cells by culturing the cells at 2 microM Ca2+ caused rapid endocytosis of E-cadherin, but not that of l-afadin or ZO-1. Addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to these dissociated cells formed a tight junction-like structure where ZO-1 and l-afadin, but not neurabin-II or E-cadherin, accumulated. We furthermore found that, in non-epithelial EL cells, which expressed E-cadherin and attached to each other, l-afadin, neurabin-II, ZO-1 and E-cadherin were all localized at AJ. In cadherin-deficient L cells, I-afadin was mainly localized at cell-cell contact sites, but ZO-1 was mainly localized at the tip area of cell processes. Neurabin-II did not accumulate at the plasma membrane area. Neither l-afadin nor neurabin-II significantly interacted with alpha-, beta-catenin, E-cadherin, ZO-1 or occludin.  (+info)

Basolateral localization of fiber receptors limits adenovirus infection from the apical surface of airway epithelia. (6/1902)

Recent identification of two receptors for the adenovirus fiber protein, coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I alpha-2 domain allows the molecular basis of adenoviral infection to be investigated. Earlier work has shown that human airway epithelia are resistant to infection by adenovirus. Therefore, we examined the expression and localization of CAR and MHC Class I in an in vitro model of well differentiated, ciliated human airway epithelia. We found that airway epithelia express CAR and MHC Class I. However, neither receptor was present in the apical membrane; instead, both were polarized to the basolateral membrane. These findings explain the relative resistance to adenovirus infection from the apical surface. In contrast, when the virus was applied to the basolateral surface, gene transfer was much more efficient because of an interaction of adenovirus fiber with its receptors. In addition, when the integrity of the tight junctions was transiently disrupted, apically applied adenovirus gained access to the basolateral surface and enhanced gene transfer. These data suggest that the receptors required for efficient infection are not available on the apical surface, and interventions that allow access to the basolateral space where fiber receptors are located increase gene transfer efficiency.  (+info)

Selective localization of the polytopic membrane protein prominin in microvilli of epithelial cells - a combination of apical sorting and retention in plasma membrane protrusions. (7/1902)

Prominin is a recently identified polytopic membrane protein expressed in various epithelial cells, where it is selectively associated with microvilli. When expressed in non-epithelial cells, prominin is enriched in plasma membrane protrusions. This raises the question of whether the selective association of prominin with microvilli in epithelial cells is solely due to its preference for, and stabilization in, plasma membrane protrusions, or is due to both sorting to the apical plasma membrane domain and subsequent enrichment in plasma membrane protrusions. To investigate this question, we have generated stably transfected MDCK cells expressing either full-length or C-terminally truncated forms of mouse prominin. Confocal immunofluorescence and domain-selective cell surface biotinylation experiments on transfected MDCK cells grown on permeable supports demonstrated the virtually exclusive apical localization of prominin at steady state. Pulse-chase experiments in combination with domain-selective cell surface biotinylation showed that newly synthesized prominin was directly targeted to the apical plasma membrane domain. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that prominin was confined to microvilli rather than the planar region of the apical plasma membrane. Truncation of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of prominin impaired neither its apical cell surface expression nor its selective retention in microvilli. Both the apical-specific localization of prominin and its selective retention in microvilli were maintained when MDCK cells were cultured in low-calcium medium, i.e. in the absence of tight junctions. Taken together, our results show that: (i) prominin contains dual targeting information, for direct delivery to the apical plasma membrane domain and for the enrichment in the microvillar subdomain; and (ii) this dual targeting does not require the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of prominin and still occurs in the absence of tight junctions. The latter observation suggests that entry into, and retention in, plasma membrane protrusions may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of the apical-basal polarity of epithelial cells.  (+info)

Ethanol modulation of intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. (8/1902)

Previous studies have shown that high concentrations of ethanol (>/=40%) cause functional damage of the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier by direct cytotoxic effect on the epithelial cells. The effects of lower noncytotoxic doses of ethanol on epithelial barrier function are unknown. A major function of gastrointestinal epithelial cells is to provide a barrier against the hostile substances in the gastrointestinal lumen. The apicolaterally located tight junctions (TJs) form a paracellular seal between the lateral membranes of adjacent cells and act as a paracellular barrier. In this study, we investigated the effects of lower doses of ethanol on intestinal epithelial TJ barrier function using filter-grown Caco-2 intestinal epithelial monolayers. The Caco-2 TJ barrier function was assessed by measuring epithelial resistance or paracellular permeability of the filter-grown monolayers. Ethanol (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10%) produced a dose-related drop in Caco-2 epithelial resistance and increase in paracellular permeability. Ethanol also produced a progressive disruption of TJ protein (ZO-1) with separation of ZO-1 proteins from the cellular junctions and formation of large gaps between the adjacent cells. Ethanol, at the doses used (+info)

Epithelial layers are integral for many physiological processes and are maintained by intercellular adhesive structures. During disease, these structures can disassemble, leading to breakdown of epithelia. TJs (tight junctions) are one type of intercellular adhesion. Loss of TJs has been linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. The present review focuses on the role of vesicle trafficking in regulation of TJs, in particular trafficking of the TJ protein occludin. We examine how endocytosis and endosomal recycling modulate occludin localization under steady-state conditions and during stimulated TJ disassembly. ...
Tight junctions between epithelial and endothelial cells form selective barriers and paracellular channels and regulate paracellular transport of solutes, immune cells, and drugs. More specifically, tight junctions consist of proteins that laterally interconnect neighboring cells of epithelia and endothelia. Certain proteins seal the tight junction, so that a nearly impermeable barrier develops, whereas others form channels that allow for permeation between the cells. Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) and the newly defined group of TAMP (three proteins: occludin, Marvel-D2, and tricellulin). Barriers and Channels Formed by Tight Junction Proteins I showcases work in this area clustered around three major themes: the molecular properties of tight junctions, for example, the role of the claudin family of proteins and the formation of ion and charge-selective channels; the regulation of tight junction
2020 The Authors Tight junctions play an important role in maintaining barrier integrity of intestinal epithelia. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) promotes tight junction assembly in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), well-known prebiotics, have previously been shown to alleviate inflammation-associated intestinal epithelial disruption although the mechanisms were unclear. This study aimed to investigate any effect of FOS on AMPK activity and tight junction assembly under non-inflammatory and inflammatory conditions using T84 cells as an IEC model. As analyzed by western blot, FOS induced AMPK activation through a calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)-phospholipase C (PLC)- Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ) pathway. Calcium switch assays and immunofluorescence staining of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) revealed that FOS induced tight junction assembly via an CaMKKβ-AMPK-dependent mechanism in IEC. Interestingly, FOS reversed the ...
Lipopolysaccharide causes an increase in intestinal tight junction permeability in vitro and in vivo by inducing enterocyte membrane expression and localization of TLR-4 and CD14
In an attempt to clarify the complex nature of interactions between the cortical actin cytoskeleton and integral membrane proteins, recent studies brought into focus the ERM proteins, which serve as cross-linkers between specific plasma membrane proteins and cortical actin filaments. For ERM protein activation, specific signals, such as phosphorylation or binding of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (lipid signaling molecule) to the N-terminal domain is required (8, 25, 36). Activation of ERM proteins may be triggered by physiological (14, 29) and pathophysiological (52, 58) processes. Ezrin is one of the host cytoskeletal proteins reorganized following EPEC infection (17). Here we examine the impact of this important enteric bacterial pathogen on ezrin activation and explore its involvement in EPEC pathogenesis.. In contrast to prototypic enteric bacterial pathogens, EPEC produces no recognized toxin and is essentially noninvasive. Instead, through a series of complex steps, EPEC intimately ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinal pigment epithelial cells from dystrophic rats form normal tight junctions in vitro. AU - Chang, Chih Wei. AU - Defoe, Dennis M.. AU - Caldwell, Ruth B. PY - 1997/2/6. Y1 - 1997/2/6. N2 - Purpose. In the genetically defective Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model for retinal degeneration, a breakdown occurs in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell tight junctions just as the photoreceptors begin to degenerate. These experiments sought to determine the impact of the RPE genetic defect on this alteration in the RPE cell tight junctions. Methods. Retinal pigment epithelial cell cultures prepared from RCS and control rats were treated with hormonally defined medium (HDM), base medium conditioned by RCS or control retinas, or unconditioned base medium. The tight junctions formed by these cultures were assayed functionally by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability. Junction structure was evaluated by immunolocalization of the tight junction ...
Aim of this volume is to clarify the relationship between molecular structure and function of tight junction proteins, as well as their regulation and their role in diseases. Current research may form a basis for future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to diseases which seem to have not much in common but are characterized by defects of organ barriers, like Crohns disease, renal hypertension, inner ear deafness, and cancerous diseases. Topics include the functions of distinct tight junction proteins as barrier or channel formers for solutes and water, characteristics of the tight junction in inflammatory bowel diseases, posttranslational modifications of tight junction proteins, the relation between renal tight junction proteins and blood pressure control, and the molecular structure of claudin-claudin interactions NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas.
Characterization of the tight junction is proceeding rapidly and has stimulated advances in the fields of cell-cell interactions and epithelial cell biology. In addition to the list of proteins now found at the tight junction, we have learned that two previously characterized tight junction components, ZO-1 and ZO-2, are members of a larger protein family that appear to function in the organization of specific areas of the cell surface (11, 21, 23, 24, 27, 41, 44). Moreover, data suggest that some members of this family are involved in signal transduction and/or tumor suppression (1, 41, 46, 47), highlighting the importance of analyzing these molecules.. Here we present evidence of a novel member of the MAGUK family of proteins found at the tight junction. This 130-kD polypeptide, named ZO-3 because of homology to ZO-1 and ZO-2 (Figs. 5, Tables II and III) and localization at the tight junction (Figs. 7 and 8), contains 3 PDZ domains, an SH3 domain and a GUK region (Fig. 3). The arrangement of ...
In this study, we demonstrated (I) distinct expression patterns of five genes encoding for proteins involved in the formation of tight junctions in esophageal mucosa. In particular Claudin-1 in ERD and to lesser extent Claudin-2 was expressed at higher levels in patients with GERD. In contrast, ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin were not affected by the presence of GERD. (II) In general, altered gene expression of Claudin-1/-2 did not correlate with the degree of histomorphological changes in the esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD.. Tight junctions are composed of transmembrane proteins such as Occludin, 24 Claudins, several junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) with different isoforms, E-Cadherin as well as cytosolic binding partners [43, 44]. The selection of the five genes studied was based on functional aspects. Occludin is critical for the formation of tight junctions in most tissues [45]. Claudin-1 is one of the numerous Claudins that seals intercellular space leading to higher barrier function ...
Tight junctions (TJs) are constructions indispensable to epithelial cells and are responsible for regulations of paracellular diffusion and maintenance of cellular polarity. interstitial tissues spaces. Located at the pinnacle of horizontal walls, TJs have both wall and barriers features. The barriers function represents a selectively permeable filtration system that adjusts paracellular diffusion of ions and solutes structured on charge and size, respectively (Gemstone, 1977 ). Barriers function is certainly firmly governed by a particular arranged of TJ protein, the claudins (Tsukita made up of a non-specific shRNA into MDCK II cells (brief hairpin non-specific control [shCtrl] cells). Specificities of RalA and RalB exhaustion had been ABT-263 decided by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence marking of endogenous protein; both RalB and RalA localised to the plasma membrane layer in subconfluent MDCK II cells, and this localization was untouched in shCtrl cells (Body 1B). In shRalA cells, ...
In mammalian epithelial cells, the most apical components of the lateral junctional complex are TJs that serve as intercellular barriers to regulate paracellular permeability and function as intramembranous fences to maintain the polarization of the apical and basolateral membrane domains ( Mitic and Anderson, 1998; Cereijido et al., 1998). A growing number of TJ-associated peripheral or integral proteins have been identified, and the characterized properties of these proteins provide a molecular basis for TJ formation and function. However, at present it is not fully understood how the formation of this complicated junctional structure is orchestrated in terms of the dynamic process.. We have previously identified ASIP, the mammalian homolog of C. elegans polarity protein PAR-3, as an epithelial TJ-associated peripheral protein ( Izumi et al., 1998); however, the physiological functions of mammalian ASIP/PAR-3 remain to be clarified. In this study, we provide two lines of evidence suggesting ...
Increased intestinal permeability has been observed in numerous human autoimmune diseases, including type-1 diabetes (T1D) and its animal model, the BB-wor diabetic prone rat. We have recently described zonulin, a protein that regulates intercellular tight junctions. The objective of this study was …
In the present study we identified a diverse group of Tcfap2c-regulated genes with established roles in blastocyst formation. These include genes that are important for TJ assembly (Cldn4, Cldn6, Tjp2, Tjp1), cell polarity (Pard6b) and fluid accumulation (Atp1b1, Aqp3). Claudin family members encode tetraspanin membrane proteins that serve crucial roles in TJ assembly and epithelial cell barrier function (Krause et al., 2008). In preimplantation embryos, disruption of Cldn4 and Cldn6 function via an inhibitory peptide impairs blastocyst development (Moriwaki et al., 2007). The TJ proteins Tjp1 and Tjp2 play an important role in connecting the actin skeleton with TJ complexes at the apical membrane (Schneeberger and Lynch, 2004). Embryos that lack Tjp1 or Tjp2 exhibit defects in blastocyst formation and/or undergo early embryonic lethality (Katsuno et al., 2008; Sheth et al., 2008). Likewise, in mouse preimplantation embryos the cell polarity regulator Pard6b is essential for blastocyst formation ...
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011), 286(19), 16879-90. Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen ... [more ▼]. Extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions. We find that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta inhibition independently induce the localization of epithelial tight junction components to the plasma membrane. The Ca(2+)-independent deposition of junctional proteins induced by AMPK activation and GSK-3beta inhibition is independent of E-cadherin. Furthermore, the nectin-afadin system is required for the deposition of tight junction components induced by AMPK activation, but it is not required for that induced by GSK-3beta inhibition. Phosphorylation studies demonstrate that afadin is ...
The tight junctions (TJ), which are located in the apical region between epithelial and endothelial cells, regulate the paracellular diffusion of ions and small molecules and play an important role in maintaining cell polarity, cell-cell integrity, and permeability. In the lung, epithelial cells are attached by TJ structures. They provide a permeable barrier and cell communication. The loss of barrier integrity, which is maintained by the expression of claudins (Cldn), results in cellular permibilization and leads to paracellular diffusion of solutes and harmful molecules. There are 27 known Cldn homologous members in mice and human. Cldn6 is mostly expressed in embryonic stem cells and associated with the programing of epithelial cells during embryo development and lung morphogenesis. In order to test the hypothesis that Cldn6 expression affects lung morphogenesis, we analyzed the expression pattern of Cldn6 during lung ontogenesis to examine cell-specific expression pattern of Cldn6 during each
As a negative immune checkpoint molecule, T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) has been found to serve a crucial role in immune escape and tumour progression. Previous studies have reported that Tim-3 is important to endothelial cells and it has also been demonstrated to be involved in numerous types of human disease, including melanoma, lymphoma, rickettsial infection and atherosclerosis; however, its exact mechanism of action remains largely unknown. In the present study, Tim-3 was overexpressed in vascular endothelial HMVECs and HUVECs and in vitro assays were used to determine that Tim-3 promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation through activating cyclin D1, Ras homolog gene family member A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Additionally, Tim-3 decreased tight junction (TJ) formation and the transepithelial resistance of endothelial cells by decreasing the expression levels of TJ protein 2, Occludin and ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is increasingly performed for hematologic diseases. As a major side effect, acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) with serious gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding and high mortality can be observed. Because surveillance and biopsies of human gastrointestinal GvHD are difficult to perform, rare information of the alterations of the gastrointestinal barrier exists resulting in a need for systematic animal models. To investigate the effects of GvHD on the intestinal barrier of the small intestine we utilized an established acute semi allogenic GvHD in C57BL/6 and B6D2F1 mice. By assessing the differential uptake of lactulose and mannitol in the jejunum, we observed an increased paracellular permeability as a likely mechanism for disturbed intestinal barrier function. Electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and PCR analysis indicated profound changes of the tight-junction complex, characterized by downregulation of the tight
The surface epithelium of newborn ferret airways matures rapidly in the first month of life. Prominent developmental features include a transition from predominantly non-ciliated to ciliated cells, quantitative and qualitative changes in secretion of macromolecules, and a transition from secretory to absorptive patterns of ion transport. Freeze-fracture replicas of ferret tracheal epithelium from 0 to 28 days of age exhibited progressive developmental patterns in tight junctional structure from beaded, unclosed patterns in newborns to more closed patterns at 28 days. Strand number increased while the depth of tight junctional structures and the proportion of strands exhibiting discontinuity decreased postnatally. Total transepithelial conductance, paracellular conductance, and cell size decreased over the first month. Our data suggest that changes in physiological parameters that reflect epithelial tight junction permeability can be attributed, at least in part, to maturation of this intercellular
This effect appeared to be mediated primarily by the action of HGF on the cytoplasmic membrane plaque protein ZO-1. ZO-1 is a peripheral membrane protein localized to the tight junction complex in epithelial and endothelial cells. Anchoring of ZO-1 with the underlying cytoskeleton is required for localization of occludin and claudin in the tight junction. ZO-1, -2, and -3 contain three PDZ domains, one SH3 domain, and one guanylyl kinase-like domain (GuK). Through its GuK domains, ZO-1 binds directly to the carboxyl termini of claudins and occludin and may function as an adaptor at the cytoplasmic surface of the tight junction to recruit other proteins, including cytoskeletal and signaling molecules. 4 These components can form a huge macromolecular complex at the cytoplasmic surface of tight junctions and may be involved in the regulation of endothelial and epithelial cell polarization, proliferation, and differentiation. 4 As an adaptor, ZO-1 is a critical regulatory protein between occludin ...
The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin is expressed in normal bladder urothelial cells. Bladder inflammation reduces prostasin expression and a loss of prostasin expression is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bladder transitional cell carcinomas. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease the incidence of various cancers including bladder cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of NSAIDs are not fully understood. The normal human bladder urothelial cell line UROtsa, the normal human trophoblast cell line B6Tert-1, human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines UM-UC-5 and UM-UC-9, and the human breast cancer cell line JIMT-1 were used for the study. Expression changes of the serine proteases prostasin and matriptase, and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) in these cells following ibuprofen treatments were analyzed by means of reverse-transcription/quantitative polymerase
The intestinal epithelial layer serves as a barrier against pathogens and ingested toxins, which are present in the lumen of the intestine. The importance of the intestinal epithelial barrier is emphasized by the alterations in paracellular permeability and tight junction functions observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of action of ZOT-derived peptide AT-1002, a tight junction regulator and absorption enhancer. AU - Gopalakrishnan, Shobha. AU - Pandey, Niranjan. AU - Tamiz, Amir P.. AU - Vere, John. AU - Carrasco, Rosa. AU - Somerville, Robert. AU - Tripathi, Amit. AU - Ginski, Mark. AU - Paterson, Blake M.. AU - Alkan, Sefik S.. PY - 2009/1/5. Y1 - 2009/1/5. N2 - Tight junctions (TJs) are intercellular structures that control paracellular permeability and epithelial polarity. It is now accepted that TJs are highly dynamic structures that are regulated in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Here, we provide details on the mechanism of action of AT-1002, the active domain of Vibrio choleraes second toxin, zonula occludens toxin (ZOT). AT-1002, a hexamer peptide, caused the redistribution of ZO-1 away from cell junctions as seen by fluorescence microscopy. AT-1002 also activated src and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways, increased ZO-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, ...
We have explored the effect of the protein kinase inhibitor H7 on tight junction formation in a MDCK cell model for the development of cell-cell contact, tight junctions and epithelial polarity: the Ca++ switch model. In this developmental model, which is thought to mimic processes during the earl …
Extracellular Ca2+ triggers assembly and sealing of tight junctions (TJs) in MDCK cells. These events are modulated by G-proteins, phospholipase C, protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin. In the present work we observed that 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC8) promotes the assembly of TJ in low extracellular Ca2+, as evidenced by translocation of the TJ-associated protein ZO-1 to the plasma membrane, formation of junctional fibrils observed in freeze-fracture replicas, decreased permeability of the intercellular space to [3H]mannitol, and reorganization of actin filaments to the cell periphery, visualized by fluorescence microscopy using rhodamine-phalloidin. In contrast, diC8 in low Ca2+ did not induce redistribution of the Ca-dependent adhesion protein E-cadherin (uvomorulin). Extracellular antibodies to E-cadherin block junction formation normally induced by adding Ca2+. diC8 counteracted this inhibition, suggesting that PKC may be in the signaling pathway activated by E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell ...
The present data provide an explanation for the deleterious impact of systemic inflammatory events, such as infection, on ischemic brain injury, and highlight the importance of considering the underlying immune status as a key modifier of stroke outcome. We demonstrate that systemic inflammation aggravates neurovascular proteolytic activity and exacerbates and alters the kinetics of disruption to key components of the BBB after mild focal cerebral ischemia. A rapid and transient claudin-5 disruption occurs after ischemia independently of systemic inflammation and is associated with phosphorylation of cerebrovascular MLC. Systemic inflammation transforms this transient disruption to a sustained reduction in claudin-5. We identify infiltrating neutrophil-derived MMP-9 as the perpetrator responsible for this sustained BBB disruption because inhibition of MMP-9 reversed the sustained but not the hyperacute transient disruption. These data imply that systemic inflammation alters the kinetics of BBB ...
Earlier this month we launched a campaign to solicit peoples favourite PLOS Genetics issue images, published over the last ten years, from a selection of five. The winning image depicts claudin 1, E-cadherin and keratin 14 in the tail skin of a mouse and was featured as PLOS Genetics October 2014 issue image. Submitted by Tia DiTommaso et al, in their paper entitled Keratin 76 Is Required for Tight Junction Function and Maintenance of the Skin Barrier, this image depicts claudin 1 in green, E-cadherin in red and keratin 14 in blue, and the work highlights the role of Keratin 76 in wound repair and barrier activity in the skin. Find out more about the research behind the image in this post from the authors, published as part of our Understanding Images series. The image will be featured on the journals Twitter account and homepage during PLOS Genetics tenth anniversary week.. Thank you to all who voted!. Author: Jessica Miller, Publications Assistant, PLOS Genetics. ...
Inflammation caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic toxins results in intestinal barrier dysfunction, contributing to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other diseases. Vitamin A is a widely used food supplement although its mechanistic effect on intestinal structures is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the mechanism by investigating the influence of vitamin A on the intestinal barrier function, represented by tight junctions. IPEC-J2 cells were differentiated on transwell inserts and used as a model of intestinal barrier permeability. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was used as an indicator of monolayer integrity and paracellular permeability. Western blot and the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the protein and mRNA expression of tight junction proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the localization and expression of tight junctions. Differentiated cells were treated with a vehicle control (Ctrl), ...
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, which involves myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activation, contributes to the occurrence and progression of inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Wogonoside helps maintain intestinal homeostasis in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, but it is unclear whether it modulates intestinal barrier function. PURPOSE: Here, we demonstrate that wogonoside protects against intestinal barrier dysfunction in colitis via the MLCK/pMLC2 pathway both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Caco-2 cell monolayers treated with the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α showed barrier dysfunction and were assessed in the absence and presence of wogonoside for various physiological, morphological, and biochemical parameters. Colitis was induced by 3% DSS in mice, which were used as an animal model to explore the pharmacodynamics of wogonoside. We detected MLCK/pMLC2 pathway proteins via western blot analysis, assessed the cytokines IL-13 and ...
Izawa, Y., Gu, Y-H., Osada, T., Kanazawa, M., Hawkins, B., Koziol, J., ... del Zoppo, G. (2017). β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17722108 ...
Mouse monoclonal ZO1 tight junction protein antibody [mAbcam 61357] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications and 5…
Cingulin is specifically localized at tight junctions in epithelial cells, unlike ZO-1, which is also detected at adherens-type junctions in non-epithelial cells ... development, cingulin is detected at a cortical localization, and then accumulates at apical junctions, unlike ZO-1 and other junctional proteins, that are targeted to the new regions ... Cingulin interacts with ZO-1 and several other tight junction proteins, in addition to interacting with actin and myosin ...
Purpose: : To investigate the formation of the tight junction of endothelial cells in the capillary of developing rat retina. Methods: : The rat retinas were immunostained with monoclonal antisera against zonular occludensa 1 (ZO-1) (1:1,000 Zymed) and occludin (1:250, Zymed), markers of the tight junction between endothelial cells, at postnatal day (P) 7, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 49. For guiding the retinal blood vessels, polyclonal antisera against α-smooth muscle actin (1:1,000, Sigma), a pericyte marker, was used. Results: : From P7, the endothelial cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) expressed ZO-1 immunoreactivity. But, the endothelial cells in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) began to express ZO-1 immunoreactivity from P10. The expression of ZO-1 was consistent with the time of formation of retinal capillaries. Occludin immunoreactivity was visible in the endothelial cells of the GCL and OPL around P10, although a few occludin immunoreactive endothelial cells occurred in the GCL of the ...
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The TJP2 protein (Tight Junction Protein 2, sometimes called ZO2) plays a role in tight junctions. Tight junctions are areas where the membranes of two adjacent cells join to form a barrier. The barrier controls what molecules are able to pass between cells. Such junctions are important throughout the body, and TJP2 is not specific to the liver. A mild form of liver disease associated with mutations in the TPJ 2 gene was previously called familial hypercholanaemia (which means high bile salts in blood). Only a small number of patients with PFIC caused by TJP2 mutation have been studied so far, so it is not yet understood of what manifestations, other than liver disease and its consequences that TJP2 deficiency patients may have.. ...
Epithelial and endothelial cells form the external lining of outer and inner body surfaces and blood vessels of multicellular organisms. Thus, they create separate compartments each exhibiting an environment optimally adjusted to their respective function. To build up such compartments epithelial and endothelial cells have to restrict the paracellular diffusion of substances. The paracellular cleft is sealed by tight junctions (TJ). In electron microscopical images TJs appear as a network of intermembranous strands in the apical region of the lateral cell membrane of epithelial and endothelial cells. Claudins (Cld) form the structural backbone of TJs. The present study provided evidence for the first time that single amino acids of the second extracellular loop (ECL) of a claudin are essential for the paracellular tightness of epithelial cells. The effect of single amino acid substitutions of the second ECL of Cld5 were studied in cells expressing various other endogenous claudins except Cld5. ...
Biological barriers are indispensable for the integrity and function of many vertebrate organs. The barrier function is based on intercellular protein complexes of the plasma membrane which form paracellular diffusion barriers and separate internal and external fluid compartments, an indispensable prerequisite for every organ development and function. The review summarizes key characteristics and molecular structure of intercellular junctions (tight junctions and adherens junctions) responsible for cellular barrier formation. One of the most important such cellular barriers is the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which forms an active interface between the circulation and neural tissue. Its principal cellular components are cerebral endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes, whose finely tuned interactions are needed for a proper function. The review highlights the most important functions of the BBB including some novel regulatory aspects as well.. ...
Identify an antibody against an adhesion junction protein that is commercially available. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of adhesion junction. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody. Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Original Data Sheer for Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Type of adhesion junction: human zona occludens 1, specifically ZO-1 alpha-minus found both in endothelial cells and the highly specialized epithelial junctions of renal glomeruli and Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. Type of antibody: Polyclonal Species raised in: Guinea Pig Species reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and Canine Types of application uses: Immunohistology, immunofluorescence and Western blotting References that uses this antibody: 1. ,pubmed,22314269,/pubmed,[3] 2. ,pubmed,22162948,/pubmed,[4] ...
Identify an antibody against an adhesion junction protein that is commercially available. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of adhesion junction. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody. Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Original Data Sheer for Tight Junction Protein 1 Antibody Type of adhesion junction: human zona occludens 1, specifically ZO-1 alpha-minus found both in endothelial cells and the highly specialized epithelial junctions of renal glomeruli and Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. Type of antibody: Polyclonal Species raised in: Guinea Pig Species reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and Canine Types of application uses: Immunohistology, immunofluorescence and Western blotting References that uses this antibody: 1. ,pubmed,22314269,/pubmed,[3] 2. ,pubmed,22162948,/pubmed,[4] ...
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Reaktivität: Hund, Human, Maus and more. 60 verschiedene TJP3 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Adapter protein involved in asymmetrical cell division and cell polarization processes. Probably involved in the formation of epithelial tight junctions. Association with PARD3 may prevent the interaction of PARD3 with F11R/JAM1, thereby preventing tight junction assembly. The PARD6-PARD3 complex links GTP-bound Rho small GTPases to atypical protein kinase C proteins (PubMed:15761148). Regulates centrosome organization and function. Essential for the centrosomal recruitment of key proteins that control centrosomal microtubule organization (By similarity).
The precise regulation of intestinal epithelial TJs is crucial to maintaining barrier function between the luminal milieu and the internal environment. Recent studies have revealed an important role for Rho GTPases in regulating TJ structure/function (22, 29). In particular, TJ strand organization has been shown to be altered by constitutively active RhoA and Rac1 mutants (22) and inactivation of GTPases by C. difficile toxins is known to cause redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from membrane microdomains or membrane rafts (32). As a result, we have further explored the mechanisms whereby paracellular permeability is influenced by this family of mediators and investigated whether the inactivation of a single GTPase (RhoA, Rac1, or Cdc42) has an effect on TJ distribution in such membrane rafts and whether TJ proteins involved in strand formation (such as claudin-1 and -2) are altered in this setting.. Using MDCK cell lines that express constitutively active or dominant-negative RhoA, Rac1, or ...
Steed, Emily, Elbediwy, Ahmed, Vacca, Barbara, Dupasquier, Sebastien, Hemkemeyer, Sandra A., Suddason, Tesha, Costa, Ana C., Beaudry, Jean-Bernard, Zihni, Ceniz, Gallagher, Ewen, Pierreux, Christophe E., Balda, Maria S. and Matter, Karl (2014) MarvelD3 couples tight junctions to the MEKK1-JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival. Journal of Cell Biology, 204(5), pp. 821-838. ISSN (print) 0021-9525 ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway is a cellular quality control and post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanism and is essential for viability in most multicellular organisms. A complex of proteins has been identified to be required for NMD function to occur, however there is an incomplete understanding of the individual contributions of each of these factors to the NMD process. Central to the NMD process are three proteins, Upf1 (SMG-2), Upf2 (SMG-3), and Upf3 (SMG-4), which are found in all eukaryotes, with Upf1 and Upf2 being absolutely required for NMD in all organisms in which their functions have been examined. The other known NMD factors, Smg1, Smg5, Smg6, and Smg7 are more variable in their presence in different orders of organisms and are thought to have a more regulatory role. Here we present the first genetic analysis of the NMD factor Smg5 in Drosophila. Surprisingly, we find that unlike the other analyzed Smg genes in this organism, Smg5 is essential for NMD ...
The Trans-Epithelial Permeability (TEP) Assay, is a cell-based assay used to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of test chemicals by measuring the permeability of sodium fluorescein (or fluorescein leakage) through a confluent monolayer of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. The MDCK cell line is used since it forms tight junctions in a confluent monolayer similar to those formed in the outermost corneal and conjunctival epithelial layers. The disruption of the tight junctions by chemicals is one of the early events typical... Trans-Epithial Permeability ...
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reciprocal mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) are key processes involved in both tumor metastasis and development. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their plasma membrane polarities, break their intercellular tight junctions, and degrade basement membrane extracellular matrix components to become migratory mesenchymal cells. MET is a common process during organogenesis, when migrating stem cells will begin to express genes important for tight junctions, as well as other genes important for stationary epithelial cells. Cell surface receptor, extracellular matrix, and cytoskeletal genes mediating cell adhesion, migration, and morphogenesis are all central to EMT. Tumor cells migrate to distal tissues via uncontrolled EMT, a common result during the oncogenic process. Analysis of EMT and MET mechanisms may yield new insights into their regulation during oncogenesis, providing novel drug targets ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IFN-γ-Induced TNFR2 Expression Is Required for TNF-Dependent Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction. AU - Wang, Fengjun. AU - Schwarz, Brad T.. AU - Graham, W. Vallen. AU - Wang, Yingmin. AU - Su, Liping. AU - Clayburgh, Daniel R.. AU - Abraham, Clara. AU - Turner, Jerrold R.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Background & Aims: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a critical role in intestinal disease. In intestinal epithelia, TNF causes tight junction disruption and epithelial barrier loss by up-regulating myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity and expression. The aim of this study was to determine the signaling pathways by which TNF causes intestinal epithelial barrier loss. Methods: Caco-2 cells that were either nontransfected or stably transfected with human TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) or TNFR2 and mouse colonocytes were used for physiologic, morphologic, and biochemical analyses. Results: Colitis induced in ...
Shop Tight junction-associated protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Tight junction-associated protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Occludin plays a critical role in maintaining the barrier properties of a tight junction. Thus, mutation or absence of occludin increases epithelial leakiness which is an important barrier in preventing metastasis of cancer. Loss of occludin or abnormal expression of occludin has been shown to cause increased invasion, reduced adhesion and significantly reduced tight junction function in breast cancer tissues. Furthermore, patients with metastatic disease displayed significantly lower levels of occludin suggesting that the loss of occludin and thereby loss of tight junction integrity is important in metastatic development of breast cancer.[24]. Occludin also plays an important role in the apoptosis. The C-terminus of occludin is important in receiving and transmitting cell survival signals. In standard cells, loss or disruption of occludin and other tight junction proteins leads to initiation of apoptosis through extrinsic pathways.[25] Studies involving high levels of expression of occludin in ...
In multicellular organisms, compartments with different compositions are separated by epithelia. Exchange of solutes between compartments can occur through (transcellular) or around (paracellular) the epithelial cells. Tight junctions between the cells form an ion-selective barrier across the paracellular route, and several human diseases involve a breakdown of these junctions. On p. 5109, Daniel Goodenough and colleagues report that the tight junction protein paracellin 1 (claudin-16) can modulate tight junction ion selectivity in the renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1, which does not normally express this protein. When the authors express paracellin 1 in these cells, it localizes to the tight junctions and increases their permeability to Na+ but not to Cl- or Mg2+. Mutagenesis studies indicated that the extracellular loops of paracellin 1 are critical for this ion selectivity. Similar paracellin 1 mutations cause human familial hypomagnesemia with hypocalcinuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic inflammatory pain leads to increased blood-brain barrier permeability and tight junction protein alterations. AU - Brooks, Tracy A.. AU - Hawkins, Brian T.. AU - Huber, Jason D.. AU - Egleton, Richard D.. AU - Davis, Thomas P. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains brain homeostasis by limiting entry of substances to the central nervous system through interaction of transmembrane and intracellular proteins that make up endothelial cell tight junctions (TJs). Recently it was shown that the BBB can be modulated by disease pathologies including inflammatory pain. This study examined the effects of chronic inflammatory pain on the functional and molecular integrity of the BBB. Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) into the right plantar hindpaw in female Sprague-Dawley rats under halothane anesthesia; control animals were injected with saline. Edema and hyperalgesia were assessed by plethysmography and ...
Aberrant expression and functions of the tight junction-related proteins contribute to the development of various human cancers (32). Tricellulin localizes at tricellular tight junctions as a member of the tight-junction-associated MARVEL protein (TAMP) family (33). Nuclear or cytoplasmic tricellulin expression was associated with pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis as well as a poor prognosis (17).. To date, there is no study revealing the role of tricellulin in colorectal cancer. Thus, the present study was the first, to the best of our knowledge, to demonstrate tricellulin overexpression in colorectal cancer tissues with both cytoplasmic and nuclear localizations as well as tricellulin expression associated with colorectal cancer lymph node and distant metastasis and poor prognosis, which is consistent with those occurring in pancreatic cancer (17).. Using in vitro functional assays, it was revealed that knockdown of tricellulin expression inhibited colorectal cancer cell invasion ...
Journal of Allergy is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of allergy.
Endothelium differentiates in response to tissue-specific signals; brain endothelium expresses tight junctions and transporters which are absent from other endothelia. The promoter of the tight junction protein occludin exhibited strong activity in a brain endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3 but was inactive in lung endothelial cells. Expression of occludin in brain endothelium corresponded with binding of Sp3 to a minimal promoter segment close to the transcription-start site. However, in lung endothelium Sp-transcription factors did not bind to this site although they are present in the cell nucleus. In contrast, repression of occludin in lung endothelium was associated with the binding of YY1 to a remote site in the promoter region, which was functionally inactive in brain endothelium. The work identified a group of transcription factors including Sp3 and YY1, which differentially interact with the occludin promoter to induce expression of occludin in brain endothelium and repression in other ...
Intestinal barrier dysfunction is thought to contribute to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in sepsis. Although there are similarities in clinical course following sepsis, there are significant differences in the host response depending on the initiating organism and time course of the disease, and pathways of gut injury vary widely in different preclinical models of sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the timecourse and mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction are similar in disparate mouse models of sepsis with similar mortalities. FVB/N mice were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy, and permeability was measured to fluoresceinisothiocyanate conjugated-dextran (FD-4) six to 48 h later. Intestinal permeability was elevated following CLP at all timepoints measured, peaking at 6 to 12 h. Tight junction proteins claudin 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13, and 15, Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A), occludin, and ZO-1 ...
Tight junctions hold cells together and play an integral role in maintaining cellular architecture (4, 14). Many enteric pathogens are known to perturb the intestinal epithelial barrier, but the underlying mechanisms are probably distinct for each species. C. difficile toxins enhance permeability by disrupting actin microfilaments within the perijunctional ring (9, 27), and enteropathogenic E. coli disrupts the epithelial barrier (30) via phosphorylation of myosin light chains (34). The NSP4 enterotoxin of rotavirus impairs normal formation of epithelial tight junctions by preventing transport of the ZO-1 protein needed for biogenesis of these junctions (35). Salmonella and Shigella spp. can also disrupt the epithelial barrier (10, 29). Moreover, our results suggest that invasive serovar Typhimurium alters the tight and adherens junction proteins in polarized MDCK cells by activating geranylgeranylated proteins. Many peripheral membrane proteins are concentrated at the tight junctions and ...
An increasing body of evidence indicates that cellular polyamines play a critical role in maintenance of the intestinal epithelial integrity, but few specific functions of polyamines at cellular and molecular levels are defined. We (18) have recently reported that polyamines are implicated in regulation of the intestinal epithelial barrier function and that depletion of cellular polyamines increases epithelial paracellular permeability at least partially by inhibiting expression of adherens junctions in undifferentiated parental IEC-6 cells. The present studies further confirm our previous observations by demonstrating that polyamines are crucial for expression of adherens junctions in differentiated IEC-Cdx2L1 cells. The most significant of the new findings reported in this study, however, is that polyamines are required for normal function of tight junctions and that polyamines regulate expression of various tight junction proteins through different mechanisms. Polyamines regulate occludin ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zheng Ruan, Shiqiang Liu, Yan Zhou, Shumei Mi, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Kang Yao, Houssein Assaad, Zeyuan Deng, Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin].
TY - PAT. T1 - Compositions and Methods for Enhancing Paracellular Permeability across Epithelial and Endothelial Barriers. AU - Thakker,Dhiren R.. AU - Ward,Peter D.. N1 - Status: published applicationnumber: 09/974,519 usclass: 514/75 ; 514/642; 514/76; 514/946 applicationnumber: 09/974,519. PY - 1800. Y1 - 1800. N2 - Compositions and methods for enhancing paracellular permeability at an absorption site in a subject are disclosed. The method includes: (a) administering an effective amount of a phospholipase C inhibitor to a subject at a time in which enhanced paracellular permeability is desired; and (b) enhancing paracellular permeability in the subject at the absorption site through the administering of the effective amount of the phospholipase C inhibitor. The disclosed compositions and methods provide enhanced absorption of a hydrophilic drug in a subject.. AB - Compositions and methods for enhancing paracellular permeability at an absorption site in a subject are disclosed. The method ...
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is compromised in many CNS disorders. Complex astrocyte and vascular endothelial cell interactions that regulate BBB integrity may be disturbed in these disorders. We have previously shown that systemic administration of 3-chloropropanediol induces a transitory glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-astrocyte loss, reversible loss of tight junction complexes, and BBB integrity disruption. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that induce BBB integrity marker loss are unclear. We hypothesize that 3-chloropropanediol-induced modulation of tight junction protein expression is mediated through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To test this hypothesis we have used a mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) exposed to 3-chloropropanediol for up to 3 days. Results showed early reversible loss of sharp paracellular claudin-5 expression 90, 105, and 120 min following 3-chloropropanediol (500 μM) treatment. Sharp paracellular claudin-5 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gut pathobionts underlie intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver T helper 17 cell immune response in primary sclerosing cholangitis. AU - Nakamoto, Nobuhiro. AU - Sasaki, Nobuo. AU - Aoki, Ryo. AU - Miyamoto, Kentaro. AU - Suda, Wataru. AU - Teratani, Toshiaki. AU - Suzuki, Takahiro. AU - Koda, Yuzo. AU - Chu, Po Sung. AU - Taniki, Nobuhito. AU - Yamaguchi, Akihiro. AU - Kanamori, Mitsuhiro. AU - Kamada, Nobuhiko. AU - Hattori, Masahira. AU - Ashida, Hiroshi. AU - Sakamoto, Michiie. AU - Atarashi, Koji. AU - Narushima, Seiko. AU - Yoshimura, Akihiko. AU - Honda, Kenya. AU - Sato, Toshiro. AU - Kanai, Takanori. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and its frequent complication with ulcerative colitis highlights the pathogenic role of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PSC, yet its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we identify ...
The tight junction regulates passage of molecules throuth the paracellular spaces. Occludin and claudins are the specific trancmembrance protains present at the tight junction and are believed to regulate the cell barrier functions. To examine the response of the tight junction to hyperosmotic solutions, Ⅰinvestigated the effects of hyperosmotic glycerol on function and protein expression of the tight junction in ECV304 cells. Cell cytotoxicity analysis showed that the high (10%) concentration of glcerol damaged 64.1% of the ECV304 cells (p<0.001), and this was confirmed morphologically. Treatment with 1%, 2% or 5% glyserol increased the paracellular permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -labeled dextran by 4.7%, 18.7% and 29.4% (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, exposure to glycerol at any concentration strongly reduced the expression of occludin, whereas enpression of claudin-1 was affected very slightly. These results suggest that hyperosmotic glycerol would certainly ...
0011]The tight junctions form a selective barrier regulating the passage of ions and molecules through paracellular space. Under electron microscopy, it is noted that the tight junctions form a series of fusion points between the outer leaflets of the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells. These membrane contact zones appear, by freeze fracture, in the form of a continuous network that surrounds the apex of each cell. This network is constituted by membrane protein polymers, the claudins and occludin which are themselves connected to cytoplasmic proteins among which in particular the zonula occludens proteins (ZO-1 to 3) are to be found. Occludin, the claudins as well as the ZO-1s are often the target for bacterial toxins, leading to an alteration in the organisation and the function of the tight junctions (Coraux et al., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2004, 5:605-612 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutamine supplementation attenuates ethanol-induced disruption of apical junctional complexes in colonic epithelium and ameliorates gut barrier dysfunction and fatty liver in mice. AU - Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.. AU - Shukla, Pradeep Kumar. AU - Mir, Hina. AU - Manda, Bhargavi. AU - Gangwar, Ruchika. AU - Yadav, Nikki. AU - McMullen, Megan. AU - Nagy, Laura E.. AU - Rao, Radhakrishna. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Previous in vitro studies showed that glutamine (Gln) prevents acetaldehyde-induced disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers and human colonic mucosa. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Gln supplementation on ethanol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and liver injury in mice in vivo. Ethanol feeding caused a significant increase in inulin permeability in distal colon. Elevated permeability was associated with a redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins and depletion of detergent-insoluble ...
What happens to the paracellular barrier when the expression of tricellulin is suppressed in epithelial cells? Two independent Eph4 cell clones with suppressed tricellulin expression (KD-1 and KD-2) were established by stably expressing two distinct short interfering RNAs (Brummelkamp et al., 2002). In both clones, tricellulin protein expression was suppressed by ,95% as determined by Western blot analysis (Fig. 5 A), and immunofluorescence microscopy did not detect any tricellulin signals at tricellular contacts (Fig. 5 B). Under confluent conditions, KD-1 and KD-2 cells showed a typical cobblestone-like appearance, and there was no significant difference discerned between parental wild-type Eph4 and KD-1/2 cells with regard to the size/shape of individual cells and the distribution of cadherins (Fig. 5 B). However, when KD-1 and KD-2 cells were stained with anti-occludin mAb (Fig. 5 C) or anti-claudin-3 pAb (not depicted), tTJs as well as bTJs showed remarkable structural changes in that both ...
Occludin is an integral membrane protein, encoded by the OCLN gene, that is located at tight junctions. Tight junctions act as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. Occludin is also known as BLCPMG. It is known to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins via its C terminus, while its extracellular loops are thought to be involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and cell adhesion. When occludin is expressed in cells that lack tight junctions, it is able to induce cell adhesion. Mutations in the OCLN gene are associated with an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder known as band-like calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria (BLC-PMG).. ...
Occludin is an integral membrane protein, encoded by the OCLN gene, that is located at tight junctions. Tight junctions act as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. Occludin is also known as BLCPMG. It is known to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins via its C terminus, while its extracellular loops are thought to be involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and cell adhesion. When occludin is expressed in cells that lack tight junctions, it is able to induce cell adhesion. Mutations in the OCLN gene are associated with an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder known as band-like calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria (BLC-PMG).. ...
In epithelia, specialized tricellular junctions (TCJs) mediate cell contacts at three-cell vertices. TCJs are fundamental to epithelial biology and disease, but only a few TCJ components are known, and how they assemble at tricellular vertices is not understood. Here we describe a transmembrane protein, Anakonda (Aka), which localizes to TCJs and is essential for the formation of tricellular, but not bicellular, junctions in Drosophila. Loss of Aka causes epithelial barrier defects associated with irregular TCJ structure and geometry, suggesting that Aka organizes cell corners. Aka is necessary and sufficient for accumulation of Gliotactin at TCJs, suggesting that Aka initiates TCJ assembly by recruiting other proteins to tricellular vertices. Akas extracellular domain has an unusual tripartite repeat structure that may mediate self-assembly, directed by the geometry of tricellular vertices. Conversely, Akas cytoplasmic tail is dispensable for TCJ localization. Thus, extracellular ...
Mechanisms of gastrointestinal protection by probiotic bacteria against infection involve amongst others, modulation of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is widely used to evaluate cellular barrier functions. Here, we developed a two-stage interpretative model of the time-dependence of the TEER of epithelial layers grown in a transwell during Escherichia coli challenges in the absence or presence of adhering bifidobacteria. E. coli adhesion in absence or presence of adhering bifidobacteria was enumerated using selective plating. After 4-8 h, E. coli challenges increased TEER to a maximum due to bacterial adhesion and increased expression of a tight-junction protein [zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)], concurrent with a less dense layer structure, that is indicative of mild epithelial layer damage. Before the occurrence of a TEER-maximum, decreases in electrical conductance (i.e., the reciprocal TEER) did not relate with para-cellular dextran-permeability, but
The defective intestinal epithelial small junction (TJ) barrier continues to be postulated to become a significant pathogenic factor adding to intestinal inflammation. aspect (ATF)-2. The turned on buy Prednisolone acetate ATF-2 translocated towards the nucleus where it mounted on its binding theme in the myosin Rabbit Polyclonal to DLGP1 L string kinase (MLCK) promoter area, resulting in the activation of MLCK promoter activity and gene transcription. Little interfering RNA induced silencing of ATF-2, or mutation from the ATF-2 binding theme prevented the activation of MLCK promoter and MLCK mRNA transcription. Additionally, in buy Prednisolone acetate vivo intestinal perfusion research also indicated the fact that IL-1 upsurge in mouse intestinal permeability needed p38 kinaseCdependent activation of buy Prednisolone acetate ATF-2. To conclude, these studies also show the fact that IL-1Cinduced upsurge in intestinal TJ permeability in vitro and in vivo was governed by p38 kinase activation of ...
Tight junction-associated protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TJAP1 gene. TJAP1 has been shown to interact with DLG1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137221 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000012296 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Kawabe H, Nakanishi H, Asada M, Fukuhara A, Morimoto K, Takeuchi M, Takai Y (Dec 2001). Pilt, a novel peripheral membrane protein at tight junctions in epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 276 (51): 48350-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M107335200. PMID 11602598. Entrez Gene: TJAP1 tight junction associated protein 1 (peripheral). Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5-end-enriched cDNA library. ...
Oral mucosa provides the first line of defense against a diverse array of environmental and microbial irritants by forming the barrier of epithelial cells interconnected by multiprotein tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions, desmosomes, and gap junction complexes. Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), an epithelial-specific transcription factor, may play a role in the formation of the mucosal epithelial barrier, as it regulates the expression of the junction proteins. The current study investigated the role of GRHL2 in the Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg)-induced impairment of epithelial barrier functions. Exposure of human oral keratinocytes (HOK-16B and OKF6 cells) to Pg or Pg-derived lipopolysaccharides (Pg LPSs) led to rapid loss of endogenous GRHL2 and the junction proteins (e.g., zonula occludens, E-cadherin, claudins, and occludin). GRHL2 directly regulated the expression levels of the junction proteins and the epithelial permeability for small molecules (e.g., dextrans and Pg bacteria). To explore ...
immune Uncategorized PA-824, Rabbit Polyclonal to C-RAF (phospho-Thr269). The blood-epididymis barrier (BEB) is formed by epithelial tight junctions mediating selective permeability from the PA-824 epididymal epithelium. the paracellular permeability had been examined by two strategies TER and FITC-Dextran-based tracer diffusion assays. Both assays soon add up to related outcomes indicating a time-dependent disruption from the BEB differentially for the three TGF? isoforms (TGF?3>TGF?1>TGF?2) inside a TGF?-recetor-1 kinase- and Smad-dependent way. The small junction proteins claudin-1 was discovered to be decreased by the procedure with TGF?s whereas occludin had not PA-824 been affected. Epididymal epithelial cells are mainly attentive to TGF?s PA-824 through the basolateral side recommending that TGF? may impact for the epididymal epithelium through the stroma cell tradition versions the knockdown of 1 of the claudins (1 -3 -4 or -7) led to dramatically reduced transepithelial electrical level ...
Stabilization of the blood-brain barrier during and after stroke can lead to less adverse outcome. For elucidation of underlying mechanisms and development of novel therapeutic strategies validated in vitro disease models of the blood-brain barrier could be very helpful. To mimic in vitro stroke conditions we have established a blood-brain barrier in vitro model based on mouse cell line cerebEND and applied oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). The role of astrocytes in this disease model was investigated by using cell line C6. Transwell studies pointed out that addition of astrocytes during OGD increased the barrier damage significantly in comparison to the endothelial monoculture shown by changes of transendothelial electrical resistance as well as fluorescein permeability data. Analysis on mRNA and protein levels by qPCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy of tight junction molecules claudin-3,-5,-12, occludin and ZO-1 revealed that their regulation and localisation is associated with the
Tight junctions (TJs) are electron‐dense structures connecting the lateral membranes of adjacent epithelial or endothelial cells. They exert adhesive properties and stabilize homophilic cell-cell binding. TJs serve a dual role in controlling paracellular permeability and in maintaining cell polarity. These junctional structures are particularly well developed in regions of the vascular tree where permeability has to be restricted, e.g. in the brain microvasculature and in large arteries (Mitic and Anderson, 1998; Stevenson and Keon, 1998; Dejana et al., 2000). Little is known about the molecular basis for the intercellular adhesion of TJs, despite their eminent role in organ functioning. Different transmembrane proteins have been found to be located specifically at TJs. Occludin and the claudin family belong to the class of tetra‐span transmembrane proteins (Furuse et al., 1993, 1998a,b). Occludin is dispensable for TJ organization and adhesive properties (Saitou et al., 1998). In contrast, ...
HCV is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis all over the world. Claudins belong to family of tight junctions proteins that are responsible for establishing barriers for controlling the flow of molecules around cells. For therapeutic strategies, regulation of viral entry into the host cells holds a lot of promise. During HCV infection claudin-1 is highly expressed in liver and believed to be associated with HCV virus entry after HCV binding with or without co-receptor CD81. The claudin-1 assembly with tight junctions is regulated by post translational modifications. During claudins assembly and disassembly with tight junctions, phosphorylation is required at C-terminal tail. In cellular proteins, interplay between phosphorylation and O-β-GlcNAc modification is believed to be functional switch, but it is very difficult to monitor these functional and vibrant changes in vivo. Netphos 2.0 and Disphos 1.3 programs were used for potential phosphorylation; NetPhosK 1.0 and KinasePhos for
Methods FMT was performed via nasogastric tube. Mucosal biopsies samples were collected at pouchoscopy from eight patients with chronic refractory pouchitis before and four weeks after FMT. The epithelium was identified following incubation with EDTA and lamina propria dendritic cells (DCs) were identified following collagenase digestion. Epithelial cells were identified as pancytokeritin positive cells and expression of ZO-1, claudin 1 and claudin 2 were measured by multicolour flow cytometry. DC were identified as an HLA DR+, lineage- (CD3-,CD14-,CD16-,CD19-,CD34-) population. Expression of TLR 2, 4 and 5, β7 and CCR 9, and CD40 were measured by multicolour flow cytometry. Cytokines were assessed by multiplex ELISA of biopsy supernatants. The t-test was used in statistical analysis.. ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information 41598_2017_4755_MOESM1_ESM. CLDN1 in late differentiation stage but not in the early stage. HES1 was high, whereas NR3C1 and CLDN1 were low in the early stage which reversed in the late stage, e.g. HES1/NR3C1 binding to promoter demonstrates a reciprocal and active design. These results claim that chronic tension impairs digestive tract epithelium homeostasis and hurdle function via different systems along the crypt axis. Launch Intestinal epithelial restricted junction proteins donate to intestinal hurdle function via their function in regulating paracellular permeability1. Impaired intestinal hurdle function involving elevated epithelial paracellular permeability continues to be reported in a number of gastrointestinal disorders including Irritable Colon Symptoms (IBS)2. We reported previously that elevation in serum corticosterone mediates persistent tension induced reduction in particular intestinal epithelial restricted junction protein that ...
Restore optimal gut environment leads to great gut health with carbon rich alkaline liquid lignite extracts to strengthen tight junction cells
epithelial cells (AECs) maintain the pulmonary blood-gas barrier integrity with gasketlike intercellular tight junctions (TJ) that are anchored internally to the actin cytoskeleton. the Rac1 downstream proteins mediates stretch-induced increases in permeability and PJAR formation. ≤ 0.05. All the BMS-707035 statistical tests were implemented in JMP (version 8.0 SAS Institute BMS-707035 Cary NC). To test the effect of stretch readout values were compared with time-matched unstretched-untreated controls using a one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Dunnetts test (72). To test the effect of treatment (inhibitors or exogenous agonists) readout values were compared with time-matched VCs as well as UNS-VCs by a two-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post hoc analysis (72). RESULTS Rac1 downstream proteins are activated by stretch. We hypothesized that actin cytoskeleton remodeling during formation of PJARs would be accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation of Rac1 downstream proteins Akt and LIMK1/2 and by a ...
Caco-2 monolayers grown on permeable filters for 21 days in bicameral Transwell chambers were incubated with control medium, medium containing cytomix (CM), a cocktail containing the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β (1 μg/ml), TNF (10 ng/ml) and IFN-γ (1000 U/ml), or medium containing CM and one of these other pharmacologic agents: ethyl pyruvate (EP; H2O2 scavenger; 10 mM): PJ34 (PARP inhibitor; 5 μM): 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB; PARP inhibition; 3 μM): FeTPPS (ONOO- decomposition catalyst; 50 μM): C-PTIO (NO• scavenger; 100 μM): PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor; 100 μM) or L-NIL (selective iNOS inhibitor; 20 μM). Permeability was expressed as the apical-to-basolateral clearance (nLcm-1 h-1) of fluorescein-labelled dextran (FD4) during the last 48 hours of incubation. Expression of occludin and ZO-1 were assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. ...
The intestinal epithelium is the largest mucosal surface providing an interface between the external environment and the mammalian host. Its exquisite anatomical and functional arrangements and the finely-tuned coordination of digestive, absorptive, motility, neuroendocrine and immunological functions are testimonial of the complexity of the gastrointestinal system. Also pivotal is the regulation of molecular trafficking between the intestinal lumen and the submucosa via the paracellular space. Under physiological circumstances, this trafficking is safeguarded by the competency of intercellular tight junctions (TJ), structures whose physiological modulation is mediated, among others, by the TJ modulator zonulin. The structural and functional characteristics of intercellular TJ and the protean nature of the intestinal content suggest that the gut mucosa represent the battlefield where friends (i.e., nutrients and enteric microflora) and foes (i.e., pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins) ...
Despite effective systemic therapy, HIV-1 infection within the brain results in neuronal degradation and neurocognitive dysfunction. This neurocognitive dysfunction is worsened in the setting of opiate abuse. The central nervous system (CNS) is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a selective barrier regulating the passage of substances from peripheral circulation into the CNS. The BBB is composed of microvascular endothelial cells encased by basal lamina, pericytes, and perivascular astrocyte endfeet. Intracellular junctional complexes comprising of adherens and tight junctions are located between the endothelial cells and form tight barrier, preventing traffic of compounds between cells (paracellular flux). Clinical and in vitro data suggest that BBB integrity is compromised in HIV infection, which leads to a leaky barrier. Brain microvascular endothelial cells also express efflux transporters that are responsible for the extrusion of substances from the brain back into the blood. P
In this study, we showed that the HIEC monolayer, which differentiated from ISCs, displayed mature morphologic features consisting of polarized columnar epithelia with dense microvilli, tight junctions, and desmosomes. The looseness of the tight junctions in the HIEC monolayer was similar to that in the human small intestine, whereas those of Caco-2 cells were not, and the HIEC monolayer also had a high Papp for paracellularly absorbed compounds. Furthermore, the presence of the functions of P-gp and BCRP, and abundant mRNA expression of CNT3 made HIECs a valuable tool for studies on the intestinal absorption of these substrates.. Paracellular absorption refers to permeation across cell monolayers through pores in the tight junction, and the oral absorption of hydrophilic molecules generally relies on the paracellular pathway. In this study, the permeability values of paracellularly absorbed compounds (FD-4, atenolol, and terbutaline) were higher in HIECs than in Caco-2 cells (Table 2). These ...
Epithelial tubes of the correct size and shape are vital for the function of the lungs, kidneys, and vascular system, yet little is known about epithelial tube size regulation. Mutations in the Drosophila gene sinuous have previously been shown to cause tracheal tubes to be elongated and have diameter increases. Our genetic analysis using a sinuous null mutation suggests that sinuous functions in the same pathway as the septate junction genes neurexin and scribble , but that nervana 2 , convoluted , varicose , and cystic have functions not shared by sinuous . Our molecular analyses reveal that sinuous encodes a claudin that localizes to septate junctions and is required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function. These results provide important evidence that the paracellular barriers formed by arthropod septate junctions and vertebrate tight junctions have a common molecular basis despite their otherwise different molecular compositions, morphologies, and subcellular ...
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Cereijido, Marcelino; Anderson, James M. (2001). Tight Junctions. Taylor & Francis. p. 20. ISBN 9780849323836. Henrikson, Ray C ...
Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ... 2004). "Distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-4, -8, and -12 in bladder epithelium". Am. J. ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003). "Tight junction proteins". Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 81 (1): 1-44 ...
Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003). "Tight junction proteins". Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 81 (1): 1-44 ...
The protein is a component of tight junction strands and may play a role in internal organ development and function during pre ... 2000). "Direct binding of three tight junction-associated MAGUKs, ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, with the COOH termini of claudins". J. ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ...
Tight junctions form continuous seals around cells and serve as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing ... The protein encoded by CLDN14 is an integral membrane protein and a component of tight junctions, one mode of cell-to-cell ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ...
Claudins are integral membrane proteins and components of tight junction strands. Tight junction strands serve as a physical ... Itoh M, Furuse M, Morita K, Kubota K, Saitou M, Tsukita S (1999). "Direct binding of three tight junction-associated MAGUKs, ZO ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ...
Claudins, such as CLDN7, are involved in the formation of tight junctions between epithelial cells. Tight junctions restrict ... 2003). "Tight junction-related protein expression and distribution in human corneal epithelium". Exp. Eye Res. 76 (6): 663-9. ... 2000). "Direct Binding of Three Tight Junction-Associated Maguks, Zo-1, Zo-2, and Zo-3, with the Cooh Termini of Claudins". J. ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ...
2003). "Tight junction-related protein expression and distribution in human corneal epithelium". Exp. Eye Res. 76 (6): 663-9. ... Meertens L, Bertaux C, Cukierman L, Cormier E, Lavillette D, Cosset FL, Dragic T (Mar 2008). "The tight junction proteins ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ...
Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, forming continuous seals ... Itoh M, Furuse M, Morita K, Kubota K, Saitou M, Tsukita S (1999). "Direct binding of three tight junction-associated MAGUKs, ZO ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ...
2000). "Direct Binding of Three Tight Junction-Associated Maguks, Zo-1, Zo-2, and Zo-3, with the Cooh Termini of Claudins". J. ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003). "Tight junction proteins". Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 81 (1): 1-44 ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the claudin family of tight junction associated proteins and is a major component ... Devaux J, Gow A (December 2008). "Tight junctions potentiate the insulative properties of small CNS myelinated axons". The ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (January 2003). "Tight junction proteins". Progress in Biophysics and ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (February 2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 20 (1 ...
Claudins are integral membrane proteins and components of tight junction strands. Tight junction strands serve as a physical ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003). "Tight junction proteins". Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 81 (1): 1-44 ...
Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ... CLDN18 belongs to the large claudin family of proteins, which form tight junction strands in epithelial cells . [supplied by ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003). "Tight junction proteins". Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 81 (1): 1-44 ...
Claudins, such as CLDN19, are transmembrane proteins found at tight junctions. Tight junctions form barriers that control the ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CLDN19 claudin 19". Naeem, M.; Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N. (2011). "Mutation in the Tight-Junction Gene Claudin 19 ( ...
Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ... González-Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo BE (2003). "Tight junction proteins". Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 81 (1): 1-44 ... Yi X, Wang Y, Yu FS (2000). "Corneal epithelial tight junctions and their response to lipopolysaccharide challenge". Invest. ...
2000). "Direct Binding of Three Tight Junction-Associated Maguks, Zo-1, Zo-2, and Zo-3, with the Cooh Termini of Claudins". J. ... Meertens L, Bertaux C, Cukierman L, Cormier E, Lavillette D, Cosset FL, Dragic T (Mar 2008). "The Tight Junction Proteins ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ...
Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, forming continuous seals ... Hou J, Paul DL, Goodenough DA (2005). "Paracellin-1 and the modulation of ion selectivity of tight junctions". J. Cell Sci. 118 ... Kniesel U, Wolburg H (2000). "Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 20 (1): 57-76. doi:10.1023/A: ... Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001). "Multifunctional strands in tight junctions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (4): 285-93. doi: ...
Zonulin regulates intestinal lining tight junctions. HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 gene-carriers are also more prone. A paper published ...
Disruption of the tight junction barrier can be a trigger for the development of intestinal diseases. One way in which ... eds.). Tight Junctions and the Intestinal Barrier. Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. 1. Academic Press. pp. 1043-. ISBN ... In a healthy human intestine, small particles (< 4 Å in radius) can migrate through tight junction claudin pore pathways, and ... Khaleghi, Shahryar; Ju, Josephine M.; Lamba, Abhinav; Murray, Joseph A. (Jan 2016). "The potential utility of tight junction ...
Liu Z, Li N, Neu J (2005). "Tight junctions, leaky intestines, and pediatric diseases". Acta Paediatr. 94 (4): 386-93. doi: ...
Gap junctions Desmosomes Adherens junctions Tight junctions Gap junctions bring the adjacent cells within 2 nanometers of each ... Similar to adherens junctions, the intracellular domains of tight junctions interact with different scaffold proteins, adapter ... and the formation of other cell junction complexes. Tight junctions, also called zonula occludens, are the most important ... Tight junctions provide a narrow but modifiable seal between adjacent cells in the epithelial layer and thereby provide ...
Sjö A, Magnusson KE, Peterson KH (Apr 2005). "Association of alpha-dystrobrevin with reorganizing tight junctions". J Membr ...
Actin filaments are important in stabilizing tight junctions; they in turn stabilize the barrier, which is a layer of cells, ...
... s are able to reversibly open tight junctions. The responsible mechanism seems to be based on the inhibition of protein ... Liu, Y; Chiu, GN (2013). "Dual-functionalized PAMAM dendrimers with improved P-glycoprotein inhibition and tight junction ... tyrosine phosphatase being involved in the closing process of tight junctions. Due to thiolation the permeation enhancing ...
The blood-brain barrier consists of tight junctions. These tight junctions help to enclose endothelial cells that line the ...
A seal is created by tight junctions of the epithelial cells that line the blastocoel. Tight junctions are very important in ... These tight junctions arise after the polarity of epithelial cells is established which sets the foundation for further ... Fleming, Tom P.; Papenbrock, Tom; Fesenko, Irina; Hausen, Peter; Sheth, Bhavwanti (1 August 2000). "Assembly of tight junctions ... which is widened and sealed with tight junctions to create a cavity. In many organisms the development of the embryo up to this ...
Fasano, Alessio (2012). "Zonulin, regulation of tight junctions, and autoimmune diseases". Annals of the New York Academy of ... a protein responsible for regulating intestinal tight-junctions (and the over secretion of which causes "leaky-gut"). His major ...
Crumbs, "Stardust" and protein at tight junctions (PATJ). These molecules appear to form two distinct complexes: an aPKC-Par3- ... Adherens junctions are the primary force-bearing junctions between epithelial cells and are fundamentally important for ... "An Atypical PKC Directly Associates and Colocalizes at the Epithelial Tight Junction with ASIP, a Mammalian Homologue of ... Thus, E-cadherin forms adherens junctions that connect the actin cytoskeletons of neighbouring cells. ...
"Assembly of tight junctions during early vertebrate development". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 11 (4): 291-9. doi: ... E-cadherin is a crucial type of cell-cell adhesion to hold the epithelial cells tight together. E-cadherin can sequester β- ... In epithelial cells, E-cadherin-containing cell-to-cell junctions are often adjacent to actin-containing filaments of the ...
Modified tight junctions between epithelial cells control fluid release. This release allows free exchange between CSF and ...
Junction forward voltage V @ 25 °C Electron mobility m2/(V·s) @ 25 °C Hole mobility m2/(V·s) @ 25 °C Max.. junction temp.. °C ... ", "blue", etc.) to denote variants, such as tighter hFE (gain) groupings. ... the emitter-base junction is forward biased (electrons and holes recombine at the junction), and the base-collector junction is ... This construction produces two p-n junctions: a base-emitter junction and a base-collector junction, separated by a thin region ...
"Sleep Tight, Puddin' Pop" "Dorme Bem, Pudinzinho". Gary Halvorson. História: Eddie Gorodetsky e Don Foster. Roteiro: Chuck ... "Rough Night in Hump Junction (His Ugly Bundle)". 21 de Abril de 2008. 111 - 515 ...
Tunica intima:最內層是與血管長軸平行排列的內皮細胞(endothelium),細胞之間以tight junction(zonula adherens)和gap junction(nexus)相接,前者構成穿越障礙,後者
bicellular tight junction. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • cell surface. • early endosome. • perinuclear region of ... regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly. • regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • cellular response to ...
An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions ... The cleft contains gap junctions, tight junctions, desmosomes, and adheren proteins, all of which help to propagate and/or ... These tight junctions localize to the luminal side of the intercellular clefts, where the glycocalyx, which is important in ... Endothelial tight junctions are most commonly found in the intercellular cleft and provide for regulation of diffusion through ...
... cells express tight junctions, microvilli, and a number of enzymes and transporters that are characteristic of such ...
bicellular tight junction. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • cell nucleus. • cyclin ...
negative regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly. • positive regulation of protein complex disassembly. • regulation ...
... and neuromuscular junction formation. The causal function loss in SMA is currently unknown. ... This hypoacetylation is sufficient to cause tighter chromatin packing and mRNA downregulation.[83] ... the body are controlled by motor neurons that communicate signals from the brain to the muscle through a neuromuscular junction ...
... plus propellers and water-tight doors for RMS Queen Mary, RMS Queen Elizabeth and Royal Yacht Britannia.[16] In 1963 Stone's ...
1999). "VAP-33 localizes to both an intracellular vesicle population and with occludin at the tight junction". J. Cell Sci. 112 ...
During lactation, prolactin is the main factor maintaining tight junctions of the ductal epithelium and regulating milk ... Glucocorticoids play a complex regulating role in the maintenance of tight junctions. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and ... especially in groups with high maternal mortality and tight social bonds. The phenomenon has been also observed in most ...
Şaneyên tevineka serrûyî bi hevdu xurt girêdane bi rêyê (tight junctions), (cap junctions) û (desmosomes), û bi betana bingehî ...
Healthy gums hold tight to each tooth in that the gum surface narrows to "knife-edge" thin at the free gingival margin. On the ... The marginal gingiva follows the scalloped pattern established by the contour of the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) of the teeth ... from which it is demarcated by the mucogingival junction. Attached gum may present with surface stippling. The tissue when ...
cell-cell junction. • bicellular tight junction. • node of Ranvier. • synapse. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • cytoplasmic ... bicellular tight junction assembly. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade ... neuromuscular junction. • myelin sheath abaxonal region. • lateral loop. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • basal lamina. • ... cell junction. • basolateral plasma membrane. • plasma membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • immunological synapse. • basement ...
a b Mendocino Triple Junction Offshore Northern California, A Policy for Rapid Mobilization of USGS OBS (RMOBS), Woods Hole ... "A Guidebook to the Carl Barks Universe: W WDC 49-02 tight-wire walkers". Retrieved February 7, 2011.. ... which interface around the Mendocino Triple Junction.[56] On January 9, 2010, a 6.5 magnitude earthquake occurred about 33 ...
The unique architecture of the retina and its relatively immune-privileged environment help this process.[71] Tight junctions ... Qureshi, T. A.; Hunter, A.; Al-Diri, B. (June 2014). A Bayesian Framework for the Local Configuration of Retinal Junctions. ... IS/OS junction or Photoreceptor integrity line (PIL) The photoreceptor connecting cilia which bridge the inner and outer ... RPE mitochondria zone + Junction between the RPE & Bruch's membrane Very Hyper-reflective ...
The junction between electrified and non-electrified territory is the locale of engine changes; for example, Amtrak trains had ... Both gears are enclosed in a liquid-tight housing containing lubricating oil. The type of service in which the locomotive is ... The system is 25 kV AC 50 Hz after the junction station of Mariinsk near Krasnoyarsk, 3,000 V DC before it, and train weights ... The special "junction stations" (around 15 over the former USSR - Vladimir, Mariinsk near Krasnoyarsk etc.) have wiring ...
Some parts in the north of Norway are less than 6 m (20 ft) wide, making it very tight when heavy vehicles meet. The northern ... Major junctions. North end. Kirkenes, Norway. South end. Trelleborg, Sweden. Location. Countries. Norway. Sweden. ...
With no air support, how could they move forward against Israel? They reasoned that if they sat tight, they could emerge from ... capturing the road junctions of Abu Ageila, Bir Lahfan, and Arish, taking all of them before midnight. Two Egyptian armoured ... cleared the Egyptian positions and reached the Khan Yunis railway junction in little over four hours.[78] ...
망막색소상피세포는 세포 간에 밀착연접 (tight junction)으로 연결된 상태이며, 이러한 결합을 통하여 다른 신체 조직들에 의한 영향으로부터 분리되어 있다. [8] ...
Disruption of tight junctions allow peptides larger than three amino acids to enter the intestinal lining.[74] ...
the ratio of collector current to base current in a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in electronics (current gain) ... an asymptotically tight bound related to big O notation.. *Debye temperature in solid state physics ... the ratio of collector current to emitter current in a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in electronics ...
The gauge was chosen on the supposition that it would be constructed more cheaply, faster and on tighter curves than the wider ... was built from Woodbridge to Kwinana and one of the tracks on the Fremantle line converted to dual track from Cockburn Junction ...
bicellular tight junction. • intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • cnewyllyn cell. • ...
Nijmegen breakage syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defect(s) in the Double Holliday junction DNA ... Restrictive dermopathy (RD), also called tight skin contracture syndrome, is a rare, lethal autosomal recessive perinatal ... Individuals with RD exhibit growth retardation starting in the uterus, tight and rigid skin with erosions, prominent ... "The Bloom's syndrome gene product promotes branch migration of holliday junctions". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... opening from Praed Street Junction via a new station at Paddington, located on Praed Street, to Gloucester Road on 1 October ... crowds were controlled in tight queues along Eastbourne Terrace by mounted police.[35] ...
Fleming TP, Papenbrock T, Fesenko I, Hausen P, Sheth B (August 2000). "Assembly of tight junctions during early vertebrate ... cell-cell adherens junction. • apical junction complex. • trans-Golgi network. • extracellular region. • perinuclear region of ... cell junction. • cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion. • positive ... adherens junction organization. • homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • entry of bacterium into ...
cell-cell junction maintenance. • bicellular tight junction assembly. • دورة الخلية. • viral process. • transforming growth ... bicellular tight junction. • ruffle. • غشاء خلوي. • قشرة الخلية. • نواة. • سيتوبلازم. • جسيم مركزي. • microtubule organizing ... localizes to tight junctions.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 299 (4): 641-6. PMID 12459187. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02698-0 ... "CRB3 binds directly to Par6 and regulates the morphogenesis of the tight junctions in mammalian epithelial cells.". Mol. Biol. ...
During prophase I (pachytene stage) the four available chromatids are in tight formation with one another. While in this ... CO recombination is thought to occur by the Double Holliday Junction (DHJ) model, illustrated on the right, above. NCO ... The CO type of recombination involves the intermediate formation of two "Holliday junctions" indicated in the lower right of ... This pathway is labeled in the figure as the DHJ (double-Holliday junction) pathway. ...
... depending on the ability of the tight junctions to prevent water and solute movement: Tight epithelia have tight junctions that ... "Tight Junctions and other cellular connections". Davidson College. Retrieved 2013-09-20. An Overview of the Tight Junction at ... They are understood to be the backbone of tight junctions and play a significant role in the tight junctions ability to seal ... Wolburg, Hartwig; Lippoldt, Andrea; Ebnet, Klaus (2006), "Tight Junctions and the Blood-Brain Barrier", Tight Junctions, ...
Tight junctions are present only in vertebrates. The corresponding junctions that occur in invertebrates are septate junctions ... Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein ... Yes zona occludens and tight junction are interchangeable. I dont know a thing about latin (so somebody with some knowledge ... "Tight junction" is the same thing as "zonula occludens." The plural of the latter is "zonulae occludentes." These terms are ...
"Tight junction protein" may refer to: TJP1, Tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1) TJP2, Tight junction protein 2 (ZO-2) TJP3, Tight ... Tight junction protein are proteins that are involved in the formation and functioning of tight junctions; " ... junction protein 3 (ZO-3) Gap junction protein This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or ...
Tight junctions are one mode of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cellular sheets. They act as a primary barrier ... Multifunctional strands in tight junctions.. Tsukita S1, Furuse M, Itoh M. ... New insights into the molecular architecture of tight junctions allow us to now discuss the structure and functions of this ...
The tight junction or zonula occludens is the intercellular junction that regulates diffusion between cells and therefore ... Functional analysis of tight junctions.. Matter K1, Balda MS.. Author information. 1. Division of Cell Biology, Institute of ... In epithelia, tight junctions form a morphological and functional border between the apical and basolateral cell surface ... Here we describe a set of assays that allow the analysis of tight junctions to determine their integrity and functional state. ...
Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs) consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma ... tight junctions (TJs) [1], (2) adherens junctions [2] and desmosomes [3], (3) gap junctions [4], and (4) focal adhesions [5, 6 ... "Molecular physiology and pathophysiology of tight junctions. IV. Regulation of tight junctions by extracellular stimuli: ... Y. Liu, A. Nusrat, F. J. Schnell et al., "Human junction adhesion molecule regulates tight junction resealing in epithelia," ...
In simple epithelial layers tight junctions often form a continuous layer (the zonula occludens). ... tight junction* A region of the cell surface, of variable size, and situated just below the apical border where the membranes ... tight junction A region of the cell surface, of variable size, and situated just below the apical border where the membranes of ... tight junction (zonula occludens) The region between the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells that are so closely positioned ...
... was paralleled by a delay in the sorting of the tight-junction protein, zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), to the tight junction. The ... a functional measure of tight-junction biogenesis. The effect of PKC inhibitors on the development of tight junctions, as ... Regulated assembly of tight junctions by protein kinase C. R O Stuart and S K Nigam ... Our data indicate that protein kinase C (PKC) is required for the proper assembly of tight junctions. Low concentrations of the ...
Brandner JM (2009) Tight junctions and tight junction proteins in mammalian epidermis. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 72:289-294PubMed ... Tight junction-related structures in the absence of a lumen: Occludin claudins and tight junction plaque proteins in densely ... Niessen CM (2007) Tight junctions/adherens junctions: basic structure and function. J Invest Dermatol 127:2525-2532PubMedGoogle ... Aijaz S, Balda MS, Matter K (2006) Tight junctions: molecular architecture and function. Int Rev Cytol 248:261-298PubMedGoogle ...
Astrocytic tight junctions control inflammatory CNS lesion pathogenesis. Sam Horng,1,2,3 Anthony Therattil,1,2,3 Sarah Moyon,1, ... Distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-4, -8, and -12 in bladder epithelium. Am J Physiol ... Claudin-based tight junctions are crucial for the mammalian epidermal barrier: a lesson from claudin-1-deficient mice. J Cell ... Architecture of tight junctions and principles of molecular composition. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;36:157-165.. View this ...
Tight Junctions brought together diverse perspectives from leading investigators to provide a multidisciplinary o ... Tight Junctions in Intestinal Inflammation. Tight Junctions in Liver Disease. The Tight Junctions in the Testis. Relationship ... Ultrastructure and Immuno-Labeling of the Tight Junction. Intercellular Junctions of Invertebrates. Tight Junction Permeability ... Tight Junctions and Cell Surface Lipid Polarity. Physiological Regulation of Tight Junction Permeability by Na+ Nutrient ...
Rho kinase regulates tight junction function and is necessary for tight junction assembly in polarized intestinal epithelia. ... Molecular physiology and pathophysiology of tight junctions. IV. Regulation of tight junctions by extracellular stimuli: ... Samak G, Aggarwal S, Rao RK (2011) ERK is involved in EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions, but not adherens junctions, ... Basuroy S, Sheth P, Mansbach CM, Rao RK (2005) Acetaldehyde disrupts tight junctions and adherens junctions in human colonic ...
... "tight junctions", which is true and does indeed place you over hoi polloi, but what, then, is a tight junction? ... While it is generally not appreciated, the CNS myelin sheath is actually a series of tight junctions and adherens junctions. A ... Tight Junctions and Condensates. By Derek Lowe 7 November, 2019. All of us in the business talk about the blood-brain barrier, ... Two of the important ones are ZO1 and ZO2, with that "ZO" standing for zonula occludens, an older term for the tight junctions ...
The latter is realized by the tight junctions … ... epithelial tight junctions than to endothelial tight junctions ... However, in contrast to tight junctions in epithelial systems, structural and functional characteristics of tight junctions in ... 2. Although blood-brain barrier-tight junctions share many characteristics with epithelial tight junctions, there are also ... Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2000 Feb;20(1):57-76. doi: 10.1023/a:1006995910836. ...
The tight junction protein ZO-1 establishes a link between the transmembrane protein occludin and the actin cytoskeleton.. J. ... Identification of a 160-kDa polypeptide that binds to the tight junction protein ZO-1.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 3460-4 ... Direct binding of three tight junction-associated MAGUKs, ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, with the COOH termini of claudins.. J. Cell ... The zona occuldens proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3) are a family of tight junction associated proteins that function as cross- ...
Button junctions have open regions and closed regions and are strikingly different from zipper junctions that tightly seal ... On page 599 of this issue, Zhang et al. (4) show that chylomicron entry is dependent on button junctions. Importantly, ... discontinuous button-like junctions between lacteal endothelial cells raised another possibility (3). ... experimental manipulations that led to transformation of button junctions into zippers prevented chylomicron uptake and ...
Buy the Paperback Book Tight Junctions by Lorenza González-Mariscal at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free ... Tight Junctions during Development.- Tight Junctions and the Blood-Brain Barrier.- Tight Junctions in CNS Myelin.- Tight ... a Constituent of Tight Junctions.- Tight Junction Channels.- JAM Family Proteins: Tight Junction Proteins That Belong to the ... ZO Proteins and Tight Junction Assembly.- TJ Proteins That Make Round Trips to the Nucleus.- Tight Junctions and the Regulation ...
Tight junction [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , Image (png) file , Help ] Tight junctions ( ... These are proposed to be involved in junction assembly, barrier regulation, cell polarity, gene transcription, and other ...
Functions of Tight Junctions within Epithelial Cells * Barrier and fence function *Tight junctions act as one type of ... Tight Junctions (and other cellular connections). Types of Junctions. There are four major types of junctions in epithelial ... Figure 1. Tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions, and adherens junctions (not depicted here) are present in all epithelial ... Because tight junctions encircle the cell and attach it tightly to its neighbors, these junctions act as a barrier preventing ...
... consisting of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) and is compromised under inflammatory conditions. In ... Endocytosis and Recycling of Tight Junction Proteins in Inflammation. Markus Utech, Rudolf Mennigen, and Matthias Bruewer ...
Tight junctions are one mode of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cellular sheets. They act as a primary barrier ... Multifunctional strands in tight junctions Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Apr;2(4):285-93. doi: 10.1038/35067088. ... Tight junctions are one mode of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cellular sheets. They act as a primary barrier ... New insights into the molecular architecture of tight junctions allow us to now discuss the structure and functions of this ...
More specifically, tight junctions consist of proteins that laterally interconnect neighboring cells of epithelia and ... Certain proteins seal the tight junction, so that a nearly impermeable barrier develops, whereas others form channels that ... Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) ... the regulation of tight junction and barrier functions via genetic mechanisms and scaffold protein mediation; and the ...
The Laboratory of Tight Junction Structure and Function, led by Dr. James Anderson, has long been interested in the primary ... mechanism that binds these cells together to create these barriers: the tight junction. ...
Newswise - Tight junctions are multi-protein complexes that serve as barriers in epithelial tissues such as the skin or lining ... Loss of a specific tight junction barrier protein, claudin 18, occurs in the majority of gastric cancer patients and is ... "Epithelial cells express numerous varieties of claudin proteins at the tight junction. We thought that other claudin molecules ...
Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain ... Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis ...
Nastech Licenses RNAi Patents To Boost Tight Junctions Work. February 3, 2004 ...
... reversible and controlled opening of the tight junctions of the blood brain barrier and/or the blood retinal barrier. This ... targeting tight junction proteins to open the blood brain barrier and/or blood retinal barrier. ... Method for Opening Tight Junctions. The present invention is directed to a method and use of RNA interference (RNAi) for the ... targeting tight junction proteins to open the blood brain barrier and/or blood retinal barrier.. Patents:. WO 2,009,047,362. ...
Tight junctions the tight junctions is a belt shaped and expands around the apex of columnar epithelial cells. at low ... function the tight junctions not only maintain the firm between two adjacent cells but also helps as barrier for the moment of ... but in higher magnification electron micrographs revails that the membrane are in contact only in the point of tight junctions ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Tight_junctions&oldid=68868" ...
... is primarily maintained by tight junctions (TJs), which act as gatekeepers of the paracellular space by blocking blood-borne ... Computational Nanoscopy of Tight Junctions at the Blood-Brain Barrier Interface by Nandhini Rajagopal ... "Computational Nanoscopy of Tight Junctions at the Blood-Brain Barrier Interface." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 22: 5583. ... The selectivity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is primarily maintained by tight junctions (TJs), which act as gatekeepers of ...
Rabbit polyclonal ZO1 tight junction protein antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 36 ... Anti-ZO1 tight junction protein antibody. See all ZO1 tight junction protein primary antibodies. ... Cell junction , tight junction. Movement of ZO-1 from the cytoplasm to membrane is an early event occurring concurrently with ... Lane 2 : ZO1 tight junction protein shRNA-transfected HeLa whole cell extract. Lysates/proteins at 30 µg per lane.. Secondary. ...
  • There are at least 40 different proteins composing the tight junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three major transmembrane proteins are occludin, claudins, and junction adhesion molecule (JAM) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junction channels, which link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, are made up of membrane-spanning proteins, the connexins [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The particles are composed of transmembrane proteins, embedded in plasma membranes of neighboring cells, in which extracellular domains of these TJ proteins interact to seal the intercellular junction [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Arabzadeh A, Troy TC, Turksen K (2007) Changes in the distribution pattern of Claudin tight junction proteins during the progression of mouse skin tumorigenesis. (springer.com)
  • Brandner JM, McIntyre M, Kief S, Wladykowski E, Moll I (2003) Expression and localization of tight junction-associated proteins in human hair follicles. (springer.com)
  • Brandner JM (2009) Tight junctions and tight junction proteins in mammalian epidermis. (springer.com)
  • It comes down to tighter cell adhesion, and you see changes on both sides of the cell membrane, with claudin and occludin adhesion proteins (among others) gathered on the outer surfaces and forming a dense net of tiny strands between adjacent cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • They find that the ZO1 and ZO2 proteins in fact form an intracellular condensate at the point of a tight junction - yep, those darn condensate droplet thingies again (here's a nice recent overview of this fast-evolving field). (sciencemag.org)
  • It had already been found that these proteins assemble via the interactions of several domains in their structure, into what appeared to be homodimers and homo-oligomers as well as complexes with those other tight junction proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • When they overexpressed the ZO proteins in cells (HEK293) that don't form tight junctions, it appeared that liquid condensates formed spontaneously once the protein concentration got up to around 8 or 9 micromolar. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunostaining showed that other known tight-junction proteins were also enriched in those same spots, which acted very much like a viscoelastic fluid in time-resolved studies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Now, that 8 micromolar in the HEK293 cells is much higher than the real concentration in tight-junction-forming cells, as you would imagine, so while that tells you that these proteins can form condensates, it also tells you that the real situation is more complex. (sciencemag.org)
  • The zona occuldens proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3) are a family of tight junction associated proteins that function as cross-linkers, anchoring the TJ strand proteins to the actin-based cytoskeleton [ PMID: 9214391 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • JAM Family Proteins: Tight Junction Proteins That Belong to the Immunoglobulin Superfamily. (indigo.ca)
  • ZO Proteins and Tight Junction Assembly. (indigo.ca)
  • Tight Junction Proteins and Cancer. (indigo.ca)
  • When situations occur where molecules need get through the layer (in the gap indicated by 'paracellular signaling' in Figure 2) their transport is a multi-step process, involving several signal pathways, regulation of junction proteins, and alternations in cytoskeletal organization. (davidson.edu)
  • Transmembrane proteins of the tight junctions are responsive to glycoprotein immunoglobin G (IgG) from cells and to surface antigens on bacteria. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions also help to distinguish the apical and basolateral domains of the cell by acting as intracellular barriers to macromolecules and proteins between these two regions. (davidson.edu)
  • 2) Claudins proteins compose the major structural and functional elements of tight junctions. (davidson.edu)
  • Formation begins with a signal cascade that results in the production of tight junction proteins, including occludin proteins and claudins proteins. (davidson.edu)
  • More specifically, tight junctions consist of proteins that laterally interconnect neighboring cells of epithelia and endothelia. (wiley.com)
  • Certain proteins seal the tight junction, so that a nearly impermeable barrier develops, whereas others form channels that allow for permeation between the cells. (wiley.com)
  • Recent investigations have focused on tight junction proteins, belonging to the claudin family (claudins-1 to -27 in humans) and the newly defined group of TAMP (three proteins: occludin, Marvel-D2, and tricellulin). (wiley.com)
  • Michael Fromm is the editor of Barriers and Channels Formed by Tight Junction Proteins I, Volume 1257, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Epithelial cells express numerous varieties of claudin proteins at the tight junction. (newswise.com)
  • Such methods generally involve the use of an RNAi-inducing agent, such as siRNA, miRNA, shRNA or an RNAi-inducing vector whose presence within a cell results in production of an siRNA or shRNA, targeting tight junction proteins to open the blood brain barrier and/or blood retinal barrier. (ideaconnection.com)
  • PCLN-1 is located in tight junctions of the TAL and is related to the claudin family of tight junction proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • We demonstrated that the butyrate treatment increased AMPK activity and accelerated the assembly of tight junctions as shown by the reorganization of tight junction proteins, as well as the development of TER. (ei-resource.org)
  • Immunolabeling of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 (zonula occludens protein 1), occludin, claudin-5, and claudin-3 revealed evidence for structural integrity of the blood-brain barrier in the presence of moderate FGF-2 concentrations. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has been shown that some enteric pathogens can induce permeability defects in gut epithelia by altering tight junction proteins, mediated by their toxins. (mdpi.com)
  • Resolving the strategies that microorganisms use to hijack the functions of tight junctions is important for our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, because some pathogens can utilize tight junction proteins as receptors for attachment and subsequent internalization, while others modify or destroy the tight junction proteins by different pathways and thereby provide a gateway to the underlying tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • We discuss symplekin as a representative of a group of dual residence proteins which occur and probably function in the nucleus as well as in the plaques exclusive for either tight junctions, adherens junctions, or desmosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Aim of this volume is to clarify the relationship between molecular structure and function of tight junction proteins, as well as their regulation and their role in diseases. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Topics include the functions of distinct tight junction proteins as barrier or channel formers for solutes and water, characteristics of the tight junction in inflammatory bowel diseases, posttranslational modifications of tight junction proteins, the relation between renal tight junction proteins and blood pressure control, and the molecular structure of claudin-claudin interactions NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Tight junctions (TJs) involve close apposition of transmembrane proteins between cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TJP3 is a member of the family of membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like proteins (MAGUK) that associate with intracellular junctions (Itoh et al. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • These junctions are maintained by the interaction of several key proteins including, claudins, catenins, cadherins and SNAIL. (dit.ie)
  • Slit diaphragms, considered specialized adherens junctions, contain both unique membrane proteins ( e.g ., nephrin, podocin, and Neph1) and typical adherens junction proteins ( e.g . (asnjournals.org)
  • Whether slit diaphragms also contain tight junction proteins is unknown. (asnjournals.org)
  • Here, immunofluorescence, immunogold labeling, and cell fractionation demonstrated that rat slit diaphragms contain the tight junction proteins JAM-A (junctional adhesion molecule A), occludin, and cingulin. (asnjournals.org)
  • These data extend current information about the molecular composition of slit diaphragms by demonstrating the presence of tight junction proteins, although slit diaphragms lack the characteristic morphologic features of tight junctions. (asnjournals.org)
  • Several integral membrane proteins, including nephrin, 7 podocin, 8 and Neph1, 9 not found in other junctions, have been identified as slit diaphragm components. (asnjournals.org)
  • Based on their derivation from typical tight junctions 2 and the fact that they are replaced by tight junctions in nephrosis, 4 , 6 we reasoned that slit diaphragms might also contain membrane proteins normally associated with tight junctions. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this paper, we used morphological, biochemical, and bioinformatics techniques to investigate the expression of representative tight junction proteins in glomeruli in situ and in slit diaphragm-enriched fractions. (asnjournals.org)
  • Here, we document the presence of several tight junction proteins in slit diaphragms and demonstrate their interactions with slit diaphragm proteins in both normal and PAN nephrotic rats. (asnjournals.org)
  • The presence of tight junction proteins in slit diaphragms adds a new dimension to understanding the organization and functions of these junctions. (asnjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that expression of paracellular tight junction genes is regulated by transcellular CaBP proteins, suggesting that active and passive calcium transport pathways may function cooperatively. (mdpi.com)
  • Western blot analysis revealed that the tight junction proteins, occludin and claudin-1, were displaced from tight junction membrane microdomains to Triton X-100 soluble fractions after EPEC infection. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggested that redistribution of tight junction proteins plays an important role in the disruption of epithelial barrier function induced by EPEC infection, which may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of diarrhea caused by EPEC. (springer.com)
  • ARPE-19 cells maintained with special medium had the highest expression of these tight junction protein, and JAM-1, PAR-3, AF-6, ZO-1 proteins were more specifically colocalized and distributed on lateral membranes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Despite the expression tight junctional proteins, especially those thought to regulated junction assembly, cells in FBS had a non-epitheliod morphology and no barrier properties. (arvojournals.org)
  • Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms underlying lung epithelial tight junction (TJ) assembly, which is inextricably linked to the preservation of epithelial polarity, and is highly coordinated by proteins that regulate epithelial cell polarity, such as aPKCζ. (biologists.org)
  • In order to investigate whether BBB leakiness can be monitored by a loss of TJ proteins from cellular borders, we used an in vitro BBB model where brain endothelial cells in co-culture with astrocytes form a tight permeability barrier for 3H-inulin and 14C-sucrose. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Strikingly, opening of the endothelial TJs was not accompanied by any visible change in the molecular composition of endothelial TJs as junctional localization of the TJ-associated proteins claudin-3, claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1 or ZO-2 or the adherens junction-associated proteins beta-catenin or p120cas did not change. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A preliminary investigation on the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and EGF on tight junction proteins in experimentally induced C. difficile infection was done. (scirp.org)
  • All animals were investigated for the presence of tight junction proteins (occludin, α -actinin and zonula occludens) in their colonic segments. (scirp.org)
  • Kaur, S. , Vaishnavi, C. , Ray, P. , Singh, M. and Kochhar, R. (2014) Preliminary Investigation on the Effect of Lactobacillus and Epidermal Growth Factor on Tight Junction Proteins in Experimental Clostridium difficile Infection. (scirp.org)
  • DL-3-n-butylphthalide protects the blood-brain barrier against ischemia/hypoxia injury via upregulation of tight junction proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A recent study showed that gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) and desmosome protein plakophilin-2 are working synergistically to modulate the BTB integrity by regulating the distribution of TJ-associated proteins at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The integral transmembrane tight junction proteins include occludin and the claudin family that fundamentally contribute to observed epithelial barrier properties along with the establishment of polarized epithelial membranes [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To investigate the expression and cellular distribution of the tight junction-related proteins occludin, claudin and ZO-1 in human corneal epithelium. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Caveolin-1 regulates the expression of tight junction proteins during. (altmetric.com)
  • As the first step in understanding the physiologic functions of claudins (tight junction integral membrane proteins) in nephrons, the expression of claudin-1 to -16 in mouse kidneys was examined by Northern blotting. (asnjournals.org)
  • Studies have shown a decrease in key tight junction (TJ) proteins such as ZO-1 and occludin in both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and experimental models of inflammation. (ebscohost.com)
  • Adherens junctions and desmosomes are responsible for the mechanical adhesion between adjacent cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Of particular interest in the adherens junctions of the salivary glands are the members of cadherin family, which play a role in salivary gland development, tissue organization, and cell differentiation [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The assembly of desmosomes and the adherens junction were not detectably affected, as determined by immunocytochemical analysis. (pnas.org)
  • Oda H, Takeichi M (2011) Evolution: structural and functional diversity of cadherin at the adherens junction. (springer.com)
  • Baum B, Georgiou M (2011) Dynamics of adherens junctions in epithelial establishment, maintenance, and remodeling. (springer.com)
  • 4) Adherens junctions play a role in intracellular adhesion and the interaction of the actomyosin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions, and adherens junctions (not depicted here) are present in all epithelial cells along the lateral surface. (davidson.edu)
  • This barrier function is primarily regulated by the apical junctional complex (AJC) consisting of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) and is compromised under inflammatory conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Using quantitative whole-mount imaging, genetic ablation, and traction force microscopy and atomic force microscopy, we find that ubiquitously localized E-cadherin coordinates tissue polarization of tension-bearing adherens junction (AJ) and F-actin organization to allow formation of an apical TJ network only in the uppermost viable layer. (nature.com)
  • AJ adherens junctions). (nature.com)
  • b Newborn epidermal whole-mount immunofluorescence analysis for tension-high (vinculin) adherens junctions (E-cadherin). (nature.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by adherens and tight junctions (TJs) of endothelial cells, maintains homeostasis of the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Adherens (AJ) and tight junctions (TJ) play a key role in maintaining the apical-basolateral polarity and cohesive structure of epithelial cells. (dit.ie)
  • Slit diaphragms are specialized cell-cell junctions located between mature podocytes that have fascinated cell biologists and nephrologists for more than 40 yr. 1 In contrast to podocytes, most other epithelial cells have junctional complexes composed of tight junctions and adherens junctions. (asnjournals.org)
  • 17 , 18 Because slit diaphragms share some morphologic features with adherens junctions and contain P-cadherin and catenins, slit diaphragms are assumed to represent modified adherens junctions. (asnjournals.org)
  • Epithelial cells are held together by the apical junctional complexes, consisting of adherens junctions, and tight junctions (TJs), and by underlying desmosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Wunderli-Allenspach, H. 2002-07-01 00:00:00 The dynamics of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) under EGTA treatment were investigated in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complexes whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tight junction" is the same thing as "zonula occludens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tight junction or zonula occludens is the intercellular junction that regulates diffusion between cells and therefore allows endothelia and epithelia to form cellular barriers that separate compartments of different composition. (nih.gov)
  • In simple epithelial layers tight junctions often form a continuous layer (the zonula occludens). (encyclopedia.com)
  • tight junction ( zonula occludens ) The region between the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells that are so closely positioned that there is no intercellular space between them. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Two of the important ones are ZO1 and ZO2, with that "ZO" standing for zonula occludens , an older term for the tight junctions as noted by microscopy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cellular membranes provide a transcellular barrier, whereas the tight junctions ( zonula occludens ) have long been recognized to constitute the intercellular permeability barrier ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Since macromolecular permeability between endothelial cells is regulated by tight junctions (zonula occludens), we wished to determine whether they also regulate neutrophil transendothelial migration. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using a monoclonal antibody we have identified and cDNA-cloned a novel type of protein localized, by light and electron microscopy, to the plaque associated with the cytoplasmic face of the tight junction-containing zone (zonula occludens) of polar epithelial cells and of Sertoli cells of testis, but absent from the junctions of vascular endothelia. (rupress.org)
  • Careful analyses have revealed that the protein occurs in all these diverse cells in the nucleoplasm, and only in those cells forming tight junctions is it recruited, partly but specifically, to the plaque structure of the zonula occludens. (rupress.org)
  • Among the major tight-junction constituents is zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), a cytoplasmic-face protein that is critical for tight-junction stability and linkage of the complex to the actin cytoskeleton. (asm.org)
  • Tight junction protein" may refer to: TJP1, Tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1) TJP2, Tight junction protein 2 (ZO-2) TJP3, Tight junction protein 3 (ZO-3) Gap junction protein This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously shown that protein phosphorylation plays an important role in the sorting and assembly of tight junctions. (pnas.org)
  • We have now examined in detail the role of protein kinases in intercellular junction biogenesis by using a combination of highly specific and broad-spectrum inhibitors that act by independent mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Our data indicate that protein kinase C (PKC) is required for the proper assembly of tight junctions. (pnas.org)
  • The effect of PKC inhibitors on the development of tight junctions, as measured by resistance, was paralleled by a delay in the sorting of the tight-junction protein, zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), to the tight junction. (pnas.org)
  • The tight junction protein ZO-1 establishes a link between the transmembrane protein occludin and the actin cytoskeleton. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Identification of a 160-kDa polypeptide that binds to the tight junction protein ZO-1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cingulin, A Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein of the Tight Junction. (indigo.ca)
  • This figure depicts the complexity of protein interactions between tight junctions. (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions maintain apico-basal polarity via protein complexes (CRB3 and Par3 complexes). (davidson.edu)
  • Tight junctions are composed of three main protein families. (davidson.edu)
  • Newswise - Tight junctions are multi-protein complexes that serve as barriers in epithelial tissues such as the skin or lining of the gut. (newswise.com)
  • Loss of a specific tight junction barrier protein, claudin 18, occurs in the majority of gastric cancer patients and is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer. (newswise.com)
  • Recombinant protein fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 1 - 266 of Human ZO1 tight junction protein. (abcam.com)
  • These findings provide insight into Mg 2+ homeostasis, demonstrate the role of a tight junction protein in human disease, and identify an essential component of a selective paracellular conductance. (sciencemag.org)
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH derived from within residues 750 - 850 of Human ZO1 tight junction protein. (abcam.com)
  • Butyrate Enhances the Intestinal Barrier by Facilitating Tight Junction Assembly via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers. (ei-resource.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is mediated by the regulation of the assembly of tight junctions involving the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we determined the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and inulin permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. (ei-resource.org)
  • Tight junctions (TJs) are multi-protein complexes which are crucial for the integrity and function of the epithelial barrier as they not only link cells but also form channels allowing permeation between cells, resulting in epithelial surfaces of different tightness. (mdpi.com)
  • Symplekin, a novel type of tight junction plaque protein. (rupress.org)
  • However, both the mRNA and the protein can also be detected in a wide range of cell types that do not form tight junctions or are even completely devoid of any stable cell contacts. (rupress.org)
  • On p. 5109 , Daniel Goodenough and colleagues report that the tight junction protein paracellin 1 (claudin-16) can modulate tight junction ion selectivity in the renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1, which does not normally express this protein. (biologists.org)
  • We have recently described zonulin, a protein that regulates intercellular tight junctions. (pnas.org)
  • A tight junction is a type of join between cells, here formed by the protein occludin between epithelial cells in the jejunum, part of the small intestines. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 1999. Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Tight Junction Protein 3 (Zona Occludens 3) Proteine (5) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The tight junction (TJ) protein claudin-2 is overexpressed in human CRC where it enhances cell proliferation, colony formation, and chemoresistance in vitro. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tight junction-associated protein 1, encoded by the TJAP1 gene, is recruited to tight junctions and incorporated at a late stage of junction formation. (clontech.com)
  • Tight-junction-associated protein 1 localizes to the Golgi apparatus and may function in vesicle trafficking. (clontech.com)
  • It is also known as protein incorporated later into tight junctions (PILT), and tight junction protein 4 (TJP4). (clontech.com)
  • This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes rat tight junction-associated protein 1. (clontech.com)
  • It can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of rat tight junction-associated protein 1. (clontech.com)
  • The tight junction protein CXADR controls epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in breast cancer by stabilizing the AKT regulators PTEN and PHLPP2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On further investigation, they found that a particular tight junction protein, claudin-1, which determines the strength and permeability of tight junctions in skin, is significantly reduced in the skin of eczema patients, but not in healthy individuals or individuals with psoriasis, another common chronic skin disease. (skininc.com)
  • Occludin, another major tight-junction component, is an integral membrane protein that appears to have important regulatory functions in tight-junction development. (asm.org)
  • Adult schachbrett ( sbr ) mutants exhibit delayed changes in iridophore shape and organisation caused by truncations in Tight Junction Protein 1a (ZO-1a). (elifesciences.org)
  • examined a zebrafish variant with a genetic mutation that disrupts the function of a protein called Tight Junction Protein 1a (or Tjp1a)-a fish variant of a mammalian protein called ZO-1. (elifesciences.org)
  • Overexpression of the Xenopus tight-junction protein claudin causes randomization of the left - right body axis. (xenbase.org)
  • This study presents Xenopus claudin ( Xcla ), a tight-junction protein that is abundantly expressed in eggs and neuroectodermal precursors during early development. (xenbase.org)
  • We show that this PDZ-binding site of Xcla is critical for its correct localization on the cell membrane and that a truncated form leads to delocalization of the tight-junction protein ZO-1 . (xenbase.org)
  • The results suggest that left - right axial patterning is very sensitive to changes in regulation of cell-cell interactions and implicate a tight-junction protein in the determination of left - right asymmetry. (xenbase.org)
  • Mouse lung epithelial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide and cyclic stretch and lungs harvested from mice after treatment with lipopolysaccharide and MV had decreased levels of a key tight junction protein ( i.e. , zona occludens 1) that was rescued by isoflurane treatment. (asahq.org)
  • Tight junctions (TJ) are protein complexes that maintain epithelial barrier integrity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway during recovery from oxidative stress may be an effector of oxidant-induced tight junction reorganization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The structure of the tight junction is dynamic and highly complex, consisting of multiple protein strands that join adjacent cell membranes and occupy the intercellular space. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ZO-1 is a peripheral membrane protein that is associated with tight junctions which are found on the cytoplasmic surface of epitheliual and endothelial cell membrane. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Tight junction-related protein expression and distribution in human corneal epithelium. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Increase in the tight junction protein claudin-1 in intestinal inflammation. (ebscohost.com)
  • v) loss of cell proliferation, (vi) actin cytoskeletal rearrangement (actin stress fiber formation), (vii) tight-junction (ZO-1 protein and occludins) alterations, and (viii) increase in paracellular leak of macromolecules in Caco-2 cells in vitro. (osu.edu)
  • Occludin, a Constituent of Tight Junctions. (indigo.ca)
  • In the present study, the effect of dietary calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on the expression of tight junction genes ( occludin , ZO-1 and claudin 2 , 10b, 12 and 15 ) in the duodenum of CaBP-9k- and/or -28k-deficient mice was examined. (mdpi.com)
  • Rather, confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated the loss of occludin from tight junctions. (asm.org)
  • These observations suggest that B. cenocepacia traverses polarized respiratory epithelium by the dephosphorylation and dissociation of occludin from the tight-junction complex. (asm.org)
  • In transverse sections, occludin and ZO-1 were localized at the apical cell-cell junctions between superficial cells in stratified corneal epithelium. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Occludin staining was seen at the junctional complex, where it was not continuous, but dotted along the cell junctions. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • It helps to regulate the paracellular pathway function of tight junctions and is also involved in helping to maintain cell polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of tight junctions is to limit and control paracellular permeability in epithelia and to form a border separating the apical domain of the cell membrane from the basolateral domain. (ersjournals.com)
  • Tight junctions play this role in maintaining the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphologically, blood-brain barrier-tight junctions are more similar to epithelial tight junctions than to endothelial tight junctions in peripheral blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Although blood-brain barrier-tight junctions share many characteristics with epithelial tight junctions, there are also essential differences. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention is directed to a method and use of RNA interference (RNAi) for the transient, reversible and controlled opening of the tight junctions of the blood brain barrier and/or the blood retinal barrier. (ideaconnection.com)
  • The selectivity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is primarily maintained by tight junctions (TJs), which act as gatekeepers of the paracellular space by blocking blood-borne toxins, drugs, and pathogens from entering the brain. (mdpi.com)
  • Nangia, S. Computational Nanoscopy of Tight Junctions at the Blood-Brain Barrier Interface. (mdpi.com)
  • Freeze fracture morphology of blood-brain-barrier of tight junctions. (histology-world.com)
  • Many factors regulating the permeability of tight junctions have been studied, mainly in connection with the blood-brain barrier 5 , the mammary gland 6 and the intestinal epithelium, where it has been proposed that Na + -glucose cotransport would transiently increase the pore size of tight junctions, promoting passage of glucose by a paracellular rather than a transcellular route 7 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an endothelial barrier sealed by an extensive network of interendothelial tight junctions (TJs) ( Kniesel and Wolburg, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the central nervous system (CNS) complex endothelial tight junctions (TJs) form a restrictive paracellular diffusion barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To explore the possible roles of high-concentration Zn 2+ in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we investigated the effects of Zn 2+ on the functions and structures of the tight junction (TJ) with an in vitro model of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer. (rsc.org)
  • The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by ischemia/hypoxia is generally correlated with alteration of tight junctions (TJs). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Retigabine protects the blood-brain barrier by regulating tight junctions between cerebral vascular endothelial cells in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Regulation of Paracellular Transport across Tight Junctions by the Actin Cytoskeleton. (indigo.ca)
  • This positioning necessitates tissue-level polarization of junctions and the cytoskeleton through unknown mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • For example, apico-basolateral polarity promotes the asymmetric positioning of intercellular junctions and the cytoskeleton within the cell to drive functional barrier formation in simple epithelia 1 . (nature.com)
  • Expression of dominant-negative ezrin significantly decreased the EPEC-elicited association of ezrin with the cytoskeleton and attenuated the disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. (asm.org)
  • The facilitating effect of butyrate on the increases in TER in standard culture media, as well as after calcium switch, was abolished by compound C. We conclude that butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by regulating the assembly of tight junctions. (ei-resource.org)
  • We examined whether improved culture conditions could promote redifferentiation and provide a model to study the assembly of tight junctions. (arvojournals.org)
  • The BTB is constituted by coexisting tight junctions (TJs), basal ectoplasmic specializations, desmosomes, and gap junctions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These are proposed to be involved in junction assembly, barrier regulation, cell polarity, gene transcription, and other pathways. (genome.jp)
  • Ischemic Preconditioning Enhances Integrity of Coronary Endothelial Tight Junctions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We show that culture medium containing endothelial cell growth supplement (50 microg/ml) was sufficient and necessary for the development of endothelial tight junctions. (jimmunol.org)
  • It appears that neutrophils preferentially migrate around endothelial tight junctions by crossing at tricellular corners rather than passing through the tight junctions that lie between two endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Internal epithelia on the other hand more often rely on tight junctions for their barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was long unclear whether tight cell junctions also play any role in the barrier function of the skin and similar external epithelia but recent research suggests that this is indeed the case. (wikipedia.org)
  • In epithelia, tight junctions form a morphological and functional border between the apical and basolateral cell surface domains. (nih.gov)
  • Generation of a barrier in multi-layered epithelia like the epidermis requires restricted positioning of functional tight junctions (TJ) to the most suprabasal viable layer. (nature.com)
  • Changes in intestinal paracellular permeability were determined using the molecular tracer biotin, which was observed to penetrate the epithelia and extended into the lamina propria, indicating disruption in tight junction barrier function. (springer.com)
  • Functional analysis of tight junctions. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe a set of assays that allow the analysis of tight junctions to determine their integrity and functional state. (nih.gov)
  • Low concentrations of the specific inhibitor of PKC, calphostin C, markedly inhibited development of transepithelial electrical resistance, a functional measure of tight-junction biogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • However, in contrast to tight junctions in epithelial systems, structural and functional characteristics of tight junctions in endothelial cells are highly sensitive to ambient factors. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, cross-talk between components of the tight junction- and the cadherin-catenin system suggests a close functional interdependence of the two cell-cell contact systems. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of Tight Junctions' Functional Integrity: Role of a Urinary Factor, Lipids and Ouabain. (indigo.ca)
  • Physiologically functional and morphologically recognizable tight junctions can thus be established within 30 min, demonstrating a mechanism for the rapid restoration of epithelial integrity after cell loss. (caltech.edu)
  • In the present study, we used liver-specific (albumin-Cre) LKB1 knockout mice (LKB1(-/-) ) to investigate the role of LKB1 in the maintenance of functional tight junction (TJ) in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These studies suggest that the 16HBE14o- cells and Calu-3 cell lines are potentially useful in vitro models to study how tight junction opening or cleavage changes the functional barrier properties of bronchial epithelium. (ersjournals.com)
  • Epithelial tight junctions create a functional boundary between the apical and basolateral cell surface domains, thereby regulating diffusion along the para-cellular pathway. (bmglabtech.com)
  • MDCK II cell recovery after H 2 O 2 exposure is associated with functional and structural modification of the tight junction that are mediated in part by activation of the MAP kinase enzymes, ERK-1/2 and p38. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • BBB permeability is closely related to structural and functional alterations in the endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels and tight junctions (TJs) between adjacent cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This developmental transition is dependent upon the differentiation and transport function of the trophectoderm epithelium which forms the wall of the blastocyst and exhibits functional intercellular tight junctions (TJs) to maintain epithelial integrity during blastocoele expansion. (biologists.org)
  • To better understand the role of tight junctions in eczema, Beck and her team studied skin samples from eczema patients and healthy individuals. (skininc.com)
  • Multifunctional strands in tight junctions. (nih.gov)
  • Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M (2001) Multifunctional strands in tight junctions. (springer.com)
  • The constrained intracellular pathway exacted by the tight junction barrier system allows precise control over which substances can pass through a particular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one study for paracellular transport across the tight junction in kidney proximal tubule, a dual pathway model is proposed: large slit breaks formed by infrequent discontinuities in the TJ complex and numerous small circular pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transport depends critically on the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), operating in concert with the paracellular pathway through the tight junctions (TJ). (diva-portal.org)
  • If hypertonic solutions could open tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, it seemed possible that the effect of high concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) in the airways could be mediated by a change in the permeability of the paracellular pathway. (ersjournals.com)
  • Methods: This hypothesis was tested with a comprehensive genetic association analysis of 41 genes from the tight junction pathway, represented by 197 tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. (ebscohost.com)
  • Tight junctions are common between cells of the intestinal epithelium, where they act to seal off the intestinal lumen from the intercellular fluid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, the effect of hyperosmolar salt solutions on tight junctions of the airway epithelium was investigated by electron microscopy. (ersjournals.com)
  • A prerequisite for paracytosis of bacteria through differentiated epithelium is compromise of intercellular apical tight-junction complexes ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) of the seminiferous epithelium is important for the developmental process of spermatogenesis as it separates germ cells in the seminiferous tubules from the general circulation in the testicular interstitium. (edu.au)
  • Tight junctions are crucial for cell-to-cell adhesion and regulation of paracellular transport of molecules across the intestinal epithelium. (osu.edu)
  • Tight junctions act as one type of specialized intercellular junctional complex that mediates transport of molecules between cells, deemed the barrier function. (davidson.edu)
  • IL-13 was identified as an important effector cytokine in UC that impairs epithelial barrier function by affecting epithelial apoptosis, tight junctions, and restitution velocity (Heller, et al. (google.com)
  • We recently showed in a renal epithelial cell culture system that reduction of culture medium methionine by 80% resulted in altered tight junctional (TJ) claudin composition and also improved epithelial barrier function ( 51 ). (scialert.net)
  • We hypothesized that tight junction composition and barrier function would be perturbed during recovery from oxidative stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Aim: It was hypothesised that genetic variants in tight junction genes might affect epithelial barrier function, thus contributing to a shared pathogenesis of GSE and IBD. (ebscohost.com)
  • Tight junction disruption has been associated with barrier dysfunction in diseases that involve many different epithelial cell types [ 3 , 4 ], including as a unifying explanation for the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome seen in sepsis [ 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tight junctions (TJ) act as hubs for intracellular signaling pathways controlling epithelial cell fate and function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Tight junctions (TJs) are the most prominent feature of brain endothelium and are responsible for the BBB integrity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Taurine exerts protective effects by regulating immune response and restores the intestinal tight junction barrier when piglets suffer from oxidative stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • A defective intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier is an important pathogenic factor of inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory conditions of the gut. (wellnessresources.com)
  • As I understand it, the terms zona occludens and tight junction are interchangeable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yes zona occludens and tight junction are interchangeable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver kinase B1 regulates hepatocellular tight junction distribution and function in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs) consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to its neighbor. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, membrane-associated PKC activity more than doubled during junction assembly, and immunocytochemical analysis revealed a pool of PKC zeta that appeared to colocalize with ZO-1 at the tight junction. (pnas.org)
  • 3) Gap junctions consist of intercellular channels in the plasma membrane of adjacent cells. (davidson.edu)
  • 17000770 ). The tight junction acts to limit movement of substances through the paracellular space and as a boundary between the compositionally distinct apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains of epithelial and endothelial cells. (uniprot.org)
  • In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli cells near the basement membrane confers an immunological barrier by sequestering the events of meiotic division and postmeiotic germ cell development from the systemic circulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • New insights into the molecular architecture of tight junctions allow us to now discuss the structure and functions of this unique cell-cell adhesion apparatus in molecular terms. (nih.gov)
  • Aijaz S, Balda MS, Matter K (2006) Tight junctions: molecular architecture and function. (springer.com)
  • Since its publication in 1992, there has been an explosion of information about tight junctions, particularly in the area of molecular structure, cell and molecular biology, genetics and physiology. (routledge.com)
  • 4. Recent studies were able to elucidate crucial aspects of the molecular basis of tight junction regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Several components of the tight junction have been identified at the molecular level ( 3 ), but their specific roles have yet to be determined. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tight junction's molecular composition, ultrastructure, and function are regulated differently with regard to physiological and pathological stimuli. (mdpi.com)
  • The extent of neutrophil migration across IL-1-treated (10 U/ml for 4 h) HUVEC monolayers was the same whether tight junctions were present or absent, and the molecular requirements for neutrophil transmigration (CD18 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were unaffected by culturing in astrocyte-conditioned medium. (jimmunol.org)
  • Joerg-Dieter Schulzke is the editor of Molecular Structure and Function of the Tight Junction: From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Manifestations, Volume 1165, published by Wiley. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Objective To characterise the molecular structure and function of the epithelial tight junction (TJ) and mechanisms of its dysregulation. (bmj.com)
  • Direct binding of three tight junction-associated MAGUKs, ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, with the COOH termini of claudins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These segment-specific expression patterns of claudins are discussed, with special reference to the physiologic functions of tight junctions in nephrons. (asnjournals.org)
  • This type of junction fuses cells together and provides a selective barrier to the diffusion of substances between cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, many substances are known to affect the permeability of the tight junction 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Tight junctions between epithelial and endothelial cells form selective barriers and paracellular channels and regulate paracellular transport of solutes, immune cells, and drugs. (wiley.com)
  • The Laboratory of Tight Junction Structure and Function, led by Dr. James Anderson, has long been interested in the primary mechanism that binds these cells together to create these barriers: the tight junction. (nih.gov)
  • Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tight junction plays a vital role in intestinal paracellular permeability by forming physical intercellular barriers in epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Despite being one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, the BTB has to restructure cyclically during spermatogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2001. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with changes of enterocytic junctions. (springer.com)
  • A TNF-α-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability has been proposed to be an important proinflammatory mechanism contributing to intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease and other inflammatory conditions (see Ye et al. (google.com)
  • Tight junctions are one mode of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cellular sheets. (nih.gov)
  • TJs are essential for the tight sealing of the cellular sheets [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tight junctions are multiprotein complexes that mediate cell-cell adhesion and regulate transportation through the extra-cellular matrix. (davidson.edu)
  • Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, I will summarize our current knowledge of the involvement of aquaporin-formed pores and tight junctions in epidermal water homeostasis - as well as in other functions - and their putative roles in skin dryness. (springer.com)
  • Intercellular junctions are polarized across and within epidermal layers. (nature.com)
  • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by epidermal tight junction (TJ) defects and a propensity for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Tight junctions (TJ) are multiprotein complexes located at apical-lateral borders in epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hwang I, Yang H, Kang H-S, Ahn C, Hong E-J, An B-S, Jeung E-B. Alteration of Tight Junction Gene Expression by Calcium- and Vitamin D-Deficient Diet in the Duodenum of Calbindin-Null Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Hence, we investigated the mechanism of tight junction alteration and paracellular leak of macromolecules in the well-established in vitro intestinal (colon) epithelial Caco-2 cell model. (osu.edu)
  • These junctional complexes migrate in a zipper-like fashion to the base of the cell where tight junctions persist as interdigitation of the foot processes begins. (asnjournals.org)
  • The short isoform is found both in endothelial cells and the highly specialized epithelial junctions of renal glomeruli and Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. (abcam.com)
  • An association between renal ischemia and tight junction alterations has been demonstrated in multiple studies both in vivo and in vitro [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tight junctions may also serve as leaky pathways by forming selective channels for small cations, anions, or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tight junctions are regulated by multiple signaling pathways in a multistep process. (davidson.edu)
  • There is a substantial physiological variation in the "tightness" of the junctions, which appears to be based morphologically on the number of "strands" (as seen in freeze-fracture electron micrographs) joining the two neighbouring cells 1 . (ersjournals.com)
  • In this report, the calcium switch and the bisphenol A (BPA) models were used to induce junction restructuring in primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testes that formed a TJ-permeability barrier that mimicked the BTB in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The removal of calcium by EGTA perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction barrier, but calcium repletion allowed the "resealing" of the disrupted barrier. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tight junctions are composed of transmembrane components that mediate adhesion and form the paracellular diffusion barrier. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Thus, tight junctions join together the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tight junctions prevent the passage of molecules and ions through the space between plasma membranes of adjacent cells, so materials must actually enter the cells (by diffusion or active transport) in order to pass through the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial and endothelial cells are joined to each other via a set of intercellular junctions that differ in their morphological appearance, composition, and function. (nih.gov)
  • tight junction A region of the cell surface, of variable size, and situated just below the apical border where the membranes of adjacent cells are fused to form a pentalaminar structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The latter is realized by the tight junctions between the endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature, which are subject of this review. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of specialized, discontinuous button-like junctions between lacteal endothelial cells raised another possibility ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Button junctions have open regions and closed regions and are strikingly different from zipper junctions that tightly seal endothelial cells in blood vessels and collecting lymphatics. (sciencemag.org)
  • This book provides state-of-the-art insight into Tight Junctions (TJs), the intersection of epithelial and endothelial cells in various tissues. (indigo.ca)
  • Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. (genome.jp)
  • There are four major types of junctions in epithelial cells. (davidson.edu)
  • 1) Tight Junctions form the closest contact between adjacent cells known in nature. (davidson.edu)
  • A defining feature of epithelial cells, tight junctions are found in no other cell type. (davidson.edu)
  • Because tight junctions encircle the cell and attach it tightly to its neighbors, these junctions act as a barrier preventing molecules from diffusing across an epithelial sheet between adjacent cells. (davidson.edu)
  • the tight junctions is a belt shaped and expands around the apex of columnar epithelial cells . (biology-online.org)
  • Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CFTR and tight junctions in cultured bronchial epithelial cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tight junctions prevent the movement of the extracellular matrix between cells. (jiskha.com)
  • Extracellular Ca2+ triggers assembly and sealing of tight junctions (TJs) in MDCK cells. (rupress.org)
  • Tight junctions between the cells form an ion-selective barrier across the paracellular route, and several human diseases involve a breakdown of these junctions. (biologists.org)
  • When the authors express paracellin 1 in these cells, it localizes to the tight junctions and increases their permeability to Na + but not to Cl - or Mg 2+ . (biologists.org)
  • In vertebrate organisms, tight junctions are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtually impermeable barrier. (clontech.com)
  • They demonstrated that reducing claudin-1 expression in skin cells from healthy donors made the tight junctions leaky and more permeable, a finding in line with results of other research groups. (skininc.com)
  • Epithelial and endothelial cells are joined to each other via a set of intercellular junctions that are important for tissue formation and function. (bmglabtech.com)
  • The tight junction encircles epithelial cells at the most apical portion of their lateral membranes, forming a barrier between cells and regulating paracellular transport across cell layers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study addresses the effects of oxidative stress-induced injury to the tight junction in kidney epithelial cells with an emphasis on the reassembly of the tight junction during recovery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ZO-1 is a component of the corneal epithelial tight junction, as it is in most epithelial cells. (lancs.ac.uk)