The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The shaft of long bones.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)
Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.
The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Developmental bone diseases are a category of skeletal disorders that arise from disturbances in the normal growth and development of bones, including abnormalities in size, shape, structure, or composition, which can lead to various musculoskeletal impairments and deformities.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
'Osteomyelitis' is a medical condition defined as an inflammation or infection of the bone or marrow, often caused by bacteria or fungi, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected area, and may require antibiotics or surgical intervention for treatment.
A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
A locally aggressive, osteolytic neoplasm of the long bones, probably of epithelial origin and most often involving the TIBIA.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Breaks in bones.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A dead body, usually a human body.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Neurologic conditions in adults associated with acute or chronic exposure to lead or any of its salts. The most common lead related neurologic syndrome in adults consists of a polyneuropathy involving motor fibers. This tends to affect distal nerves and may present as wrist drop due to RADIAL NEUROPATHY. Additional features of chronic lead exposure include ANEMIA; CONSTIPATION; colicky abdominal pain; a bluish lead line of the gums; interstitial nephritis (NEPHRITIS, INTERSTITIAL); and saturnine gout. An encephalopathy may rarely occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Replacement of the knee joint.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
Diseases of BONES.

Level of amputation following failed arterial reconstruction compared to primary amputation--a meta-analysis. (1/2843)

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the level of amputation after failed vascular reconstruction was comparable to the level of amputation after primary amputation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Medline literature search (1975-1996), meta-analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio of transtibial to transfemoral (TT/TF) amputations was 927/657 = 1.41 (95% confidence limits: 1.278-1.561) in postrevascularisation amputation (PRVA) and 1590/1162 = 1.37 (95% confidence limits: 1.269-1.477) in primary amputation (PA) (p = 0.65). The pooled data show that the number of conversions from transtibial (TT) to transfemoral (TF) amputations due to amputation stump complications were 85/369 (23%) in PRVA against 93/752 (12.4%) in PA (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect any difference in TT/TF ratio between PRVA and PA. However, the risk of conversion i.e. reamputation to a higher level is higher after PRVA compared to PA. The chance of having a successful transtibial amputation is approximately 58% for postrevascularisation amputation as well as for primary amputations. An aggressive approach towards vascular reconstruction seems justified.  (+info)

Active signaling of leg loading and unloading in the cockroach. (2/2843)

The ability to detect changes in load is important for effective use of a leg in posture and locomotion. While a number of limb receptors have been shown to encode increases in load, few afferents have been demonstrated to signal leg unloading, which occurs cyclically during walking and is indicative of slipping or perturbations. We applied mechanical forces to the cockroach leg at controlled rates and recorded activities of the tibial group of campaniform sensilla, mechanoreceptors that encode forces through the strains they produce in the exoskeleton. Discrete responses were elicited from the group to decreasing as well as increasing levels of leg loading. Discharges of individual afferents depended on the direction of force application, and unit responses were correlated morphologically with the orientation of the receptor's cuticular cap. No units responded bidirectionally. Although discharges to decreasing levels of load were phasic, we found that these bursts could effectively encode the rate of force decreases. These discharges may be important in indicating leg unloading in the step cycle during walking and could rapidly signal force decreases during perturbations or loss of ground support.  (+info)

Chondrodiatasis in a patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia using the Ilizarov technique: successful correction of an angular deformity with ensuing ossification of a large metaphyseal lesion. A case report. (3/2843)

Distraction through the physis (chondrodiatasis) is a controversial technique with unpredictable results. However, it has been used in the past for the lengthening and correction of angular deformities of long bones. We report the case of an 11-year-old patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) who presented with a severe recurvatum deformity of the left proximal tibia secondary to collapse of the tibial plateau into a large metaphyseal cystic lesion. Using the chondrodiatasis technique with a percutaneously applied Ilizarov circular frame, we were able to correct this deformity. Surprisingly, healing and ossification of the metaphyseal lesion was simultaneously observed at the end of the treatment, a finding which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported.  (+info)

The aetiology of congenital angulation of tubular bones with constriction of the medullary canal, and its relationship to congenital pseudarthrosis. (4/2843)

It is suggested that there is a group of cases of congenital angulation of tubular bones in which the lesion is a defect of ossification of the primary cartilaginous anlage and in which neurofibromatosis is not implicated. It appears that in this group the prognosis with regard to the resolution of deformity and the prevention of pseudarthrosis with conservative treatment or relatively simple surgical procedures is better than that in the neurofibromatous type.  (+info)

The clinical manifestations and pathomechanics of contracture of the extensor mechanism of the knee. (5/2843)

Experience with thirty-eight Asian children and adolescents who presented with either stiffness of the knee, genu recurvatum, habitual dislocation of the patella or congenital lateral dislocation of the patella showed that all those disorders were manifestations of contracture of the extensor mechanism, which fell into two groups according to the components involved. In Group I the main components affected were in the midline of the limb, namely rectus femoris and vastus intermedius; these patients presented with varying degrees of stiffness of the knee, or worse, with genu recurvatum. In Group II the main components involved were lateral to the midline of the limb, namely vastus lateralis and the ilio-tibial band; these patients presented with habitual dislocation of the patella, or worse, congenital lateral dislocation of the patella. In both groups untreated patients developed secondary adaptive changes such as subluxation of the tibia or marked genu valgum which made operative procedures more formidable and less effective. Release of the contracture should therefore be performed as early as possible.  (+info)

Limb salvage surgery in bone tumour with modular endoprosthesis. (6/2843)

Thirty-three patients with bone tumours were treated by resection of the growth and reconstruction with a Kotz modular endoprosthesis. The average follow-up was for 50 months, ranging from 14 to 79 months. At the last review, 12 patients (36%) had died due to the tumour and 9 others (27%) had metastases. All 4 patients with proximal tibial reconstruction had poor functional results, due to an extension lag or to knee stiffness. Four of the six tumours of the proximal femur were complicated by local recurrence or dislocation of the hip, and had poor or fair functional results. Of the patients with distal femoral reconstruction, 17 out of 22 had excellent or good functional results. Reconstruction with a modular prosthesis after resection of a tumour gives excellent or good functional results in more than three-fourths of the cases of distal femur reconstruction, but it should be used with caution in the proximal tibia and proximal femur.  (+info)

Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle. (7/2843)

A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of bone marrow laminins and identification of alpha5-containing laminins as adhesive proteins for multipotent hematopoietic FDCP-Mix cells. (8/2843)

Laminins are extracellular matrix glycoproteins that influence the phenotype and functions of many types of cells. Laminins are heterotrimers composed of alpha, beta, and gamma polypeptides. So far five alpha, three beta, and two gamma polypeptide chains, and 11 variants of laminins have been proposed. Laminins interact in vitro with mature blood cells and malignant hematopoietic cells. Most studies have been performed with laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1), and its expression in bone marrow is unclear. Employing an antiserum reacting with most laminin isoforms, we found laminins widely expressed in mouse bone marrow. However, no laminin alpha1 chain but rather laminin alpha2, alpha4, and alpha5 polypeptides were found in bone marrow. Our data suggest presence of laminin-2 (alpha2beta1gamma1), laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), and laminin-10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) in bone marrow. Northern blot analysis showed expression of laminin alpha1, alpha2, alpha4, and alpha5 chains in long-term bone marrow cultures, indicating upregulation of laminin alpha1 chain expression in vitro. Laminins containing alpha5 chain, in contrast to laminin-1, were strongly adhesive for multipotent hematopoietic FDCP-mix cells. Integrin alpha6 and beta1 chains mediated this adhesion, as shown by antibody perturbation experiments. Our findings indicate that laminins other than laminin-1 are functional in adhesive interactions in bone marrow.  (+info)

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

The fibula is a slender bone located in the lower leg of humans and other vertebrates. It runs parallel to the larger and more robust tibia, and together they are known as the bones of the leg or the anterior tibial segment. The fibula is the lateral bone in the leg, positioned on the outside of the tibia.

In humans, the fibula extends from the knee joint proximally to the ankle joint distally. Its proximal end, called the head of the fibula, articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia and forms part of the inferior aspect of the knee joint. The narrowed portion below the head is known as the neck of the fibula.

The shaft of the fibula, also called the body of the fibula, is a long, thin structure that descends from the neck and serves primarily for muscle attachment rather than weight-bearing functions. The distal end of the fibula widens to form the lateral malleolus, which is an important bony landmark in the ankle region. The lateral malleolus articulates with the talus bone of the foot and forms part of the ankle joint.

The primary functions of the fibula include providing attachment sites for muscles that act on the lower leg, ankle, and foot, as well as contributing to the stability of the ankle joint through its articulation with the talus bone. Fractures of the fibula can occur due to various injuries, such as twisting or rotational forces applied to the ankle or direct trauma to the lateral aspect of the lower leg.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Pseudarthrosis is a medical term that refers to a false joint or a nonunion of bones, meaning that the broken bone ends do not heal properly and continue to move at the fracture site. This condition can cause pain, instability, and deformity in the affected limb. It may require additional treatment such as surgery to promote bone healing and stabilization.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

The diaphysis refers to the shaft or middle portion of a long bone in the body. It is the part that is typically cylindrical in shape and contains the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow. The diaphysis is primarily composed of compact bone tissue, which provides strength and support for weight-bearing and movement.

In contrast to the diaphysis, the ends of long bones are called epiphyses, and they are covered with articular cartilage and contain spongy bone tissue filled with red marrow, which is responsible for producing blood cells. The area where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis is known as the metaphysis, and it contains growth plates that are responsible for the longitudinal growth of bones during development.

Fracture healing is the natural process by which a broken bone repairs itself. When a fracture occurs, the body responds by initiating a series of biological and cellular events aimed at restoring the structural integrity of the bone. This process involves the formation of a hematoma (a collection of blood) around the fracture site, followed by the activation of inflammatory cells that help to clean up debris and prepare the area for repair.

Over time, specialized cells called osteoblasts begin to lay down new bone matrix, or osteoid, along the edges of the broken bone ends. This osteoid eventually hardens into new bone tissue, forming a bridge between the fracture fragments. As this process continues, the callus (a mass of newly formed bone and connective tissue) gradually becomes stronger and more compact, eventually remodeling itself into a solid, unbroken bone.

The entire process of fracture healing can take several weeks to several months, depending on factors such as the severity of the injury, the patient's age and overall health, and the location of the fracture. In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote healing or ensure proper alignment of the bone fragments. This may include the use of casts, braces, or surgical implants such as plates, screws, or rods.

The epiphyses are the rounded ends of long bones in the body, which articulate with other bones to form joints. They are separated from the main shaft of the bone (diaphysis) by a growth plate called the physis or epiphyseal plate. The epiphyses are made up of spongy bone and covered with articular cartilage, which allows for smooth movement between bones. During growth, the epiphyseal plates produce new bone cells that cause the bone to lengthen until they eventually fuse during adulthood, at which point growth stops.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

The Ilizarov technique is a surgical method used for limb lengthening and reconstruction. It involves the use of an external fixation device, which consists of rings connected by adjustable rods and wires that are attached to the bone. This apparatus allows for gradual distraction (slow, steady stretching) of the bone, allowing new bone tissue to grow in the gap created by the distraction. The Ilizarov technique can be used to treat various conditions such as limb length discrepancies, bone deformities, and nonunions (failed healing of a fracture). It is named after its developer, Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov, a Soviet orthopedic surgeon.

Bone lengthening is a surgical procedure that involves cutting and then gradually stretching the bone apart, allowing new bone to grow in its place. This process is also known as distraction osteogenesis. The goal of bone lengthening is to increase the length of a bone, either to improve function or to correct a deformity.

The procedure typically involves making an incision in the skin over the bone and using specialized tools to cut through the bone. Once the bone is cut, a device called an external fixator is attached to the bone on either side of the cut. The external fixator is then gradually adjusted over time to slowly stretch the bone apart, creating a gap between the two ends of the bone. As the bone is stretched, new bone tissue begins to grow in the space between the two ends, eventually filling in the gap and lengthening the bone.

Bone lengthening can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including limb length discrepancies, congenital deformities, and injuries that result in bone loss. It is typically performed by an orthopedic surgeon and may require several months of follow-up care to ensure proper healing and growth of the new bone tissue.

The periosteum is a highly vascularized and innervated tissue that surrounds the outer surface of bones, except at the articular surfaces. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer containing blood vessels, nerves, and fibroblasts; and an inner cellular layer called the cambium or osteogenic layer, which contains progenitor cells capable of bone formation and repair.

The periosteum plays a crucial role in bone growth, remodeling, and healing by providing a source of osteoprogenitor cells and blood supply. It also contributes to the sensation of pain in response to injury or inflammation of the bone. Additionally, the periosteum can respond to mechanical stress by activating bone formation, making it an essential component in orthopedic treatments such as distraction osteogenesis.

An external fixator is a type of orthopedic device used in the treatment of severe fractures or deformities of bones. It consists of an external frame that is attached to the bone with pins or wires that pass through the skin and into the bone. This provides stability to the injured area while allowing for alignment and adjustment of the bone during the healing process.

External fixators are typically used in cases where traditional casting or internal fixation methods are not feasible, such as when there is extensive soft tissue damage, infection, or when a limb needs to be gradually stretched or shortened. They can also be used in reconstructive surgery for bone defects or deformities.

The external frame of the fixator is made up of bars and clamps that are adjustable, allowing for precise positioning and alignment of the bones. The pins or wires that attach to the bone are carefully inserted through small incisions in the skin, and are held in place by the clamps on the frame.

External fixators can be used for a period of several weeks to several months, depending on the severity of the injury and the individual's healing process. During this time, the patient may require regular adjustments and monitoring by an orthopedic surgeon or other medical professional. Once the bone has healed sufficiently, the external fixator can be removed in a follow-up procedure.

Intramedullary fracture fixation is a surgical technique used to stabilize and align bone fractures. In this procedure, a metal rod or nail is inserted into the marrow cavity (intramedullary canal) of the affected bone, spanning the length of the fracture. The rod is then secured to the bone using screws or other fixation devices on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and helps maintain proper alignment during the healing process.

The benefits of intramedullary fixation include:

1. Load sharing: The intramedullary rod shares some of the load bearing capacity with the bone, which can help reduce stress on the healing bone.
2. Minimal soft tissue dissection: Since the implant is inserted through the medullary canal, there is less disruption to the surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments compared to other fixation methods.
3. Biomechanical stability: Intramedullary fixation provides rotational and bending stiffness, which helps maintain proper alignment of the fracture fragments during healing.
4. Early mobilization: Patients with intramedullary fixation can often begin weight bearing and rehabilitation exercises earlier than those with other types of fixation, leading to faster recovery times.

Common indications for intramedullary fracture fixation include long bone fractures in the femur, tibia, humerus, and fibula, as well as certain pelvic and spinal fractures. However, the choice of fixation method depends on various factors such as patient age, fracture pattern, location, and associated injuries.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

Developmental bone diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the growth and development of bones. These diseases are present at birth or develop during childhood and adolescence, when bones are growing rapidly. They can result from genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or environmental factors such as poor nutrition.

Some examples of developmental bone diseases include:

1. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): Also known as brittle bone disease, OI is a genetic disorder that affects the body's production of collagen, a protein necessary for healthy bones. People with OI have fragile bones that break easily and may also experience other symptoms such as blue sclerae (whites of the eyes), hearing loss, and joint laxity.
2. Achondroplasia: This is the most common form of dwarfism, caused by a genetic mutation that affects bone growth. People with achondroplasia have short limbs and a large head relative to their body size.
3. Rickets: A condition caused by vitamin D deficiency or an inability to absorb or use vitamin D properly. This leads to weak, soft bones that can bow or bend easily, particularly in children.
4. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare bone disorder where normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue, leading to weakened bones and deformities.
5. Scoliosis: An abnormal curvature of the spine that can develop during childhood or adolescence. While not strictly a developmental bone disease, scoliosis can be caused by various underlying conditions such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spina bifida.

Treatment for developmental bone diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment may include medication, physical therapy, bracing, or surgery to correct deformities and improve function. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor growth, manage symptoms, and prevent complications.

Bony callus is a medical term that refers to the specialized tissue that forms in response to a bone fracture. It is a crucial part of the natural healing process, as it helps to stabilize and protect the broken bone while it mends.

When a bone is fractured, the body responds by initiating an inflammatory response, which triggers the production of various cells and signaling molecules that promote healing. As part of this process, specialized cells called osteoblasts begin to produce new bone tissue at the site of the fracture. This tissue is initially soft and pliable, allowing it to bridge the gap between the broken ends of the bone.

Over time, this soft callus gradually hardens and calcifies, forming a bony callus that helps to stabilize the fracture and provide additional support as the bone heals. The bony callus is typically composed of a mixture of woven bone (which is less organized than normal bone) and more structured lamellar bone (which is similar in structure to normal bone).

As the bone continues to heal, the bony callus may be gradually remodeled and reshaped by osteoclasts, which are specialized cells that break down and remove excess or unwanted bone tissue. This process helps to restore the bone's original shape and strength, allowing it to function normally again.

It is worth noting that excessive bony callus formation can sometimes lead to complications, such as stiffness, pain, or decreased range of motion in the affected limb. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove or reduce the size of the bony callus and promote proper healing.

Osteomyelitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection that involves the bone or the bone marrow. It can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections that spread to the bone from another part of the body, or direct infection of the bone through trauma or surgery.

The symptoms of osteomyelitis may include pain and tenderness in the affected area, fever, chills, fatigue, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, there may also be redness, swelling, and drainage from the infected area. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, as well as blood tests and cultures to identify the underlying cause of the infection.

Treatment for osteomyelitis usually involves a combination of antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and possibly surgical debridement to remove infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and manage the condition.

'Leg length inequality' (LLIS) is a condition where there is a discrepancy in the lengths of an individual's lower extremities, specifically the bones of the thigh (femur) and/or the leg (tibia/fibula). This discrepancy can be congenital or acquired due to various causes such as fractures, infections, or surgical procedures. The inequality can lead to functional scoliosis, lower back pain, and other musculoskeletal issues. It is typically diagnosed through physical examination and imaging studies like X-rays, and may be treated with various methods including orthotics, shoe lifts, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

I believe you are referring to "bone pins" or "bone nails" rather than "bone nails." These terms are used in the medical field to describe surgical implants made of metal or biocompatible materials that are used to stabilize and hold together fractured bones during the healing process. They can also be used in spinal fusion surgery to provide stability and promote bone growth between vertebrae.

Bone pins or nails typically have a threaded or smooth shaft, with a small diameter that allows them to be inserted into the medullary canal of long bones such as the femur or tibia. They may also have a head or eyelet on one end that allows for attachment to external fixation devices or other surgical instruments.

The use of bone pins and nails has revolutionized orthopedic surgery, allowing for faster healing times, improved stability, and better functional outcomes for patients with fractures or spinal deformities.

Fracture fixation, internal, is a surgical procedure where a fractured bone is fixed using metal devices such as plates, screws, or rods that are implanted inside the body. This technique helps to maintain the alignment and stability of the broken bone while it heals. The implants may be temporarily or permanently left inside the body, depending on the nature and severity of the fracture. Internal fixation allows for early mobilization and rehabilitation, which can result in a faster recovery and improved functional outcome.

Malunited fractures refer to a type of fracture where the bones do not heal in their proper alignment or position. This can occur due to various reasons such as inadequate reduction of the fracture fragments during initial treatment, improper casting or immobilization, or failure of the patient to follow proper immobilization instructions. Malunited fractures can result in deformity, limited range of motion, and decreased functionality of the affected limb. Additional treatments such as surgery may be required to correct the malunion and restore normal function.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Osteogenesis, distraction refers to a surgical procedure and controlled rehabilitation process used in orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and neurosurgery to lengthen bones or correct bone deformities. The term "osteogenesis" means bone formation, while "distraction" refers to the gradual separation of bone segments.

In this procedure, a surgeon first cuts the bone (osteotomy) and then applies an external or internal distraction device that slowly moves apart the cut ends of the bone. Over time, new bone forms in the gap between the separated bone segments through a process called distraction osteogenesis. This results in increased bone length or correction of deformities.

Distraction osteogenesis is often used to treat various conditions such as limb length discrepancies, craniofacial deformities, and spinal deformities. The procedure requires careful planning, precise surgical technique, and close postoperative management to ensure optimal outcomes.

In the context of medicine, "lead" most commonly refers to lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead is a heavy metal that can be harmful to the human body, even at low levels. It can enter the body through contaminated air, water, food, or soil, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body over time, causing damage to the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and kidneys. Symptoms of lead poisoning may include abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, headache, irritability, memory problems, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death.

Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for children, as their developing bodies are more sensitive to the harmful effects of lead. Even low levels of lead exposure can cause learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delays in children. Therefore, it's important to minimize lead exposure and seek medical attention if lead poisoning is suspected.

A growth plate, also known as an epiphyseal plate or physis, is a layer of cartilaginous tissue found near the ends of long bones in children and adolescents. This region is responsible for the longitudinal growth of bones during development. The growth plate contains actively dividing cells that differentiate into chondrocytes, which produce and deposit new matrix, leading to bone elongation. Once growth is complete, usually in late adolescence or early adulthood, the growth plates ossify (harden) and are replaced by solid bone, transforming into the epiphyseal line.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

Adamantinoma is a rare, slow-growing malignant (cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the tibia or fibula bones of the lower leg. It primarily affects young adults and can be difficult to diagnose due to its rarity and nonspecific symptoms.

The name "adamantinoma" comes from its microscopic appearance, which resembles that of a type of skin cancer called adamantinoma of the skin or adamantoblastoma. However, they are not related.

Adamantinomas are characterized by the presence of epithelial cells (cells that line the outer surface of the body and internal organs) within the bone tissue. These tumors tend to be locally aggressive, meaning they can invade surrounding tissues and bones. In some cases, adamantinomas may metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or lymph nodes.

Treatment for adamantinoma usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a portion of the affected bone. In some cases, reconstruction or limb-sparing surgery may be necessary to maintain function and appearance. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are not typically effective against adamantinomas, but they might be used in specific situations or as part of clinical trials.

Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are essential for monitoring the patient's condition and detecting any potential recurrence or metastasis early on.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

A closed fracture, also known as a simple fracture, is a type of bone break where the skin remains intact and there is no open wound. The bone may be broken in such a way that it does not pierce the skin, but still requires medical attention for proper diagnosis, treatment, and healing. Closed fractures can range from hairline cracks to complete breaks and can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. It is important to seek immediate medical care if a closed fracture is suspected, as improper healing can lead to long-term complications such as decreased mobility, chronic pain, or deformity.

Bone plates are medical devices used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize and hold together fractured or broken bones during the healing process. They are typically made of surgical-grade stainless steel, titanium, or other biocompatible materials. The plate is shaped to fit the contour of the bone and is held in place with screws that are inserted through the plate and into the bone on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and alignment to the broken bones, allowing them to heal properly. Bone plates can be used to treat a variety of fractures, including those that are complex or unstable. After healing is complete, the bone plate may be left in place or removed, depending on the individual's needs and the surgeon's recommendation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "grasshoppers" is not a term used in medical definitions. Grasshoppers are a type of insect that belongs to the order Orthoptera and suborder Caelifera. They are known for their long hind legs which they use for jumping, and some species can jump over 20 times their own body length. If you have any questions about medical terminology or topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Fracture fixation is a surgical procedure in orthopedic trauma surgery where a fractured bone is stabilized using various devices and techniques to promote proper healing and alignment. The goal of fracture fixation is to maintain the broken bone ends in correct anatomical position and length, allowing for adequate stability during the healing process.

There are two main types of fracture fixation:

1. Internal fixation: In this method, metal implants like plates, screws, or intramedullary rods are inserted directly into the bone to hold the fragments in place. These implants can be either removed or left in the body once healing is complete, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

2. External fixation: This technique involves placing pins or screws through the skin and into the bone above and below the fracture site. These pins are then connected to an external frame that maintains alignment and stability. External fixators are typically used when there is significant soft tissue damage, infection, or when internal fixation is not possible due to the complexity of the fracture.

The choice between internal and external fixation depends on various factors such as the type and location of the fracture, patient's age and overall health, surgeon's preference, and potential complications. Both methods aim to provide a stable environment for bone healing while minimizing the risk of malunion, nonunion, or deformity.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

X-ray emission spectrometry is a technique used to analyze the elements present in a sample by measuring the characteristic X-rays that are emitted when the sample is bombarded with high-energy X-rays or charged particles. The sample is excited to emit X-rays, which have specific energies (wavelengths) that correspond to the energy levels of the electrons in the atoms of the elements present in the sample. These X-ray emissions are then detected and analyzed using a spectrometer, which separates and measures the intensity of the different X-ray energies. The resulting spectrum provides information about the identity and quantity of the elements present in the sample. This technique is widely used in materials analysis, particularly for the identification and quantification of heavy metals and other elements in a variety of samples, including geological, biological, and industrial materials.

Stress fractures are defined as small cracks or severe bruising in bones that occur from repetitive stress or overuse. They most commonly occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the legs and feet, but can also occur in the arms, hips, and back. Stress fractures differ from regular fractures because they typically do not result from a single, traumatic event. Instead, they are caused by repeated stress on the bone that results in microscopic damage over time. Athletes, military personnel, and individuals who engage in high-impact activities or have weak bones (osteoporosis) are at increased risk of developing stress fractures. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, tenderness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected bone.

A comminuted fracture is a type of bone break where the bone is shattered into three or more pieces. This type of fracture typically occurs after high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a great height. Commminuted fractures can also occur in bones that are weakened by conditions like osteoporosis or cancer. Because of the severity and complexity of comminuted fractures, they often require extensive treatment, which may include surgery to realign and stabilize the bone fragments using metal screws, plates, or rods.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Lead poisoning in adults refers to the harmful effects that occur due to elevated levels of lead in the body, particularly affecting the nervous system. Lead is a potent neurotoxin with no known safe level of exposure. In adults, chronic exposure to lead can result in a range of neurological symptoms, including cognitive impairment, memory loss, headaches, sleep disturbances, and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage causing weakness, numbness, or pain in the hands and feet).

The primary source of lead poisoning in adults is occupational exposure, such as through mining, smelting, construction, manufacturing, or recycling activities. Lead can also enter the body through ingestion or inhalation of lead-contaminated dust, soil, water, or food. Adults with certain risk factors, including living in older homes with lead-based paint, engaging in hobbies that involve lead (e.g., stained glass making, pottery), or consuming traditional medicines or imported foods containing lead, are also at increased risk.

Diagnosis of lead poisoning in adults typically involves blood tests to measure the level of lead in the blood. Levels above 5 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) are considered elevated and may require medical intervention. Treatment for lead poisoning includes removing the source of exposure, providing supportive care, and, in some cases, administering chelation therapy to remove lead from the body. Prevention is key in reducing the risk of lead poisoning, including implementing safety measures at work, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding sources of lead exposure.

The ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint, is the articulation between the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) and the talus bone in the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements, which are essential for walking, running, and jumping. The ankle joint is reinforced by strong ligaments on both sides to provide stability during these movements.

Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone is a rare, benign bone disorder that is characterized by the replacement of normal bone tissue with fibrous (scar-like) and immature bone tissue. This results in weakened bones that are prone to fractures, deformities, and pain. The condition can affect any bone in the body but most commonly involves the long bones of the legs, arms, and skull. It can occur as an isolated finding or as part of a genetic disorder called McCune-Albright syndrome. The exact cause of fibrous dysplasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a genetic mutation that occurs during early bone development. There is no cure for fibrous dysplasia, and treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Osteochondrosis is a group of orthopedic disorders that primarily affect the epiphyseal growth plates (the areas of growing tissue at the ends of long bones) and adjacent articular (joint) cartilage in children and adolescents. These disorders are characterized by abnormal development, degeneration, or fragmentation of the affected bone and/or cartilage, which can lead to pain, stiffness, and, in some cases, restricted mobility.

The term "osteochondrosis" is often used interchangeably with "osteochondritis dissecans," but they are not identical conditions. Osteochondrosis refers to the general category of disorders, while osteochondritis dissecans is a specific type of osteochondrosis that primarily affects the subchondral bone (the layer of bone directly beneath the articular cartilage) and results in the formation of loose fragments or "joint mice."

Examples of osteochondrosis include:

1. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, which affects the hip joint
2. Köhler's disease, which affects the navicular bone in the foot
3. Panner's disease, which affects the elbow joint
4. Scheuermann's disease, which affects the vertebral bodies in the spine
5. Freiberg's infarction, which affects the metatarsal heads in the foot

The exact cause of osteochondrosis remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, biomechanical, and environmental factors that contribute to the abnormal growth and development of the affected bone and cartilage. Treatment typically involves rest, physical therapy, bracing or casting, and, in some cases, surgery to remove loose fragments or promote healing.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a major stabilizing ligament in the knee. It is one of the four strong bands of tissue that connect the bones of the knee joint together. The ACL runs diagonally through the middle of the knee and helps to control the back and forth motion of the knee, as well as provide stability to the knee joint. Injuries to the ACL often occur during sports or physical activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or awkward landings.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone tissue. They are star-shaped cells that are located inside the mineralized matrix of bones, with their processes extending into small spaces called lacunae and canaliculi. Osteocytes are derived from osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that become trapped within the matrix they produce.

Osteocytes play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by regulating bone remodeling, sensing mechanical stress, and modulating mineralization. They communicate with each other and with osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) through a network of interconnected processes and via the release of signaling molecules. Osteocytes can also respond to changes in their environment, such as hormonal signals or mechanical loading, by altering their gene expression and releasing factors that regulate bone metabolism.

Dysfunction of osteocytes has been implicated in various bone diseases, including osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Ankle injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the ankle joint and its surrounding structures, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. The ankle joint is a complex structure composed of three bones: the tibia (shinbone), fibula (lower leg bone), and talus (a bone in the foot). These bones are held together by various strong ligaments that provide stability and enable proper movement.

There are several types of ankle injuries, with the most common being sprains, strains, and fractures:

1. Ankle Sprain: A sprain occurs when the ligaments surrounding the ankle joint get stretched or torn due to sudden twisting, rolling, or forced movements. The severity of a sprain can range from mild (grade 1) to severe (grade 3), with partial or complete tearing of the ligament(s).
2. Ankle Strain: A strain is an injury to the muscles or tendons surrounding the ankle joint, often caused by overuse, excessive force, or awkward positioning. This results in pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the ankle.
3. Ankle Fracture: A fracture occurs when one or more bones in the ankle joint break due to high-impact trauma, such as a fall, sports injury, or vehicle accident. Fractures can vary in severity, from small cracks to complete breaks that may require surgery and immobilization for proper healing.

Symptoms of ankle injuries typically include pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected ankle. Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe injuries, such as fractures, dislocations, or significant ligament tears, to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE), immobilization with a brace or cast, physical therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the type and severity of the injury.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

The tibia (/ˈtɪbiə/; PL: tibiae /ˈtɪbii/ or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and ... The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane. The tibia is connected to ... The tibia is named for the flute tibia. It is the second largest bone in the human body, after the femur. The leg bones are the ... In Judaism, the tibia, or shankbone, of a goat or sheep is used in the Passover Seder plate. The structure of the tibia in most ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tibia curta. "Tibia (Tibia) insulaechorab curta". Retrieved 16 January ... Tibia curta, common name the Indian tibia, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Strombidae ... This marine species occurs from the Persian Gulf to the Bay of Bengal Tibia curta (G.B. Sowerby II, 1842). Retrieved through: ... World Register of Marine Species on WoRMS (2012). Tibia curta (G.B. Sowerby II, 1842). Accessed through the World Register of ...
The tibia is a bone in the leg of humans and other vertebrates. Tibia may also refer to: Tibia (gastropod), a genus of sea ... a sort of organ pipe that is most characteristic of a theatre organ Tibia (video game), a 1997 MMORPG Tibia (arthropod leg), a ... Look up tibia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... an ancient Greek and Roman wind instrument Tibia (organ pipe), ... segment of the arthropod leg This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Tibia. If an internal link led ...
... synonymized with Tibia curta (G. B. Sowerby II, 1842) Tibia insulaechorab Tibia fusus Tibia curta Tibia curta Röding P. F. ( ... Tibia indica Dey, 1962 Tibia insulaechorab Röding, 1798 - Red Sea †Tibia katoi Noda & R. Watanabe, 1996 Tibia melanocheilus (A ... The following species are recognised in the genus Tibia: Tibia bidigitata (Newton, 1922) †Tibia butaciana (K. Martin, 1899) ... Tibia curta (G. B. Sowerby II, 1842) - Tuticorin, southern India †Tibia dentata (Grateloup, 1827) Tibia fusus (Linnaeus, 1758 ...
... may refer to: Genu varum Blount's disease This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Tibia ...
... Gastropoda Stromboidea "Tibia insulaechorab Röding, 1798: Arabian tibia". SeaLifeBase. Retrieved 18 August ... Tibia insulaechorab, common name the Arabian tibia, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family ... Media related to Tibia insulaechorab at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Tibia insulaechorab at Wikispecies (Articles with ... Tibia insulaechorab is native to the western Indian Ocean. Its range extends from Madagascar and the east coast of Africa to ...
... (Linnaeus, 1758), shinbone tibia. Claudio Galli: WMSDB - Worldwide Mollusc Species Data Base "Tibia (Tibia) fusus ... Tibia fusus, common name Spindle tibia or Shinbone Tibia Gastropod, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk ... Most Tibia fusus live in tropical offshore waters where there is plenty of sand, at depths of 5 to 50 m. The shells of Tibia ... Shells of the Philippines Tibia fusus Linnaeus, 1758. WoRMS (2009). Tibia fusus Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through the World ...
Other variants of the Tibia include: Tibia Bass, Tibia Flute, Tibia Major, Tibia Minor, Tibia Plena (open tibia) and Tibia Rex ... although examples of metal tibias may be found made by the John Compton Organ Company. The Tibia Clausa, or Tibia, is generally ... The Tibia may be voiced on wind pressures from 10 to 25 in (250 to 640 mm) . The Tibia is often used as a chorus stop (several ... Tibia Clausas provides the basic foundation tone of the organ with few overtones or harmonics. The Tibia Clausa is arguably the ...
... (ATW) is a 17,961-acre (72.69 km2) protected area in Riverside and San Diego counties, in the U.S. state ... "Agua Tibia Mountain". Retrieved 2010-08-14. Bruce D. Ryan (May 1990). "Lichens and air quality in the Agua ... The Agua Tibia Wilderness is home to rare and endemic plants. These include: Nevin's barberry (Mahonia nevinii) Rainbow ... The highest landform is Agua Tibia Mountain with an elevation of 4,779 feet (1,457 m). Though the summer climate is hot, with ...
... may refer to: Lateral condyle of tibia Medial condyle of tibia This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Condyle of tibia. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly ...
A tibia is a sort of organ pipe that is most characteristic of a theatre organ. Tibia pipes are generally made of wood, stopped ... There is usually a tremulant on the wind for Tibia pipes - the increase and decrease of wind pressure gives "life" to the sound ...
"Tibia - Free Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game". "Tibia Game Review". 3 February 2015. Tibia mainly ... "Tibia - News". Retrieved 2020-09-16. CipSoft GmbH. "Tibia - News". Retrieved 2020-09-16. Official ... "Tibia - News". Retrieved 2022-02-28. See to the latest news as published on the Tibia website CipSoft GmbH. " ... "Tibia - Free Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game". "Tibia - Free Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game". " ...
... is a fracture of the proximal (upper) third of the tibia (lower leg bone). Due to the location of the ... Tibia shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures. They account for approximately 4% of the fractures seen in the ... Tibia shaft fractures are particularly common injuries in certain sports, such as in MMA, where a successful check against an ... Two systems of fracture classification are commonly used to aid diagnosis and management of tibia shaft fractures:[citation ...
Lateral condyle of tibia Medial collateral ligament Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface. Bones of the right leg. Posterior ... The medial condyle is the medial (or inner) portion of the upper extremity of tibia. It is the site of insertion for the ... Tibia, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system stubs). ...
The lateral condyle is the lateral portion of the upper extremity of tibia. It serves as the insertion for the biceps femoris ... Gerdy's tubercle Medial condyle of tibia Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface. Right knee in extension. Deep dissection. ... Tibia, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system stubs). ...
A cast is all that is required if the fragment is not displaced from its normal position on the tibia. However, if the fracture ... The tuberosity of the tibia or tibial tuberosity or tibial tubercle is an elevation on the proximal, anterior aspect of the ... The tuberosity of the tibia gives attachment to the patellar ligament, which attaches to the patella from where the ... tibia, just below where the anterior surfaces of the lateral and medial tibial condyles end. ...
... from "Tib et Tatoum" (aka "Tib and Tumtum") comics/cartoon Tib-cat from The Little Broomstick Other uses: River Tib, an ... TIB (or Tib or TiB) may refer to: In computing: Tebibit (Tib), a unit of information used to quantify computer memory or ... storage capacity Tebibyte (TiB), a unit of information used to quantify computer memory or storage capacity TIB (file format), ... an anti-corruption non-governmental organization TIB Financial Corporation, a bank holding company purchased by North American ...
... (Tibia: meaning reed pipe) is a moth discovered at two collection sites in Costa Rica in 2005 by David ... "Glyphidocera tibiae ADAMSKI, 2005, new species - Plazi TreatmentBank". Retrieved 2022-07-10. v t e ( ...
Tib Street (53°29′01″N 2°14′05″W / 53.4837°N 2.2348°W / 53.4837; -2.2348) and Tib Lane are named after the watercourse. ... Parts of the Rochdale Canal around Lock 89 (Tib Lock) can be emptied into the River Tib by opening a small, original wooden ... The River Tib is a minor tributary of the River Medlock in Manchester, England. It has been culverted along its entire length ... A notion concerning the Tib's name, coined by Geoffrey Ashworth in his book The Lost Rivers of Manchester, is that the river ...
"Tibia absent polydactyly arachnoid cyst". Global Genes. Retrieved 2022-05-31. "Tibia absent polydactyly arachnoid cyst - About ... Absent tibia-polydactyly-arachnoid cyst syndrome, also known as Holmes-Collins syndrome, is a very rare multi-systemic ... "OMIM Entry - 601027 - TIBIA, ABSENCE OR HYPOPLASIA OF, WITH POLYDACTYLY, RETROCEREBELLAR ARACHNOID CYST, AND OTHER ANOMALIES". ... Holmes, L. B.; Redline, R. W.; Brown, D. L.; Williams, A. J.; Collins, T. (1995-11-01). "Absence/hypoplasia of tibia, ...
The activities of TIB are supervised by the Bank of Tanzania, the central bank and national banking regulator. TIB is ... TIB Development Bank, formerly known as Tanzania Investment Bank (TIB), is a government-owned development bank in Tanzania. The ... The three institutions, together form the Tanzania Investment Bank Group or TIB Group: TIB Development Bank Limited - A ... "Tanzania: TIB Transformation To Add More Value On Kilimo Kwanza Concept". Tanzania Daily News (Dar es Salaam) via ...
The three girls and Tib's brother Freddie build a playhouse in Tib's basement, using her family's store of firewood. Tib's ... Betsy, Tacy, and Tib explore Tib's house by looking into mirrors, calling the rooms that they see in the mirrors part of the ... Tib's mother cuts of the rest of the girls' hair to even it up. Annoyed that their older sisters created a club that they were ... Betsy-Tacy and Tib (1941) is the second volume in the Betsy-Tacy series by Maud Hart Lovelace. The book, along with the entire ...
... (Urdu: نشر الطيب فى ذكر النبى الحبيب ﷺ) is a biography of Prophet Muhammad written by ... Nashr al-Tib fi Zikr al-Nabi al-Habib at Internet Archive (CS1 Urdu-language sources (ur), Articles with short description, ... In regards to the sources used in the book, the author himself mentions that while writing Nashr al-Tib fi Zikr al-Nabi al- ... Furthermore, the author extensively utilized an Arabic magazine called Shamim al-Habib to the extent that Nashr al-Tib could be ...
At 1:53 minutes hardly a "concerto" Finkelman, Michael (1999). "Die Oboeinstrumente in tiefer Stimmlage, Teil 5". Tibia. 99: ...
Moeck, Hermann (1994). "Flötensignaturen auf alten Gemälden" [Maker's marks in old paintings]. Tibia. 19 (2): 128-29. Opera ... Tibia. 23 (2): 97-105. Michel, Winfried (1998). "Vivaldis Konzerte 'per Flautino' in ihrer wahren Gestalt: Ein letzter ... Leseversuch" [Vivaldi's concertos 'per flautino' in their true form: A final attempt at a reading]. Tibia. 23 (2): 106-11. ...
Tibia hairy. Fore tibia clothed with tufts of immensely long hair in male. Forewings long an narrow. Costa arched before the ...
... left tibia; left astragalus and calcaneum; proximal end of left fibula and right tibia; metatarsals; phalanges; and a pedal ... proportionally short hindlimbs with a tibia shorter than femur suggests that this was a massive animal with a great capacity to ...
Tibia spineless. Dypterygia andreji (Kardakoff, 1928) Dypterygia assuetus (Butler, 1879) Dypterygia caliginosa (Walker, 1858) ...
Tibia naked. Forewings with nearly rectangular apex. Veins 7 to 9 stalked. Hindwings with veins 6 and 7 stalked. Beccaloni, G ...
Tibia hairy. Forewings with straight costa. Outer margin excised from vein 5 to outer angle. Hindwings with produced outer ...
The tibia (/ˈtɪbiə/; PL: tibiae /ˈtɪbii/ or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and ... The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane. The tibia is connected to ... The tibia is named for the flute tibia. It is the second largest bone in the human body, after the femur. The leg bones are the ... In Judaism, the tibia, or shankbone, of a goat or sheep is used in the Passover Seder plate. The structure of the tibia in most ...
The tibia is the larger of two long bones in the lower leg. It is sometimes called the shin bone. ... The tibia is the larger of two long bones in the lower leg. It is sometimes called the shin bone. ...
Because the tibia is a subcutaneous bone, tibial fractures are frequently open fractures. . ... encoded search term (Open Tibia Fractures) and Open Tibia Fractures What to Read Next on Medscape ... Open Tibia Fractures. Updated: Mar 23, 2022 * Author: Minoo Patel, MBBS, PhD, MS, FRACS; Chief Editor: Thomas M DeBerardino, MD ... Primary Nailing in the Open Fractures of the Tibia-Is it worth?. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Jun. 7 (6):1125-30. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
What does TIB/Rendezvous actually mean? Find out inside PCMags comprehensive tech and computer-related encyclopedia. ... that provides the foundation for the TIB/ActiveMatrix suite of application integration products. TIB/Rendezvous supports ...
The tibia and femur bones form the main articulation of the knee joint, and the tibia also articulates with the fibula bone at ... Between the tibia and femur is the meniscus, which accommodates the rounded ends of the femur and the flattened top of the ... Looking at the upper tibia from the lateral side you can see the tibial tuberosity where the patellar tendon attaches. On the ... Equally the two menisci cannot be seen on an X-ray, appearing only as a gap between tibia and femur. ...
Tibia and Fibula. » Malunion of the Tibia. Malunion of the Tibia. - Discussion:. - accetable reduction:. - more than 50% of ... Categories Bones, Tibia and Fibula Tags Knee, Muscles Tendons, Tibia and Fibula Mallet Toe ...
To download a certificate of analysis for 11-4.1 (TIB-95), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or ... To download a certificate of origin for 11-4.1 (TIB-95), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or ... The certificate of origin for that lot of 11-4.1 (TIB-95) is not currently available online. Complete this form to request this ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of 11-4.1 (TIB-95) is not currently available online. Complete this form to request ...
TIBIA *. TIBIA - Online*Porträts*Fachartikel*Berichte*Neues aus der Holzbläserwelt*Veranstaltungen*Neueingänge*Rezensionen* ... TIBIA gratuliert der Firma Conrad Mollenhauer GmbH mit Sitz in Fulda, die in diesem Jahr auf eine(...) ...
Tibia. Tibia Gold. Hot Game. Aion. Aion Gold. Aion PowerLeveling. Aion Card. Blade and Soul. Buy Gold. Buy PowerLeveling. Buy ... Tibia. Tibia Gold. Toram Online. Buy Gold. Torchlight Infinite. Buy Gold. Torchlight2. Buy Gold. Uncharted Waters Online. Buy ... Home » Tibia » Firmera. Currency: USD EUR GBP AUD CAD Server:. Antica. Assombra. Astera. Belobra. Bona. Calmera. Carnera. ...
... en fonction de lâge gestationnel daprès Collet M et Coll ...
Tibia was running but I see a lines, and my cursor in Tibia is higher than the real position of cursor. See this lines: http:// ...
Full Global Tibia 8.0 with lots of new features from the later versions! We know that most people do not have endless amounts ... Open Tibia Veterans - New Ots developers dedicated discord Polish ots community has moved from ota discord to a new discord OTV ... Hello Guys I have Ots 8.6 Otc and normal client Players write to me have debug and use Client tibia How I can find problem?I ... Losowy item z pudełka tibia 8.6 Witam. Z góry mówię że jestem świeżakiem i próbuje postawić swój pierwszy ots evo 8.6. ...
The 4.5 version may also be used for fixation of nonunions and malunions of the medial proximal tibia and tibia shaft, as well ... They are intended to buttress metaphyseal fractures of the medial tibia plateau, split-type fractures of the medial tibia ... of the tibia as well as segmental fractures of the proximal tibia. ... The plate head is anatomically contoured to approximate the anteromedial proximal tibia. The plates feature 3 locking screw ...
She was elected during the 103rd meeting of the board at TIB office in the capitals Dhanmondi today, according to a press ... TIB urges Railways Minister to step down over suspension of TTE over fining relatives ...
1 femur, 1 spine and 1 tibia pen. And if you are inclined to fall a part you can now really pick yourself up. Sold as a three ...
Fail explicitly if partitions with size over 2 TiB are requested with msdos disk_label Bug #1298362 reported by Lucas Alvares ... Fail explicitly if partitions with size over 2 TiB are requested with. + msdos disk_label ...
I have an image of a server taken from Acronis trueimage, and I thought I could use COnverter on the *.tib on the file, and rip ... I checked the link to the VMWare manual, and it does not really talk about the steps involved on getting the "tib" to a VM. ... As for the "steps" involved to getting a "tib" to a VM, it is fairly straight forward using Converter. You need to perform an " ... If you are using VMware Converter standalone version 3.0.3 you can import Acronis images (.tib) created with:. 1. Acronis True ...
Tibia is a free massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Join this fascinating game that has thousands of fans ... from all over the world! - ... Is there a Tibia question that has been on your mind for a long ... This time, the Tibia team will respond to your messages. The Tibia team is responsible for maintaining and developing Tibia and ... We will then select 20 letters together with the Tibia team and answer them internally over the next few weeks and months. The ...
... 2004- ... Furthermore, ATL reduced the posterior drawer of the tibia, which is the current basis for PCL injury in the knee, although it ... Yet, blunt loads onto the tibial tuberosity can cause posterior drawer motion of the tibia, leading to injury or rupture of the ... The purpose of the current study was to explore the effect of combined anterior knee loading (AKL) and axial tibia loading (ATL ...
Tibia is a free massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Join this fascinating game that has thousands of fans ... from all over the world! - ...
Hello, many peoples pleasing this tibia edit, and i not werry much playing the CS2D . I know thats annother edit, and its su* ... Hi i like your tibia nice work but. Please can you tell me how to set monsters position in weiwen lua please thanks ...
I have been playing tibia since 7.1 version and after all this years tibia is still the only game i play ( besides chess) and ... On Tibia Book a task is usually more of a mission, and the rewards are also more mission based. Sometimes, killing 500 ... We developed a system in which all those items will be obtainable by reading real tibia lore and continuing the quests from ... This way we believe players will still be able to obtain those items while feeling they are playing old tibia, everything has ...
TIB_060622_078_xw.jpg. Copyright. © Peter Menzel Image Size. 683x1024 / 678.7KB. ...
Roche Acquires TIB Molbiol Group. Author: ChemistryViews. Roche has signed a share purchase agreement to acquire 100% of the ... TIB Molbiols portfolio of more than 45 CE-IVD assays and more than 100 assays for research purposes is already available on ... TIB Molbiol was founded over 30 years ago. As a manufacturer of custom oligonucleotides, it has participated in the development ... The acquisition of TIB Molbiol Group will expand Roches broad portfolio of molecular diagnostic solutions to include a variety ...
The tibia (plural: tibiae) is the largest bone of the leg and contributes to the knee and ankle joints. (shin- or shank-bone ... sellar surface of tibia: dome of talus (talocrural joint/tibiotalar joint). *distal tibia: lateral malleolus of the distal ... medial and lateral tibia condyles: medial and lateral femoral condyles. *proximal lateral tibia condyle: fibular head (proximal ... Arterial anastomosis at ankle supplies the distal end of tibia. Nerve supply. The tibia is proximally innervated by branches ...
Download the X-ray Rt.Ankle finding intramedullary osterolytic lesion of right distal tibia 26434037 royalty-free Stock Photo ... X-ray Rt.Ankle finding intramedullary osterolytic lesion of right distal tibia Pro Photo ...
... revealed a tumor mass located at the distal tibia leading to the diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO). After resection ... An MRI of the right knee and right calcaneus showed several months old fracture of the proximal tibia and a capillary fracture ... cm in size, located at the right dorsal distal tibia. On T1-weighted images the tumor showed isointensity with the muscle ... A 700 MBq technetium-Teceos bone scan demonstrated increased uptake in the proximal right tibia and fibula, the right calcaneus ...
TIB PAN). TIB PAN prowadzi kształcenie interdyscyplinarne przygotowujące do uzyskania stopnia doktora w następujących ... Lokalnym Koordynatorem Szkoły Doktorskiej TIB PAN w IBS PAN jest:. dr hab. inż. Andrzej MYŚLIŃSKI. tel. 22 38 10 258. e-mail: ...
  • The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane. (
  • The tibia is connected to the fibula by the interosseous membrane of leg, forming a type of fibrous joint called a syndesmosis with very little movement. (
  • As in other vertebrates the tibia is one of two bones in the lower leg, the other being the fibula, and is a component of the knee and ankle joints. (
  • The tibia and femur bones form the main articulation of the knee joint , and the tibia also articulates with the fibula bone at the outer side of the knee. (
  • bifurcates below, to form the boundaries of a triangular rough surface, for the attachment of the interosseous ligament connecting the tibia and fibula. (
  • The lower leg consists of the tibia and fibula. (
  • The tibia is the major weight bearing bone in the lower leg, while the fibula stabilizes the ankle and supports muscles of the lower leg. (
  • Stable fractures of the fibula are treated with a walking boot or cast, and most fractures of the tibia require surgery. (
  • Because the tibia is a subcutaneous bone, tibial fractures are frequently open fractures (see the image below). (
  • They are intended to buttress metaphyseal fractures of the medial tibia plateau, split-type fractures of the medial tibia plateau, medial split fractures with associated depressions and split or depression fractures of the medial tibia plateau. (
  • The plates may also be used for fixation of the proximal quarter (lateral and medial) of the tibia as well as segmental fractures of the proximal tibia. (
  • pQCT (Stratec XCT2000/3000) measurements at the tibia were undertaken in Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) United States (US), Hong Kong (HK), and Swedish (SW) cohorts. (
  • The tibia is most contracted in the lower third and the distal extremity is smaller than the proximal. (
  • The proximal or upper extremity of the tibia is expanded in the transverse plane with a medial and lateral condyle, which are both flattened in the horizontal plane. (
  • The LCP Medial Proximal Tibia Plates 3.5 and 4.5 are part of the LCP periarticular plating system. (
  • The 4.5 version may also be used for fixation of nonunions and malunions of the medial proximal tibia and tibia shaft, as well as opening and closing wedge tibial osteotomies. (
  • The plate head is anatomically contoured to approximate the anteromedial proximal tibia. (
  • The broad weight-bearing surface of the proximal tibia consists of the medial and lateral condyles, each having an articular concave surface and internal intercondylar tubercles projecting superiorly into the knee. (
  • Gerdy's tubercle is located at the anterolateral aspect of the proximal tibia, where the iliotibial band (ITB) attaches. (
  • Chondroblastoma of proximal tibia diagnosed by arthroscopy-guided biopsy: a case report. (
  • Samples loaded with the low-frequency waveform exhibited peak enhancement of bone formation in the proximal tibia, while the high-frequency waveform offered the greatest enhancement in the midshaft and distal sections. (
  • Central Women's University Vice-chancellor Professor Dr Perween Hasan has been elected chairperson of the trustee board of Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB). (
  • In human anatomy, the tibia is the second largest bone next to the femur. (
  • Between the tibia and femur is the meniscus , which accommodates the rounded ends of the femur and the flattened top of the tibia. (
  • Equally the two menisci cannot be seen on an X-ray, appearing only as a 'gap' between tibia and femur. (
  • On the side you can also see the anterolateral ligament (ALL) attaching tibia to femur. (
  • 1 femur, 1 spine and 1 tibia pen. (
  • The tibia ( Figs. 258, 259 ) is situated at the medial side of the leg, and, excepting the femur, is the longest bone of the skeleton. (
  • FGF-23 levels were significantly increased, and total body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor mass located at the distal tibia leading to the diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO). (
  • The tibia is categorized as a long bone and is as such composed of a diaphysis and two epiphyses. (
  • The tibia is the shin bone . (
  • tibiae ) is the largest bone of the leg and contributes to the knee and ankle joints. (
  • Resonance in the mouse tibia as a predictor of frequencies and locations of loading-induced bone formation. (
  • Or they can involve the bump on the inside of the ankle (medial malleolus), which is the end of the larger leg bone (shinbone, or tibia), or the back lower end of the shinbone (posterior malleolus) or, more often, both. (
  • West Nile Virus RNA was detected in samples from the spleen/lymph node, skin, and fat associated with the tibia bone, as well as 1 of 2 muscle specimens, 1 of 4 tendon specimens, and 1 of 2 bone marrow specimens. (
  • Arterial anastomosis at ankle supplies the distal end of tibia. (
  • The tibia is proximally innervated by branches supplying the knee joint, and distally by those supplying the ankle. (
  • The tibia is the larger of two long bones in the lower leg. (
  • Also note the lateral bowing of the infants shin bones, or tibiae. (
  • The purpose of the current study was to explore the effect of combined anterior knee loading (AKL) and axial tibia loading (ATL), on response and injury for the 90° flexed human knee. (
  • To test the hypothesis, we conducted axial tibia loading using low, medium, or high frequency to the mouse tibia, as well as finite element analysis. (
  • Recently studies have shown that axial loads in the tibia, which are measured during blunt loading on the knee in typical automobile crashes, can induce anterior drawer motion of the tibia and possibly help unload the PCL. (
  • Furthermore, ATL reduced the posterior drawer of the tibia, which is the current basis for PCL injury in the knee, although it did not reduce the incidence of PCL injury in this study. (
  • Looking at the upper tibia from the lateral side you can see the tibial tuberosity where the patellar tendon attaches. (
  • The diaphysis of the tibia is triangular in cross section and has medial, lateral and posterior surfaces, separated by the anterior, lateral (interosseous) and medial borders. (
  • VANCOUVER, Canada - Patients who undergo either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy are at an increased risk of fracture, compared with patients with obesity who do not undergo surgery, according to a new analysis of a predominantly male group of US veterans. (
  • Yet, blunt loads onto the tibial tuberosity can cause posterior drawer motion of the tibia, leading to injury or rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). (
  • The Tibia team is responsible for maintaining and developing Tibia and consists of product managers and the two development groups programming and game content design. (
  • The diaphysis is the midsection of the tibia, also known as the shaft or body. (
  • IP: Port: 7171 Client: Tibia 8.60 Uptime: 24/7 Hosted in: Brazil Website: Warzera - Latestnews ( Exp rate: 25x Map: Baiak Custom Runes: Normal charges and prices Loot rate: 5x Server type: Pvp-Rpg. (
  • The flattened top of the tibia is known as the tibial plateau. (
  • The majority of cases were stage 4 congenital tibia pseudarthrosis by Crawford classification. (
  • A human rights and pro-democracy group, Take-It-Back Movement (TIB), Oyo State chapter, has accused the state governor, Seyi Makinde, the Nigeria Police and Justice Ladiran Akintola of the state high court of conspiring and conniving to send to jail, nine youths arrested over #EndSARS protest in 2020. (
  • Pedestrians who are hit in the upper and middle one third of the tibia sustain bumper injuries. (
  • 257- Upper surface of right tibia. (
  • A focal, well-defined, lesion in the upper end of the tibia with surrounding marrow oedema was observed and diagnostic arthroscopy was taken for management. (
  • Hello Guys I have Ots 8.6 Otc and normal client Players write to me have debug and use Client tibia How I can find problem?I use Otc and I dont have problem 1701990321 tfs 1.5 by nekiro 1701992639 Debug Assertion 8.60 Network.cpp 921 Thu Dec 07 23:55:36 2023 Graphic Engine: DirectX9 (2). (
  • The periosteum of the diaphysis receives nerve twigs from the overlying muscles attaching to the tibia. (
  • As a small token of thanks, every chosen author will be rewarded with an arcane insignia and 250 non-transferable Tibia Coins. (
  • To support customers performing human genotyping, TIB Molbiol provides custom-made LightSNiP assays for SNP analysis. (
  • Tibia Konsult AB and the Sten K Johnson Foundation will continue their support for the Sten K. Johnson Centre for Entrepreneurship at Lund University School of Economics and Management, with a new five-year agreement being signed. (
  • We have seen the impressing development of the centre over the years, both research and educational wise, and are happy to support it for five more years," says Anders Bergstrand, chair of the board of Tibia Konsult AB and the Sten K Johnson Foundation, as well as the son of Sten K. Johnson. (
  • The support from Tibia Konsult and the Sten K Johnson Foundation is inestimable and for obvious reasons a cornerstone of our identity. (
  • I have an image of a server taken from Acronis trueimage, and I thought I could use COnverter on the *.tib on the file, and rip a VM of the image? (
  • how do i make a bootable cd with the .tib file already on it? (
  • I have been playing tibia since 7.1 version and after all this years tibia is still the only game i play ( besides chess) and the only game i follow streams and community. (
  • Roche has signed a share purchase agreement to acquire 100% of the outstanding shares of TIB Molbiol Group. (
  • This page is a step into this very direction and at the same time work in progress, which is conducted, for the time being, through a sub-project of the TIB named "Die digitale Tabula Imperii Byzantini (Dig-TIB) als Beitrag zum Weltkulturerbe" . (
  • So far, the "Digital Tabula Imperii Byzantini (Dig-TIB)" has created an online alphabetical gazetteer on this page, which is based on all published TIB volumes (starting with TIB 1) by extracting the indices of places and by listing the toponyms documented within the respective volumes in alphabetical order. (
  • TIB Molbiol was founded over 30 years ago. (
  • The initiatives in the field of Digital Humanities at the Austrian Academy of Sciences and also the related developments in Byzantine Studies in the last couple of years have encouraged the TIB to step up its efforts to provide a platform for the adequate presentation and sustainable usage of its data, which was and is published in respective TIB volumes. (
  • Thus, the users have the opportunity to view and compare data of the TIB with other digital projects within the field of Historical Geography. (
  • The acquisition of TIB Molbiol Group will expand Roche's broad portfolio of molecular diagnostic solutions to include a variety of assays for infectious diseases, such as the identification of SARS-CoV-2 variants. (
  • He was also the owner of Tibia Konsult AB, the company that is the majority shareholder of the Group. (
  • The Tibia cranks feature a slim arm design, constructed of 4130 chromoly arms and spindle. (
  • Due to its length the index of places from TIB 15 Syria is not included in the overall register. (
  • You need to perform an "import" operation and select .tib as your source. (
  • The insignia will be sent to the inbox of the posting character, and the Tibia Coins will be assigned to the respective account. (
  • Is there a Tibia question that has been on your mind for a long time, something you are passionate about, or something you would like to say to the Tibia team? (
  • To download a certificate of analysis for J11d.2 ( TIB-183 ), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip. (
  • TIB/Rendezvous supports request/supply and publish and subscribe models and connects to SAP, PeopleSoft and other legacy systems via application adapters. (
  • The nutrient artery (a branch of the p osterior tibial artery ) enters through the nutrient foramen at the level of soleal line and is the major arterial supply for the tibia. (
  • This way we believe players will still be able to obtain those items while feeling they are playing old tibia, everything has been expanded, not edited from zero. (