A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A highly purified recombinant glycoprotein form of human THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE, produced by recombinant DNA technology comprising two non-covalently linked subunits, an alpha subunit of 92 amino acid residues containing two N-linked glycosylation sites, and a beta subunit of 118 residues containing one N-linked glycosylation site. The amino acid sequence of thyrotropin alfa is identical to that of human pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.
An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Hormones produced in the testis.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
A thiourea antithyroid agent that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormone. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Abnormally elevated THYROXINE level in the BLOOD.
An immunoglobulin G, often found in the blood of hyperthyroid individuals. It stimulates the thyroid for a longer duration than does thyrotoxin and may cause hyperthyroidism in newborns due to placental transmission.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.

Central autonomic activation by intracisternal TRH analogue excites gastric splanchnic afferent neurons. (1/1011)

Intracisternal (ic) injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or its stable analogue RX 77368 influences gastric function via stimulation of vagal muscarinic pathways. In rats, the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow evoked by a low ic dose of RX 77368 occurs via release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, most probably of spinal origin. In this study, the effect of low ic doses of RX 77368 on afferent impulse activity in splanchnic single fibers was investigated. The cisterna magna of overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was acutely cannulated, and fine splanchnic nerve twigs containing at least one fiber responsive to mechanical probing of the stomach were isolated at a site immediately distal to the left suprarenal ganglion. Unit mechanoreceptive fields were encountered in all portions of the stomach, both superficially and in deeper layers. Splanchnic afferent unit impulse activity was recorded continuously during basal conditions and in response to consecutive ic injections of saline and RX 77368 (15-30 min later; 1.5 or 3 ng). Basal discharge rates ranged from 0 to 154 impulses/min (median = 10.2 impulses/min). A majority of splanchnic single units with ongoing activity increased their mean discharge rate by >/=20% after ic injection of RX 77368 at either 1.5 ng (6/10 units; median increase 63%) or 3 ng (19/24 units; median increase 175%). Five units lacking impulse activity in the 5-min before ic RX 77368 (3 ng) were also excited, with the onset of discharge occurring within 1.0-5.0 min postinjection. In units excited by ic RX 77368, peak discharge occurred 15.6 +/- 1.3 min after injection and was followed by a decline to stable activity levels +info)

Secretagogue-induced exocytosis recruits G protein-gated K+ channels to plasma membrane in endocrine cells. (2/1011)

Stimulation-regulated fusion of vesicles to the plasma membrane is an essential step for hormone secretion but may also serve for the recruitment of functional proteins to the plasma membrane. While studying the distribution of G protein-gated K+ (KG) channels in the anterior pituitary lobe, we found KG channel subunits Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 localized on the membranes of intracellular dense core vesicles that contained thyrotropin. Stimulation of these thyrotroph cells with thyrotropin-releasing hormone provoked fusion of vesicles to the plasma membrane, increased expression of Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 subunits in the plasma membrane, and markedly enhanced KG currents stimulated by dopamine and somatostatin. These data indicate a novel mechanism for the rapid insertion of functional ion channels into the plasma membrane, which could form a new type of negative feedback control loop for hormone secretion in the endocrine system.  (+info)

High concentration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in pancreatic islets. (3/1011)

The concentration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, thyroliberin) in rat islets of Langerhans is 30-fold higher than in whole rat pancreas, indicating that the islets are the main source of pancreatic TRH. The TRH extracted from islets is indistinguishable from synthetic TRH in its immunological and biological properties and in its inactivation by human serum. The physiologic function of islet TRH is unknown. However, because TRH is antagonistic to somatostatin in other systems, and somatostatin also is concentrated in islets in high concentrations, it is possible that islet TRH may serve a similar antagonistic function in the regulation of islet cell secretory activity.  (+info)

Somatostatin inhibits release of thyrotropin releasing factor from organ cultures of rat hypothalamus. (4/1011)

Somatostatin in concentrations of 10(-6) to 10(-8) M inhibited basal release of thyrotropin releasing factor in organ culture of rat hypothalamus. Norepinephrine in doses of 10(-4)--10(-6) M induced release of thyrotropin releasing factor which increased progressively with time and was temperature and dose dependent. This enhanced thyrotropin-releasing-factor release was inhibited by somatostatin at 10(-6)--10(-8) M.  (+info)

Purification of rat prolactin releasing factor by gel filtration. (5/1011)

Pregnant rat hypothalamic fragments were extracted with 30 mM Tris-HCl buffer at pH 7.8, subjected to enzymatic digestion, and applied to gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 for purification of the prolactin releasing factor. Effect of the eluted fractions on the release of prolactin were tested by the determination of serum and pituitary prolactin after the injection in lactating rats. Prolactin was estimated by radioimmunoassay. One fraction (tube number 61--73) eluted later than synthetic ACTH enhanced release of prolactin 30 min after injection, but other fractions had no effect on the release of prolactin. Prolactin releasing factor would be quantitatively predominant over prolactin inhibiting factor in pregnant rat.  (+info)

Paradoxical GH response to TRH during status epilepticus in man. (6/1011)

Information on GH in relation to epilepsy is sparse, and to our knowledge there is no information on GH levels during status epilepticus in man. We studied GH in serum in six patients during status epilepticus, and in a control group of six seizure-free patients with epilepsy, before and after injection of TRH. The baseline GH values before TRH administration were within the normal range in all patients. After injection of TRH all patients with status epilepticus showed a paradoxical peak-shaped increase of GH to at least twice their baseline levels within 45 min after the injection (median basal GH value 1.5 mU/l and median peak GH value 6. 5 mU/l, mean increase 330%). No uniform reaction to TRH was observed in the control group (median basal GH value 2.7 U/l and median of the highest value within 45 min 5.2mU/l). A paradoxical peak reaction of GH to TRH was significantly more frequent in the status epilepticus group compared with the control group (P=0.008, Fisher exact probability test). TRH is not considered a GH-releasing hormone in humans during normal conditions, but a paradoxical response of GH to TRH, similar to that observed during status epilepticus, has been reported in various other pathological conditions, such as acromegaly, liver cirrhosis, mental depression and hypothyroidism. Our results of GH release after TRH administration in patients with status epilepticus suggest an altered regulation of GH as a result of the long-standing epileptic activity.  (+info)

Evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in amenorrhoeic women with insulin-dependent diabetes. (7/1011)

Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of secondary hypogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. In amenorrhoeic women with insulin-dependent diabetes a derangement in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis has been proposed. No data exist on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in these women. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), metoclopramide and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) tests were performed in 15 diabetic women, eight amenorrhoeic (AD) and seven eumenorrhoeic (ED). Frequent blood samples were taken during 24 h to evaluate cortisol plasma concentrations. There were no differences between the groups in body mass index, duration of diabetes, insulin dose and metabolic control. The AD women had lower plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, oestradiol, androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) than the ED women. The responses of pituitary gonadotrophins to GnRH, and of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to TRH, were similar in both groups. The AD women had a lower prolactin response to TRH and metoclopramide, and lower ACTH and cortisol responses to CRH, than the ED women. Mean cortisol concentrations > 24 h were higher in the amenorrhoeic group. Significant differences in cortisol concentrations from 2400 to 1000 h were found between the two groups. Insulin-dependent diabetes may involve mild chronic hypercortisolism which may affect metabolic control. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis would increase hypothalamic secretion of CRH. This would lead directly and perhaps also indirectly by increasing dopaminergic tonus to inhibition of GnRH secretion and hence hypogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. Amenorrhoea associated with metabolically controlled insulin-dependent diabetes is a form of functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea that requires pharmacological and psychological management.  (+info)

Intracisternal TRH analog increases gastrin release and corpus histidine decarboxylase activity in rats. (8/1011)

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) acts in brain stem nuclei to induce vagally mediated stimulation of gastric secretion. The effects of intracisternal injection of the TRH analog RX-77368 on plasma gastrin levels and corpus histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity were studied in 48-h fasted conscious rats. RX-77368 (25-100 ng) increased plasma gastrin levels by threefold at 30 min, which remained significantly higher than control at 2 and 4 h postinjection. Corpus HDC activity began to increase at 2 h and reached a peak at 4 h postinjection with a 21-fold maximum response observed at 50 ng. Morphological changes in the appearance of corpus HDC-immunoreactive cells correlated well with HDC activity. Pretreatment with gastrin monoclonal antibody completely prevented RX-77368 stimulatory effects on HDC activity. Atropine significantly attenuated gastrin increase at 30 min by 26%. These results indicated that in conscious fasted rats, TRH analog acts in the brain to increase corpus HDC activity in the enterochromaffin-like cells, which involves gastrin release stimulated by central TRH analog.  (+info)

Looking for thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test? Find out information about thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test. or , hormone hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts... Explanation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test
The field of hair growth and hair restoration has introduced a new player to its lineup: TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone). It is likely TRH may turn out to be a heavy hitter in the fast-growing hair transplant industry.. Just recently, a new finding in hair elongation and the hair growth cycle was published in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (The FASEB Journal). The research was conducted in Germany by Dr. Gaspar at the top-ranked University of Lbeck, Department of Dermatology and Department of Internal Medicine.. Its been shown that Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is one of the crucial elements involved in the hair follicle growth cycle. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone is very closely situated to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This axis stabilizes thyroid hormone synthesis.. Scientists have decided to study whether human hair follicle functions are also modulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, because its been found in human ...
Lothrop CD, Jr., Tamas PM, Fadok VA. Am J Vet Res 1984;45:2310-2313. A canine and feline pituitary-thyroid function test based on thyrotropin-releasing hormone
The effects upon basal hormone levels and neuroendocrine responses of a weight reducing diet allowing 1200 kcal daily were determined in male and female volunteers. Thyrotropin (TSH) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were unchanged in men but attenuated in women; this effect was associated with a fall in basal TSH in women, not in men. Rates of non-suppression of cortisol in response to oral dexamethasone (1 mg) were unchanged during dieting although basal morning cortisol levels rose in males and females. The implications for the use of the TRH test and the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in depressive illness are discussed.
[Serum prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal subjects and in patients with thyroid diseases (authors transl)].: Synthetic thyrotropin-r
The field of hair growth and hair restoration has introduced a new player to its lineup: TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone). It is likely TRH may turn out to be a heavy hitter in the fast-growing hair transplant industry.. Just recently, a new finding in hair elongation and the hair growth cycle was published in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (The FASEB Journal). The research was conducted in Germany by Dr. Gaspar at the top-ranked University of Lbeck, Department of Dermatology and Department of Internal Medicine.. Its been shown that Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is one of the crucial elements involved in the hair follicle growth cycle. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone is very closely situated to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This axis stabilizes thyroid hormone synthesis.. Scientists have decided to study whether human hair follicle functions are also modulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, because its been found in human ...
The effects of iontophoretically applied thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on cat retinal brisk-sustained (X) and brisk-transient (Y) ganglion cells were studied in the intact eye in vivo. Under photopic illumination we found a differential action of TRH on ON- and OFF-centre cells: the maintained activity and light response were suppressed in ON-centre cells and enhanced in OFF-centre cells. This was true for both brisk sustained (X) and brisk-transient (Y) cells. In contrast, TRH did not influence the ganglion cell discharge under scotopic stimulus conditions. These results indicate that TRH acts on neurons presynaptic to ganglion cells and these neurons are only active under photopic conditions. We suggest that a possible functional role of this specific action of TRH is in light adaptation. ...
A sensitive and specific radioimmnunoassay has been used to measure the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in rat brain. All areas of brain tested, except cerebellum, contained readily measurable amounts of TRH. The hypothalamus contained only 31.2 percent of the total brain content of TRH. These results support recent suggestions of central actions for TRH in addition to its hypophysiotropic functions. ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) immunoreactivity occurs in high concentration within the rat prostate. Previous studies have shown that the immunoreactive species consists of more than one TRH-like tripeptide which cross-reacts in the TRH radioim
This gene encodes a member of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone family. Cleavage of the encoded proprotein releases mature thyrotropin-releasing hormone, which is a tripeptide hypothalamic regulatory hormone. The human proprotein contains six thyrotropin-releasing hormone tripeptides. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is involved in the regulation and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone, as well as prolactin. Deficiency of this hormone has been associated with hypothalamic hypothyroidism. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
2,4-diiodoimidazole- thyrotropin-releasing hormone: imidazole-substiuted analog of TRH, limits behavioral deficits after experimental brain trauma; structure given in first source
00:10 When we want to think about the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis we need to start in hypothalamus. 00:20 In the hypothalamus we have two structures that we need to take into account. thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamic axis (6, 10-22). In these studies it has been observed that the levels of serum TT4 and TT3 may be low or normal, levels of rT3 may be high or normal, the nocturnal peak of TSH secretion is blunted or abolished, the serum baseline TSH secretion in the morning may be normal, low or high and the serum TSH response to TRH may be normal or blunted in patients with. HYPOTHALAMO †PITUITARY †GONADAL AXIS • Physiology of the HPG axis • Endogenous opioids and the HPG axis (exercise-induced menstrual disturbances) The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid hormone (TH) production. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), ...
This report describes the extraction of synthetic TRH and its metabolic conversion in the perfused guinea pig placenta. These studies were performed to obtain an estimate of fractional fetal TRH losses through the placenta and to determine if some of these losses are due to TRH metabolism. The in situ guinea pig placenta was perfused through an umbilical artery for 90 min, and placental effluent fractions were collected at timed intervals from the umbilical vein. Experiments were performed in which the perfusion buffer contained 0.01, 1, and 10 micrograms/ml or no synthetic TRH. Synthetic TRH was always perfused in the presence of 3H2O. In experiments in which TRH was perfused, the perfusion reservoir contents and placental effluent fractions were counted for 3H, and TRH and deamido-TRH were determined by RIA. Similarly, cyclo(His-Pro) was measured when 10 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. When no TRH was perfused, the perfusion reservoir and placental effluent contents were processed to determine their
A number of clonal cell lines derived from a rat pituitary tumour, collectively termed GH cells, have retained a range of differentiated cell functions, including their ability to secrete the hormones prolactin and growth hormone in response to stimuli such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The mechanisms underlying this release process involve, at least in part, an increase in cytosolic free calcium levels, and the cells have proved useful as a model system in studies of receptor-controlled calcium mobilization. The initial response of the cells to the addition of TRH now appears to be the interaction of the occupied TRH receptor with a GTP-binding protein. A sophisticated signalling system is then activated which initially involves the phosphodiesteratic hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1,2-diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Both of these products are important intracellular messengers, and their formation leads to a plethora of biochemical and ...
Intracisternal injection of a stable thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog increases gastric prostaglandins release and mucosal resistance to injury through central vagal pathways. The effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin (INDO) and nabumetone on intracisternal injection of various doses of TRH-induced gastric acid secretion and changes in mucosal resistance were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Doses of INDO (5 mg/kg) and nabumetone (13.75 mg/kg) producing similar acute anti-inflammatory response in the carrageenin-induced paw edema were injected i.p. in all studies. INDO potentiated the acid secretion induced by intracisternal injection of TRH at 25, 50 and 200 ng by 5.1-, 1.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively, whereas nabumetone did not modify the secretory response to TRH. Moderate erosions were observed in 100% of rats treated with the combination of INDO and TRH (200 ng) whereas no erosions were observed when TRH or INDO were given alone or TRH in ...
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The hypothalamic tetradecapeptide growth hormone release inhibiting hormone (GH-RIH) blocked the thyrotrophin response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) in normal people and in patients with primary hypothyroidism. This inhibition was dose related. The TRH-induced prolactin release was not affected by GH-RIH. This dissociation of the thyrotrophin and prolactin responses to TRH by GH-RIH suggests that there are different mechanisms for release of thyrotrophin and prolactin and that only the former is affected by GH-RIH. ...
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Seventeen seasonally anovulatory light horse mares were treated daily, starting January 5 (d 1), for 28 d with GnRH analog (GnRH-A; 50 ng/kg BW) and(or) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; 5 microg/kg BW) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the hypothesis that combined treatment may stimulate follicular growth and development. Ovaries were examined via ultrasonography and jugular blood samples were collected every 3 d. Frequent blood samples were collected after treatment injections on d 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22; on d 29, all mares received an i.v. mixture of GnRH, TRH, sulpiride, and EP51389 (a growth hormone secretagogue) to assess pituitary responsiveness. No consistent effects (P | 0.1) of treatment were observed for plasma LH, FSH, prolactin, or thyroxine concentrations in samples collected every 3 d. The only effect on ovarian follicle numbers was a reduction in number of follicles 11 to 19 mm in diameter due to TRH treatment (P = 0.029). No mare ovulated during treatment. On
Data CitationsShi Z, Pelletier NE, Wong J, Li B, Sdrulla Advertisement, Madden CJ, Marks DL, Brooks VL. neurons. PVN LepR are not expressed in astroglia and rarely in microglia; instead, glutamatergic neurons express LepR, some of which project to a key presympathetic hub, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). In PVN slices from mice expressing GCaMP6, leptin excites glutamatergic neurons. LepR SEC inhibitor KL-2 are expressed mainly in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons, some of which project to the RVLM. Injections of TRH into the RVLM and dorsomedial hypothalamus increase SNA, highlighting these nuclei as likely targets. SEC inhibitor KL-2 We suggest that this neuropathway becomes important in obesity, in which elevated leptin maintains the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis, despite leptin resistance. mRNA has also been detected in astroglia (Kim et al., 2014; Hsuchou et al., 2009), and leptins ability to suppress feeding also may involve astroglia (Kim et al., 2014). Finally, ...
The basic patterns of thyroid hormones [thyroxine (T4) and 3,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3)] and the T4 and T3 responses induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) are reported in captive female barn owls (Tyto alba) during the non-breeding period. The main findings of the study, conducted on a total of 10 owls, are as follow: (1) The thyroid gland of barn owl can be stimulated by the classical TRH stimulation test. (2) T3 response was much more pronounced both under cold (around 10°C) and warm (around 20°C) conditions, whereas T4 response ranged so widely that we could not point out any significant change in it. (3) Basal T3 plasma level was significantly (p = 0.036) higher in birds exposed to cold temperature, and they responded to TRH treatment with a lower plasma T3 elevation than the birds kept in a warm chamber. This pattern, however, cannot be explained by increased food intake, but is in agreement with the fact that enhanced T3 level may account for higher avUCP mRNA expression, which ...
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Biomedical Significance. Effects of TRH on Serum Calcium, Calcitonin, Parathyroid Hormone, and TSH in Patients with Eating Disorders. N. KIRIIKE, S. NISHIWAKI, T. NAGATA, Y. MAEDA, K. SOEZIMA, Y. KAWAKITA ...
This study addresses the in vivo and in vitro expression pattern of three genes that are operative in the thyrotroph subpopulation of anterior pituitary cells: glycoprotein α-chain (Cga), thyroid-stimulating hormone β-chain (Tshb), and TRH receptor
1.TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) -----| TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) -----| Thyroid hormone 2.CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) ---
TOPIC: A biologically inactive TRH due to a mutant TRH-receptor Title: A family with complete resistance to thyrotropin-releasing hormone Authors: Bonomi M, Busnelli M, Beck-Peccoz P, Constanzo D, Antonica F, & Dolci C. Reference: New England Journal of Medicine 360: 731-734, 2009 Summary Background Recessive resistance to the action of TRH is a rare disorder […]. ...
Affiliation:福山大,薬学部,教授, Research Field:Biological pharmacy,General pharmacology,General pharmacology, Keywords:アデノシンA1受容体,鎮痛作用,アデノシン,β-endorphin,N-アセチル-β-エンドルフィン,アデノシンA2受容体,β-エンドルフィン,adenosine,hypothermia,Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:12
Thyroid abnormalities have been reported in persons with HIV infection, although data have been inconsistent with respect to its frequency and association with specific medications. The purpose of this study was to explore thyroid system response to thyroid releasing hormone stimulation in persons with and without HIV infection and determine the extent to which their response was associated with depression. As part of a larger study of neuroendocrine response persons with HIV-1 infection, control and HIV-1 infected individuals were evaluated. Participants response to TRH stimulation was evaluated via TSH, total T3, and T4 levels at baseline and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after TRH stimulation. Participants with HIV infection had a more robust response to TRH stimulation as measured by higher levels of TSH, lower levels of T4 and modestly higher levels of T3. Depressed persons had a reduced TSH response to stimulation and lower levels of both T4 and T3, although the effect of depression on T4 was not
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the peptidase M1 family. The encoded protein is an extracellular peptidase that specifically cleaves and inactivates the neuropeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008 ...
MGEDDAALRAGSRGLSDPWADSVGVRPRTTERHIAVHKRLVLAFAVSLVALLAVTMLAVLLSLRFDECGA 1 - 70 SATPGADGGPSGFPERGGNGSLPGSARRNHHAGGDSWQPEAGGVASPGTTSAQPPSEEEREPWEPWTQLR 71 - 140 LSGHLKPLHYNLMLTAFMENFTFSGEVNVEIACRNATRYVVLHASRVAVEKVQLAEDRAFGAVPVAGFFL 141 - 210 YPQTQVLVVVLNRTLDAQRNYNLKIIYNALIENELLGFFRSSYVLHGERRFLGVTQFSPTHARKAFPCFD 211 - 280 EPIYKATFKISIKHQATYLSLSNMPVETSVFEEDGWVTDHFSQTPLMSTYYLAWAICNFTYRETTTKSGV 281 - 350 VVRLYARPDAIRRGSGDYALHITKRLIEFYEDYFKVPYSLPKLDLLAVPKHPYAAMENWGLSIFVEQRIL 351 - 420 LDPSVSSISYLLDVTMVIVHEICHQWFGDLVTPVWWEDVWLKEGFAHYFEFVGTDYLYPGWNMEKQRFLT 421 - 490 DVLHEVMLLDGLASSHPVSQEVLQATDIDRVFDWIAYKKGAALIRMLANFMGHSVFQRGLQDYLTIHKYG 491 - 560 NAARNDLWNTLSEALKRNGKYVNIQEVMDQWTLQMGYPVITILGNTTAENRIIITQQHFIYDISAKTKAL 561 - 630 KLQNNSYLWQIPLTIVVGNRSHVSSEAIIWVSNKSEHHRITYLDKGSWLLGNINQTGYFRVNYDLRNWRL 631 - 700 LIDQLIRNHEVLSVSNRAGLIDDAFSLARAGYLPQNIPLEIIRYLSEEKDFLPWHAASRALYPLDKLLDR 701 - 770 MENYNIFNEYILKQVATTYIKLGWPKNNFNGSLVQASYQHEELRREVIMLACSFGNKHCHQQASTLISDW 771 - 840 ...
53109-32-3 - NAKUGCPAQTUSBE-IUCAKERBSA-N - Cyclo(his-pro) - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
at the., the fasting-induced reductions associated with TRH mRNA from the PVN uses through the decline in hypothalamic ��-MSH along with the increase in NPY/AGRP.162 Because it is obvious chances are a large number of human hormones apply part of their particular consequences by way of a key route, a major question is which usually hypothalamic neuropeptides get excited about mediating the varied outcomes of these kinds of the bodys hormones.
COX-2 is a major source of PGI2 biosynthesis in humans.4 Depression of PGI2, without a concomitant inhibition of TxA2 has been suggested as a mechanism by which selective inhibitors of COX-2 might predispose individuals to cardiovascular hazard.4,29 The emergence of this risk in placebo controlled clinical trials involving three COX -2 inhibitors is compatible with such a class based effect. Deletion of the IP predisposes mice to an exaggerated response to thrombotic stimuli11 and both modulates blood pressure30-32 and accelerates atherogenesis in genetically predisposed animals.10,11 Deletion of the IP also modulates the response to vascular injury, resulting in a hyperproliferative response which encroaches on luminal integrity.14 However, little is known about how this pathway might modulate vascular structure and integrity when hemodynamic stress is sustained in the presence of intact endothelium, such as might occur in hypertension.. We sought to address this question using both genetic and ...
Claritin 20 mg - overnight cheap. One non-drowsy tablet effectively relieves allergy X allergy An exaggerated response of the immune system to a substance that is ordinarily harmless
The thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the tripeptide thyrotropin releasing hormone. The TRHR are found in the brain and when bound by TRH act (through phospholipase C) to increase intracellular inositol trisphosphate. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000174417 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000038760 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Yamada M, Monden T, Konaka S, Mori M (November 1993). Assignment of human thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor gene to chromosome 8. Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. 19 (6): 577-80. doi:10.1007/BF01233384. PMID 8128317. Gershengorn MC (1993). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: cloning and regulation of its expression. Recent Progress in Hormone Research. 48: 341-63. PMID 8382829. Short RE, James LF, Panter KE, Staigmiller RB, Bellows RA, Malcolm J, Ford SP (November 1992). Effects of feeding ponderosa pine needles during ...
Title:Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: cloning and regulation of its expression.,Author:Gershengorn M C,Journal:Recent Prog Horm Res,1993;48:341-63.,Publication type:Journal Article,Review
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HiTSeeker are cell lines stably expressing label-free GPCRs, also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors. Each vial of HiTSeeker TRH1 Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Cell Line contains U2OS cells stably expressing TRH1 Receptor with no tag. HiTSeeker Cell lines proliferate in vitro maintaining GPCR expression following the cell culture manual.. Innoprot HiTSeeker TRH1 Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Cell Line allows to assay compounds, or analyze their capability to modulate TRH1 receptor. When a ligand binds to the TRH1, it activates a G protein, which in turn, triggers a cellular response mediated by calcium. HiTSeeker TRH Receptor cell line has been validated measuring calcium concentration changes in the cytosol upon activation with TRH. The high reproducibility of this assay allows monitoring rhTRH Receptor activation process in High Throughput Screening.. Size/Quantity: 2 vials containing 3×106 cells / vial. ...
Acutely ill patients typically present with low circulating T3 and increased reverse T3. When illness is severe and prolonged, also pulsatile TSH secretion and circulating T4 levels are low. This constellation of changes within the thyroid axis is referred to as the low T3 syndrome or non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTI), and comprises both peripheral and central alterations in the thyroid axis. Acute alterations are dominated by changes in thyroid hormone binding, in thyroid hormone uptake by the cell and in the activity of the type-1 and type-3 deiodinase enzymes. Prolonged critical illness is associated with a neuroendocrine dysfunction characterized by suppressed hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression, resulting in reduced stimulation of the thyrotropes whereby thyroidal hormone release is impaired. During prolonged critical illness, several tissue responses could be interpreted as compensatory to low thyroid hormone availability, such as increased expression of ...
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) knockout mice are prone to excess energy storage and adiposity, whereas mutations in FAAH are associated with obesity in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which FAAH affects energy expenditure (EE) remains unknown. Here we show that reduced energy expenditure in FAAH(-/-) mice could be attributed to decreased circulating triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations secondary to reduced mRNA expression of both pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone. These reductions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis were associated with activation of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferating-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and increased hypothalamic deiodinase 2 expression. Infusion of NAEs (anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide) recapitulated increases in PPARγ-mediated decreases in EE. FAAH(-/-) mice were also prone to diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance, which could be attributed to increased hepatic ...
Yamada M, Monden T, Satoh T, et al. (1993). Pituitary adenomas of patients with acromegaly express thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor messenger RNA: cloning and functional expression of the human thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene.. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 195 (2): 737-45. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.1993.2107. PMID 8396925. ...
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Naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are in a metastable state and fluctuate between inner cell mass- and epiblast-like phenotypes. were still pluripotent but they exhibited higher levels of DNA methylation than their wild-type counterparts and experienced a higher propensity to differentiate. We showed that BMP-SMAD signaling modulates lineage priming in mESCs by transiently regulating the enzymatic machinery responsible for DNA methylation. Graphical Abstract Intro Culture conditions affect features of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) such as their proliferation gene manifestation epigenetic status self-renewal and capacity for multi-lineage differentiation (Marks et?al. 2012 Tesar et?al. 2007 In tradition moderate with fetal leg serum naive mESCs harvested on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells (right here abbreviated as serum) transit between internal cell mass (ICM)-like and epiblast-like pluripotency state governments (Sasai et?al. 2013 Trott and Martinez Arias 2013 But when ...
Domestic ducks in southern China act as an important reservoir for influenza viruses and have also facilitated the establishment of multiple H6 influenza virus lineages. can facilitate significant genetic and antigenic changes in viruses established in this host and highlight gaps in our knowledge of influenza virus ecology and even the evolutionary behavior of this virus family in its aquatic avian reservoirs. INTRODUCTION Aquatic birds are accepted as the natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses, and these viruses have been introduced to other animals, shaping the current ecology of influenza viruses (17). Alteration of the influenza virus ecosystem by the emergence of novel host species or marked changes in the size and structure of host populations can impact the behavior of virus evolution. The establishment of multiple influenza virus subtypes (H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2) in the poultry of southern D609 China provides the best example of this (4, 5, 20). Domestic ducks in China have ...
Identifying the viability of protein focuses on is among the preliminary measures of medicine discovery. developed directly into create a healing effect in another mobile pathway [1]. Typically, druggability was examined by co-crystalizing protein with organic solvents to expose feasible hydrophobic storage compartments [13]. This process eventually developed to the use of high-throughput screens and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of chemical fragment libraries [14]. In turn, hit rates were used like a metric for protein druggability. However, these methods were problematic as they experienced low level of sensitivity and high protein consumption [15]. Recent methods such as fragment-based NMR fluorescence assays work to conquer these problems [16]. Despite developments in NMR spectroscopy, experimental methods are still problematic in that their accuracies are directly linked to the fragment library being used. Negative results from drug targets are 4-Chlorophenylguanidine ...
Rovatirelin Hydrate, S-0373, Rovatirelin, RN: 204386-76-5 UNII: 9DL0X410PY (4S,5S)-5-methyl-N-((2S)-1-((2R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-oxo-3-((1,3-thiazol-4-yl)methyl)propan-2-yl)-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidine-4-carboxamide (4S,5S)-5-methyl-N-((S)-1-((R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-oxo-4-(thiazol-4-yl)butan-2-yl)-2-oxooxazolidine-4-carboxamide4-Oxazolidinecarboxamide, 5-methyl-N-[2-(2-methyl-1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-oxo-1-(4-thiazolylmethyl)ethyl]-2-oxo-, [4S-[4α[R*(S*)],5α]]- Phase III A thyrotropin-releasing hormone potentially for the treatment of spinocerebellar ataxia. CAS No.204386-76-5(Rovatirelin) 879122-87-9(Rovatirelin Hydrate) C17H24N4O4S Exact Mass: 380.1518 Rovatirelin is a novel synthetic agent that mimics the actions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Rovatirelin binds to the human TRH receptor with higher affinity (Ki=702nM) than taltirelin (Ki=3877nM).…
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Molecular Endocrinology. Endocrine Journal. Pharmacol Res. J Endocrinol Invest. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophsiology , Biol Trace Elem Res. European Radiology. Endocrine Practice , Endocrine Practice. Endocrinol Invest. Endocr J, , Acta Neurol Belg. Endocrine Practice , , A Leptin missense mutation associated with hypogonadism and morbid obesity. Nature Genetics, , Horm Metab Res. Clinical Endocrinology,, Endocrinol Invest ,, Diabetes Metab.. Horm Metab Res , Plasma leptin levels in male patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. J Endocrinol Invest , Event-related brain potentials in male hypogonadism. Iodine and zinc, but not selenium and copper, deficiency exists in a male Turkish population with endemic goiter. Biol Trace Elem Res , Screening for mitochondrial gene mutations in patients with diabetes mellitus in Turkey. Balkan journal of medical genetics. Beneficial effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on neuropathy in diabetic ...
Taltirelin acetate is a superagonist at thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R)(IC50 of 910 nM and EC50 of 36 nM for stimulating an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ release)).
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-immunoreactive system in the brain and pituitary-gland of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Teleostei ...
Rabbit anti Human TRHR antibody detects thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR), a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the tripep
TRH stimulation test is used to diagnose hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. TSH levels are measured after injection of thyrotropin releasing hormone.
Production of thyroid hormones is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (Figure 22-2). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced in the hypothalamus and induces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) production in the anterior pituitary. TSH, in turn, stimulates thyroid hormone production and release by the thyroid gland. TSH production is inversely related to plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. The 2 primary hormones synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland are T4 and, in lesser quantities, T3 (Figure 22-3). They are transported by plasma proteins-notably thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin, and albumin-to various tissue sites where T4 is deiodinated to the active form, T3, and the inactive form known as reverse T3 (rT3). Thyroid hormones act through nuclear hormone receptors that are transcription factors for numerous genes. These genes regulate a number of critical physiologic functions in development and metabolism. ...
Monitoring patients on thyroid replacement therapy Confirmation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression in thyroid cancer patients on thyroxine therapy Prediction of thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated TSH response An aid in the diagnosis of primary hyperthyroidism Differential diagnosis of hypothyroidismThe test is done to assess the level of FT4, It detects the biologically active fraction in circulating blood. Free T4 is the metabolically active fraction of thyroxine. FT4 along with TSH gives an accurate status of thyroid function in patients. This assay is useful for diagnosing both Hypo / Hyperthyroidism. ...
Aragay, Anna M. and Katz, Arieh and Simon, Melvin I. (1992) The G alpha q and G alpha 11 proteins couple the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor to phospholipase C in GH3 rat pituitary cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267 (35). pp. 24983-24988. ISSN 0021-9258. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:ARAjbc92 ...
Although physiological and anatomical evidence had clearly indicated for many years that the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones is under control by the central nervous system, it is only recently that the isolation and determination of structure of three hypo- thalamic hypophysiotropic hormones have been accomplished. This has brought the concept of neurohormonal control of adenohypophyseal function into precise biochemical and chemical terms. The relative ease of synthesis of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), LH-RH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone), somatostatin and their analogues has opened a new era in the field of endocri- nology and has led to a rapid expansion of our knowl- ge of the control of anterior pituitary function. The rapid evolution of fundamental and clinical research on hypothalamic hormones and the many potential clinical applications indicate the importance of inte- grating the knowledge gained in recent years. This is well illustrated in the Proceedings of the
TSH (with a half life of about an hour) stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete the hormone thyroxine (T4), which has only a slight effect on metabolism. T4 is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), which is the active hormone that stimulates metabolism. About 80% of this conversion is in the liver and other organs, and 20% in the thyroid itself.[1]. TSH is secreted throughout life but particularly reaches high levels during the periods of rapid growth and development, as well as in response to stress. The hypothalamus, in the base of the brain, produces thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to produce TSH. Somatostatin is also produced by the hypothalamus, and has an opposite effect on the pituitary production of TSH, decreasing or inhibiting its release. The concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in the blood regulates the pituitary release of TSH; when T3 and T4 concentrations are low, the production of TSH is increased, and, conversely, when T3 ...
Trejbal, D.; Kandráĉ, M.; Mechír, J.; Machánová, I.; Pokorná, I., 1983: Personal experience in the diagnosis of latent primary hypothyroidism using the TRH test
In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a GIRK-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. Here we investigated the calcium (Ca2+) contribution to the components of this TRH-induced response. TRH-induced membrane depolarization was reduced in the presence of intracellular BAPTA, also in media containing nominally zero [Ca2+]o, suggesting a critical role for both intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx. TRH-induced inward current was unchanged by T-type Ca2+ channel blockade, but was decreased by blockade of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (HVACCs). Both the pharmacologically isolated GIRK-like and the TRPC-like components of the TRH-induced response were decreased by nifedipine and increased by BayK8644, implying Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels. Only the TRPC-like ...
THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS :NOVOTIRAL available combines two synthetic tiroideas hormones for the treatment in case of hipotiroidismo, eutiroideo goiter, tiroideos nodules, subacute or chronic linfocítica tiroiditis (tiroiditis of Hashimoto), multinodular goiter, mixedema, tiroidea cretinismo, aplasia, tiroiditis and after operations of the thyroid gland or the application of radioactive iodine.. The use of helping tiroideas hormones as in the treatment of the refractory depression can be beneficial in a small number of patients who seem to be eutiroideos by means of the measurement of T3 and T4, nevertheless, these patients can have subclinical hipotiroidismo, which is detected by means of the increase of TSH in response to the TRH administration. Tiroideas hormones are used like agents diagnoses in suppression tests to differentiate between slight hipertiroidismo or autonomy from the thyroid gland. Novotiral may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.. Please ...
Product Name: Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) (Human, Ovine, Porcine, Rat) (0.5 mg vial) Product Number: PTR-4011-v Synonym(s): Pyr-His-Pro-NH2, Protirelin, Lopremone, Rifathyroin, Thyroliberin, Thypinone, Synthetic TRH, TSH-releasing factor Application: Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Source: (Human, Ovine, Porcine,
These inconsistencies led us to prospectively study a therapeutic protocol in infertile women after exclusion of absolute causes of sterility which would have necessitated assisted reproduction techniques (such as azoospermia of the male partner or bilateral tubal obstruction) [9]. Over a period of 5 years levothyroxine treatment was modified in 223 infertile women according to TRH-testing performed every 3 months. The indication for T4-therapy was a TRH-stimulated TSH ,15 mU/L, the mean of a normal distribution (again, not the criterion for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism!), which also represented the therapeutic target. This allowed us to compare our results to those of the retrospective studies mentioned above given that the cut-off for T4-therapy in these studies was roughly comparable. The overall conception rate of 37% in our cohort was higher than previously reported. Never achieving basal TSH,2.5 mU/L or TRH-stimulated TSH ,20 mU/L resulted in significantly lower conception ...
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Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (rođen 11. siječnja, 1924. u Dijonu, Francuska) je američko-francuski liječnik koji je 1977.g. dobio Nobelovu nagradu za fiziologiju ili medicinu za svoj rad na neurohormonima. Guillemin je diplomirao medicinu 1949.g. u Lyonu, i nakon toga preselio u Montréal, u Kanadi, da bi 1953.g. preselio u SAD. Godine 1965.g. postao je naturalizirani građanin SADa. Potkraj 1950ih, Guillemin i Andrew V. Schally uspjeli su, neovisno jedan od drugoga, u svojim labaratorijima, iz hipotalamus ovce i svinje, izdvojiti neke tvari, koje su u tkivu hipofize dovele do izlučivanja hormona te žlijezde. Jedna je tvar uzrokovala otpuštanje ACTH, druga otpuštanje TSH, a treća otpuštanje LH i FSH. Nazvali su te tvari oslobađajući faktori, RF (prema engl. releasing factor) ili RH (prema engl. releasing hormon). Na primjer, tako je tvar koja uzrokuje oslobađanje TSH iz hipofize dobila naziv TRH (engl. thyrotropin-releasing hormon), hormon koji oslobađa tiretropin. Oba ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. taltirelin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Allergies are abnormal reactions to ordinarily harmless substances. The sensitizing substances, called allergens, may be inhaled, swallowed, or come into contact with the skin. An allergy is a disorder of the immune system which, causes an exaggerated response within the body when you come into contact with a foreign substance, that would be harmless in most people. The contact can be with your skin, mouth, gullet (esophagus), stomach, intestine or with the lining of your lungs.. ...
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Októbrová kategorizácia liekov prináša na slovenský trh aj lieky, ktoré obsahujú aj novozaradené účinné molekuly liečiv
... by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; MIM 257120) and cyclic AMP.[supplied by OMIM] Pituitary-specific positive transcription ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000064835 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000004842 - Ensembl, May ... de Zegher F, Pernasetti F, Vanhole C, Devlieger H, Van den Berghe G, Martial JA (1995). "The prenatal role of thyroid hormone ... Cattini PA, Yang X, Jin Y, Detillieux KA (2006). "Regulation of the human growth hormone gene family: possible role for Pit-1 ...
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The gland's response is assessed by measuring the rise in cortisol and growth hormone (GH ... caused by TRH and rises in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) caused by GnRH. Blood glucose levels ... Three hormones[2] (usually synthetic analogues) are injected as a bolus into the patient's vein to stimulate the anterior ... in response to the hypoglycaemia caused by insulin, rises in prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ...
Thyrotropin releasing hormone degrading enzyme is a protein, specifically a pyroglutamyl-peptidase II enzyme, that in humans is ... "TRHDE thyrotropin releasing hormone degrading enzyme [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Zhu QS, Rosenblatt K, Huang KL, Lahat G, Brobey ... protein is an extracellular peptidase that specifically cleaves and inactivates the neuropeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Moncayo H, Dapunt O, Moncayo R (2007). "Diagnostic accuracy of basal TSH determinations based on ... Prior to the availability of sensitive TSH assays, thyrotropin releasing hormone or TRH stimulation tests were relied upon for ...
They may also have a role in regulating thyroid hormones production locally, as they express thyrotropin-releasing hormone. ... Gkonos PJ, Tavianini MA, Liu CC, Roos BA (December 1989). "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in normal thyroid ... Barasch J, Gershon MD, Nunez EA, Tamir H, al-Awqati Q (December 1988). "Thyrotropin induces the acidification of the secretory ... Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin, a hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium metabolism. Calcitonin lowers ...
... thyrotropin-releasing hormone-degrading pyroglutamate aminopeptidase, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-degrading peptidase, TRH ... His-Xaa-Gly tetrapeptides This enzyme is highly specific for thyrotropin releasing hormone. TRHDE - thyrotropin releasing ... Wilk, S.; Wilk, E.K. (1989). "Pyroglutamyl peptidase II, a thyrotropin releasing hormone degrading enzyme: purification and ... Pyroglutamyl-peptidase II (EC 3.4.19.6, thyroliberinase, pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II, thyrotropin-releasing factor ...
... a novel thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, on in vivo dopamine release and turnover in rat brain". Arzneimittel-Forschung. ... 2000). "A study of thyrotropin-releasing hormone for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy: a preliminary report". American ... July 1994). "Efficacy of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy". Journal of Child Neurology ... Taltirelin (marketed under the tradename Ceredist) is a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog, which mimics the ...
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... These hormones are created in the hypothalamus and released in the posterior pituitary. After creation, they are stored in ... TRH); the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. •The hypothalamic- ...
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... Here hypothalamic neurosecretory cells release factors to the blood. Some of these factors (releasing hormones), released at ... TRH); the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. •The hypothalamic- ...
Of clinically studied compounds which did not show efficacy, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) held some promise in an open- ... "A study of thyrotropin-releasing hormone for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy: a preliminary report". American Journal ... "Efficacy of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy". Journal of Child Neurology. 9 (3): 287- ... "Oral administration of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, taltireline hydrate, in spinal muscular atrophy". ...
These hormones include dopamine, norpinephrine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Many of ... The somatostatin hormone itself can negatively affect the uptake of hormones in the body and may play a role in some hormonal ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000180616 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000047904 - Ensembl, May ... and also acts as an inhibitor to the milk producing hormone in female mammals, prolactin, and growth hormones. Researchers ...
WOS:000257960400010 "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the cerebellum"] Check ,url= value (help). Cerebellum. 7 (1): 84-95 ...
... released by the anterior pituitary gland. TSH release in turn is stimulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), released in ... The fetal hypothalamus and pituitary start to secrete thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH ... TSH is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is produced by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland develops in ... particularly if the cause of hypothyroidism is thought to be related to insufficient thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) ...
Hypophysiotropic hormones include: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Corticotropin-releasing hormone Growth hormone-releasing ... Nillni EA (April 2010). "Regulation of the hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neuron by neuronal and peripheral ... The hypothalamus releasing hormones are neurohypophysial hormones in specialized hypothalamic neurons which extend to the ... hormone Somatostatin Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Dopamine Neurotensin Neurohypophysial hormones are synthesized in the ...
... thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), dopamine ( ... otherwise the nucleus also secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). CRH and TRH ... Nillni EA (April 2010). "Regulation of the hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neuron by neuronal and peripheral ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which regulates TSH and prolactin secretion As well as neuroendocrine neurons, the PVN ...
Nillni EA (April 2010). "Regulation of the hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neuron by neuronal and peripheral ... This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron from releasing orexigenic peptides. Ghrelin has ... The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin. Adipocytes ... These receptors are activated by the peptide hormone α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and antagonized by the agouti- ...
Benzodiazepines inhibit cold-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) release. Benzodiazepines ... Clonazepam decreases release of acetylcholine in the feline brain and decreases prolactin release in rats. ... Petkov V; Georgiev VP; Getova D; Petkov VV (1982). "Effects of some benzodiazepines on the acetylcholine release in the ... Camoratto AM; Grandison L (18 April 1983). "Inhibition of cold-induced TSH release by benzodiazepines". Brain Res. 265 (2): 339 ...
"Glutamatergic innervation of corticotropin-releasing hormone- and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons in the ... Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons in the hypothalamus integrate global signals about the body's energy state. They ... may impair plasma protein binding of thyroid hormones, resulting in reduced levels of total hormones, while free hormone ... The most common hormone pattern in nonthyroidal illness syndrome is low total and free T3, elevated rT3, and normal T4 and TSH ...
Secreted hormone. Abbreviation. Produced by. Effect Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Prolactin-releasing hormone) TRH, TRF, or ... Growth-hormone-releasing hormone GHRH. Neuroendocrine neurons of the Arcuate nucleus. Stimulate growth-hormone (GH) release ... release corticotropin-releasing hormone and other hormones into the hypophyseal portal system, where these hormones diffuse to ... Stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) release from anterior pituitary Somatostatin[20] (growth-hormone-inhibiting hormone) SS, ...
Thyroid hormone release is regulated by a stimulating hormone called thyrotropin (TSH) in a normal functioning person. In ... Hypothyroidism is usually caused by an iodine deficiency that results in the under production of thyroid hormones or an ... Reduced levels of thyroid hormones have many physical and cognitive implications for a fetus once fully developed. Because of ... "Molecular Basis of Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Brain Development1". Endocrine Reviews. 18 (4): 462-75. doi:10.1210/edrv.18.4.0309 ...
"Prolactin and thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in premenopausal women with fibrocystic disease of the ... Women on hormone replacement therapy may benefit from a dose adjustment. Another non-pharmacological measure to help relieve ... Causes may be related to the menstrual cycle, birth control pills, hormone therapy, or psychiatric medication. Pain may also ... engorgement fibroadenoma fibrocystic breast changes fibromyalgia gastroesophageal reflux disease herpes infection hormone ...
The parvocellular neurosecretory cells include those that make: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which acts as the primary ... "Regulation of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Expressing Neurons in Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus by Signals of ... Lennard, DE; Eckert, WA; Merchenthaler, I (April 1993). "Corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus ... regulator of TSH and a regulator of prolactin Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which acts as the primary regulator of ...
The production of TSH is controlled by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is produced in the hypothalamus. TSH levels ... A TFT panel typically includes thyroid hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) and thyroxine (T4), and ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) is generally increased in hypothyroidism and decreased in hyperthyroidism, ... Yagi H, Pohlenz J, Hayashi Y, Sakurai A, Refetoff S (1997). "Resistance to thyroid hormone caused by two mutant thyroid hormone ...
... and responds by releasing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce thyroid- ... TSH secretion is also controlled by thyrotropin releasing hormone (thyroliberin, TRH), whose secretion itself is again ... Lechan, Ronald M.; Fekete, C (2004). "Feedback regulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): mechanisms for the non- ... Both peripheral thyroid hormones (iodothyronines) inhibit thyrotropin secretion from the pituitary (negative feedback). ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is injected into the body through a vein. This hormone is naturally secreted by the ... This is done either by withdrawal of thyroid hormone medication or injections of recombinant human TSH (Thyrogen),[26] released ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is another important hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary cells in the brain. ... The pituitary responds by releasing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Large amounts of externally administered TRH can ...
Examples of hormones that are secreted pulsatilely include insulin, thyrotropin, TRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ... related hormones Glucocorticoids Insulin Growth Hormone Parathyroid hormone Nervous system control over hormone release is ... have indicated similar pulses into the hypophyseal vessels of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). LH is released from the ... "Pathophysiology of pulsatile and copulsatile release of thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating ...
... thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing ... A stimulation test with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is not regarded as useful.[8] Prolactin can be measured by basal ... Releasing hormone. TRH. CRH. GnRH. GHRH. Dopamine (inhibitor) Pituitary cells. Thyrotrope. Corticotrope. Gonadotrope. ... In response to the releasing hormone rate, the anterior pituitary produces its hormones (TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, GH) which in turn ...
TSH secretion is controlled by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is released by neurons in the hypothalamus of the ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000147255 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000031111 - Ensembl, May ... The extent of hypothyroidism is variable, but most male cases require treatment with thyroid hormone replacement. Males with ... The pituitary synthesizes and secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH, in turn, stimulates production of the thyroid ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors are present in both the melanotropes of the pars intermedia and the corticotropes ... In these horses, the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test should either be used as an initial screening test, or to ... Adrenocorticotropin concentration following administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in healthy horses and those with ... Evaluation of basal plasma a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotrophic hormone concentrations for the diagnosis ...
... and responds by releasing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce thyroid- ... equilibrium concentrations for all hormones are attained. TSH secretion is also controlled by thyrotropin releasing hormone ( ... Lechan, Ronald M.; Fekete, C (2004). "Feedback regulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): mechanisms for the non- ... Both peripheral thyroid hormones (iodothyronines) inhibit thyrotropin secretion from the pituitary (negative feedback). ...
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... Vasopressin can be thought of as "water conservation hormone" and is also known as "antidiuretic hormone." It is released when ... Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163251 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000045005 ... Thyrotropin. *Thyrotropin-releasing hormone. *Urotensin-II. *Vasopressin (1A. *1B. *2). Miscellaneous. Taste, bitter. *TAS2R *1 ...
... was to prove a new autopharmacological principle, i.e., a substance that is released in the body by a metabolic ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ... Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has ... Bradykinin dilates blood vessels via the release of prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186188 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000054200 ... hormone secretion. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • response to peptide. • cellular response to hormone stimulus. ...
... causing the formation of a puromycylated nascent chain and premature chain release.[2] The exact mechanism of action is unknown ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167244 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000048583 ... together with luteinizing hormone (LH). Thus, IGF2 acts as a co-hormone together with both FSH and LH.[10] ... hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding. • ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. The MeSH ...
Bradykinin is a peptide-based hormone that is formed locally in tissues, very often in response to a trauma. It increases ... "Jerini Receives European Commission Approval for Firazyr (Icatibant) in the Treatment of HAE" (Press release). Jerini AG. 15 ... "FDA Approves Shire's FIRAZYR (icatibant injection) for Acute Attacks of Hereditary Angioedema (HAE)" (Press release). Shire. ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171659 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040229 ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) are very important galactopoietic hormones whose ... The release of the hormone oxytocin leads to the milk ejection or let-down reflex. Oxytocin stimulates the muscles surrounding ... Human placental lactogen (HPL) - from the second month of pregnancy, the placenta releases large amounts of HPL. This hormone ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), through control of ...
... produces prolactin in response to hormonal signals including dopamine which is inhibitory and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
Corticotropin releasing hormone. *Sauvagine. *Stressin I. *Urocortin. *Antagonists: Antalarmin. *Astressin-B. *CP-154,526 ...
Also recently discovered A2B has Gq → DAG and IP3 → Release calcium → activate calmodulin → activate myosin light chain kinase ... Presynaptically, it reduces synaptic vesicle release while post synaptically it has been found to stabilize the magnesium on ... regulating the release of other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate,[6][7][8] while the A2B and A3 receptors are ... Thyrotropin. *Thyrotropin-releasing hormone. *Urotensin-II. *Vasopressin (1A. *1B. *2). Miscellaneous. Taste, bitter. *TAS2R *1 ...
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone ...
... and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine (and by extension thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ( ... Hormones[edit]. The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone ... At puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted in a pulsatile manner from the hypothalamus.[2][3] GnRH induces ... In contrast to the female-associated sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, the male-associated sex hormones, the androgens, ...
The first of these factors to be identified are thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). ... For example, thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone by the anterior pituitary. ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... For example, the secretion of growth hormone is controlled by two neuroendocrine systems: the growth hormone-releasing hormone ...
"Press release: Merck Announces Second Quarter 2011 Financial Results". Merck. July 29, 2011. Archived from the original on ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ...
1.0 1.1 1.2 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000050628 - Ensembl, May 2017 *↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Impaired adrenocorticotropic hormone response to bacterial endotoxin in mice deficient in prostaglandin E receptor EP1 and EP3 ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000166573 - Ensembl, May 2017. *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024553 ... peptide hormone binding. • galanin receptor activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000257138 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000058250 ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
hormon nu ngaleupaskeun hormon kamekaran (growth hormone-releasing hormone, GHRH). *gonadotropin korionik manusa (human ... hormon nu ngaleupaskeun tirotropin (thyrotropin-releasing hormon, TRH). Hormon stéroid jeung stérol[édit , édit sumber]. Hormon ... Hormone, Wikipédia édisi basa Inggris per 17 Nopémber 2005. *Henderson J. Ernest Starling and 'Hormones': an historical ... hormon nu ngaleupaskeun gonadotropin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH). * ...
Kitabgi P, De Nadai F, Rovère C, Bidard JN (1992). "Biosynthesis, maturation, release, and degradation of neurotensin and ... Kitabgi P (October 2006). "Differential processing of pro-neurotensin/neuromedin N and relationship to pro-hormone convertases ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152207 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000033470 ... Thyrotropin. *Thyrotropin-releasing hormone. *Urotensin-II. *Vasopressin (1A. *1B. *2). Miscellaneous. Taste, bitter. *TAS2R *1 ... "Leukotriene E4 elicits respiratory epithelial cell mucin release through the G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR99". Proceedings ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. *Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Neuroendocine ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Neuroendocrine neurons of the Arcuate nucleus. *Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ... Hormones are complex chemicals released from endocrine tissue into the bloodstream where they travel to target tissues and ... Somatostatin (SS; also GHIH, growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular nucleus ...
BB2, previously known as Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor GRPR. BB3, previously known as Bombesin-like receptor 3 BRS3. ... Thyrotropin. *Thyrotropin-releasing hormone. *Urotensin-II. *Vasopressin (1A. *1B. *2). Miscellaneous. Taste, bitter. *TAS2R *1 ...
促甲狀腺激素釋放激素(TRH,Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone) ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone)(GHRH,Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone). *生長激素抑制激素(GHIH,Growth Hormone release-Inhibiting ... Growth Hormone release-Inhibiting Hormone). *促腎上腺皮質素釋放激素(英语:Corticotropin-releasing hormone)(CRH,Corticotropin-Releasing ... 泌乳素促進因
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000154478 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040125 ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
... has been found to modulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) ... a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164850 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000053647 ... steroid hormone receptor activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • endosome. • nuclear envelope. • membrane. • synapse. • ... "Hormones and Behavior. 66 (4): 663-6. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.09.008. PMC 4254307. PMID 25245158.. ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169836 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028172 ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ...
Peptide hormones and protein hormones consist of three (in the case of thyrotropin-releasing hormone) to more than 200 (in the ... such as thyroid stimulating hormone) will control the action or release of another secondary hormone (such as thyroid hormone ... All hormones secreted by the pituitary gland are peptide hormones, as are leptin from adipocytes, ghrelin from the stomach, and ... Hormones are chemicals which affect the actions of different organ systems in the body. Examples include thyroid hormone, ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a hypophysiotropic hormone produced by neurons in the hypothalamus that stimulates the ... thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor thyroid-stimulating hormone hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid axis hypothalamic-pituitary- ... Pierpaoli W. , Aging-reversing properties of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. , Curr Aging Sci. 2013 Feb;6(1):92-8. Prange AJ, ... Borowski GD, Garofano CD, Rose LI, Levy RA (January 1984). "Blood pressure response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in ...
There are two thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH1) which has been found in a ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors activate phospholipase C by coupling to the ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, also known as thyroliberin (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid-stimulating ... Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel subtype of rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor.. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The ... "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: cloning and regulation of its expression". Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: ... Receptors,+Thyrotropin-Releasing+Hormone at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... "Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ...
... a small peptide hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that controls the release of thyrotropin by the pituitary. Abbreviation ... thyrotropin-releasing hormone. in Medicine. thyrotropin-releasing hormone. n.. *A tripeptide hormone secreted by the ... thyrotropin-releasing hormone. [thahy-ruh-troh-pin ri-lee-sing, thahy-ro-truh-] ... a small peptide hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that controls the release of thyrotropin by the pituitary. Abbreviation ...
thyrotropin releasing hormone. Names. TSH-releasing factor. pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone. prothyroliberin. protirelin. ... Title: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and substance P immuno-reactivity in post-mortem ... TRH thyrotropin releasing hormone [Homo sapiens] TRH thyrotropin releasing hormone [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:7200 ... The human proprotein contains six thyrotropin-releasing hormone tripeptides. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is involved in the ...
... the Thyroid Releasing hormone... The Natural Way To Increase... ... The worlds first thyrotropin releasing hormone in sublingual ... The Natural Way To Increase Metabolism And Promote Weight Loss TRHs helps the thyroid gland produce thyrotropin. This TRH ... nutritional supplements and bio identical hormones to make these theories and methods a reality.. ...
Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Children Treated With Antenatal Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone. Judy M. Briët, Loekie van Sonderen ... Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Children Treated With Antenatal Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone. Judy M. Briët, Loekie van Sonderen ... Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Children Treated With Antenatal Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone. Judy M. Briët, Loekie van Sonderen ... Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Children Treated With Antenatal Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
The neuropeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), first discovered as a hypophysiotropic hormone (Boler et al., 1969; ... Excitatory Effects of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Thalamus Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Excitatory Effects of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Thalamus. Christian Broberger and David A. McCormick ... Takeuchi Y, Takano T, Abe J, Takikita S, Ohno M (2001) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone: role in the treatment of West syndrome ...
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Buy our Recombinant Human Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) protein. Ab159747 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ ... Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid stimulating hormone and ...
Mouse polyclonal Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... All lanes : Anti-Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) antibody (ab167662) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone ( ... Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid stimulating hormone and ... Anti-Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) antibody. See all Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) primary antibodies. ...
Prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (160-169) , C54H75N11O18S , CID 129572 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
Whereas thyrotropin releasing hormone is rapidly and extensively degraded by plasma of adult rats, no appreciable loss of ... The plasma of neonatal rats does not appear to contain an inhibitor of thyrotropin releasing hormone peptidase or a peptidase ... Thyrotropin releasing hormone: development of inactivation system during maturation of the rat ... Thyrotropin releasing hormone: development of inactivation system during maturation of the rat ...
Receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Upon ligand binding, this G-protein-coupled receptor triggers activation of ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptorAdd BLAST. 398. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type ... "A family with complete resistance to thyrotropin-releasing hormone.". Bonomi M., Busnelli M., Beck-Peccoz P., Costanzo D., ...
Decades of research have established that the biological functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) extend far beyond its ... 0/Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 24305-27-9/Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U ... Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism, pharmacology, physiology*. ... Gary, K.A., Sevarino, K.A., Yarbrough, G.G., Prange, A.J. Jr., Winokur, A. (2003). The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) ...
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Regional Distribution in Rat Brain Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... A sensitive and specific radioimmnunoassay has been used to measure the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in ...
... it controls the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis regulation. It also ... Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormoneAdd BLAST. 218. ,p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the position ... "Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control.". Gaspar E., Hardenbicker C., Bodo E., Wenzel B ... "Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control.". Gaspar E., Hardenbicker C., Bodo E., Wenzel B ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone inhibition of paradoxical growth hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in insulin- ... of thyrotropin releasing hormone administration on growth hormone response to low doses of growth hormone-releasing hormone in ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone enhances event-related brain potentials and growth hormone release in man. Strollo, F., Amabile, ... Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone release in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in healthy horses, horses with ...
Product containing thyrotropin releasing hormone (medicinal product). Thyrotropin releasing factor. Product containing ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) regulates various physiological activities through activation of receptors expressed in a ... Contribution of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone to Cerebellar Long-Term Depression and Motor Learning Front Cell Neurosci. 2018 ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) regulates various physiological activities through activation of receptors expressed in a ...
Electroconvulsive seizures modulate levels of thyrotropin releasing hormone and related peptides in rat hypothalamus, cingulate ... Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone/analogs & derivatives*. *Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism*. Substances. *Muscle Proteins ...
TRH Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (Abaris™). Worlds first thyrotropin releasing hormone View Product ... The age-reversing properties of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH). Written by PIERPAOLI, M.D., Walter ...
Their analeptic and acetylcholine-releasing actions were evaluated to assess their potency as central nervous system (CNS) ag … ... Metabolically stable and centrally acting thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogues were designed by replacing the central ... Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / chemical synthesis* * Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / chemistry * Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone ... Metabolically stable and centrally acting thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogues were designed by replacing the central ...
Cardiac Delivery of Interference RNA for Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Inhibits Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat. ... Cardiac Delivery of Interference RNA for Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Inhibits Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat ... Cardiac Delivery of Interference RNA for Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Inhibits Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat ... Cardiac Delivery of Interference RNA for Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Inhibits Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat ...
... thyrotropin-releasing hormone: imidazole-substiuted analog of TRH, limits behavioral deficits after experimental brain trauma; ... Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: 31*Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: 1264*2,4-diiodoimidazole- thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: 31*Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: 1264*2,4-diiodoimidazole- thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: 31*Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: 1264*2,4-diiodoimidazole- thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
How does thyrotropin releasing hormone travel from the hypothalamus to wherever it needs to be? ... How does thyrotropin releasing hormone (trh) travel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland? ... Hormone (Definition) A hormone (from greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body ... Hormones: A tropic hormone is a hormone secreted by one gland and then stimulates another gland; for example, the pituitary ...
thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Gly. Known as: TRH-Gly, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, glycine, Gly-thyrotropin-releasing ... AIM The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and… Expand ...
DISTRIBUTION OF THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN THE SOCKEYE SALMON BRAIN AND ITS PUTATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE * * OHNO ... Localization of mRNA Encoding Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Precursor in the Brain of Sockeye Salmon ...
Prolactin and thyrotropin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and metoclopramide in men with chronic alcoholism. ... Prolactin and thyrotropin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and metoclopramide in men with chronic alcoholism. J Clin ... Prolactin and Thyrotropin Responses to Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone and Metoclopramide in Men With Chronic Alcoholism. J Clin ... Prolactin and thyrotropin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and metoclopramide in men with chronic alcoholism.. J Clin ...
  • There are two thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH1) which has been found in a number of species including rat, mouse and human [ PMID: 2175902 , PMID: 1377915 , PMID: 8395824 ] and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (TRH2) which has, only been found in rodents [ PMID: 9822707 , PMID: 11181534 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors -- similarities and differences. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Regulator of G protein signaling 4 suppresses basal and thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH)-stimulated signaling by two mouse TRH receptors, TRH-R(1) and TRH-R(2). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors activate phospholipase C by coupling to the guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins Gq and G11. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) regulates various physiological activities through activation of receptors expressed in a broad range of cells in the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a GIRK-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. (physiology.org)
  • Only the TRPC-like conductance was reduced by either thapsigargin or dantrolene, suggesting a role for ryanodine receptors and Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ release (CICR) in this component of the TRH-induced response. (physiology.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) and its receptors are widely distributed throughout the hippocampus. (sid.ir)
  • 4. Gershengorn MC, Osman R. (1996) Molecular and cellular biology of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 8. Itadani H, Nakamura T, Itoh J, Iwaasa H, Kanatani A, Borkowski J, Ihara M, Ohta M. (1998) Cloning and characterization of a new subtype of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Since it was demonstrated that a releasing hormone acts activating the adenylcyclase system after binding to specific cellular receptors, it is suggested that in some functioning pituitary tumors the activity of TRH in promoting GH release may be attributed to an alteration of the cellular membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • We have investigated which cell types and receptors are involved in CRH-induced TSH release in the chicken (Gallus gallus). (edu.au)
  • 1987) Measurement of changes in cellular calcium metabolism in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 1987) Measurement of lipid turnover in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Serum prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in. (mysciencework.com)
  • Blunting of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) occurs in approximately 25% of alcoholics patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinical effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone for severe epilepsy in childhood: a comparative study with ACTH therapy. (pediatricneurologybriefs.com)
  • Trh is produced in the hypothalamus and travels by blood vessel to the anterior pituitary gland where it stimulates the production of thyroid stimulating hormone . (healthtap.com)
  • Lh is a hormone made by the pituitary gland that in women causes the production of estrogen by the ovary (in men causes production of testosterone by the testicle). (healthtap.com)
  • a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland having an affinity for and specifically stimulating the thyroid gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hypothalamus has many functions, including the secretion of hormones that affect the pituitary gland. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • After it is secreted by the hypothalamus, TRH acts on the pituitary gland to cause release of a second hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Hypothalamus sends hormones to pituitary gland! (memphisreproductivehealth.com)
  • Following secretion, TRH travels across the median eminence to the anterior pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal system where it stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from cells called thyrotropes . (wikidoc.org)
  • released by the anterior pituitary gland pituitary gland, small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If there is too little of the thyroid hormones in the bloodstream, the hypothalamus will signal the pituitary gland (via TRH) to produce TSH for the thyroid to release more T4. (selfhacked.com)
  • The activity of TRH, found in the hypothalamus of pigs by Guillemin, is also able to stimulate a lazy pituitary gland to produce TSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone . (antiaging-systems.com)
  • Therefore for the majority of doctors and endocrinologists TRH serves only to activate TSH in the case of pituitary dysfunction, they use it to evaluate with an injection of 400 ug to see if the pituitary gland can produce TSH and thus stimulate the thyroid to release T3 and T4. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • In this case, very soon after the chemicals controlling the output of hormones from the pituitary gland, the releasing factors, were identified, study of their occurrence in the brain revealed that they could be found far away from the hypothalamus, and thus might have some other function. (springer.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a hypophysiotropic hormone produced by neurons in the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • a small peptide hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that controls the release of thyrotropin by the pituitary. (dictionary.com)
  • A tripeptide hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of thyrotropin. (dictionary.com)
  • Electroconvulsive seizures modulate levels of thyrotropin releasing hormone and related peptides in rat hypothalamus, cingulate and lateral cerebel. (nih.gov)
  • How does thyrotropin releasing hormone travel from the hypothalamus to wherever it needs to be? (healthtap.com)
  • Fsh and lh are pituitary gonadotropins , they are released in response to pulsatile signals of gnrh from the hypothalamus. (healthtap.com)
  • a tripeptide produced in the hypothalamus and released into the hypothalamohypophyseal portal circulation to reach the adenohypophysis where it triggers the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency is a rare condition in which the hypothalamus does not produce adequate amounts of a hormone called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Central hypothyroidism (Central H) is mainly due to acquired lesions, either in the pituitary, the hypothalamus or both, and in such cases it is usually associated with deficient secretion of ther pituitary hormones. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • The release of thyrotropin is triggered by the action of thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), a substance found in the hypothalamus of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • TRF, once released from the hypothalamus, travels in the bloodstream to the anterior pituitary, where it causes the release of thyrotropin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The synthesis and secretion of thyrotropin are controlled by the central nervous system and, primarily, by the hypothalamus, which produces the special thyrotropin releasing factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus. (selfhacked.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was originally found in the hypothalamus of the brain ( R ). (selfhacked.com)
  • A thyroid hormone stimulation test may be performed in which a drug is given to try to induce the secretion of TSH and/or thyroid hormones. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • A canine and feline pituitary-thyroid function test based on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation of endogenous thyrotropin is described. (avmi.net)
  • They found stimulation of organ-cultured hair growth with thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates hair follicle elongation, prolongs the hair growth cycle phase (anagen), and antagonizes its termination by TGF-beta2. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • Prolonged stimulation of the thyroid by thyroid-stimulating hormone results in an abnormal enlargement of the gland, known as goiter, a condition which has been largely eradicated by the widespread usage of iodized salt. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Does Trailering Affect the Response to the Thyrotropin Releasing Hormones Stimulation Test in Horses? (mtsu.edu)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) stimulates what? (healthtap.com)
  • Men with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) lack a hormone called gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). (bioportfolio.com)
  • In secondary hypogonadism, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone or/and pituitary-secreted gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone) are either deficient or inactive leading to decreased secretion of gonadal steroids and subsequent amenorrhea. (springer.com)
  • Sex steroids and odorants modulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in primary cultures of human olfactory cells. (springer.com)
  • Abstract We report in the present study the effect of intrathecal treatment with antisense oligonucleotides complementary to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptor mRNA on the pressor response to intrathecal administration of TRH and on resting arterial blood pressure in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (ahajournals.org)
  • abstract = "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a neuromodulator and possibly a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, was shown in a prior study of young normal volunteers to attenuate the memory impairment induced by the anticholinergic drug scopolamine. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "In the present study, we assessed the extent of the thyrotropin‐releasing hormone (TRH) input to motoneurons in the ambigual, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei of the rat using a combination of intracellular recording, dye filling, and immunohistochemistry. (edu.au)
  • The Natural Way To Increase Metabolism And Promote Weight Loss TRH's helps the thyroid gland produce thyrotropin. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • This TRH supplement raises the efficiency in how our bodies process glucose (a function which naturally deteriorates with age) and by doing so, we can increase metabolism speed by increasing our metabolism - the Thyroid Releasing hormone. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • Only a little amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. (healthtap.com)
  • A hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones that regulate metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone metabolism and extraction by the perfuse" by Tsuyoshi Nogimori, Sharon Alex et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • and Emerson, Charles H., "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone metabolism and extraction by the perfused guinea pig placenta" (1985). (umassmed.edu)
  • TSH), hormone hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • that stimulates the thyroid gland thyroid gland, endocrine gland, situated in the neck, that secretes hormones necessary for growth and proper metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. (hindawi.com)
  • CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. (hindawi.com)
  • The thyroid produces hormones (T3 and T4) that have many actions including metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and the regulation of many other important hormones. (hindawi.com)
  • I started thinking that TRH was a magic peptide containing the unstable aminoacid histidine that it must have acquired through evolution, a key role for the maintenance of temperature through oxygen-dependent glucose metabolism by regulating insulin production and release. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • Molecular cloning of a functional human thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, also known as thyroliberin (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary [ PMID: 4982117 , PMID: 4985794 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor thyroid-stimulating hormone hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid axis hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Zhang J, Watanabe Y, Yamada S, Urayama A, Kimura R (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Decades of research have established that the biological functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) extend far beyond its role as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, it controls the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis regulation. (uniprot.org)
  • Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone is very closely situated to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • It's proven to be an ideal discovery tool for identifying functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone are hair follicles. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcome until 2 years of age in children who participated in a multicenter antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) trial to improve respiratory outcome and to lower mortality. (aappublications.org)
  • I. Assess the efficacy and safety of antenatal administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone to women in premature labor to improve pulmonary outcomes in preterm infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are randomized to receive antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone or placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Because the material analyzed cochromatographed with synthetic TRH in several chromatographic systems, had a radioreceptor potency which was indistinguishable from that for synthetic TRH, and released TSH and prolactin but not growth hormone from rat pituitaries in vitro, it is concluded that pGlu-His-Pro-NH2 is one of the TRH-like peptides in the rat vental prostate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These observations were the first of many pointing to the conclusion that peptides like the thyrotrophin releasing factor, the first such compound studied in any detail, might well act as neurotransmitters. (springer.com)
  • This leads to an increase in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations which stimulates the exocytosis of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • High concentrations of p-Glu-His-Pro-NH2 (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) occur in rat prostate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Blood samples were taken for the determination of the serum prolactin(PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH concentrations. (mysciencework.com)
  • We measured serial plasma cortisol concentrations during the first 28 postnatal days in a subset of 314 preterm neonates enrolled in the North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) trial 10 and examined associations with initial illness severity (Clinical Risk Index for Babies [CRIB]) 11 and predicted probability of CLD or death at 36 weeks' PMA. (aappublications.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the functional and cellular effects of the neuropeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the spontaneously active ferret geniculate slice. (jneurosci.org)
  • The encoded protein is an extracellular peptidase that specifically cleaves and inactivates the neuropeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally , several of these sites contain the excitatory neuropeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and may release TRH into the RTN . (dartmouth.edu)
  • Bauer-Dantoin AC, McDonald JK, Levine JE, Neuropeptide Y. Potentiates luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone-induced LH secretion only under conditions leading to preovulatory LH surges. (springer.com)
  • It also stimulates the synthesis and release of prolactin [ PMID: 8147889 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This axis stabilizes thyroid hormone synthesis. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • The mechanism of action of thyrotropin, like that of several other hormones, is related to the hormone's capacity to activate the synthesis of cyclic adenylic acid (cAMP), which stimulates the splitting of thyroglobulin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This lesson explores the regulation of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) synthesis and secretion. (spiral.ac)
  • Constitutive and agonist-dependent homo-oligomerization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (wikidoc.org)
  • Homo- and hetero-oligomerization of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor subtypes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is involved in the regulation and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone, as well as prolactin. (nih.gov)
  • The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) hypothesis of homeostatic regulation: implications for TRH-based therapeutics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons. (physiology.org)
  • Collectively, the data imply that TRH-induced depolarization and inward current in PVT neurons involve both a dependency on extracellular Ca 2+ influx via opening of L-type Ca 2+ channels, a sensitivity of a TRPC-like component to intracellular Ca 2+ release via ryanodine channels, and a modulation by MAPK of a GIRK-like conductance component. (physiology.org)
  • Depletion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) gene expression resulted in augmented tau and glycosynthetase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), in contrast, TRH administration resulted in decreases of 75% in GSK-3β and 90% in Tau phosphorylation in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (iospress.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coexpression of the rat thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor-1 with β-arrestin 1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells results in agonist-dependent translocation of the arrestin to the plasma membrane followed by its cointernalization with the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It stimulates the splitting of the protein thyroglobulin in the thryoid follicles and the release of the active thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, into the blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This entry represents the thyrotrophin-releasing hormone receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Distribution of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone receptor messenger RNA in rat pituitary and brain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • to release thyroxine thyroxine , substance secreted by the thyroid gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hormone thyroxine forms by combining the amino acid tyrosine with iodine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • is carried to the thyroid gland by the blood, where it stimulates the uptake of iodine, the conversion of diiodotyrosine to thyroxine, and the secretion of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If not enough iodine is available in the diet, then not enough thyroxine will be made to shut off the release of thyrotropin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). (hindawi.com)
  • Johnson, H. D. / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) Effects on Bovine Plasma Thyroxine . (elsevier.com)
  • Secretion induced by TRH, hyposmolarity, or high K + was optimal at pH 7.3-7.65 and was significantly depressed at pH 6.0 or 8.0, indicating that release of hormone induced by all 3 stimuli is due to an active cell process requiring a physiologic extracellular pH and is not produced by nonspecific cell toxicity. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone , thyrotropic hormone . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • thyrotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), a hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the hypophysis in vertebrate animals and man that controls the development and functions of the thyroid gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gnrh stimulates follicle stimulating hormone & luteinizing hormone which stimulates the ovary to produce estrogen and Progesterone which stimulates ovulation which causes increased Progesterone which causes secretory endometrium which prepares the endometrium to allow implantation of a fertilized egg. (healthtap.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the neuroaxis: therapeutic effects reflect physiological functions and molecular actions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thyrotropin is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 28,000-30,000. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • thyrotropin alfa a recombinant form of thyrotropin used as a diagnostic adjunct in serum thyroglobulin testing in followup of patients with thyroid cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids. (envite.org)
  • Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (envite.org)
  • Gnrh would seem by its name to help release gonadotropin. (healthtap.com)
  • The gland's response is assessed by measuring the rise in cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in response to the hypoglycaemia caused by insulin, rises in prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) caused by TRH and rises in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) caused by GnRH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schally and Guillemin shared the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence its name of 'peptide hormone' or tripeptide. (allhealthguides.com)
  • Since these amino acids occur in the the body naturally, TRH or Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone is thus called TRH hormone or peptide hormone. (allhealthguides.com)
  • What hormone inhibits the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by the anterior pituitary? (healthtap.com)
  • Combination pharmacotherapy: a mixture of small doses of naltrexone, fluoxetine, and a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analogue reduces alcohol intake in three strains of alcohol-preferring rats. (duke.edu)
  • After establishment of a stable baseline for alcohol intake in a continuous access paradigm, each rat received separate single i.p. injections of relatively low doses of either naltrexone (2.0 mg/kg), fluoxetine (1.0 mg/kg), the thyrotropin-releasing hormone analogue TA-0910 (0.2 mg/kg), a mixture of all three drugs, or the vehicle at 09:30. (duke.edu)
  • The plasma of neonatal rats does not appear to contain an inhibitor of thyrotropin releasing hormone peptidase or a peptidase with altered substrate affinity. (sciencemag.org)
  • What's luteinizing hormone LH deficiency from--menopause? (healthtap.com)
  • In spite of a striking pulsatile pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, testosterone (T) fluctuations in peripheral blood in normal adult men are irregular and of low amplitude. (jci.org)
  • A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1998) Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel subtype of rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Whereas thyrotropin releasing hormone is rapidly and extensively degraded by plasma of adult rats, no appreciable loss of biological or immunological activity is caused by plasma from rats 4 or 16 days old. (sciencemag.org)
  • Characterization of ovine hypothalamic hypophysiotropic TSH-releasing factor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Neither alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH) nor its powerful analog Nle4,d-Phe7-MSH could mimic the in vitro TSH-releasing effect of ovine CRH. (edu.au)
  • Patients receive thyrotropin-releasing hormone or placebo intravenously over 20 minutes every 8 hours for 4 doses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Deficiency of this hormone has been associated with hypothalamic hypothyroidism. (nih.gov)
  • In this condition, a deficiency of TRH leads to a deficiency of thyroid hormone, which is known as hypothyroidism. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • The main symptoms seen in thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency are due to hypothyroidism. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Isolated idiopathic central hypothyroidism in an adult, possibly caused by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Finding the right clinical trial for Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency can be challenging. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • T.R.H. caused a prompt, brief improvement in depression without causing significant side-effects Most patients showed a reduced thyrotropin (T.S.H.) response to T.R.H. injection, though none had abnormal thyroid function tests or clinical findings suggesting pituitary or thyroid disease. (unc.edu)
  • The development of an active peptidase in rat plasma suggests a physiological role for inactivation of thyrotropin releasing hormone. (sciencemag.org)
  • Specific inactivation of TRH after its release. (nih.gov)