Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Ilizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalBony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.OsteomyelitisLeg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Adamantinoma: A locally aggressive, osteolytic neoplasm of the long bones, probably of epithelial origin and most often involving the TIBIA.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Fractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Adult: Neurologic conditions in adults associated with acute or chronic exposure to lead or any of its salts. The most common lead related neurologic syndrome in adults consists of a polyneuropathy involving motor fibers. This tends to affect distal nerves and may present as wrist drop due to RADIAL NEUROPATHY. Additional features of chronic lead exposure include ANEMIA; CONSTIPATION; colicky abdominal pain; a bluish lead line of the gums; interstitial nephritis (NEPHRITIS, INTERSTITIAL); and saturnine gout. An encephalopathy may rarely occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone: A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Osteochondrosis: Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).Bone Diseases, MetabolicOrthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.

Level of amputation following failed arterial reconstruction compared to primary amputation--a meta-analysis. (1/2843)

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the level of amputation after failed vascular reconstruction was comparable to the level of amputation after primary amputation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Medline literature search (1975-1996), meta-analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio of transtibial to transfemoral (TT/TF) amputations was 927/657 = 1.41 (95% confidence limits: 1.278-1.561) in postrevascularisation amputation (PRVA) and 1590/1162 = 1.37 (95% confidence limits: 1.269-1.477) in primary amputation (PA) (p = 0.65). The pooled data show that the number of conversions from transtibial (TT) to transfemoral (TF) amputations due to amputation stump complications were 85/369 (23%) in PRVA against 93/752 (12.4%) in PA (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect any difference in TT/TF ratio between PRVA and PA. However, the risk of conversion i.e. reamputation to a higher level is higher after PRVA compared to PA. The chance of having a successful transtibial amputation is approximately 58% for postrevascularisation amputation as well as for primary amputations. An aggressive approach towards vascular reconstruction seems justified.  (+info)

Active signaling of leg loading and unloading in the cockroach. (2/2843)

The ability to detect changes in load is important for effective use of a leg in posture and locomotion. While a number of limb receptors have been shown to encode increases in load, few afferents have been demonstrated to signal leg unloading, which occurs cyclically during walking and is indicative of slipping or perturbations. We applied mechanical forces to the cockroach leg at controlled rates and recorded activities of the tibial group of campaniform sensilla, mechanoreceptors that encode forces through the strains they produce in the exoskeleton. Discrete responses were elicited from the group to decreasing as well as increasing levels of leg loading. Discharges of individual afferents depended on the direction of force application, and unit responses were correlated morphologically with the orientation of the receptor's cuticular cap. No units responded bidirectionally. Although discharges to decreasing levels of load were phasic, we found that these bursts could effectively encode the rate of force decreases. These discharges may be important in indicating leg unloading in the step cycle during walking and could rapidly signal force decreases during perturbations or loss of ground support.  (+info)

Chondrodiatasis in a patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia using the Ilizarov technique: successful correction of an angular deformity with ensuing ossification of a large metaphyseal lesion. A case report. (3/2843)

Distraction through the physis (chondrodiatasis) is a controversial technique with unpredictable results. However, it has been used in the past for the lengthening and correction of angular deformities of long bones. We report the case of an 11-year-old patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) who presented with a severe recurvatum deformity of the left proximal tibia secondary to collapse of the tibial plateau into a large metaphyseal cystic lesion. Using the chondrodiatasis technique with a percutaneously applied Ilizarov circular frame, we were able to correct this deformity. Surprisingly, healing and ossification of the metaphyseal lesion was simultaneously observed at the end of the treatment, a finding which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported.  (+info)

The aetiology of congenital angulation of tubular bones with constriction of the medullary canal, and its relationship to congenital pseudarthrosis. (4/2843)

It is suggested that there is a group of cases of congenital angulation of tubular bones in which the lesion is a defect of ossification of the primary cartilaginous anlage and in which neurofibromatosis is not implicated. It appears that in this group the prognosis with regard to the resolution of deformity and the prevention of pseudarthrosis with conservative treatment or relatively simple surgical procedures is better than that in the neurofibromatous type.  (+info)

The clinical manifestations and pathomechanics of contracture of the extensor mechanism of the knee. (5/2843)

Experience with thirty-eight Asian children and adolescents who presented with either stiffness of the knee, genu recurvatum, habitual dislocation of the patella or congenital lateral dislocation of the patella showed that all those disorders were manifestations of contracture of the extensor mechanism, which fell into two groups according to the components involved. In Group I the main components affected were in the midline of the limb, namely rectus femoris and vastus intermedius; these patients presented with varying degrees of stiffness of the knee, or worse, with genu recurvatum. In Group II the main components involved were lateral to the midline of the limb, namely vastus lateralis and the ilio-tibial band; these patients presented with habitual dislocation of the patella, or worse, congenital lateral dislocation of the patella. In both groups untreated patients developed secondary adaptive changes such as subluxation of the tibia or marked genu valgum which made operative procedures more formidable and less effective. Release of the contracture should therefore be performed as early as possible.  (+info)

Limb salvage surgery in bone tumour with modular endoprosthesis. (6/2843)

Thirty-three patients with bone tumours were treated by resection of the growth and reconstruction with a Kotz modular endoprosthesis. The average follow-up was for 50 months, ranging from 14 to 79 months. At the last review, 12 patients (36%) had died due to the tumour and 9 others (27%) had metastases. All 4 patients with proximal tibial reconstruction had poor functional results, due to an extension lag or to knee stiffness. Four of the six tumours of the proximal femur were complicated by local recurrence or dislocation of the hip, and had poor or fair functional results. Of the patients with distal femoral reconstruction, 17 out of 22 had excellent or good functional results. Reconstruction with a modular prosthesis after resection of a tumour gives excellent or good functional results in more than three-fourths of the cases of distal femur reconstruction, but it should be used with caution in the proximal tibia and proximal femur.  (+info)

Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle. (7/2843)

A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of bone marrow laminins and identification of alpha5-containing laminins as adhesive proteins for multipotent hematopoietic FDCP-Mix cells. (8/2843)

Laminins are extracellular matrix glycoproteins that influence the phenotype and functions of many types of cells. Laminins are heterotrimers composed of alpha, beta, and gamma polypeptides. So far five alpha, three beta, and two gamma polypeptide chains, and 11 variants of laminins have been proposed. Laminins interact in vitro with mature blood cells and malignant hematopoietic cells. Most studies have been performed with laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1), and its expression in bone marrow is unclear. Employing an antiserum reacting with most laminin isoforms, we found laminins widely expressed in mouse bone marrow. However, no laminin alpha1 chain but rather laminin alpha2, alpha4, and alpha5 polypeptides were found in bone marrow. Our data suggest presence of laminin-2 (alpha2beta1gamma1), laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), and laminin-10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) in bone marrow. Northern blot analysis showed expression of laminin alpha1, alpha2, alpha4, and alpha5 chains in long-term bone marrow cultures, indicating upregulation of laminin alpha1 chain expression in vitro. Laminins containing alpha5 chain, in contrast to laminin-1, were strongly adhesive for multipotent hematopoietic FDCP-mix cells. Integrin alpha6 and beta1 chains mediated this adhesion, as shown by antibody perturbation experiments. Our findings indicate that laminins other than laminin-1 are functional in adhesive interactions in bone marrow.  (+info)

  • Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons' experience and tools available. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening was popularized recently in Nigeria and predictive factors for poor outcome in tibia bone gap from trauma have not been evaluated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In human anatomy, the tibia is the second largest bone next to the femur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tibia shuts into a groove in the femur, and thus the bug is able to seize and hold its prey. (dictionary.com)
  • In humans, the tibia is second in size only to the femur , or thigh bone , and is generally considered to be the strongest weight-bearing bone in the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • The objective of the study was to test whether the shaft dimensions of the tibia were as sexually dimorphic as those of the femur and to develop a new sex determination technique from the tibia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Three bones meet to form the knee joint: the femur (thighbone), tibia (shinbone), and patella (kneecap). (aaos.org)
  • 2. 15 - 18 OCTOMBRIE 2014 CENTRUL EXPOZITIONAL ROMEXPO www.romexpo.ro www.tib.ro DESPRE TIB Targul Tehnic International Bucuresti este o manifestare expozitionala emblematica pentru ROMEXPO, un eveniment de avengura pentru economia nationala si un targ ce nu trebuie sa lipseasca din agenda oricarui specialist in domeniu. (slideshare.net)
  • Unless you're a real speed demon-two hikers did indeed speed along the route in one day in 2006-plan this as a two-day backpack trip, with an overnight stay amid the oaks and pines of Agua Tibia Mountain. (trails.com)
  • TIB a fost organizat prima data in 1970, iar din anul 1993 este certificat la nivel international, fiind un eveniment atestat de catre Asociatia Globala a Industriei de Targuri - UFI si inclus in randul celor mai importante targuri tehnice la nivel international. (tib.ro)
  • It ensures internal links use HTTPS (i.e. `https://secure.tibia.com/…`) rather than HTTP (i.e. `http://www.tibia.com/…`) wherever possible. (opera.com)
  • Valentino Rossi underwent a successful operation and surgery at the Centro Traumatologico Ortopedico in Florence, Italy this afternoon to repair his fractured right tibia. (ultimatemotorcycling.com)
  • The top surface of the tibia (the tibial plateau) is made of cancellous bone, which has a "honeycombed" appearance and is softer than the thicker bone lower in the tibia. (aaos.org)
  • Tibia curta, common name the Indian tibia, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Strombidae, the true conchs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tibia [official site] launched in 1997, but I'm not sure I'd even heard of the MMO before today. (rockpapershotgun.com)
  • A few students at Germany's University of Regensburg decided to craft their own MMO in 1996, a project that became Tibia when it officially launched on January 7th, 1997. (engadget.com)
  • My tibia was crushed-the surgeon had to reconstruct my leg with plates and screws. (runnersworld.com)
  • Treatment usually consists of setting the bone without surgery, which in some cases may be accompanied by surgical insertion of special pins or screws to secure the tibia while it heals. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In sarcoma of the lower end of the tibia , the swelling lacks the uniform distribution of that met with in joint disease. (dictionary.com)
  • The tibia is the major weight bearing bone of the lower leg so it takes the brunt of the forces transmitted up the leg with running. (runnersworld.com)
  • TIB is a public-law foundation of the Federal State of Lower Saxony. (uni-hannover.de)
  • Examination usually reveals tenderness or swelling at the lower part of the tibia. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Bulletin (TIB), Neutron Exposures at the Savannah River Site (OCAS-TIB-007), provides guidance to determine neutron exposures for workers at the Savannah River Site (SRS). (cdc.gov)
  • Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) yesterday expressed deep concern over the government move to amend the Road Transport Act-2018 amid pressure from transport owners and workers' associations. (thedailystar.net)