A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
A highly purified recombinant glycoprotein form of human THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE, produced by recombinant DNA technology comprising two non-covalently linked subunits, an alpha subunit of 92 amino acid residues containing two N-linked glycosylation sites, and a beta subunit of 118 residues containing one N-linked glycosylation site. The amino acid sequence of thyrotropin alfa is identical to that of human pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone.
Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Abnormally elevated THYROXINE level in the BLOOD.

Measurement of serum TSH in the investigation of patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. (1/2714)

In otherwise euthyroid patients presenting with thyroid enlargement, reduction in serum thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations measured in a sensitive assay may be a marker of thyroid autonomy and may therefore indicate a benign underlying pathology. We investigated prospectively a cohort of 467 subjects presenting consecutively to our thyroid clinic with nodular or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid. Subjects were divided into those with normal (0.4-5.5 mU/l), low but detectable (0.1-0.39 mU/l) or undetectable (< 0.1 mU/l) serum TSH concentrations. The final pathological diagnosis was defined by fine-needle aspiration cytology and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years or by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology following surgical treatment. Serum TSH concentrations below normal were found in 75 patients (16.1%), those with low serum TSH results having higher mean free T4 concentrations, were older and were more likely to be female. In those with undetectable serum TSH, no patient had a diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and in those with low but detectable TSH, thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed in two patients (3.4%). In those with normal serum TSH, 12.0% had a final diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm (p = 0.013). Overall, thyroid malignancy was found in one patient (1.3%) of those with a serum TSH measurement below the normal range and 6.9% of those with normal serum TSH (p < 0.06). Reduction in serum TSH at presentation may identify a group which requires less intensive investigation and follow-up than those without biochemical evidence of thyroid autonomy.  (+info)

Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 infusion synchronizes growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin release in prolonged critical illness. (2/2714)

OBJECTIVE: During prolonged critical illness, nocturnal pulsatile secretion of GH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) is uniformly reduced but remains responsive to the continuous infusion of GH secretagogues and TRH. Whether such (pertinent) secretagogues would synchronize pituitary secretion of GH, TSH and/or PRL is not known. DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored temporal coupling among GH, TSH and PRL release by calculating cross-correlation among GH, TSH and PRL serum concentration profiles in 86 time series obtained from prolonged critically ill patients by nocturnal blood sampling every 20 min for 9 h during 21-h infusions of either placebo (n=22), GHRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=10), GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2; 1 microg/kg/h; n=28), TRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=8) or combinations of these agonists (n=8). RESULTS: The normal synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL was absent during placebo delivery. Infusion of GHRP-2, but not GHRH or TRH, markedly synchronized serum profiles of GH, TSH and PRL (all P< or =0.007). After addition of GHRH and TRH to the infusion of GHRP-2, only the synchrony between GH and PRL was maintained (P=0.003 for GHRH + GHRP-2 and P=0.006 for TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2), and was more marked than with GHRP-2 infusion alone (P=0.0006 by ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The nocturnal GH, TSH and PRL secretory patterns during prolonged critical illness are herewith further characterized to include loss of synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL release. The synchronizing effect of an exogenous GHRP-2 drive, but not of GHRH or TRH, suggests that the presumed endogenous GHRP-like ligand may participate in the orchestration of coordinated anterior pituitary hormone release.  (+info)

Insulin and TSH promote growth in size of PC Cl3 rat thyroid cells, possibly via a pathway different from DNA synthesis: comparison with FRTL-5 cells. (3/2714)

In the rat thyroid cell lines PC Cl3, FRTL- 5 and WRT, proliferation is mainly regulated by insulin or IGF, and TSH. However, the mechanism regulating cell mass doubling prior to division is still unknown. Our laboratory has shown that in dog thyroid cells insulin promotes growth in size while TSH in the presence of insulin triggers DNA replication. In the absence of insulin, TSH has no effect on cell growth. In this report we investigated insulin action on both cell mass and DNA synthesis and its modulation by TSH and insulin in PC Cl3 and FRTL-5 cells. In PC Cl3 cells, insulin activated not only DNA synthesis but also protein synthesis and accumulation. Although TSH potentiated the stimulation of DNA synthesis induced by insulin, enhancement of protein synthesis by both agents was additive. All TSH effects were reproduced by forskolin. Similar effects were also obtained in FRTL-5 cells. This suggests that insulin and TSH, via cAMP, modulate both growth in size and DNA replication in these cell lines. Lovastatin, which blocks 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, decreased the induction of DNA synthesis, but not of protein synthesis induced by insulin or TSH in PC Cl3 cells. In FRTL-5 cells, lovastatin reduced protein and DNA synthesis stimulated by insulin but not TSH-induced protein synthesis. Taking these data together, we propose that insulin and/or TSH both modulate cell mass doubling and DNA synthesis in these cell lines, presumably via different pathways, and that there are at least two pathways which regulate growth in size in FRTL-5 thyroid cells: one triggered by insulin, which is lovastatin sensitive, and the other activated by TSH, which is not sensitive to lovastatin.  (+info)

Development of a thyroid function strategy for general practice. (4/2714)

A study was carried out to investigate a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) frontline strategy that could potentially result in a more straightforward interpretation of thyroid function tests, a reduction in the number of inappropriate referrals to medical outpatients, an improvement in the 'turnaround time' of results, and a reduction in the number of unnecessary tests carried out, thereby reducing costs.  (+info)

Polarized targeting of epithelial cell proteins in thyrocytes and MDCK cells. (5/2714)

Polarized trafficking signals may be interpreted differently in different cell types. In this study, we have compared the polarized trafficking of different proteins expressed endogenously in primary porcine thyroid epithelial cells to similar proteins expressed in MDCK cells. As in MDCK cells, NH4Cl treatment of filter-grown thyrocytes caused mis-sorted soluble proteins to exhibit enhanced secretion to the apical medium. In independent studies, thrombospondin 1 (a thyroid basolaterally secreted protein) was secreted basolaterally from MDCK cells. Likewise, the 5'-deiodinase (a thyroid basolateral membrane protein) encoded by the DIO1 gene was also distributed basolaterally in transfected MDCK cells. Consistent with previous reports, when the secretion of human growth hormone (an unglycosylated regulated secretory protein) was examined from transfected MDCK cells, the release was nonpolarized. However, transfected thyrocytes secreted growth hormone apically in a manner dependent upon zinc addition. Moreover, two additional regulated secretory proteins expressed in thyrocytes, thyroglobulin (the major endogenous glycoprotein) and parathyroid hormone (an unglycosylated protein expressed transiently), were secreted apically even in the absence of zinc. We hypothesize that while cellular mechanisms for interpreting polarity signals are generally similar between thyrocytes and MDCK cells, thyrocytes allow for specialized packaging of regulated secretory proteins for apical delivery, which does not require glycosylation but may involve availability of certain ions as well as appropriate intracellular compartmentation.  (+info)

Biological activities of tyrosine-containing somatostatin analogs on inhibition of secretion of thyrotropin and growth hormone. (6/2714)

The following five tyrosine-containing analogs of somatostatin (GIF) were synthesized by the solid-phase method: Tyr-GIF: [Tyr6]-GIF; [Tyr7]-GIF; [Tyr8]-GIF; [Tyr11]-GIF. These analogs except [Tyr8]-GIF were demonstrated to possess almost the same potency to inhibit thyrotropin release stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone as that of synthesized GIF in vivo. [Tyr8]-GIF had potencies less than 0.5% of GIF. They also had the activity to inhibit Nembutal-induced growth hormone rise. The structure-activity relationship and availability of these analogs for radioimmunoassay were discussed.  (+info)

Reverse triiodothyronine, thyroid hormone, and thyrotrophin concentrations in placental cord blood. (7/2714)

Reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and thyrotrophin (TSH) were measured in sera from placental cord blood in an unselected series of 272 deliveries. In this series the concentrations of rT3 (mean 3.33 nmol/l, 95% confidence limits 1.6--7.0 nmol/l), were log normally distributed and did not overlap the adult normal range (0.11--0.44 nmol/l). There were no correlations between the cord blood concentrations of rT3, T3, T4, and TSH. The cord serum rT3 concentration was not influenced by maturity, birth-weight, or neonatal risk factors, whereas these factors did affect the concentrations of T3, T4, AND TBG. There is no arteriovenous rT3 concentration difference across the placenta, therefore the cord rT3 reflects the systemic rT3 concentration in the baby at birth. As rT3 in the neonate largely, if not entirely, derives from thyroxine from the fetal thyroid, measurement of the cord rT3 concentration may be a good immediate screening test for neonatal hypothyroidism.  (+info)

Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands. (8/2714)

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of symptomatic central hypothyroidism (characterized by low serum thyrotropin and thyroxine concentrations) in a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma during therapy with the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand bexarotene led us to hypothesize that such ligands could reversibly suppress thyrotropin production by a thyroid hormone-independent mechanism and thus cause central hypothyroidism. METHODS: We evaluated thyroid function in 27 patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who were enrolled in trials of high-dose oral bexarotene at one institution. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro effect of triiodothyronine, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand LGD346 on the activity of the thyrotropin beta-subunit gene promoter. RESULTS: The mean serum thyrotropin concentration declined from 2.2 mU per liter at base line to 0.05 mU per liter during treatment with bexarotene (P<0.001), and the mean serum free thyroxine concentration declined from 1.0 ng per deciliter (12.9 pmol per liter) at base line to 0.45 ng per deciliter (5.8 pmol per liter) (P<0.001) during treatment. The degree of suppression of thyrotropin secretion tended to be greater in patients treated with higher doses of bexarotene (>300 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day) and in those with a history of treatment with interferon alfa. Nineteen patients had symptoms or signs of hypothyroidism, particularly fatigue and cold intolerance. The symptoms improved after the initiation of thyroxine therapy, and all patients became euthyroid after treatment with bexarotene was stopped. In vitro, LGD346 suppressed the activity of the thyrotropin beta-subunit gene promoter in thyrotrophs by as much as 50 percent, an effect similar to that of triiodothyronine and 9-cis-retinoic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroidism may develop in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who are treated with high-dose bexarotene, most likely because the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand suppresses thyrotropin secretion.  (+info)

Importance: The benefit of thyroid hormone therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is uncertain. New evidence from recent large randomized clinical trials warrants an update of previous meta-analyses.. Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of the association of thyroid hormone therapy with quality of life and thyroid-related symptoms in adults with subclinical hypothyroidism.. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, Emcare, and Academic Search Premier from inception until July 4, 2018.. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials that compared thyroid hormone therapy with placebo or no therapy in nonpregnant adults with subclinical hypothyroidism were eligible. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligibility based on titles and abstracts of all retrieved studies. Studies not excluded in this first step were independently assessed for inclusion after full-text evaluation by 2 reviewers.. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two independent reviewers ...
Busnardo, B.; Girelli, M.E.; Cimitan, M.; Casara, D.; Bui, F.; Lazzi, C.; Argenti, G., 1977: Relationship between metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and serum thyrotropin levels
Among nonpregnant adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, the use of thyroid hormone therapy was not associated with improvements in general quality of life or thyroid-related symptoms. These findings do not support the routine use of thyroid hormone therapy in adults with subclinical hypothyroidism …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum thyrotropin measurements in the community. T2 - Five-year follow-up in a large network of primary care physicians. AU - Meyerovitch, Joseph. AU - Rotman-Pikielny, Pnina. AU - Sherf, Michael. AU - Battat, Erez. AU - Levy, Yair. AU - Surks, Martin I.. PY - 2007/7/23. Y1 - 2007/7/23. N2 - Background: Subclinical thyroid disease is common; however, screening recommendations using serum thyrotropin (TSH) level determinations are controversial. Methods: To study the use of serum TSH by primary care physicians and define populations at risk for having an abnormal TSH level at follow-up, based on initial TSH levels, we conducted an observational study of a large health care database in the setting of a health management organization. All outpatients without thyroid disease or pregnancy or taking medication that may alter thyroid function in whom the TSH level was measured in 2002 and during 5-year follow-up were included in this study. Repeated TSH level determinations were ...
Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), usually given as 0.9-mg doses im on 2 successive days, increases serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) in residual thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid cancer. We previously reported that a single, relatively low dose of rhTSH (0.1 mg im) is a potent stimulator of T(4), T(3), and Tg secretion in normal subjects. The present study describes the effects of higher doses of rhTSH on thyroid hormone and Tg secretion. Six normal subjects for each dose group, having no evidence of thyroid disease, received either 0.3 or 0.9 mg rhTSH by im injection. Serum TSH, T(4), T(3), and Tg concentrations were measured at 2, 4, and 8 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 days after rhTSH administration. The peak serum TSH concentrations were 82 +/- 18 and 277 +/- 89 mU/L, respectively, for the 0.3- and 0.9-mg doses of rhTSH. Serum T(4), T(3), and Tg concentrations increased significantly in subjects receiving 0.3 and 0.9 mg rhTSH, with significant increases in T(4) and T(3)
Bovine TSH (bTSH) has a higher affinity to the human TSHR (hTSHR) and a higher signaling activity than human TSH (hTSH). The molecular reasons for these phenomena are unknown. Distinct negatively charged residues (Glu297, Glu303, and Asp382) in the hinge region of the hTSHR are known to be important …
This was a meta-analysis of individual patient data in 14 cohort studies included in the Thyroid Studies Collaboration consortium. The authors used a common thyrotropin reference range of 0.45-4.49 mIU/L for all cohorts except for the Whickham Survey (in which authors used a reference range of 0.5-5.9 mIU/L because the first-generation thyrotropin assay used in that study yields consistently higher levels than measurements of current assays). The authors determined hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD mortality and CHD events according to thyrotropin levels after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status.. ...
Thyroid hormone therapy significantly resolves fibrosis, or scarring, in the lungs of mice, increasing their survival from disease, a Yale-led study shows. This provides a novel insight into the development of pulmonary fibrosis and could lead to alternative treatment for this serious condition, according to the researchers.. The study was published in Nature Medicine.. A type of lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis causes scarring of the lungs, which impairs breathing. One form of this lethal illness, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is steadily increasing in the United States and leads to death within three to five years of diagnosis in half of patients.. Using profiles of all the genes expressed in the lungs, the Yale-led team of investigators identified a gene that was increased in the lungs of people with IPF; this gene also activates the thyroid hormone.. To examine the link between the thyroid hormone and IPF, the research team tested the effect of the hormone in two different mice ...
PubMed journal article: Pituitary-thyroid hormone economy in healthy aging men: basal indices of thyroid function and thyrotropin responses to constant infusions of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Thyroid dysfunction can be diagnosed by measuring the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone excreted by the pituitary gland. If the thyroid gland doesnt produce enough levels of thyroid hormone, the pituitary gland sends out a thyroid-stimulating hormone to encourage the thyroid to increase production.. Here are some of the laboratory tests that are recommended in case you need to examine your thyroid gland health:. 1. Thyroid Antibody Testing - This test can determine if your body is attacking your thyroid or overreacting to its own tissues. Unfortunately, sometimes, conventional physicians avoid this test, but you can still do it if you think that it can give you the information you need.. 2. Basal Body Temperature - The Broda Barnes System, which measures your body temperature at rest.. 3. TSH Test - The ideal thyroid-stimulating hormone level is between 1 and 1.5 milli-international units per liter.. 4. TRH Stimulation Test for more difficult cases - Thyroid-stimulating hormone can be ...
The authors used several medical literature databases to find all published papers containing studies related to thyroid cancer and serum TSH concentrations. They calculated the likelihood of cancer associated with serum TSH values. A total of 28 studies were selected for this systematic review and 22 of these studies included 40,929 patients and 5605 cases of thyroid cancer.. A total of 15 of the studies included in the analysis show a TSH-related increase in the likelihood of cancer, frequently extending to a frankly elevated serum TSH. Using a predictive model the authors found that as serum TSH levels increased, so did the risk of thyroid cancer. For example, at a TSH of 3 mU/L, the likelihood that the nodule was a cancer was almost twice that seen with a TSH of 1, while there was an almost 3-fold greater likelihood of cancer if the TSH was 5 mU/L.. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1 in 68 children in the USA. An ASD blood biomarker may enable early diagnosis and/or identification of new therapeutic targets. Serum samples from ASD and typically developing (TD) boys (n = 30/group) were screened for differences in 110 proteins using a multiplex immunoassay. Eleven proteins were found that together could confirm ASD with modest accuracy using multiple training and test sets. Two of the 11 proteins identified here were further tested using a different detection platform and with a larger sample of ASD and TD boys. The two proteins, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), have been previously identified as putative biomarkers for ASD. TSH levels were significantly lower in ASD boys, whereas IL-8 levels were significantly elevated. The diagnostic accuracy for ASD based upon TSH or IL-8 levels alone varied from 74 to 76%, but using both proteins together, the diagnostic accuracy increased to 82%. In addition, TSH
Dr. Lazarus shares if pregnant women should have their thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels checked and if so, will their doctor test automatically or will the women have to ask.
Abdelouahab N, Mergler D, Takser L, Vanier C, St-Jean M, Baldwin M, et al. 2008. Gender differences in the effects of organochlorines, mercury, and lead on thyroid hormone levels in lakeside communities of Quebec (Canada). Environ Res 107(3):380-392.. Asvold BO, Bjoro T, Nilsen TI, Vatten LJ. 2007. Association between blood pressure and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration within the reference range: a population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92(3):841-845.. Barregard L, Lindstedt G, Schutz A, Sallsten G. 1994. Endocrine function in mercury exposed chloralkali workers. Occup Environ Med 51(8):536-540.. Belin RM, Astor BC, Powe NR, Ladenson PW. 2004. Smoke exposure is associated with a lower prevalence of serum thyroid autoantibodies and thyrotropin concentration elevation and a higher prevalence of mild thyrotropin concentration suppression in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89(12):6077-6086.. Bellinger DC. 2004. ...
High tsh levels in men - What does high tsh 3rd generation level means? Hypothyroidism. Typically it means that you have an underactive thyroid and may need replacement.
Question - Low T3 and T4, high TSH levels. Thyroxine prescribed. Any side effect?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Thyroid disease, Ask an Endocrinologist
Control of thyroid hormone homeostasis is essential for function and development of the organism and hence for individual health. It is therefore not surprising that the thyroids function is controlled by a complex, multi-loop feedback control system.. Today, the central component of the thyrotropic feedback control system is still poorly understood on a physiological level. Therefore, in mathematical models different functional relations describing the feedback-inhibition of thyrotropin incretion by thyroid hormones have been suggested [Danziger and Elmergreen 1956, Roston 1959, Norwich and Reiter 1965, DiStefano and Stear 1968, DiStefano 1969, Saratchandran et al. 1973, Li et al. 1995, Dietrich et al. 2004, Degon et al. 2008, Jonklaas and Soldin 2008, Hörmann et al. 2010]. Most of these models fail in delivering biochemical explanations for the functional interrelations they postulate.. Nevertheless, some clinical applications of these models have been developed, although their diagnostical ...
Question - Two month old having high TSH levels. What to do?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hypothyroidism, Ask a Pediatrician
The TSH test measures the TSH blood level. Get a TSH lab test near you to check the thyroid-stimulating hormone level at a reasonable cost - Accesa Labs
The TSH test measures the TSH blood level. Get a TSH lab test near you to check the thyroid-stimulating hormone level at a reasonable cost - Accesa Labs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant human thyrotropin before 131I therapy in patients with nodular goitre. T2 - A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. AU - Lee, Yen Ying. AU - Tam, Ka-Wai. AU - Lin, You Meei. AU - Leu, Wuan Jin. AU - Chang, Jui Chia. AU - Hsiao, Chi Lien. AU - Hsu, Meng Ting. AU - Hsieh, An-Tsz. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - Background Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) can be used to enhance radioiodine therapy for shrinking multinodular goitre. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of rhTSH pretreatment and radioiodine therapy with that of radioiodine alone for treating benign nodular goitre. Methods The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched to identify studies published before September 2014. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled effect size using random-effects models. The primary outcome was the reduction in thyroid volume. Secondary outcomes included thyroid function, ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of TSH levels on clinical outcomes 14 days after frozen-thawed embryo transfer. Blood samples were collected on the first visit to our department and 14 days after embryo transfer. Women were divided into three groups based on D14 TSH levels, which were compared to basal TSH levels in groups with different clinical outcomes. TSH levels between pregnant and nonpregnant women were also compared. The clinical pregnancy rate in women with lower TSH levels 14 days after transfer was slightly but significantly lower (56%, P = 0.05) compared to those with higher TSH levels. Furthermore, TSH levels were significantly elevated 14 days after transfer compared to basal TSH levels in pregnant women and in women who successfully became pregnant (P | 0.001, respectively). Elevated TSH levels 14 days after embryo transfer compared to basal TSH levels seem to play a protective role and predict favorable clinical outcomes under specific conditions.
Subclinical hypothyroidism is a condition where some laboratory findings point at a thyroid gland not working properly. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism may have vague, non-specific symptoms of actual hypothyroidism (for example dry skin, cold skin or feeling colder, constipation, slower thinking, poor memory) but these thyroid-related symptoms are not specific, that is why the diagnosis is based on test results. The fundamental question regarding people with subclinical hypothyroidism is whether they should be treated with thyroid hormones. To answer this question twelve studies of six to 14 months duration involving 350 people were analysed. Thyroid hormone therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism did not result in improved survival or decreased cardiovascular morbidity (for example less heart attacks or strokes). Data on health-related quality of life and symptoms did not demonstrate significant differences between placebo and thyroid hormone therapy. Some evidence indicated that ...
Age- and method-dependent plasma TSH reference intervals are essential for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism. However, accurate reference intervals for plasma TSH have not been adequately defined due to the difficulties in obtaining samples from a healthy paediatric population. To overcome the difficulties in generating such intervals we estimated method-dependent plasma TSH upper-reference intervals by determining the blood spot TSH upper-reference interval from newborn blood spot TSH screening data (N = 10,697) and then derived method-dependent conversion factors for blood spot TSH to plasma TSH concentration from paired-blood spot and plasma TSH measurements. The upper reference interval for blood spot TSH of 3.04 mU/L was obtained from the 97.5th centile of the selected data. Using experimentally-derived conversion factors, estimates of plasma TSH upper reference intervals of 7.6, 6.3, 7.3, 8.3 and 6.5 mU/L were obtained for the Siemens Centaur, Abbott Architect, ...
Manley S.W., Huxham G.J. and Bourke J.R. (1986) Role of sodium influx in thyrotrophin action: Effects of the sodium channel agonist veratridine and thyrotrophin on radioiodine turnover and membrane potential in cultured porcine thyroid cells. Journal of Endocrinology, 110 3: 459-466. ...
Inheritable isolated central hypothyroidism (ICH) due to mutations of TSH beta gene has been reported in few patients. For this reason the diagnostic criteria are vague. The disorder is usually characterized by undetectable TSH levels, although low/normal serum TSH, depending on TSH measurement methods, has been documented in some patients. Here we report an Egyptian girl with ICH due to a novel nonsense mutation of the TSH beta gene (Q49X). She was referred at 75 days of age for severe clinical signs of hypothyroidism, whose central origin was documented by normal serum TSH, low free T(4) and free T(3) levels, impaired TSH response to TRH, absence of (99)Tc thyroidal uptake, and antithyroid autoantibodies. Ultrasound revealed a hypoplastic thyroid, whereas magnetic resonance imaging showed a hyperplastic pituitary. All other pituitary hormones, including PRL, were normally secreted. A diagnosis of idiopathic ICH was made, and substitutive L-T(4) treatment was started at 81 days of age. At the ...
TSH or free T4 levels may be diagnostically misleading in cases of abnormalities in hypothalamus or pituitary function, in which the usual negative feedback is not seen and TSH may remain within normal limits.. Misinterpretation due to the inclusion of biologically inactive TSH isoforms in TSH assays can lead to a missed diagnosis of central hypothyroidism. TSH assays include biologically inactive TSH isoforms, which are secreted when the pituitary is damaged or when hypothalamic TRH stimulation is deficient.. Most thyroid testing is performed by either immunoassay, in which labeled and unlabeled ligands compete for a limited number of antibody sites, or immunometric assays, in which an antibody is bound to a solid surface rather than an antibody. Cross reactivity of auto-antibodies or heterophilic antibodies can affect diagnostic accuracy of competitive binding-based tests.. The term heterophilic antibodies is often loosely applied to relatively weak antibodies with multiple activity sites, ...
In 1948, 5234 men and women enrolled in a study in Framingham, Massachusetts, to help define risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Heart Study has also provided data on thyroid diseases, including nodules (1, 2); thyroid deficiency in elderly persons (3); and, most recently, low thyrotropin levels as a risk factor for AF. The authors lucidly describe the 10-year experience for this arrhythmia in 2007 of the original cohort participants. After adjustment for AF risk factors, including age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and heart murmur, low thyrotropin levels typical of subclinical hyperthyroidism were associated with a 3-fold increased risk for AF. Because hyperthyroidism is one of the most correctable causes of AF (4, 5), this study has important clinical ramifications. Modification of risk factors to decrease the incidence of morbid events is a logical step. In this instance, the modification ...
Does it matter whether the serum thyrotropin concentration is suppressed to a level of 0. Falta de yodomateria prima. It is also important hiperfhncion note that screening based on thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations will of course also turn up subclinical and overt thyrotoxicosis,8 and arguably this is even more important to recognise tiroidwa treat.. Depende de un exceso en su organismo de ACTH adenocorticotropa este exceso puede ser causado por:. We undertook this tiroixea thyroid screening study to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with elevated thyrotropin thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH and normal free thyroxine levels. These studies have increased the concern that even mild hypothyroidism can interfere with normal brain development.. Doses of thyroxine that suppress thyrotropin secretion, however, have more widespread effects, such as increasing the nocturnal heart rate, shortening the systolic time interval, increasing urinary sodium excretion and serum enzyme activities in ...
In vitro thyroid function tests were performed in three groups of patients with chronic renal failure who were receiving, on average, 15, 18 and 27 hours of maintenance hemodialysis per week. Total thyroxine levels were low and total triiodothyronine levels low to normal in those receiving the least dialysis (15 hours), and were significantly higher in those receiving longer dialysis. Free thyroxine levels, as measured by the effective thyroxine ratio, were normal and similar in all three groups, as were serum thyrotrophin levels. All patients were clinically euthyroid. As total hormone levels showed a significant inverse relationship to both urea and creatinine, this study suggests that there is a dialyzable metabolite retained in uremia which competes with thyroid hormones for protein-binding sites.
Subclinical hyperthyroidism is different from hyperthyroidism. Your TSH levels are low but your thyroid hormone levels are normal.. If you have subclinical hyperthyroidism, you may have no symptoms at all. Or you may lose weight or feel anxious. People with subclinical hyperthyroidism may also develop some of the more serious problems related to hyperthyroidism such as heart and bone problems. But experts do not know whether the benefits of treating subclinical hyperthyroidism outweigh the risks. For this reason, if you have subclinical hyperthyroidism, your doctor may just watch you closely.. ...
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends yearly screening of thyroid studies in DS. Clinical experience suggests that TSH concentrations in the subclinical hypothyroid range (5-10 milli international units(mIU/L)) are not uncommon in DS, but the benefits and risks of treating SCH in the DS population are not known. In adults, SCH has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and individuals with DS may be at increased cardiometabolic risk as well.. Data in children with SCH are limited. Despite the recommendations to screen for thyroid dysfunction, evidence to guide management of elevated TSH in children with DS is equally sparse. In non-DS children, TSH,4.65 mIU/L was associated with lower HDL. One year of levothyroxine treatment in short children with subclinical hypothyroidism and short stature improved growth velocity. Left ventricular (LV) function and LV mass (by echocardiography) was not different in 16 children with DS and subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH,6.5 ...
For the purposes of the current study, normal values were considered to be those that comprised the range from the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles for the entire cohort. For TSH, these values were 0.03 to 4.13 milliunits/L and for free T4 these values ranged from 0.9 to 2.0 ng/dL. All women screened and delivered at Parkland Hospital and without evidence of overt thyroid dysfunction were included... Women with serum TSH values within the normal range were considered to be euthyroid. Those with an abnormally low TSH but normal free T4 levels were classified as having subclinical hyperthyroidism. Conversely, women with abnormally high TSH but normal free T4 levels were classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism ...
Subclinical hypothyroidism, also referred to as mild thyroid failure. More about Subclinical Hypothyroidism and dealing with Subclinical Hypothyroidism
Case studies of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have reported an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction. There also have been more recent reports of Graves disease in patients taking highly active antiretroviral agents. Beltran and colleagues screened a cohort of HIV-infected patients to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction.. A cohort of 350 patients with HIV was screened. Seven patients with hyperthyroidism and abnormal free triiodothyronine levels were not included in the final analysis. Overt hypothyroidism, defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the normal range and a low free thyroxine (T4) level, was detected in 2.6 percent of patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism (i.e., elevated TSH level and normal free T4 level) was detected in an additional 6.6 percent of patients, and a low free T4 level was found in another 6.8 percent.. A further case-control comparison was performed for the hypothyroid and euthyroid patients. Older age, ...
For patients undergoing treatment for thyroid cancer who arent at high risk of recurrence, therapy to suppress thyrotropin (TSH) may be ineffective as well as risky. These findings were published in the journal Thyroid.. Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer and can often be cured with surgery to remove the thyroid completely or partially (thyroidectomy) and radioactive iodine treatment.. Following treatment for thyroid cancer, many patients receive treatment to suppress the production of TSH, sometimes for the rest of their lives. The goal of TSH suppression is to reduce risk of recurrence, but there is debate over this practice. The risk of recurrence in thyroid cancer tends to be low, and experts question whether the benefits of TSH suppression justify the risks (such as osteoporosis, or weakening of the bones). In addition, experts arent in agreement over the levels TSH needed to reduce risk of recurrence and limit side effects.. Researchers with Memorial ...
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, development and metabolism. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis controls the production of thyroid hormones and works as a negative feedback system. The hypothalamus produces thyrotropin-releasing hormone which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulating the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones T3 and T4.1. Hypothyroidism is the most common hormone deficiency with a 2% UK prevalence.1 Primary hypothyroidism, accounting for 95% of cases, is commonly due to autoimmune thyroid disease and presents with a low T4 and raised TSH. Central (or secondary) hypothyroidism results from pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction causing insufficient stimulation of the thyroid gland. It presents with a low or normal TSH level and low T4 level.2. This patient presented with a normal TSH and low T4 indicating central hypothyroidism. His TFTs were misinterpreted and he commenced levothyroxine with no further ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase c activation mimics but does not mediate thyrotropin-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in cultured dog thyroid cells. AU - Deery, William J.. AU - Rani, C. S.Sheela. AU - Deery, William J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - The mechanism and site(s) of the defect responsible for desensitization to hormone stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) vary with cell type. Plasma membrane preparations were assayed after treatment of primary cultured dog thyroid cells to determine the role of the TSH receptor, stimulatory and inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding proteins (Gaand Gi), and catalytic unit in AC desensitization. Exposure of cells to TSH or the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), caused time dependent decreases in TSH-stimulated AC and [125I]TSH binding with approximately 50% decreases seen after 18 h; Bt2cAMP was unable to reproduce the TSH effect. Whereas TSH ...
To the editor: In the concluding paragraphs of the National Institutes of Health conference on inappropriate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion, somatostatin or dopamine analogues were suggested as possible appropriate therapies in this condition (1). We write to report preliminary results of use of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine (Parlodel, Sandoz, Ltd, London, United Kingdom) in this condition.. A 56-year-old white man presented with thyrotoxicosis in 1978, with an elevated serum free thyroxine (T4) of 164 nmol/L (normal range, 55 to 144 nmol/L); free triiodothyroxine (T3), 3 nmol/L (normal range, 0.9 to 2.8 nmol/L); and early (20 minutes) iodine uptake, 25% ...
00:10 When we want to think about the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis we need to start in hypothalamus. 00:20 In the hypothalamus we have two structures that we need to take into account. thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamic axis (6, 10-22). In these studies it has been observed that the levels of serum TT4 and TT3 may be low or normal, levels of rT3 may be high or normal, the nocturnal peak of TSH secretion is blunted or abolished, the serum baseline TSH secretion in the morning may be normal, low or high and the serum TSH response to TRH may be normal or blunted in patients with. HYPOTHALAMO †PITUITARY †GONADAL AXIS • Physiology of the HPG axis • Endogenous opioids and the HPG axis (exercise-induced menstrual disturbances) The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid hormone (TH) production. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), ...
The effect of long-term treatment with amiodarone on patients with Chagas disease has seldom been reported. This nonrandomized observational study attempted to analyze the follow-up of patients with Chagas disease regarding their clinical evolution, thyroid dysfunction, and goiter. We compared 72 patients with long-term use (11 +/- 5 years) of amiodarone, including 22 patients who developed goiter, to 33 patients who did not use amiodarone, followed-up for 2 to 20 years (7 +/- 11 years). Follow-up of 72 patients for 9 +/- 5.4 years with periodic cardiac and thyroid function evaluations showed that only 26 maintained normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels; 24 presented with elevated levels; 4 had low levels, and 18 patients presented with fluctuations of TSH level. Among the 22 patients with goiter, only 3 (14%) patients maintained normal TSH, 8 (36%) had elevated TSH, 2 (9%) had low TSH, and 9 (41%) patients presented with fluctuating serum TSH levels. Most individuals remained clinically ...
Clinical Question: Is there a benefit to adding liothyronine to levothyroxine in the treatment of primary hypothyroidism?. Setting: Outpatient (specialty). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (double-blinded). Synopsis: Adding synthetic triiodothyronine (liothyronine) to levothyroxine, the current standard of treatment for primary hypothyroidism, may further improve clinical symptoms. Investigators identified 46 patients, 24 to 65 years of age, with at least a six-month history of treatment with levothyroxine alone for primary hypothyroidism. Patients were assigned randomly in a double-blind fashion (concealed allocation assignment) to receive their usual dosage of levothyroxine or combination therapy (their usual levothyroxine dosage reduced by 50 μg per day plus 7.5 μg of synthetic liothyronine twice daily) for four months. Outcomes were assessed by persons blinded to treatment group assignment. No patients were lost to follow-up.. After four months, serum thyrotropin levels remained ...
High TSH levels can be a symptom of several diseases, including hypothyroidism and, more uncommonly, pituitary tumors, according to WebMD. Long-term untreated hypothyroidism can cause heart disease,...
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, or TSH) is a hormone which stimulates the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, which control how fast the bodys chemical functions go (the metabolic rate). Thyroid hormones influence the metabolic rate in two ways: by stimulating almost every tissue in the body to produce proteins and by increasing the amount of oxygen that cells use. Thyroid hormones affect many vital body functions.[1] Thyrotropin is a glycoprotein hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which adjusts the endocrine function of the thyroid gland.[1][2][3] ...
Chiovato, L.; Vitti, P.; Lombardi, A.; Kohn, L.D.; Pinchera, A., 1985: Expression of the microsomal antigen on the surface of continuously cultured rat thyroid cells is modulated by thyrotropin
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels obtained one month after the cessation of anti-thyroid drug treatment were assessed retrospectively for possible use in predicting outcome in 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Graves disease. Thirty-four patients remained in remission at the end of the follow-up period and 16 patients relapsed. Although a TSH level of , 1.2 mU/1 did not discriminate between the two groups, none of the 24 patients who had TSH levels of , 1.2 mU/1 relapsed during the follow-up period, making early discharge from the thyroid clinic possible for these patients.. ...
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is a condition characterized by a mild persistent thyroid failure. The main cause is represented by autoimmune thyroiditis, but mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in TSH pathway are thought to be responsible for SH, particularly in cases arising in familial settings. Patients with the syndrome of TSH unresponsiveness may have compensated or overt hypothyroidism with a wide spectrum of clinical and morphological alterations depending on the degree of impairment of TSH-receptor (TSH-R) function. We describe the case of two brothers with non autoimmune SH carrying the same heterozygous mutation in the extracellular domain of TSH-R and presenting with different clinical, biochemical and morphological features. The first one had only a slight persistent elevation of TSH, a normal thyroid ultrasound and did never require l- thyroxine (L-T4) replacement treatment. The second one had a neonatal persistent moderate TSH levels increase associated with a thyroid gland
OBJECTIVE: In recognition of its primary role in pituitary-thyroid feedback, TSH determination has become a key parameter for clinical decision-making. This study examines the value of TSH as a measure of thyroid hormone homoeostasis under thyroxine (T(4)) therapy.DESIGN AND METHODS: We have examined the interrelationships between free triiodothyronine (FT(3)), free T(4) (FT(4)) and pituitary TSH by means of i) a retrospective analysis of a large clinical sample comprising 1994 patients either untreated or on varying doses of l-T(4) and ii) independent mathematical simulation applying a model of thyroid homoeostasis, together with a sensitivity analysis.RESULTS: Over a euthyroid to mildly hyperthyroid functional range, we found markedly different correlation slopes of log TSH vs FT(3) and FT(4) between untreated patients and l-T(4) groups. Total deiodinase activity (G(D)) was positively correlated with TSH in untreated subjects. However, G(D) was significantly altered and the correlation was ...
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Diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is based on interpretation of biochemical tests in the absence of the evident clinical symptoms. Mildly elevated TSH with normal fT4 are common in adults and the prevalence of this finding is reported to be 1-10% of general population, being higher in the elderly. In pediatric population its prevalence is lower than 2%. Moreover in about 60% of subjects the natural course of SH is a reversal of the elevated TSH to normal values. Only 3% of them progress to overt hypothyroidism with TSH values above 10 mUI/l. The risk of progression is higher in patients with elevated anti-thyroid antibodies and higher degree of hypoechogenicity at thyroid ultrasound. Increased prevalence of SH is described in obese and overweight subjects, children with Downs syndrome, with diabetes type 1 and in girls with Turners syndrome. Studies regarding the natural history of SH and its consequences in children are scarce and their conclusions are controversial. Meta-analysis ...
The association between normal-range thyroid function and BMI and dyslipidemia has been the subject of much debate. The DanThyr Study showed a positive correlation between BMI and serum TSH, a negative correlation between BMI and serum free T4, and no association between BMI and serum free T3. Obesity (BMI, 30 kg/m2) and serum TSH levels were significantly associated in this cohort study4). Of 87 obese women without complications, severely obese (BMI, 40 kg/m2) women had a higher serum TSH than mildly or moderately obese women (BMI, 40 kg/m2), and TSH was positively correlated with BMI5). The fifth Troms study showed a positive correlation between normal-range serum TSH and BMI in nonsmokers and demonstrated no correlation between serum TSH and BMI in smokers6). Michalaki et al. reported that morbidly obese subjects had higher levels of T3, free T3, T4, and TSH than did control subjects7). However, investigation of another cohort of 401 euthyroid subjects showed no significant relationship ...
The association between normal-range thyroid function and BMI and dyslipidemia has been the subject of much debate. The DanThyr Study showed a positive correlation between BMI and serum TSH, a negative correlation between BMI and serum free T4, and no association between BMI and serum free T3. Obesity (BMI, 30 kg/m2) and serum TSH levels were significantly associated in this cohort study4). Of 87 obese women without complications, severely obese (BMI, 40 kg/m2) women had a higher serum TSH than mildly or moderately obese women (BMI, 40 kg/m2), and TSH was positively correlated with BMI5). The fifth Troms study showed a positive correlation between normal-range serum TSH and BMI in nonsmokers and demonstrated no correlation between serum TSH and BMI in smokers6). Michalaki et al. reported that morbidly obese subjects had higher levels of T3, free T3, T4, and TSH than did control subjects7). However, investigation of another cohort of 401 euthyroid subjects showed no significant relationship ...
Bourke J.R., Carseldine K.L., Ferris S.H., Huxham G.J. and Manley S.W. (1981) Changes in membrane potential of cultured porcine and human thyroid cells in response to thyrotrophin and other agents. Journal of Endocrinology, 88 2: 187-196. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism reverses ischemia and prevents myocyte loss and progressive LV dysfunction in hamsters with dilated cardiomyopathy. AU - Khalife, Wissam. AU - Tang, Yi Da. AU - Kuzman, James A.. AU - Thomas, Tracy A.. AU - Anderson, Brent E.. AU - Said, Suleman. AU - Tille, Patricia. AU - Schlenker, Evelyn H.. AU - Martin Gerdes, A.. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - Growing evidence suggests that thyroid dysfunction may contribute to progression of cardiac disease to heart failure. We investigated the effects of a therapeutic dose of thyroid hormones (TH) on cardiomyopathic (CM) hamsters from 4 to 6 mo of age. CM hamsters had subclinical hypothyroidism (normal thyroxine, elevated TSH). Left ventricular (LV) function was determined by echocardiography and hemodynamics. Whole tissue pathology and isolated myocyte size and number were assessed. TH treatment prevented the decline in heart rate and rate of LV pressure increase and improved LV ejection fraction. ...
Results Most of the patients were euthyroid (78.4%), while the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction including subclinical ones was 21.6%. SCH accounted for 8.6%, while subclinical hyperthyroidism accounted for only 1.5%. There were more patients with hypothyroidism than those with hyperthyroidism including the subclinical ones (14% vs 7.7%). In euthyroid patients, the TSH level within the normal range was positively and linearly correlated with log-transformed total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) (β=0.191 and 0.113, respectively; p,0.001 and p,0.05, respectively). The analysis based on the equations in path model analysis showed that the total effects of TSH on Log TC and Log TG were significant (path coefficient=0.2028 and 0.1138, t=4.5037 and 2.5028, respectively) in euthyroid patients with newly diagnosed asymptomatic CHD. The results of effects analysis showed that the total effects of TSH on TC and TG were 0.1936 and 0.1095, respectively. The direct effect of TSH on Log TC and log TG ...
To treat and how to treat patients with suspected subclinical hypothyroidism who may be at risk for cardiovascular disease and heart attack risk is also somewhat controversial.. A January 2020 study published in the journals Frontiers in endocrinology (2) reviewed the current literature regarding the problem of subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease:. Thyroid hormone receptors (cells that bind with thyroid hormone) are present in the myocardium (heart muscle) and endothelium (cells of the blood vessels), and small alterations in its levels could have significant effects in cardiac function. Specifically, overt hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease due to metabolic and hemodynamic (blood flow) effects. Several concomitant factors like impaired lipid profile (poor cholesterol metabolism), low-grade chronic inflammatory state, increased oxidative stress and increased insulin resistance enforce this relationship. The last decade ...
Methods In a cross-sectional study we compared skin severity modifiedRodnan total skin scores (TSS) to circulating TSH levels in 43 patients with scleroderma (18 with diffuse form, 25 with limited form). SSc patients with hypothyroidism necessitating thyroid hormonal replacement therapy and patients with positive TSH receptor antibodies were not enrolled. We also concurrently measured free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), anti-thyroid peroxidise (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb), all by chemiluminescence immunoassay.. ...
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Options for Thyroid Treatment Stop The Thyroid Madness. Nutri-Pak Natural Thyroid is intended for the natural treatment of hypothyroidism (under-active thyroid). Unlike most remedies for the thyroid gland, which offer benefits for both under and over-active conditions (hyper & hypo); this remedy is intended solely for use in hypothyroidism (under-active thyroid)., I have been reading about other natural thyroid meds. Has anyone used or tried Thyroid-S,nutrimeds, thyrogold? (I have just today started on 100, up from 75). Or I was going to try Thyro-Gold as I really like the reviews I am seeing on it. Love to hear how you get on! Ive been on a combination of Nutri-Meds and Thyro Gold for over a. I have been using the Bovine thyroid tablets from Nutri-Meds for about 4 years. It has made a definite improvement in my overall physical well-being, but most especially relieving the joint and muscle pain and stiffness I was experiencing. Bovine Thyroid from Nutri-Meds в„ў contains lyophilized bovine ...
Background & Objective: Thyroid hormones have an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as a mild increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal level of thyroxine (T4), could be associated with altered lipid profile. The current study aimed at assessing the association between SCH and changes in lipid profile. Methods: Data of 53 patients with SCH and 53 euthyroid cases were collected from Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran, in 2013. The age range of the cases was 18 to 60 years, and the groups were matched in terms of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). SCH was defined as a TSH value of 4.2 to 10 mU/L, and normal T4 as 0.8 to 2.8 ng/dL. Control cases had a normal TSH ranging from 0.5 to 4.2 mU/L. The total serum cholesterol (TCHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels in both groups were examined and the results were recorded. Results:Participants with SCH
In cases of primary hypothyroidism, T3 and T4 levels are low and hTSH levels are significantly elevated. In the case of pituitary dysfunction, either due to intrinsic hypothalamic or pituitary disease; i.e., central hypothyroidism, normal or marginally elevated basal TSH levels are often seen despite significant reduction in T4 and/or T3 levels. These inappropriate TSH values are due to a reduction in TSH bioactivity which is frequently observed in such cases. Routine TRH stimulation is advised to confirm the diagnosis in such cases. Secondary hypothyroidism typically results in an impaired hTSH response to TRH, while in tertiary hypothyroidism the hTSH response to TRH may be normal, prolonged or exaggerated. Anomalies do occur, however, which limit the use of TRH response as the sole means of differentiating secondary from tertiary hypothyroidism. Although elevated hTSH levels are nearly always indicative of primary hypothyroidism, some rare clinical situations arise which are the result of a ...
The actin/myosin II cytoskeleton and its role in phagocytosis were examined in primary cultures of dog thyroid cells. Two (19 and 21 kD) phosphorylated light chains of myosin (P-MLC) were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of antimyosin immunoprecipitates, and were associated with the Triton X-100 insoluble, F-actin cytoskeletal fraction. Analyses of Triton-insoluble and soluble 32PO4-prelabeled protein fractions indicated that TSH (via cAMP) or TPA treatment of intact cells decreases the MLC phosphorylation state. Phosphoamino acid and tryptic peptide analyses of 32P-MLCs from basal cells showed phosphorylation primarily at threonine and serine residues; most of the [32P] appeared associated with a peptide containing sites typically phosphorylated by MLC kinase. Even in the presence of the agents which induced dephosphorylation, the phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A, caused a severalfold increase in MLC phosphorylation at several distinct serine and threonine sites which was ...
Aldridge C., Behrend E.N., Martin L.G., et al. J Vet Intern Med, 2015. 29(3): p.862-8. BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic hypothyroidism (IH) after treatment of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thyrotropin binding inhibiting antibody (TBIAb) in Graves disease.. AU - Cho, W. Y.. AU - Choi, H. H.. AU - Chun, H. J.. AU - Ahn, I. M.. PY - 1988/1. Y1 - 1988/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023824834&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.3904/kjim.1988.3.1.45. DO - 10.3904/kjim.1988.3.1.45. M3 - Article. C2 - 2908684. AN - SCOPUS:0023824834. VL - 3. SP - 45. EP - 51. JO - Korean Journal of Internal Medicine. JF - Korean Journal of Internal Medicine. SN - 0494-4712. IS - 1. ER - ...
... to dexamethasone during late gestation causes female-specific decreases in core body temperature and prepro-thyrotropin- ...
  • There are two thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH1) which has been found in a number of species including rat, mouse and human [ PMID: 2175902 , PMID: 1377915 , PMID: 8395824 ] and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (TRH2) which has, only been found in rodents [ PMID: 9822707 , PMID: 11181534 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors -- similarities and differences. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Regulator of G protein signaling 4 suppresses basal and thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH)-stimulated signaling by two mouse TRH receptors, TRH-R(1) and TRH-R(2). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors activate phospholipase C by coupling to the guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins Gq and G11. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) regulates various physiological activities through activation of receptors expressed in a broad range of cells in the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) belongs to a subgroup of G protein-coupled receptors comprising the TSHR, the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, and the lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a GIRK-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. (physiology.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) and its receptors are widely distributed throughout the hippocampus. (sid.ir)
  • 4. Gershengorn MC, Osman R. (1996) Molecular and cellular biology of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 8. Itadani H, Nakamura T, Itoh J, Iwaasa H, Kanatani A, Borkowski J, Ihara M, Ohta M. (1998) Cloning and characterization of a new subtype of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, also known as thyroliberin (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary [ PMID: 4982117 , PMID: 4985794 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The identity of chemical and hormonal properties of the thyrotropin releasing hormone and pyroglutamyl-histidyl-proline amide. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In vivo evaluation by differential pulse voltammetry of the effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on dopaminergic and serotoninergic synaptic activity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of the rat. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Expression cloning of a cDNA encoding the mouse pituitary thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cloning and expression of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor from GH3 rat anterior pituitary cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular cloning of a functional human thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel subtype of rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The G alpha q and G alpha 11 proteins couple the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor to phospholipase C in GH3 rat pituitary cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a hypophysiotropic hormone produced by neurons in the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor thyroid-stimulating hormone hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid axis hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Zhang J, Watanabe Y, Yamada S, Urayama A, Kimura R (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Not to be confused with Thyrotropin-releasing hormone or Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone family. (nih.gov)
  • Cleavage of the encoded proprotein releases mature thyrotropin-releasing hormone, which is a tripeptide hypothalamic regulatory hormone. (nih.gov)
  • The human proprotein contains six thyrotropin-releasing hormone tripeptides. (nih.gov)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is involved in the regulation and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone, as well as prolactin. (nih.gov)
  • Cancer-related fatigue, inflammation and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcome until 2 years of age in children who participated in a multicenter antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) trial to improve respiratory outcome and to lower mortality. (aappublications.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the functional and cellular effects of the neuropeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the spontaneously active ferret geniculate slice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Whereas thyrotropin releasing hormone is rapidly and extensively degraded by plasma of adult rats, no appreciable loss of biological or immunological activity is caused by plasma from rats 4 or 16 days old. (sciencemag.org)
  • The plasma of neonatal rats does not appear to contain an inhibitor of thyrotropin releasing hormone peptidase or a peptidase with altered substrate affinity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The development of an active peptidase in rat plasma suggests a physiological role for inactivation of thyrotropin releasing hormone. (sciencemag.org)
  • The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-immune system homeostatic hypothesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Decades of research have established that the biological functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) extend far beyond its role as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) hypothesis of homeostatic regulation: implications for TRH-based therapeutics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the neuroaxis: therapeutic effects reflect physiological functions and molecular actions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A sensitive and specific radioimmnunoassay has been used to measure the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in rat brain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Metabolically stable and centrally acting thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogues were designed by replacing the central histidine with substituted pyridinium moieties. (nih.gov)
  • How does thyrotropin releasing hormone travel from the hypothalamus to wherever it needs to be? (healthtap.com)
  • High concentrations of p-Glu-His-Pro-NH2 (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) occur in rat prostate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) immunoreactivity occurs in high concentration within the rat prostate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Early treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) at high doses improves neurologic recovery from experimental spinal injury in cats. (neurology.org)
  • Patients are randomized to receive antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone or placebo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Patients receive thyrotropin-releasing hormone or placebo intravenously over 20 minutes every 8 hours for 4 doses. (bioportfolio.com)
  • L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons. (physiology.org)
  • Depletion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) gene expression resulted in augmented tau and glycosynthetase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), in contrast, TRH administration resulted in decreases of 75% in GSK-3β and 90% in Tau phosphorylation in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (iospress.com)
  • Abstract We report in the present study the effect of intrathecal treatment with antisense oligonucleotides complementary to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptor mRNA on the pressor response to intrathecal administration of TRH and on resting arterial blood pressure in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate the influence of cholinergic pathways on somatostatin (SS) tone in type I diabetes mellitus, we studied the effect of the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine ([PZP] 100 mg orally) on spontaneous nocturnal growth hormone (GH) and thyrotropin (TSH) secretion and on their response to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in the morning in a group of nine insulin-dependent diabetic patients with poor diabetic control. (cun.es)
  • The effects of iontophoretically applied thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on cat retinal brisk-sustained (X) and brisk-transient (Y) ganglion cells were studied in the intact eye in vivo . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency is a rare condition in which the hypothalamus does not produce adequate amounts of a hormone called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency is caused by a mutation or change in a gene that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • The main symptoms seen in thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency are due to hypothyroidism. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency is diagnosed by measuring the hormone levels in the body. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Following organizations serve the condition "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency" for support, advocacy or research. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Finding the right clinical trial for Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency can be challenging. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • The terms "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency" returned 4 free, full-text research articles on human participants. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • Isolated idiopathic central hypothyroidism in an adult, possibly caused by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency. (diseaseinfosearch.org)
  • former name for thyrotropin-releasing hormone . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A canine and feline pituitary-thyroid function test based on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation of endogenous thyrotropin is described. (avmi.net)
  • The field of hair growth and hair restoration has introduced a new player to its lineup: TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone). (ushairtransplant.com)
  • It's been shown that Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is one of the crucial elements involved in the hair follicle growth cycle. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone is very closely situated to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • Scientists have decided to study whether human hair follicle functions are also modulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, because it's been found in human tissue. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • They found stimulation of organ-cultured hair growth with thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates hair follicle elongation, prolongs the hair growth cycle phase (anagen), and antagonizes its termination by TGF-beta2. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • So, we can conclude from the study that thyrotropin-releasing hormone operates as a legitimate potent hair-growth stimulator. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • It's proven to be an ideal discovery tool for identifying functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone are hair follicles. (ushairtransplant.com)
  • 1987) Measurement of changes in cellular calcium metabolism in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 1987) Measurement of lipid turnover in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a neuromodulator and possibly a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, was shown in a prior study of young normal volunteers to attenuate the memory impairment induced by the anticholinergic drug scopolamine. (elsevier.com)
  • Graves' disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thyroid autoantigens, such as thyroglobulin (Tg), thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and NIS have increased immunogenicity when they are iodinated, and glycosylated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glycosylation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) has been shown to be essential for correct protein folding and for cell-surface targeting. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) and Graves' disease (GD) have an autoimmune pathogenesis, possibly related to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). (bmj.com)
  • 1, 2 The orbital autoantigen has not been conclusively identified, but a logical candidate is the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), since TAO is frequently associated with Graves' disease (GD) and indeed with patients having highest titres of TRAB. (bmj.com)
  • Introduction: Activating mutations in thyrotropin receptor ( TSHR ) have been previously described in the context of non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (familial or sporadic) and thyroid adenomas. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • In two siblings suffering from congenital hypothyroidism we identified a homozygous missence mutation Ala579Val in transmembrane helix 5 of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene which motivated us to investigate molecular details of this mutation. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Radioiodine ablation of thyroid remnants after preparation with recombinant human thyrotropin in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: results of an international, randomized, controlled study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A single recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated serum thyroglobulin measurement predicts differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases three to five years later. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated serum thyroglobulin combined with neck ultrasonography has the highest sensitivity in monitoring differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Management of papillary and follicular (differentiated) thyroid cancer: new paradigms using recombinant human thyrotropin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Diagnostic use of recombinant human thyrotropin in patients with thyroid carcinoma (phase I/II study). (semanticscholar.org)
  • To assess the effects of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) aided radioiodine treatment for non-toxic multinodular goitre. (cochrane.org)
  • Ma C, Xie J, Chen S, Su Q, Wang H. Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) aided radioiodine treatment for non-toxic multinodular goitre. (cochrane.org)
  • Assessment of recombinant human thyrotropin application in following-up patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to perform it, it is necessary to raise the level of endogenous tiroid-stimulating hormon (TSH), which can be achieved by L-thyroxine withdrawal for 3-5 weeks or administration of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) without requiring the discontinuation of thyroid hormone therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Another therapeutic approach to prepare for radiation uses injections of technologically created (recombinant) human thyroid -stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH) to avoid the symptoms of a malfunctioning thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), which are caused by thyroid hormone withdrawal. (cochrane.org)
  • The duration of the intervention (injections of recombinant human thyrotropin) was two days in all trials. (cochrane.org)
  • We found no statistically significant differences between recombinant human thyrotropin and thyroid hormone withdrawal treatment in terms of successful reduction of thyroid remnants or cancer cells but significant benefits in radiation exposure to blood and bone marrow. (cochrane.org)
  • Recombinant human thyrotropin versus thyroid hormone withdrawal in an Asian population. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To prepare for radioactive iodine therapy in post total thyroidectomy patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC), either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or administration of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) can be performed. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Comparison of 2 doses of recombinant human thyrotropin for thyroid function testing in healthy and suspected hypothyroid dogs. (uzh.ch)
  • BACKGROUND: Various protocols using different doses of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) in TSH stimulation testing have been described. (uzh.ch)
  • Its presence in the anterior pituitary gland may be involved in mediating the paracrine signaling feedback inhibition of thyrotropin along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of residual and recurrent thyroid carcinoma requires long- term monitoring of patients with serum thyroglobulin measurement and radioiodine scanning during temporary thyrotropin (TSH) stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Pharmacology - Thyrotropin increases iodine uptake by the thyroid gland and increases the production and secretion of thyroid hormones. (elephantcare.org)
  • Thyrotropin alfa injection is a form of human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). (drugs.com)
  • Thyrotropin alfa is also used with radioactive iodine to remove any remaining diseased thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid cancer who have had most or all of their thyroid gland removed. (drugs.com)
  • Thyrotropin alfa is to be given only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to thyrotropin alfa or any other medicines. (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of thyrotropin alfa injection in children younger than 16 years of age. (drugs.com)
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of thyrotropin alfa injection in the elderly. (drugs.com)
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to have arrhythmia or heart problems which may require caution in patients receiving thyrotropin alfa. (drugs.com)
  • The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of thyrotropin alfa. (drugs.com)
  • Before receiving thyrotropin alfa, make sure you understand all the risks and benefits. (drugs.com)
  • A nurse or other trained health professional will give you thyrotropin alfa in a hospital or cancer treatment center. (drugs.com)
  • Thyrotropin alfa is given as a shot into a muscle of the buttocks. (drugs.com)
  • For your doctor to properly treat your medical condition, you must receive 2 doses of thyrotropin alfa . (drugs.com)
  • It is very important that your doctor check you closely while you are receiving thyrotropin alfa. (drugs.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine [for patients with previously treated well-differentiated thyroid cancer and evidence of residual disease based on serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level] whether positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) fusion scanning performed after recombinant TSH (rTSH, thyrotropin alfa for injection) will be more sensitive for the detection of disease sites than PET-CT scanning without rTSH. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ablation with low-dose radioiodine and thyrotropin alfa in thyroid cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • thyrotropin alfa a recombinant form of thyrotropin used as a diagnostic adjunct in serum thyroglobulin testing in followup of patients with thyroid cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): thyrotropin alfa. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as "thyrotropin") and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • For patients receiving thyroid replacements, sensitive thyrotropin assays and a wide spectrum of thyroxine doses make dose adjustments a precise and seemingly easy matter. (acpjc.org)
  • In patients with suppressed thyrotropin levels receiving thyroxine supplementation, the dose should be reduced whenever possible. (acpjc.org)
  • It has been suggested that the thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)) stimulution test may be helpful in confirming a diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism when the serum total thyroxine (T4) concentration is equivocal. (avmi.net)
  • A tripeptide hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of thyrotropin. (dictionary.com)
  • A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Donnini D et al F. Thyrotropin stimulates production of procoagulant and vasodilative factors in human aortic endothelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Which is the best predictor of thyroid cancer: thyrotropin, thyroglobulin or their ratio? (springer.com)
  • AIM: To investigate the role of thyroglobulin (Tg), thyrotropin (TSH) and the TSH:Tg, Tg:TSH ratio in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer. (springer.com)
  • McLeod DS, Cooper DS, Ladenson PW, et al, 2014 Prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer in relation to serum thyrotropin and thyroglobulin antibody status at time of diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • a small peptide hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that controls the release of thyrotropin by the pituitary. (dictionary.com)
  • Prospective study of the spontaneous course of subclinical hypothyroidism: prognostic value of thyrotropin, thyroid reserve, and thyroid antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Background Hypothyroidism has a higher prevalence in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients 1 and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor is widely expressed in human tissues 2 , included the skin 3 and the aorta 4 . (bmj.com)
  • In humans, TSH is contraindicated in patients with coronary thrombosis, hypersensitive to bovine thyrotropin, or with untreated Addison's disease. (elephantcare.org)
  • It is not known, however, if small and slow changes of calcium and/or parathyroid hormone (PTH) within the physiological range influence the serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones in healthy subjects or patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). (lu.se)
  • Ladenson, PW 1999, ' Strategies for thyrotropin use to monitor patients with treated thyroid carcinoma ', Thyroid , vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 429-433. (elsevier.com)
  • Unlike thyrotropin, thyroid-stimulating antibodies do not activate phospholipase C in human thyroid slices. (jci.org)
  • The effects of thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) and of thyrotropin (TSH) were compared, on the generation of cyclic AMP and inositol phosphates (InsP), in human thyroid slices incubated in vitro, and on the Rapoport cyclic AMP bioassay. (jci.org)
  • The Natural Way To Increase Metabolism And Promote Weight Loss TRH's helps the thyroid gland produce thyrotropin. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • The hormone in question is thyrotropin, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that manages to activate seasonal sensing and regulate metabolism without any confusion. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Commercially available thyrotropin is available as a lyophilized powder for reconstitution and is practically free of any adrenocorticotropic, somatotropic, go-nadotropic and posterior pituitary hormones. (elephantcare.org)
  • Amide determinations have been carried out, with a newly developed g.l.c. method, on thyrotropin hormones prepared by isoelectric focusing. (mysciencework.com)
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) regulates triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) regulates thyroid cell proliferation and function through cAMP-mediated signaling pathways that activate protein kinase A (PKA) and Epac/Rap1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thyrotropin is a glycoprotein and has a molecular weight of approximately 28,000 - 30,000. (elephantcare.org)
  • Cloning and Sequencing of Feline Thyrotropin (fTSH): Heterodimeric and Yoked Constructs. (avmi.net)
  • Recombinant thyrotropin (rTSH) permits these studies to be performed without the morbidity associated with withdrawal of thyroid hormone therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the blood concentration of thyrotropin (TSH) observed at neonatal screening of infants with DS and its possible association with development of hypothyroidism during childhood. (diva-portal.org)
  • The authors used a common thyrotropin reference range of 0.45-4.49 mIU/L for all cohorts except for the Whickham Survey (in which authors used a reference range of 0.5-5.9 mIU/L because the first-generation thyrotropin assay used in that study yields consistently higher levels than measurements of current assays). (acc.org)
  • De International Society for Neonatal Screening (ISNS) heeft eerder goede ervaringen opgedaan met het laten bereiden van referentiematerialen in filtreerpapierbloed en het overreden van fabrikanten om deze materialen te gebruiken als maatstaf. (openrepository.com)
  • Detection of thyrotropin binding inhibitory activity in neonatal blood" by Rosalind S. Brown, Ronald L. Bellisario et al. (umassmed.edu)

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