Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Respiratory Aspiration: Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Gallbladder Emptying: A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Milk, HumanPulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Lactose Intolerance: The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.EthaneProstatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Total lung capacity 5.8 4.2 IRV + TV + ERV + RV The tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve ... "Comprehensive integrated spirometry using raised volume passive and forced expirations and multiple-breath nitrogen washout in ... Residual volume: the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation. ... The average human respiratory rate is 30-60 breaths per minute at birth,[1] decreasing to 12-20 breaths per minute in adults.[2 ...
... the tidal volume is the volume of air that is inhaled or exhaled in only a single such breath. The average human respiratory ... and nitrogen washout. In absence of such, estimates of residual volume have been prepared as a proportion of body mass for ... The compression also causes a decreased total lung capacity (TLC) by 5% and decreased expiratory reserve volume by 20%. Tidal ... decreasing to 12-20 breaths per minute in adults. Several factors affect lung volumes; some can be controlled and some cannot ...
Volumes that include the residual volume (i.e. functional residual capacity of about 2.5-3.0 liters, and total lung capacity of ... during a single breathing cycle is called the tidal volume. In a resting adult human it is about 500 ml per breath. At the end ... nitrogen (74.0 kPa), oxygen (19.7 kPa) and trace amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases (a total of 100 kPa). In dry air the ... and must therefore take deeper breaths than mammals do to make allowances for their greater dead space volumes. In some birds ( ...
Volumes that include the residual volume (i.e. functional residual capacity of about 2.5-3.0 liters, and total lung capacity of ... during a single breathing cycle is called the tidal volume. In a resting adult human it is about 500 ml per breath. At the end ... respiratory minute volume. FEV1/FVC ratio. Lung function tests. spirometry. body plethysmography. peak flow meter. nitrogen ... and must therefore take deeper breaths than mammals do to make allowances for their greater dead space volumes. In some birds ( ...
Tidal volume - Normal breath - 500ml. Inspiratory res volume - additional to fill lungs - 3100ml. Expiratory res volume - air ... residual vol - what is left 1200ml. Max air that can fill lungs = sum of all=6000ml. Vital capacity = Total that can be expired ... Partial pressures are in same proportion as the volumes. Total pressure is 760 mm Hg, so Nitrogen 0.78*760=592.9 mm Hg. Oxygen ... Carbon dioxide goes up and down so this is measures and breaths taken accordingly ...
N2: nitrogen gas; VD: deadspace volume; VT: tidal volume; SnIII: normalised phase III slope; LCI: lung clearance index; CF: ... tidal volume; CEV: cumulative expired volume; FRC: functional residual capacity; VD,aw: deadspace volume of the conducting ... Deviation in end-expiratory lung volume at start of the test within 10% of mean VT of preceding five breaths. ... Total equipment deadspace for young children should be ,2 mL·kg−1 bodyweight, and ideally ,1 mL·kg−1 in infants. ...
... and respiratory muscles by measuring the total volume of air exhaled from a full lung (total lung capacity [TLC]) to maximal ... assesses the integrated mechanical function of the lung, chest wall, ... The following parameters are measured or calculated on a breath-by-breath basis: minute ventilation (VE, L/min), tidal volume ( ... Functional reserve capacity (FRC), helium dilution lung volumes, nitrogen washout lung volumes, static lung volumes, lung ...
tidal volume. volume of air in one breath; approximately 500mL. minute ventilation. volume of air inhaled and exhaled each ... total lung capacity (TLC). 6L; (VC) + (RV); total air. anatomic dead space. air in the conducting zone that does not undergo ... residual volume (RV). air remaining after expiratory reserve volume is exhaled. inspiratory capacity (IC). 3.6L; (tidal volume ... minute; (breaths per min) x (tidal volume). spirometer. used to measure the volume of air exchanged during breathing and ...
Total lung capacity 5.8 4.2 IRV + TV + ERV + RV The tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve ... "Comprehensive integrated spirometry using raised volume passive and forced expirations and multiple-breath nitrogen washout in ... Residual volume: the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation. ... The average human respiratory rate is 30-60 breaths per minute at birth,[1] decreasing to 12-20 breaths per minute in adults.[2 ...
Residual volume (RV): Volume of gas that remains in the chest after full exhalation. Can be elevated in obstructive lung ... After a few tidal breaths, the patient takes a full breath in, then immediately exhales are rapidly as able, for a minimum of 6 ... such as helium dilution or nitrogen washout). Plethysmography measures total compressible gas in the chest, whereas dilution ... abdominal and thoracic fat contribute more to changes in lung volumes than lower body fat which should not affect lung volumes ...
Residual volume (RV): Volume of gas that remains in the chest after full exhalation. Can be elevated in obstructive lung ... After a few tidal breaths, the patient takes a full breath in, then immediately exhales are rapidly as able, for a minimum of 6 ... such as helium dilution or nitrogen washout). Plethysmography measures total compressible gas in the chest, whereas dilution ... abdominal and thoracic fat contribute more to changes in lung volumes than lower body fat which should not affect lung volumes ...
A) Total lung capacity. B) Forced vital capacity. C) Tidal volume. D) Residual volume. 8. In addition to heart rate, blood ... should take three deep breaths and exhale forcefully and then take a quick short breath and cough from deep in the lungs.. C) ... D) Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. 3. The school nurse is teaching a nutrition class in the local high school. One student ... 7. A patient with chronic lung disease is undergoing lung function testing. What test result denotes the volume of air inspired ...
Lung volume measurement with DLCO single-breath dilution technique. Nitrogen Washout (Option) *Functional Residual Capacity ( ... Provided with a database of standard (ATS "Five breaths" and Lofarma) and user defined protocols. ... Ideal for assessing lung function in pre-school children. *Quick and easy assessment (8 seconds tidal breathing) ... Total Respiratory Impedance measurement by Pseudo Random Noise Signal. *No cooperation required from the patient ...
In this article we will look at the volumes and capacities within the lungs, how they can be measured and how they are affected ... They allow an assessment of the mechanical condition of the lungs, its musculature, airway resistance and the effectiveness of ... It is useful to divide the total space within the lungs into volumes and capacities. These can be measured to aid in the ... Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume. 3L. Many things affect this. Total lung capacity. Volume of air in lungs after ...
TV = Tidal Volume * VC = Vital Capacity * RV = Residual Volume * TLC = Total Lung Capacity * ERV = Expiratory Reserve Volume * ... This reduction may be reversed by taking subsequent deep breaths (even a single deep breath). This was the motivation for ... Nitrogen washout The subject breathes 100% O2, after breathing air. If we collect all the expired gas, and measure the final ... Lung Volumes Clinicians especially, lay great emphasis on lung volume, its subdivisions, and divergence of volumes from normal ...
A. Functional residual capacity. B. Residual volume. C. End-tidal inspiration. D. Total lung capacity ... A medical gas analyzer that is capable of performing breath by breath analysis during a nitrogen washout study is the:. A. Mass ... B. The number of breaths taken by the patient should be counted during the measuring period. C. A value obtained by measuring ... The largest volume of gas that can be inspired above a normal tidal volume breath is the:. A. Tidal volume. B. Residual volume ...
Respiratory anatomy Respiration Respiratory musculature Ventilation, lung volumes and capacities Gas exchange and transport O 2 ... ERV + residual volume *Vital capacity: *ERV + tidal volume + IRV *Total lung capacity: *vital capacity + residual volume ... the number of breaths per minute (respiratory rate) *the volume of air moved per breath (tidalvolume) ... Decompression sickness -the bends, nitrogen bubbles exit the blood, enter the tissues: painful and dangerous ...
Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury acute respiratory ... Once at steady state, this phenomenon ("breath stacking") leads to a new and increased lung volume at end expiration ( ... A frequent cause of elastic load is pulmonary edema due to residual lung injury, hypoproteinemia, and volume overload, ... where TI is the set inspiratory time, TE the expiratory time, and TTOT the total cycle time. With APRV, VT occurs by releasing ...
Maternal smoking during pregnancy adversely affects offspring lung development, with lifelong decreases in pulmonary function ... A minimum of 50 flow-volume loops with inspiratory and expiratory volumes within 15% were collected to calculate tidal volumes ... Functional residual capacity (FRC) was measured by the nitrogen washout technique using 100% oxygen as the washout gas as ... compliance was obtained with the single-breath occlusion technique and the mean calculated from at least 10 acceptable breaths. ...
Maximize oxygen storage in the lungs by denitrogenation of the residual capacity of the lungs (Approximately 95% of oxygen ... 3 minutes of tidal volume breathing (normal respiratory pattern) with a high FiO2 source ... reservoir face mask with a flow rate of oxygen set as high as possible for a total of 3 minutes or 8 vital capacity breaths is ... Nasopharyngeal oxygen Insufflation Following Pre-Oxygenation Using the Four Deep Breath technique. Anaesthesia 2006. PMID: ...
Measurement of functional residual capacity by modified multiple breath nitrogen washout for spontaneously breathing and ... Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory ... a fixed volume and concentration of helium is uniformly distributed between the lungs and bag after approximately 10 breaths ... in bedside monitoring of risk of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Negative values of end-expiratory PTP (total positive ...
... component sector total gas volumes in each phase of the tidal cycle were different within all studied positions with and ... Quantitative lung computed tomographic (CT) analysis of regional aeration and global FRC measurements by nitrogen wash-in/wash- ... We hypothesized that unlike global functional residual capacity (FRC), component sector gas volumes and their corresponding ... No significant differences in total FRC were observed among the horizontal positions, either at baseline (p = 0.9037) or with ...
In these lessons, we explore topics such as how we get air into our lungs, ... ... Of the air that youre going to be able to get out of your lung, this will exclude residual volume. So in our two types of ... and that in the air we breath carbon dioxide is very low. We also know that the total pressure is going to be made up of the ... So to calculate that, were going to take the tidal volume and subtract the volume of the dead space, which in this case were ...
... and the end tidal PCO 2 of expired gases (PECO 2 ); (d) determing the differences between the end tidal PCO 2 and inspired PCO ... the patient taking at least two breaths without rebreathing; (c) determining the PCO 2 of the inspired gases (P I CO 2 ) ... FRC stands for the functional residual capacity which is the volume of gas left in the lung at the end of normal exhalation, F ... breath by breath and average it over a determined number of breaths; (b) determine the end tidal PCO2 ; and (c) decide when a ...
In addition, the ratio between PEEP-induced lung volume changes (ΔEELV) and functional residual capacity differentiated high ... did not correlate with either tidal volume or airway pressure applied, but was weakly associated with lung stress (r 2 = 0.25, ... and the other based on the bedside end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) measurement using the nitrogen washout/washin technique. ... and lung strain weighted for the actual time of application during each breath (r 2 = 0.83, p , 0.0001), according to ...
... and the integrated tidal volume. The mean value of Rglottis+ lung over the entire inspiratory cycle was calculated. For each ... C1dyn is the dynamic compliance of the lung for that breath, V with dot is the airflow, and Pesand P sub ph are the pressures ... The total duration of the infusion was between 36-54 min. There was no difference in the TOF ratio in the periods of control ... Residual neuromuscular block can be difficult to detect clinically [6] and is often present in patients recovering from surgery ...
After a few tidal breaths, the subject is asked to breathe out to residual volume and then breathe in a special gas mixture ... Forced spirometry manoeuvres measure how hard and fast a person can exhale from total lung capacity (TLC) to residual volume ( ... Static lung volumes. Body Plethysmography. Single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO). Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). 6 ... This technique washes out nitrogen (N2) from the lungs by breathing 100% O2. Basically, the volume at which the washout began ( ...
For an 80 kg adult with a total lung volume of 3000 ml filled with room air, there would be about 640 ml of oxygen available ( ... Having the alert patient take 8 full tidal volumes of oxygen with a tight mask (these must be deep maximal breaths) ... Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the amount of air left in the lung after a normal exhalation. FRC is an important concept ... Fully removing all of the nitrogen from the alveoli (denitrogenate) to maximize the amount of oxygen in the lungs ...
The deep breath method should be considered a reasonable alternative to the traditional 3-minute tidal volume technique when ... thus creating an oxygen reservoir in the functional residual capacity of the lungs. Ninety-five percent of nitrogen elimination ... 2 seconds per breath) breaths per minute. This rate/depth provides ample ventilation while avoiding overcoming the lower ... Muscle relaxation occurs in just 30 seconds, with total paralysis in 45 seconds. The duration of action is short, lasting 7-10 ...
  • NO metabolites, such as NO 2 − , and NO 3 − , can be detected in the epithelial lining fluid of the normal human respiratory tract as well as in exhaled breath condensate 8 , and probably reflects the NO metabolism in CF more than F eno 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The average standard deviation and range (min-max) of the ventilatory parameters were the following: inspired tidal volume = 607 36 (530-723) mL, expired tidal volume = 608 36 (530-728) mL, peak pressure = 20.8 2.3 (17.2-25.9) cmH(2)O, respiratory rate = 20.09 0.35 (19.5-21.6) breaths/minute, PEEP = 8.43 0.57 (7.26-10.8) cmH(2)O, oxygen fraction = 0.49 0.014 (0.41-0.53). (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The microenvironment of the CF lung - (viscous mucus secretion and increased reactive oxygen species release from inflammatory cells) may facilitate the reaction of NO with inflammatory oxidants causing an increased formation of reactive NO metabolites. (ersjournals.com)
  • Air: The gas that we normally breathe is a mixture of approximately 21% Oxygen, 78% Nitrogen and 1% other gases. (c-divers.com)
  • Alveolus (plural Alveoli): Air sac in the lung at the terminus of a bronchus where oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer occurs. (c-divers.com)
  • The fractional concentration of ENO ( F eno ), nitrotyrosine and oxides of nitrogen in exhaled breath condensate from 36 stable CF patients were compared to 14 normal subjects using an enzyme immunoassay and fluorescence assay. (ersjournals.com)
  • This study assessed the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, NO 2 − and NO 3 − in exhaled breath condensate, and F eno and lung function were assessed in clinically stable CF patients, compared with normal subjects. (ersjournals.com)
  • There are a couple of demonstrations of lung function in the videos! (coursera.org)
  • So, pulmonary function tests, these are again going to be used in helping diagnose patient with obstructive versus restrictive lung disease and also to monitor their disease progression. (coursera.org)