A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
A highly purified recombinant glycoprotein form of human THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE, produced by recombinant DNA technology comprising two non-covalently linked subunits, an alpha subunit of 92 amino acid residues containing two N-linked glycosylation sites, and a beta subunit of 118 residues containing one N-linked glycosylation site. The amino acid sequence of thyrotropin alfa is identical to that of human pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone.
Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Thyroglobulin is a glycoprotein synthesized and secreted by thyroid follicular cells, serving as a precursor for the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and its measurement in blood serves as a tumor marker for thyroid cancer surveillance.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.
"In the context of medical records, 'paper' typically refers to physical documents or reports created on paper-based media, which contain patient information and are used for healthcare purposes."
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Abnormally elevated THYROXINE level in the BLOOD.

Measurement of serum TSH in the investigation of patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. (1/2714)

In otherwise euthyroid patients presenting with thyroid enlargement, reduction in serum thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations measured in a sensitive assay may be a marker of thyroid autonomy and may therefore indicate a benign underlying pathology. We investigated prospectively a cohort of 467 subjects presenting consecutively to our thyroid clinic with nodular or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid. Subjects were divided into those with normal (0.4-5.5 mU/l), low but detectable (0.1-0.39 mU/l) or undetectable (< 0.1 mU/l) serum TSH concentrations. The final pathological diagnosis was defined by fine-needle aspiration cytology and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years or by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology following surgical treatment. Serum TSH concentrations below normal were found in 75 patients (16.1%), those with low serum TSH results having higher mean free T4 concentrations, were older and were more likely to be female. In those with undetectable serum TSH, no patient had a diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and in those with low but detectable TSH, thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed in two patients (3.4%). In those with normal serum TSH, 12.0% had a final diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm (p = 0.013). Overall, thyroid malignancy was found in one patient (1.3%) of those with a serum TSH measurement below the normal range and 6.9% of those with normal serum TSH (p < 0.06). Reduction in serum TSH at presentation may identify a group which requires less intensive investigation and follow-up than those without biochemical evidence of thyroid autonomy.  (+info)

Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 infusion synchronizes growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin release in prolonged critical illness. (2/2714)

OBJECTIVE: During prolonged critical illness, nocturnal pulsatile secretion of GH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) is uniformly reduced but remains responsive to the continuous infusion of GH secretagogues and TRH. Whether such (pertinent) secretagogues would synchronize pituitary secretion of GH, TSH and/or PRL is not known. DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored temporal coupling among GH, TSH and PRL release by calculating cross-correlation among GH, TSH and PRL serum concentration profiles in 86 time series obtained from prolonged critically ill patients by nocturnal blood sampling every 20 min for 9 h during 21-h infusions of either placebo (n=22), GHRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=10), GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2; 1 microg/kg/h; n=28), TRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=8) or combinations of these agonists (n=8). RESULTS: The normal synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL was absent during placebo delivery. Infusion of GHRP-2, but not GHRH or TRH, markedly synchronized serum profiles of GH, TSH and PRL (all P< or =0.007). After addition of GHRH and TRH to the infusion of GHRP-2, only the synchrony between GH and PRL was maintained (P=0.003 for GHRH + GHRP-2 and P=0.006 for TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2), and was more marked than with GHRP-2 infusion alone (P=0.0006 by ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The nocturnal GH, TSH and PRL secretory patterns during prolonged critical illness are herewith further characterized to include loss of synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL release. The synchronizing effect of an exogenous GHRP-2 drive, but not of GHRH or TRH, suggests that the presumed endogenous GHRP-like ligand may participate in the orchestration of coordinated anterior pituitary hormone release.  (+info)

Insulin and TSH promote growth in size of PC Cl3 rat thyroid cells, possibly via a pathway different from DNA synthesis: comparison with FRTL-5 cells. (3/2714)

In the rat thyroid cell lines PC Cl3, FRTL- 5 and WRT, proliferation is mainly regulated by insulin or IGF, and TSH. However, the mechanism regulating cell mass doubling prior to division is still unknown. Our laboratory has shown that in dog thyroid cells insulin promotes growth in size while TSH in the presence of insulin triggers DNA replication. In the absence of insulin, TSH has no effect on cell growth. In this report we investigated insulin action on both cell mass and DNA synthesis and its modulation by TSH and insulin in PC Cl3 and FRTL-5 cells. In PC Cl3 cells, insulin activated not only DNA synthesis but also protein synthesis and accumulation. Although TSH potentiated the stimulation of DNA synthesis induced by insulin, enhancement of protein synthesis by both agents was additive. All TSH effects were reproduced by forskolin. Similar effects were also obtained in FRTL-5 cells. This suggests that insulin and TSH, via cAMP, modulate both growth in size and DNA replication in these cell lines. Lovastatin, which blocks 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, decreased the induction of DNA synthesis, but not of protein synthesis induced by insulin or TSH in PC Cl3 cells. In FRTL-5 cells, lovastatin reduced protein and DNA synthesis stimulated by insulin but not TSH-induced protein synthesis. Taking these data together, we propose that insulin and/or TSH both modulate cell mass doubling and DNA synthesis in these cell lines, presumably via different pathways, and that there are at least two pathways which regulate growth in size in FRTL-5 thyroid cells: one triggered by insulin, which is lovastatin sensitive, and the other activated by TSH, which is not sensitive to lovastatin.  (+info)

Development of a thyroid function strategy for general practice. (4/2714)

A study was carried out to investigate a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) frontline strategy that could potentially result in a more straightforward interpretation of thyroid function tests, a reduction in the number of inappropriate referrals to medical outpatients, an improvement in the 'turnaround time' of results, and a reduction in the number of unnecessary tests carried out, thereby reducing costs.  (+info)

Polarized targeting of epithelial cell proteins in thyrocytes and MDCK cells. (5/2714)

Polarized trafficking signals may be interpreted differently in different cell types. In this study, we have compared the polarized trafficking of different proteins expressed endogenously in primary porcine thyroid epithelial cells to similar proteins expressed in MDCK cells. As in MDCK cells, NH4Cl treatment of filter-grown thyrocytes caused mis-sorted soluble proteins to exhibit enhanced secretion to the apical medium. In independent studies, thrombospondin 1 (a thyroid basolaterally secreted protein) was secreted basolaterally from MDCK cells. Likewise, the 5'-deiodinase (a thyroid basolateral membrane protein) encoded by the DIO1 gene was also distributed basolaterally in transfected MDCK cells. Consistent with previous reports, when the secretion of human growth hormone (an unglycosylated regulated secretory protein) was examined from transfected MDCK cells, the release was nonpolarized. However, transfected thyrocytes secreted growth hormone apically in a manner dependent upon zinc addition. Moreover, two additional regulated secretory proteins expressed in thyrocytes, thyroglobulin (the major endogenous glycoprotein) and parathyroid hormone (an unglycosylated protein expressed transiently), were secreted apically even in the absence of zinc. We hypothesize that while cellular mechanisms for interpreting polarity signals are generally similar between thyrocytes and MDCK cells, thyrocytes allow for specialized packaging of regulated secretory proteins for apical delivery, which does not require glycosylation but may involve availability of certain ions as well as appropriate intracellular compartmentation.  (+info)

Biological activities of tyrosine-containing somatostatin analogs on inhibition of secretion of thyrotropin and growth hormone. (6/2714)

The following five tyrosine-containing analogs of somatostatin (GIF) were synthesized by the solid-phase method: Tyr-GIF: [Tyr6]-GIF; [Tyr7]-GIF; [Tyr8]-GIF; [Tyr11]-GIF. These analogs except [Tyr8]-GIF were demonstrated to possess almost the same potency to inhibit thyrotropin release stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone as that of synthesized GIF in vivo. [Tyr8]-GIF had potencies less than 0.5% of GIF. They also had the activity to inhibit Nembutal-induced growth hormone rise. The structure-activity relationship and availability of these analogs for radioimmunoassay were discussed.  (+info)

Reverse triiodothyronine, thyroid hormone, and thyrotrophin concentrations in placental cord blood. (7/2714)

Reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and thyrotrophin (TSH) were measured in sera from placental cord blood in an unselected series of 272 deliveries. In this series the concentrations of rT3 (mean 3.33 nmol/l, 95% confidence limits 1.6--7.0 nmol/l), were log normally distributed and did not overlap the adult normal range (0.11--0.44 nmol/l). There were no correlations between the cord blood concentrations of rT3, T3, T4, and TSH. The cord serum rT3 concentration was not influenced by maturity, birth-weight, or neonatal risk factors, whereas these factors did affect the concentrations of T3, T4, AND TBG. There is no arteriovenous rT3 concentration difference across the placenta, therefore the cord rT3 reflects the systemic rT3 concentration in the baby at birth. As rT3 in the neonate largely, if not entirely, derives from thyroxine from the fetal thyroid, measurement of the cord rT3 concentration may be a good immediate screening test for neonatal hypothyroidism.  (+info)

Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands. (8/2714)

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of symptomatic central hypothyroidism (characterized by low serum thyrotropin and thyroxine concentrations) in a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma during therapy with the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand bexarotene led us to hypothesize that such ligands could reversibly suppress thyrotropin production by a thyroid hormone-independent mechanism and thus cause central hypothyroidism. METHODS: We evaluated thyroid function in 27 patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who were enrolled in trials of high-dose oral bexarotene at one institution. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro effect of triiodothyronine, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand LGD346 on the activity of the thyrotropin beta-subunit gene promoter. RESULTS: The mean serum thyrotropin concentration declined from 2.2 mU per liter at base line to 0.05 mU per liter during treatment with bexarotene (P<0.001), and the mean serum free thyroxine concentration declined from 1.0 ng per deciliter (12.9 pmol per liter) at base line to 0.45 ng per deciliter (5.8 pmol per liter) (P<0.001) during treatment. The degree of suppression of thyrotropin secretion tended to be greater in patients treated with higher doses of bexarotene (>300 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day) and in those with a history of treatment with interferon alfa. Nineteen patients had symptoms or signs of hypothyroidism, particularly fatigue and cold intolerance. The symptoms improved after the initiation of thyroxine therapy, and all patients became euthyroid after treatment with bexarotene was stopped. In vitro, LGD346 suppressed the activity of the thyrotropin beta-subunit gene promoter in thyrotrophs by as much as 50 percent, an effect similar to that of triiodothyronine and 9-cis-retinoic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroidism may develop in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who are treated with high-dose bexarotene, most likely because the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand suppresses thyrotropin secretion.  (+info)

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

Thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in the thyroid gland. They bind to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced and released by the pituitary gland. When TSH binds to the TSHR, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that stimulate the production and release of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones are important for regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. Mutations in the TSHR gene can lead to various thyroid disorders, such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

The thyroid gland is a major endocrine gland located in the neck, anterior to the trachea and extends from the lower third of the Adams apple to the suprasternal notch. It has two lateral lobes, connected by an isthmus, and sometimes a pyramidal lobe. This gland plays a crucial role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body through the production of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4) and calcitonin. The thyroid hormones regulate body temperature, heart rate, and the production of protein, while calcitonin helps in controlling calcium levels in the blood. The function of the thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain. Its main function is to regulate the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. TRH acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of TSH, which then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) into the bloodstream.

TRH is a tripeptide amino acid sequence with the structure of pGlu-His-Pro-NH2, and it is synthesized as a larger precursor molecule called preprothyrotropin-releasing hormone (preproTRH) in the hypothalamus. PreproTRH undergoes post-translational processing to produce TRH, which is then stored in secretory vesicles and released into the hypophyseal portal system, where it travels to the anterior pituitary gland and binds to TRH receptors on thyrotroph cells.

In addition to its role in regulating TSH release, TRH has been shown to have other physiological functions, including modulation of feeding behavior, body temperature, and neurotransmitter release. Dysregulation of the TRH-TSH axis can lead to various thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

Thyroxine (T4) is a type of hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. It is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, with the other being triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroxine plays a crucial role in regulating various metabolic processes in the body, including growth, development, and energy expenditure. Specifically, T4 helps to control the rate at which your body burns calories for energy, regulates protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and influences the body's sensitivity to other hormones.

T4 is produced by combining iodine and tyrosine, an amino acid found in many foods. Once produced, T4 circulates in the bloodstream and gets converted into its active form, T3, in various tissues throughout the body. Thyroxine has a longer half-life than T3, which means it remains active in the body for a more extended period.

Abnormal levels of thyroxine can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including weight gain or loss, fatigue, mood changes, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure.

Hypothyroidism is a medical condition where the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck, does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This results in a slowing down of the body's metabolic processes, leading to various symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, muscle weakness, and depression.

The two main thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, and energy levels. In hypothyroidism, the production of these hormones is insufficient, leading to a range of symptoms that can affect multiple organ systems.

Hypothyroidism can be caused by several factors, including autoimmune disorders (such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis), surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radiation therapy for neck cancer, certain medications, and congenital defects. Hypothyroidism is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure levels of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), T3, and T4. Treatment usually involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones to replace the missing hormones and alleviate symptoms.

Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition characterized by an excessive production and release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland, leading to an increased metabolic rate in various body systems. The thyroid gland, located in the front of the neck, produces two main thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating many bodily functions, including heart rate, digestion, energy levels, and mood.

In hyperthyroidism, the elevated levels of T3 and T4 can cause a wide range of symptoms, such as rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, increased appetite, tremors, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Some common causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease (toxic multinodular goiter), and thyroiditis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage the symptoms and prevent potential complications associated with this condition.

Thyrotropin alfa is a recombinant form of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) used as a diagnostic aid in the investigation of reduced thyroid function (hypothyroidism). It is not to be confused with thyrotropin, which is the endogenous TSH produced by the pituitary gland. Thyrotropin alfa is used in tests to evaluate thyroid gland function and to help diagnose the cause of low thyroid hormone levels.

The medication is administered via subcutaneous injection, stimulating the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Blood samples are then taken at various intervals following the injection, allowing the measurement of T3 and T4 levels over time. This information can help differentiate between primary hypothyroidism (a problem with the thyroid gland itself) and secondary hypothyroidism (a problem with the pituitary gland or hypothalamus that affects TSH production).

It is important to note that thyrotropin alfa should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as inappropriate use can lead to hyperthyroidism and other related complications.

Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a group of blood tests that assess the functioning of the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the body.

TFTs typically include the following tests:

1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test: This test measures the level of TSH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that regulates the production of thyroid hormones. High levels of TSH may indicate an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), while low levels may indicate an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).
2. Thyroxine (T4) test: This test measures the level of T4, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. High levels of T4 may indicate hyperthyroidism, while low levels may indicate hypothyroidism.
3. Triiodothyronine (T3) test: This test measures the level of T3, another hormone produced by the thyroid gland. High levels of T3 may indicate hyperthyroidism, while low levels may indicate hypothyroidism.
4. Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) test: This test measures the level of TPOAb, an antibody that attacks the thyroid gland and can cause hypothyroidism.
5. Thyroglobulin (Tg) test: This test measures the level of Tg, a protein produced by the thyroid gland. It is used to monitor the treatment of thyroid cancer.

These tests help diagnose and manage various thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, and thyroid cancer.

Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating (TSI), are autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on the surface of thyroid cells. These antibodies mimic the action of TSH and stimulate the growth and function of the thyroid gland, leading to excessive production of thyroid hormones. This results in a condition known as Graves' disease, which is characterized by hyperthyroidism, goiter, and sometimes ophthalmopathy (eye problems). The presence and titer of TSIs are used in the diagnosis of Graves' disease.

Graves' disease is defined as an autoimmune disorder that leads to overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). It results when the immune system produces antibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland, causing it to produce too much thyroid hormone. This can result in a variety of symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, and bulging eyes (Graves' ophthalmopathy). The exact cause of Graves' disease is unknown, but it is more common in women and people with a family history of the disorder. Treatment may include medications to control hyperthyroidism, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy thyroid tissue, or surgery to remove the thyroid gland.

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone, specifically the active form of thyroid hormone, that plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. It is produced by the thyroid gland through the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine with three atoms of iodine. T3 is more potent than its precursor, thyroxine (T4), which has four iodine atoms, as T3 binds more strongly to thyroid hormone receptors and accelerates metabolic processes at the cellular level.

In circulation, about 80% of T3 is bound to plasma proteins, while the remaining 20% is unbound or free, allowing it to enter cells and exert its biological effects. The primary functions of T3 include increasing the rate of metabolic reactions, promoting protein synthesis, enhancing sensitivity to catecholamines (e.g., adrenaline), and supporting normal brain development during fetal growth and early infancy. Imbalances in T3 levels can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, which may require clinical intervention and management.

Congenital hypothyroidism is a medical condition characterized by the partial or complete absence of thyroid hormone production in the baby's body at birth. The thyroid gland, which is located in the front of the neck, produces hormones that are essential for normal growth and development of the brain and body.

Congenital hypothyroidism can occur due to various reasons such as the absence or abnormal development of the thyroid gland, or a defect in the production or regulation of thyroid hormones. In some cases, it may be caused by genetic mutations that affect the development or function of the thyroid gland.

If left untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to mental and physical retardation, growth problems, and other health issues. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat this condition as early as possible, usually within the first few weeks of life. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing thyroid hormones with synthetic medications, which are safe and effective when administered under a doctor's supervision.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating the function of the thyroid gland by stimulating the production and release of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

The TSH molecule is composed of two subunits: alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common to several pituitary hormones, including TSH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the beta subunit is unique to each hormone, determining its specific biological activity.

Therefore, 'Thyrotropin, beta Subunit' refers to the distinct portion of the TSH molecule that confers its thyroid-stimulating properties and allows it to be identified and measured separately from other pituitary hormones sharing the common alpha subunit. Beta-subunit assays are sometimes used in clinical settings to evaluate thyroid function, as they can provide information about TSH levels independent of the common alpha subunit.

Thyroid hormones are hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small endocrine gland located in the neck that helps regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. The two main thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which contain iodine atoms. These hormones play a crucial role in various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, digestion, and brain development. They help regulate the rate at which your body uses energy, affects how sensitive your body is to other hormones, and plays a vital role in the development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. Thyroid hormone levels are regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through a feedback mechanism that helps maintain proper balance.

Thyroglobulin is a protein produced and used by the thyroid gland in the production of thyroid hormones, primarily thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). It is composed of two subunits, an alpha and a beta or gamma unit, which bind iodine atoms necessary for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones. Thyroglobulin is exclusively produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.

In clinical practice, measuring thyroglobulin levels in the blood can be useful as a tumor marker for monitoring treatment and detecting recurrence of thyroid cancer, particularly in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary or follicular) who have had their thyroid gland removed. However, it is important to note that thyroglobulin is not specific to thyroid tissue and can be produced by some non-thyroidal cells under certain conditions, which may lead to false positive results in some cases.

Thyroid diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function and structure of the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the base of the neck. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate many vital functions in the body, including metabolism, growth, and development.

Thyroid diseases can be classified into two main categories: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and depression. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, resulting in symptoms such as weight loss, heat intolerance, rapid heart rate, tremors, and anxiety.

Other common thyroid diseases include:

1. Goiter: an enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be caused by iodine deficiency or autoimmune disorders.
2. Thyroid nodules: abnormal growths on the thyroid gland that can be benign or malignant.
3. Thyroid cancer: a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that requires medical treatment.
4. Hashimoto's disease: an autoimmune disorder that causes chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
5. Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism and can also lead to eye problems and skin changes.

Thyroid diseases are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment options depend on the specific type and severity of the disease and may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Iodine is an essential trace element that is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the body. These hormones play crucial roles in various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, and brain development during pregnancy and infancy. Iodine can be found in various foods such as seaweed, dairy products, and iodized salt. In a medical context, iodine is also used as an antiseptic to disinfect surfaces, wounds, and skin infections due to its ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

Reverse Triiodothyronine (rT3) is a thyroid hormone that is chemically identical to triiodothyronine (T3), but has a reverse configuration at one end of the molecule. It is produced in smaller quantities compared to T3 and its function is not well understood. In some cases, increased levels of rT3 have been associated with decreased thyroid hormone action, such as in non-thyroidal illnesses or during calorie restriction. However, the clinical significance of rT3 levels remains a topic of ongoing research and debate.

Iodide peroxidase, also known as iodide:hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, is an enzyme that belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. Specifically, it is a peroxidase that uses iodide as its physiological reducing substrate. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of iodide by hydrogen peroxide to produce iodine, which plays a crucial role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this enzyme is iodide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase (iodinating). It is most commonly found in the thyroid gland, where it helps to produce and regulate thyroid hormones by facilitating the iodination of tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin, a protein produced by the thyroid gland.

Iodide peroxidase requires a heme cofactor for its enzymatic activity, which is responsible for the oxidation-reduction reactions it catalyzes. The enzyme's ability to iodinate tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin is essential for the production of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), two critical hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in mammals.

Anterior pituitary hormones are a group of six major hormones that are produced and released by the anterior portion (lobe) of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions and activities. The six main anterior pituitary hormones are:

1. Growth Hormone (GH): Also known as somatotropin, GH is essential for normal growth and development in children and adolescents. It helps regulate body composition, metabolism, and bone density in adults.
2. Prolactin (PRL): A hormone that stimulates milk production in females after childbirth and is also involved in various reproductive and immune functions in both sexes.
3. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH regulates the development, growth, and maturation of follicles in the ovaries (in females) and sperm production in the testes (in males).
4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH plays a key role in triggering ovulation in females and stimulating testosterone production in males.
5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH regulates the function of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones that control metabolism and growth.
6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.

These anterior pituitary hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus, which is located above the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases releasing and inhibiting factors that control the synthesis and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones, creating a complex feedback system to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Iodides are chemical compounds that contain iodine in the form of an iodide ion (I-). Iodide ions are negatively charged ions that consist of one iodine atom and an extra electron. Iodides are commonly found in dietary supplements and medications, and they are often used to treat or prevent iodine deficiency. They can also be used as expectorants to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract. Examples of iodides include potassium iodide (KI) and sodium iodide (NaI).

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Exophthalmos is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal protrusion or bulging of one or both eyes beyond the normal orbit (eye socket). This condition is also known as proptosis. Exophthalmos can be caused by various factors, including thyroid eye disease (Graves' ophthalmopathy), tumors, inflammation, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. It can lead to various symptoms such as double vision, eye discomfort, redness, and difficulty closing the eyes. Treatment of exophthalmos depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Goiter is a medical term that refers to an enlarged thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck below the larynx or voice box. It produces hormones that regulate your body's metabolism, growth, and development.

Goiter can vary in size and may be visible as a swelling at the base of the neck. It can be caused by several factors, including iodine deficiency, autoimmune disorders, thyroid cancer, pregnancy, or the use of certain medications. Depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the goiter, treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Propylthiouracil is a medication that is primarily used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition characterized by an overactive thyroid gland that produces too much thyroid hormone. The medication works by inhibiting the production of thyroid hormones in the body. It belongs to a class of drugs called antithyroid agents or thionamides.

In medical terms, propylthiouracil is defined as an antithyroid medication used to manage hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease or toxic adenoma. It acts by inhibiting the synthesis of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), in the thyroid gland. Propylthiouracil also reduces the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. The medication is available as a tablet for oral administration and is typically prescribed at a starting dose of 100-150 mg three times daily, with adjustments made based on the patient's response and thyroid function tests.

It's important to note that propylthiouracil should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use. Regular monitoring of thyroid function tests is necessary during treatment, and patients should promptly report any signs or symptoms of adverse reactions to their healthcare provider.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a specific protein, antibody, or antigen in a sample using the principles of antibody-antigen reactions. It is commonly used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions such as infections, hormonal disorders, allergies, and cancer.

Immunoassays typically involve the use of labeled reagents, such as enzymes, radioisotopes, or fluorescent dyes, that bind specifically to the target molecule. The amount of label detected is proportional to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Each type has its own advantages and limitations, depending on the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput required for a particular application.

Graves' ophthalmopathy, also known as Graves' eye disease or thyroid eye disease, is an autoimmune condition that affects the eyes. It often occurs in individuals with Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland). However, it can also occur in people without Graves' disease.

In Graves' ophthalmopathy, the immune system attacks the tissue behind the eyes, causing inflammation and enlargement of the muscles, fatty tissue, and connective tissue within the orbit (eye socket). This leads to symptoms such as:

1. Protrusion or bulging of the eyes (exophthalmos)
2. Redness and swelling of the eyelids
3. Double vision (diplopia) due to restricted eye movement
4. Pain and discomfort, especially when looking up, down, or sideways
5. Light sensitivity (photophobia)
6. Tearing and dryness in the eyes
7. Vision loss in severe cases

The treatment for Graves' ophthalmopathy depends on the severity of the symptoms and may include medications to manage inflammation, eye drops or ointments for dryness, prisms to correct double vision, or surgery for severe cases.

Thyrotoxicosis is a medical condition that results from an excess of thyroid hormones in the body, leading to an overactive metabolic state. It can be caused by various factors such as Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease, or excessive intake of thyroid hormone medication. Symptoms may include rapid heart rate, weight loss, heat intolerance, tremors, and increased sweating, among others. Thyrotoxicosis is not a diagnosis itself but a manifestation of various underlying thyroid disorders. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

The Harderian gland is a specialized exocrine gland located in many vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. In humans, it is rudimentary and not fully developed. However, in other animals like rodents, lagomorphs (rabbits and hares), and some reptiles, this gland plays a significant role.

The Harderian gland is primarily responsible for producing and secreting lipids, which help to lubricate the eye's surface and the nictitating membrane (third eyelid). This lubrication ensures that the eyes remain moist and protected from dryness and external irritants. Additionally, the secretions of the Harderian gland contain immunoglobulins, which contribute to the animal's immune defense system by providing protection against pathogens.

In some animals, the Harderian gland also has a role in pheromone production and communication. The study and understanding of this gland are particularly important in toxicological research, as it is often used as an indicator of environmental pollutant exposure and their effects on wildlife.

Glycoprotein hormones are a group of hormones that share a similar structure and are made up of four subunits: two identical alpha subunits and two distinct beta subunits. The alpha subunit is common to all glycoprotein hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

The alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones is a 92 amino acid polypeptide chain that contains several disulfide bonds, which help to stabilize its structure. It is heavily glycosylated, meaning that it contains many carbohydrate groups attached to the protein backbone. The alpha subunit plays an important role in the biological activity of the hormone by interacting with a specific receptor on the target cell surface.

The alpha subunit contains several regions that are important for its function, including a signal peptide, a variable region, and a conserved region. The signal peptide is a short sequence of amino acids at the N-terminus of the protein that directs it to the endoplasmic reticulum for processing and secretion. The variable region contains several amino acid residues that differ between different glycoprotein hormones, while the conserved region contains amino acids that are identical or very similar in all glycoprotein hormones.

Together with the beta subunit, the alpha subunit forms the functional hormone molecule. The beta subunit determines the specificity of the hormone for its target cells and regulates its biological activity.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the pituitary gland and other tissues throughout the body. TRH is a tripeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland.

TRH receptors are activated when TRH binds to them, which triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to an increase in intracellular calcium and the release of TSH. In addition to regulating TSH secretion, TRH receptors have been found to play a role in various physiological processes, including feeding behavior, energy metabolism, and neuroprotection.

Abnormalities in TRH receptor function have been implicated in several endocrine disorders, such as thyroid dysfunction and obesity. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of TRH receptors is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Thyroxine-binding proteins (TBPs) are specialized transport proteins in the blood that bind and carry thyroid hormones, primarily Thyroxine (T4), but also Triiodothyronine (T3) to a lesser extent. The majority of T4 and T3 in the blood are bound to these proteins, while only a small fraction (0.03% of T4 and 0.3% of T3) remains unbound or free, which is the biologically active form that can enter cells and tissues to exert its physiological effects.

There are three main types of thyroxine-binding proteins:

1. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG): This is the major thyroid hormone transport protein, synthesized in the liver and accounting for approximately 70-80% of T4 and T3 binding. TBG has a high affinity but low capacity for thyroid hormones.
2. Transthyretin (TTR), also known as prealbumin: This protein accounts for around 10-20% of T4 and T3 binding. It has a lower affinity but higher capacity for thyroid hormones compared to TBG.
3. Albumin: This is the most abundant protein in the blood and binds approximately 15-20% of T4 and a smaller fraction of T3. Although albumin has a low affinity for thyroid hormones, its high concentration allows it to contribute significantly to their transport.

The binding of thyroid hormones to these proteins helps maintain stable levels in the blood and ensures a steady supply to tissues. Additionally, TBPs protect thyroid hormones from degradation and rapid clearance by the kidneys, thereby extending their half-life in the circulation.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Carbimazole is an antithyroid medication that is primarily used to manage hyperthyroidism, a condition characterized by an overactive thyroid gland that produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. The drug works by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for producing these hormones, thereby reducing their levels in the body and alleviating symptoms associated with the disorder.

Hyperthyroidism can manifest as various signs and symptoms, including rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, tremors, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Common causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, and thyroiditis.

Carbimazole is a prodrug that gets converted to its active metabolite, methimazole, in the liver. Methimazole inhibits the activity of thyroperoxidase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). By blocking this enzyme, carbimazole reduces the production of T3 and T4, ultimately helping to control hyperthyroidism.

The medication is typically administered orally in tablet form, with dosages varying depending on individual patient needs and response to treatment. Common side effects of carbimazole include gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rare but severe adverse reactions may include agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), aplastic anemia (a condition where the bone marrow fails to produce sufficient numbers of blood cells), and hepatotoxicity (liver damage).

Patients taking carbimazole should be closely monitored for signs of adverse reactions, and regular blood tests are necessary to assess thyroid hormone levels and potential side effects. Pregnant women should avoid using carbimazole due to the risk of birth defects in the developing fetus. In such cases, alternative antithyroid medications like propylthiouracil may be prescribed instead.

In summary, carbimazole is an antithyroid medication used primarily for managing hyperthyroidism by inhibiting thyroperoxidase and reducing the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4. While effective, it carries potential risks and side effects that necessitate close monitoring during treatment.

Autoimmune thyroiditis, also known as Hashimoto's disease, is a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by an autoimmune response. In this condition, the immune system produces antibodies that attack and damage the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). The thyroid gland may become enlarged (goiter), and symptoms can include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, and depression. Autoimmune thyroiditis is more common in women than men and tends to run in families. It is often associated with other autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Addison's disease, and type 1 diabetes. The diagnosis is typically made through blood tests that measure levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies. Treatment usually involves thyroid hormone replacement therapy to manage the symptoms of hypothyroidism.

Antithyroid agents are a class of medications that are used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. These medications work by inhibiting the production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland. There are several types of antithyroid agents available, including:

1. Propylthiouracil (PTU): This medication works by blocking the enzyme that is needed to produce thyroid hormones. It also reduces the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3), another thyroid hormone, in peripheral tissues.
2. Methimazole: This medication works similarly to propylthiouracil by blocking the enzyme that is needed to produce thyroid hormones. However, it does not affect the conversion of T4 to T3 in peripheral tissues.
3. Carbimazole: This medication is converted to methimazole in the body and works similarly to block the production of thyroid hormones.

Antithyroid agents are usually taken orally, and their effects on thyroid hormone production begin within a few hours after ingestion. However, it may take several weeks for patients to notice an improvement in their symptoms. These medications can have side effects, including rash, hives, and joint pain. In rare cases, they can cause liver damage or agranulocytosis, a condition in which the body does not produce enough white blood cells.

It is important to note that antithyroid agents do not cure hyperthyroidism; they only treat the symptoms by reducing thyroid hormone production. Therefore, patients may need to take these medications for several months or even years, depending on their individual circumstances. In some cases, surgery or radioactive iodine therapy may be recommended as alternative treatments for hyperthyroidism.

Pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, also known as Proline or Prolinic acid, is an organic compound with the formula N-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid. It is a cyclic amino acid, which means that its side chain is bonded to the rest of the molecule in a ring structure.

Proline is an important constituent of many proteins and plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of the protein. It is classified as a non-essential amino acid because it can be synthesized by the human body from other amino acids, such as glutamic acid.

Pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid has a variety of uses in medicine and industry, including as a chiral auxiliary in organic synthesis, a building block for pharmaceuticals, and a component in cosmetics and personal care products. It is also used as a buffering agent and a stabilizer in various medical and industrial applications.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Myxedema is not a term used in modern medicine to describe a specific medical condition. However, historically, it was used to refer to the severe form of hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland that doesn't produce enough thyroid hormones. In hypothyroidism, various body functions slow down, which can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry skin.

Myxedema specifically refers to the physical signs of severe hypothyroidism, including swelling (edema) and thickening of the skin, particularly around the face, hands, and feet, as well as a puffy appearance of the face. The term myxedema coma was used to describe a rare but life-threatening complication of long-standing, untreated hypothyroidism, characterized by altered mental status, hypothermia, and other systemic manifestations.

Nowadays, healthcare professionals use more precise medical terminology to describe these conditions, such as hypothyroidism or myxedematous edema, rather than the outdated term myxedema.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

A goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of the neck. Goiters can be either diffuse (uniformly enlarged) or nodular (lumpy with distinct nodules). Nodular goiter refers to a thyroid gland that has developed one or more discrete lumps or nodules while the remaining tissue is normal or may also be diffusely enlarged.

Nodular goiters can be classified into two types: multinodular goiter and solitary thyroid nodule. Multinodular goiter consists of multiple nodules in the thyroid gland, while a solitary thyroid nodule is an isolated nodule within an otherwise normal or diffusely enlarged thyroid gland.

The majority of nodular goiters are benign and do not cause symptoms. However, some patients may experience signs and symptoms related to compression of nearby structures (such as difficulty swallowing or breathing), hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). The evaluation of a nodular goiter typically includes a physical examination, imaging studies like ultrasound, and sometimes fine-needle aspiration biopsy to determine the nature of the nodules and assess the risk of malignancy. Treatment options depend on various factors, including the size and number of nodules, the presence of compressive symptoms, and the patient's thyroid function.

Methimazole is an anti-thyroid medication that is primarily used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. It works by inhibiting the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. By blocking this enzyme, methimazole reduces the amount of thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland, helping to restore normal thyroid function.

Methimazole is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken two to three times a day. Common side effects of methimazole include nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, and joint pain. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as liver damage or agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count).

It is important to note that methimazole should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as regular monitoring of thyroid function and potential side effects is necessary. Additionally, it may take several weeks or months of treatment with methimazole before thyroid function returns to normal.

Potassium iodide is an inorganic, non-radioactive salt of iodine. Medically, it is used as a thyroid blocking agent to prevent the absorption of radioactive iodine in the event of a nuclear accident or radiation exposure. It works by saturating the thyroid gland with stable iodide, which then prevents the uptake of radioactive iodine. This can help reduce the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid related issues that may arise from exposure to radioactive materials. Potassium iodide is also used in the treatment of iodine deficiency disorders.

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

There are different types of thyroidectomy procedures, including:

1. Total thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland.
2. Partial (or subtotal) thyroidectomy: Removal of a portion of the thyroid gland.
3. Hemithyroidectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, often performed to treat benign solitary nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer.

Thyroidectomy may be recommended for various reasons, such as treating thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or thyroid cancer. Potential risks and complications of the procedure include bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures like the parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerve, and hypoparathyroidism or hypothyroidism due to removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands or thyroid gland, respectively. Close postoperative monitoring and management are essential to minimize these risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Transcription Factor Pit-1, also known as POU1F1 or pituitary-specific transcription factor 1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and function of the anterior pituitary gland. It is a member of the POU domain family of transcription factors, which are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain.

Pit-1 is essential for the differentiation and proliferation of certain types of pituitary cells, including those that produce growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Pit-1 binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of these hormone genes, thereby activating their transcription and promoting hormone production.

Mutations in the gene encoding Pit-1 can lead to a variety of pituitary disorders, such as dwarfism due to GH deficiency, delayed puberty, and hypothyroidism due to TSH deficiency. Additionally, some studies have suggested that Pit-1 may also play a role in regulating energy balance and body weight, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood.

Growth Hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by the somatotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the liver and other tissues. GH also has important metabolic functions, such as increasing glucose levels, enhancing protein synthesis, and reducing fat storage. Its secretion is regulated by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which stimulates its release, and somatostatin (SRIF), which inhibits its release. Abnormal levels of GH can lead to various medical conditions, such as dwarfism or gigantism if there are deficiencies or excesses, respectively.

Thyroiditis is a general term that refers to inflammation of the thyroid gland. It can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or medications. Depending on the cause and severity, thyroiditis may lead to overproduction (hyperthyroidism) or underproduction (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormones, or it can result in a temporary or permanent loss of thyroid function.

There are several types of thyroiditis, including:

1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis - an autoimmune disorder where the body attacks and damages the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
2. Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (De Quervain's thyroiditis) - often follows a viral infection and results in painful inflammation of the thyroid gland, causing hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism.
3. Silent thyroiditis - an autoimmune disorder similar to Hashimoto's thyroiditis but without symptoms like pain or tenderness; it can cause temporary hyperthyroidism and later hypothyroidism.
4. Postpartum thyroiditis - occurs in women after childbirth, causing inflammation of the thyroid gland leading to hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism.
5. Acute suppurative thyroiditis - a rare bacterial infection that causes painful swelling and redness of the thyroid gland, usually requiring antibiotics for treatment.

Symptoms of thyroiditis depend on whether it leads to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism symptoms include rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, anxiety, and tremors. Hypothyroidism symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, and depression. Treatment varies depending on the type of thyroiditis and its severity.

Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and metabolism. Adenylate cyclase is activated by hormones and neurotransmitters that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the cell membrane, leading to the production of cAMP, which then acts as a second messenger to regulate various intracellular responses. There are several isoforms of adenylate cyclase, each with distinct regulatory properties and subcellular localization.

Euthyroid sick syndrome, also known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), is a condition characterized by abnormal thyroid function tests that occur in individuals with underlying non-thyroidal systemic illness. Despite the presence of abnormal test results, these individuals do not have evidence of clinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

In euthyroid sick syndrome, the levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormones may be decreased, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels remain normal or low. This is thought to occur due to alterations in the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones, rather than changes in the function of the thyroid gland itself.

The condition is often seen in individuals with severe illness, such as sepsis, cancer, malnutrition, or following major surgery. It is thought to represent an adaptive response to stress and illness, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. In most cases, euthyroid sick syndrome resolves on its own once the underlying illness has been treated.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

In medical terms, the orbit refers to the bony cavity or socket in the skull that contains and protects the eye (eyeball) and its associated structures, including muscles, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and the lacrimal gland. The orbit is made up of several bones: the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla bone, and palatine bone. These bones form a pyramid-like shape that provides protection for the eye while also allowing for a range of movements.

Iopanoic acid is a contrast medium, specifically a radiocontrast agent, that is used during imaging examinations such as X-rays and CT scans to help improve the visibility of internal body structures. It works by blocking the absorption of X-rays in the digestive tract, making it possible to visualize the gastrointestinal tract more clearly on imaging studies. Iopanoic acid is typically given orally before the examination.

It's important to note that the use of iopanoic acid and other radiocontrast agents should be carefully weighed against the potential risks, as they can cause allergic reactions, kidney damage, and other complications in some individuals. Therefore, it is usually reserved for situations where the benefits of improved imaging outweigh these potential risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "paper" is not a medical term. In general, it refers to a thin material made from pulp derived from wood, rags, or other fibrous substances, which is used for writing, printing, drawing, or packaging. If you have a question about a specific medical concept or condition, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Hypopituitarism is a medical condition characterized by deficient secretion of one or more hormones produced by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls several other endocrine glands in the body, including the thyroid, adrenals, and sex glands (ovaries and testes).

Hypopituitarism can result from damage to the pituitary gland due to various causes such as tumors, surgery, radiation therapy, trauma, or inflammation. In some cases, hypopituitarism may also be caused by a dysfunction of the hypothalamus, a region in the brain that regulates the pituitary gland's function.

The symptoms and signs of hypopituitarism depend on which hormones are deficient and can include fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, decreased sex drive, infertility, irregular menstrual periods, intolerance to cold, constipation, thinning hair, dry skin, and depression.

Treatment of hypopituitarism typically involves hormone replacement therapy to restore the deficient hormones' normal levels. The type and dosage of hormones used will depend on which hormones are deficient and may require regular monitoring and adjustments over time.

Sodium iodide is a chemical compound with the formula NaI. It is a white, crystalline solid that is widely used in medicine, particularly as a radiocontrast agent for imaging procedures such as CT scans and X-rays. Sodium iodide is also used in the treatment of thyroid disorders because it contains iodine, which is an essential nutrient for proper thyroid function.

In medical applications, sodium iodide may be combined with a radioactive isotope such as technetium-99m or iodine-131 to create a radiopharmaceutical that can be used to diagnose or treat various conditions. The radiation emitted by the isotope can be detected by medical imaging equipment, allowing doctors to visualize and assess the function of organs and tissues within the body.

It's important to note that sodium iodide should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it may have potential side effects and risks associated with its use.

Pituitary function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that evaluate the proper functioning of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and releasing several essential hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

These tests typically involve measuring the levels of different hormones in the blood, stimulating or suppressing the pituitary gland with specific medications, and assessing the body's response to these challenges. Some common pituitary function tests include:

1. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in the blood, often after a provocative test using substances like insulin, arginine, clonidine, or glucagon to stimulate GH release.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) testing: Assesses the function of the thyroid gland by measuring TSH and FT4 levels in response to TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol testing: Evaluates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by measuring ACTH and cortisol levels after a CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation test or an insulin tolerance test.
4. Prolactin (PRL) testing: Measures PRL levels in the blood, which can be elevated due to pituitary tumors or other conditions affecting the hypothalamus.
5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) testing: Assesses reproductive function by measuring FSH and LH levels, often in conjunction with estradiol or testosterone levels.
6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test: Evaluates gonadal function by measuring FSH and LH levels after GnRH administration.
7. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in response to various stimuli, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), glucagon, or arginine.
8. Vasopressin (ADH) testing: Assesses the posterior pituitary function by measuring ADH levels and performing a water deprivation test.

These tests can help diagnose various pituitary disorders, such as hypopituitarism, hyperpituitarism, or pituitary tumors, and guide appropriate treatment strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microchemistry" is not a commonly used term in medicine. It is, however, a branch of chemistry that deals with the separation, identification, and analysis of chemical substances in minute quantities. This field can be applied in various scientific disciplines, including forensic science, environmental science, and materials science.

In the medical field, you might encounter similar concepts under terms like "microanalysis" or "clinical chemistry," which refer to the identification and measurement of chemical components in body fluids (like blood or urine) for diagnostic purposes. But again, "Microchemistry" is not a standard term used in this context.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

Subacute thyroiditis, also known as de Quervain's thyroiditis or granulomatous thyroiditis, is a inflammatory disorder of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas, which are collections of immune cells, within the thyroid tissue. The condition often follows an upper respiratory infection and is more common in women than men.

Subacute thyroiditis typically presents with pain and tenderness in the front of the neck, along with systemic symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and low-grade fever. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) initially, followed by hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) as the gland becomes damaged and inflamed. In some cases, the thyroid function may return to normal on its own after several months. Treatment typically involves anti-inflammatory medications to reduce pain and inflammation, and beta blockers to manage symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Ablation techniques are medical procedures that involve the removal or destruction of body tissue or cells. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): This technique uses heat generated by radio waves to destroy targeted tissue. A thin probe is inserted into the body, and the tip of the probe emits high-frequency electrical currents that heat up and destroy the surrounding tissue.
2. Cryoablation: Also known as cryosurgery, this technique uses extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissue. A probe is inserted into the body, and a gas is passed through it to create a ball of ice that freezes and destroys the targeted tissue.
3. Microwave ablation: This technique uses microwaves to heat up and destroy targeted tissue. A probe is inserted into the body, and microwaves are emitted from the tip of the probe to heat up and destroy the surrounding tissue.
4. Laser ablation: This technique uses laser energy to vaporize and destroy targeted tissue. A laser fiber is inserted into the body, and the laser energy is directed at the targeted tissue to destroy it.
5. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU): This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to heat up and destroy targeted tissue. The sound waves are focused on a specific area of the body, and the heat generated by the sound waves destroys the targeted tissue.

Ablation techniques are used in various medical fields, including cardiology, oncology, and neurology, to treat a range of conditions such as arrhythmias, cancer, and chronic pain.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system by binding to specific hormones, such as Luteinizing Hormone, and triggering a series of intracellular events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function.

In particular, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries and testes. In females, when LH binds to its receptor in the ovary, it stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. In males, LH (also known as Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone in this context) binding to its receptor on testicular Leydig cells triggers the production of testosterone.

Therefore, LH receptors are essential for reproductive processes and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Hyperthyroxinemia is a condition characterized by an elevated level of thyroxine (T4) in the blood. Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, and its levels are regulated by another hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Hyperthyroxinemia can be caused by various factors, including overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), excessive intake of thyroid hormones, or genetic disorders affecting thyroid hormone metabolism.

It is important to note that hyperthyroxinemia may not always result in symptoms or clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism, as T4 levels must be converted to the active form of the hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), to exert its effects on various organs and tissues. Therefore, additional tests, such as measuring free T3 and TSH levels, may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

... resistance to thyrotropin caused by mutations in the thyrotropin-receptor gene". The New England Journal of Medicine. 332 (3): ... Thyrotropin+Receptors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SSFA-GPHR: Sequence Structure ... The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Farid NR, Kascur V, Balazs C (Jul 2000). "The human thyrotropin receptor is highly mutable: a review of gain-of-function ...
... (TRH) is a hypophysiotropic hormone produced by neurons in the hypothalamus that stimulates the ... Media related to Thyrotropin-releasing hormone at Wikimedia Commons (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Articles with short ... Prokai-Tatrai K, De La Cruz DL, Nguyen V, Ross BP, Toth I, Prokai L (July 2019). "Brain Delivery of Thyrotropin-Releasing ... Prange AJ, Lara PP, Wilson IC, Alltop LB, Breese GR (November 1972). "Effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in depression". ...
... (TRHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The ... Receptors,+Thyrotropin-Releasing+Hormone at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (CS1 ... "Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... Gershengorn MC (1993). "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: Cloning and regulation of its expression". pp. 341-63. doi: ...
... thyrotropin; luteinizing hormone; follicle-stimulating hormone; and adrenocorticotropic hormone.[citation needed] Pituitary ...
Hayashizaki Y, Miyai K, Kato K, Matsubara K (Sep 1985). "Molecular cloning of the human thyrotropin-beta subunit gene". FEBS ... Sairam MR, Li CH (Jul 1977). "Human pituitary thyrotropin. The primary structure of the alpha and beta subunits". Canadian ... The subunits of pituitary thyrotropin--their relationship to other glycoprotein hormones". Endocrinology. 89 (6): 1331-44. doi: ...
The production of TSH is controlled by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is produced in the hypothalamus. TSH levels ... Larisch, R; Giacobino, A; Eckl, W; Wahl, HG; Midgley, JE; Hoermann, R (2015). "Reference range for thyrotropin. Post hoc ... A TFT panel typically includes thyroid hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) and thyroxine (T4), and ... Spencer, Carole; Takeuchi, Michael; Kazarosyan, Margarita (1996). "Current status and performance goals for serum thyrotropin ( ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06707-5. Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. By Roy E Weiss and Samuel Refetoff. Last literature ...
Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. By Roy E Weiss and Samuel Refetoff. Last literature review version 19.1: ...
The secretion pattern of thyrotropin (TSH) is shaped by infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms. Infradian rhythmis are ... Greenspan, SL; Klibanski, A; Schoenfeld, D; Ridgway, EC (September 1986). "Pulsatile secretion of thyrotropin in man". The ... Examples of hormones that are secreted pulsatilely include insulin, thyrotropin, TRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ... Adriaanse, R; Romijn, JA; Brabant, G; Endert, E; Wiersinga, WM (November 1993). "Pulsatile thyrotropin secretion in ...
Brokken LJ, Wiersinga WM, Prummel MF (2003). "Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies are associated with continued thyrotropin ... Lechan, Ronald M.; Fekete, C (2004). "Feedback regulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): mechanisms for the non- ... Prummel MF, Brokken LJ, Wiersinga WM (2004). "Ultra short-loop feedback control of thyrotropin secretion". Thyroid. 14 (10): ... Midgley JE, Hoermann R, Larisch R, Dietrich JW (2013). "Physiological states and functional relation between thyrotropin and ...
"Thyrogen- thyrotropin alfa injection, powder, for solution Thyrogen- thyrotropin alfa kit". DailyMed. 1 October 2018. Retrieved ... Estrada JM, Soldin D, Buckey TM, Burman KD, Soldin OP (Mar 2014). "Thyrotropin isoforms: implications for thyrotropin analysis ... In this review it was found that the recombinant human thyrotropin-aided radioactive iodine appeared to lead to a greater of ... A synthetic drug called recombinant human TSH alpha (rhTSHα or simply rhTSH) or thyrotropin alfa (INN) is manufactured by ...
Implications of thyrotropin binding to neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1985; 75:119-123. 83. Weitberg AB, Weitzman SA, Clark EP, ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates its release; negative feedback of thyroid hormone inhibits it. Adrenocorticotropic ...
... by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; MIM 257120) and cyclic AMP.[supplied by OMIM] Pituitary-specific positive transcription ...
Ito activation is inhibited by thyrotropin (TSH). This mechanisms may be one of the reasons for the observation that both ...
Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yamada, Masanobu (2008). "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the cerebellum". ...
Identification of thyrotropin receptors in human thymus". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 98 (10): 2228-34. doi:10.1172/ ...
Weiss RE, Refetoff S. "Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas". UpToDate. Archived from the original on 18 February ...
Thyrotropin releasing hormone degrading enzyme is a protein, specifically a pyroglutamyl-peptidase II enzyme, that in humans is ... "TRHDE thyrotropin releasing hormone degrading enzyme [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Zhu QS, Rosenblatt K, Huang KL, Lahat G, Brobey ... The encoded protein is an extracellular peptidase that specifically cleaves and inactivates the neuropeptide thyrotropin- ...
Thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a noncovalently linked glycoprotein heterodimer and is part of a family of pituitary ... Tatsumi K, Hayashizaki Y, Hiraoka Y, Miyai K, Matsubara K (December 1988). "The structure of the human thyrotropin beta-subunit ... 2004). "Four new cases of congenital secondary hypothyroidism due to a splice site mutation in the thyrotropin-beta gene: ... Atzmon G, Barzilai N, Surks MI, Gabriely I (2009). "Genetic Predisposition to Elevated Serum Thyrotropin Is Associated with ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone Moncayo H, Dapunt O, Moncayo R (2007). "Diagnostic accuracy of basal TSH determinations based on ... Prior to the availability of sensitive TSH assays, thyrotropin releasing hormone or TRH stimulation tests were relied upon for ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) produced by the hypothalamus signals to the pituitary to release thyroid-stimulating ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and the thyroid hormone feedback mechanism. Endocrinology, 150(3), 1091-1096. doi:10.1210/en.2008 ...
Barasch J, Gershon MD, Nunez EA, Tamir H, al-Awqati Q (December 1988). "Thyrotropin induces the acidification of the secretory ... They may also have a role in regulating thyroid hormones production locally, as they express thyrotropin-releasing hormone. ... Gkonos PJ, Tavianini MA, Liu CC, Roos BA (December 1989). "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in normal thyroid ... "Functional expression of the thyrotropin receptor in C cells: new insights into their involvement in the hypothalamic-pituitary ...
Saberi M, Utiger RD (November 1974). "Serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin concentrations during thyroxine and ...
"Genetic Predisposition to Elevated Serum Thyrotropin is Associated with Exceptional Longevity". The Journal of Clinical ...
Laugwitz KL, Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Spicher K, Van Sande J, Dumont JE, Schultz G (1996). "The human thyrotropin receptor: a ... Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Van Sande J, Spicher K, Schultz G, Dumont JE (1994). "The human thyrotropin receptor activates G- ...
This is commonly seen in the human thyrotropin-β gene promoter. NREs can induce a bend in the promoter region to block ...
Lazarus, J.h. (October 1998). "The Effects of Lithium Therapy on Thyroid and Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone". Thyroid®. 8 (10): ...
Atzmon, G.; Barzilai, N.; Surks, M. I.; Gabriely, I. (2009). "Genetic Predisposition to Elevated Serum Thyrotropin is ...
... thyrotropin-releasing hormone-degrading pyroglutamate aminopeptidase, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-degrading peptidase, TRH ... His-Xaa-Gly tetrapeptides This enzyme is highly specific for thyrotropin releasing hormone. TRHDE - thyrotropin releasing ... Wilk, S.; Wilk, E.K. (1989). "Pyroglutamyl peptidase II, a thyrotropin releasing hormone degrading enzyme: purification and ... Pyroglutamyl-peptidase II (EC 3.4.19.6, thyroliberinase, pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II, thyrotropin-releasing factor ...
... resistance to thyrotropin caused by mutations in the thyrotropin-receptor gene". The New England Journal of Medicine. 332 (3): ... Thyrotropin+Receptors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SSFA-GPHR: Sequence Structure ... The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Farid NR, Kascur V, Balazs C (Jul 2000). "The human thyrotropin receptor is highly mutable: a review of gain-of-function ...
CanMED: HCPCS. The Cancer Medications Enquiry Database (CanMED) is a two-part resource for cancer drug treatment related studies.
"Thyrotropin Alfa" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Effects of Thyrotropin on Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Metabolism and Serum Lipids. Thyroid. 2018 02; 28(2):168-174. ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Thyrotropin Alfa" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... The amino acid sequence of thyrotropin alfa is identical to that of human pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone. ...
Categorized as Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors (B) Proliferation index of spleen T cells. (B) Proliferation index of ... Categorized as Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors The selectivity of action of LfcinB is due to its strongly cationic ... Categorized as Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors Panneuronal expression of aSyn (and silencing. Panneuronal expression ... Categorized as Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors (b) Full-length LTBP-1 was treated with full-length recombinant ADAMTS6 ...
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation in the spinal cord increases blood pressure and sympathetic tone to the ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation in the spinal cord increases blood pressure and sympathetic tone to the ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation in the spinal cord increases blood pressure and sympathetic tone to the ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation in the spinal cord increases blood pressure and sympathetic tone to the ...
Thyrotropin/blood, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone, Thyroxine/metabolism. in Clinical Chemistry. volume. 30. issue. 2. pages. 9 ... Thyrotropin/blood; Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; Thyroxine/metabolism}}, language = {{eng}}, number = {{2}}, pages = {{9--196 ... We measured the thyrotropin response (delta TSH) to 200 micrograms of thyroliberin in 131 subjects without thyroid dysfunction ... We measured the thyrotropin response (delta TSH) to 200 micrograms of thyroliberin in 131 subjects without thyroid dysfunction ...
Physiological states and functional relation between thyrotropin and free thyroxine in thyroid health and disease: in vivo and ... Physiological states and functional relation between thyrotropin and free thyroxine in thyroid health and disease: in vivo and ... Aims Understanding the exact relationship between serum thyrotropin/thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) ...
Early activation of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone and prolactin plays a critical role during a T cell-dependent immune response ... Early activation of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone and prolactin plays a critical role during a T cell-dependent immune response ... Early activation of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone and prolactin plays a critical role during a T cell-dependent immune response ... Early activation of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone and prolactin plays a critical role during a T cell-dependent immune response ...
... p.168 It has been suggested that the thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)) stimulution test may be helpful in ... It has been suggested that the thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)) stimulution test may be helpful in confirming a ... The Value of Thyrotropin (TSH) Stimulation in the Diagnosis of Feline Hyperthyroidism. ...
A canine and feline pituitary-thyroid function test based on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation of endogenous ... thyrotropin is described. Serum thyroxine is measured before and after stimulation with TRH. A positive response to TRH ... A canine and feline pituitary-thyroid function test based on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation of endogenous ... Canine and feline thyroid function assessment with the thyrotropin-releasing hormone response test. ...
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The thyrotropin test is needed to monitor the treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism of the thyroid gland and to find ... Who needs a thyrotropin test?. The thyrotropin test is needed for screening and diagnosis of thyroid diseases (it is the most ... The thyrotropin test is needed for screening and diagnosis of thyroid diseases (it is the most sensitive indicator of thyroid ... What sample is needed for the thyrotropin test?. Blood is drawn from a vein in the arm. ...
Some patients with GD also have TRAb, which do not transactivate the thyrotropin receptor. The balance between stimulating and ... Recommended first-line test for detection of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies, and used in the following situations:. - ... Recommended first-line test for detection of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies, and used in the following situations:. - ... The sensitivity and specificity of an elevated thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) test for Graves disease diagnosis depends ...
Thyrotropin-secreting tumors. These tumors produce thyroid-stimulating hormone, which causes an overactive thyroid. The ...
Thyrotropin TRH 50mg is a research peptide and still being tested results so far show it is effective in regulating hormones ... Thyrotropin TRH 50mg. $200.00. Thyrotropin TRH is a research chemical and still being tested. Tests to date, have shown ... Be the first to review "Thyrotropin TRH 50mg" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are ... Category: peptides products Tags: ghrh hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone test, trh stimulation test cost ...
All products on this site are for In-Vitro Research, Development use only. Products are Not for Human consumption of any kind ...
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Central Thyrotropin‐Releasing Hormone during Caloric Restriction in Rats. ... Knight, W. D. (2005). Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Central Thyrotropin‐Releasing Hormone during Caloric ... Knight, W. D. (2005). Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Central Thyrotropin‐Releasing Hormone during Caloric ... Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Central Thyrotropin‐Releasing Hormone during Caloric Restriction in Rats ...
Thyrotropin Alfa. Most other Common Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting and headache. Tibolone. Most other Common Side Effects: ...
Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies induce human thyroid cell growth and c-fos activation. / Huber, G. K.; Safirstein, R.; ... Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies induce human thyroid cell growth and c-fos activation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology ... Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies induce human thyroid cell growth and c-fos activation. In: Journal of Clinical ... Dive into the research topics of Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies induce human thyroid cell growth and c-fos activation. ...
There are no available data on the presence of thyrotropin alfa in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the ... Thyrogen® (thyrotropin alfa) is a thyroid stimulating hormone indicated for:. Adjunctive Diagnostic Tool for Well- ... There are no available data on the presence of thyrotropin alfa in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the ... Thyrogen® (thyrotropin alfa) is a thyroid stimulating hormone indicated for:. Adjunctive Diagnostic Tool for Well- ...
Use your RU credentials (u/z-number and password) to log in with SURFconext to upload a file for processing by the repository team ...
Clinical value of different responses of serum thyroglobulin to recombinant human thyrotropin in the follow-up of patients with ... concentration after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation (rhTSH Tg testing) and its correlation with (131)I uptake ... concentration after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation (rhTSH Tg testing) and its correlation with (131)I uptake ...
Keywords: Graves ophthalmopathy; Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins; Thyrotropin receptors; Thyrotropin-binding inhibitory ... Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibody Assessment in Thyroid Eye Disease: Does the Assay Type Matter?. Article information. Korean J ... Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies are independent risk factors for Graves ophthalmopathy and help to predict severity and ... Sensitivity of three thyrotropin receptor antibody assays in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. J Med Biochem 2022;41:211-20. ...
A TSH test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. It prompts the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormones into the blood.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) activates not merely the secretion of thyrotropin (TSH) but also the transcription of TSHβ ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) activates not merely the secretion of thyrotropin (TSH). January 21, 2017 ... Thyrotropin (TSH) is a heterodimer of the α chain (α subunit of glycoprotein hormone αGSU) and β chain (TSHβ). TSHβ is specific ... of the TSH LM22A-4 molecule from thyrotroph and the transcriptions of TSHβ and αGSU genes are stimulated by the thyrotropin- ...
Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas induce left atrial enlargement with subclinical atrial fibrillation: an ...
TSH = thyrotropin. LT4 = levothyroxine. The initial levothyroxine dose was the appropriate one in 89% of the women with ... leading to prompt attainment of normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels. This should help minimize pregnancy complications, say the ...
TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare pituitary tumors. An efficient treatment is essential to limit the mortality and morbidity in untreated patients. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence about the postoperative outcomes and management of this rare pathology. A systematic search and meta-analysis of surgical series was performed. Our analysis included 23 articles (536 patients). No sex difference was observed and mean age at diagnosis was 45 years. Hyperthyroidism was reportedly clinical in 67% and biochemical in 90% of patients. Co-secretion of other pituitary hormones was present in 42% of cases. Macroadenomas were found in 79% of patients, showing in 44% and 30% of cases respectively extrasellar extension and cavernous sinus invasion. The pooled rate of postoperative biochemical remission was 69.7% and a gross total resection (GTR) was observed in 54% of patients. The extent of resection was significantly increased in microadenomas (p < 0.001) and cavernous sinus
Primary congenital hypothyroidism is a common preventable cause of mental retardation. Neonatal thyroid screening is highly successful in early diagnosis and the improvement of developmental prognosis in the hypothyroid neonate. However, rarely cases could be missed, so doctors must be aware of the …
  • The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as "thyrotropin") and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aims Understanding the exact relationship between serum thyrotropin/thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT 4 ) is a prerequisite for improving diagnostic reliability and clinical decision making. (bmj.com)
  • It has been suggested that the thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)) stimulution test may be helpful in confirming a diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism when the serum total thyroxine (T4) concentration is equivocal. (avmi.net)
  • We use an adenovirus vector, AdCMVmTRHR, to express thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors (TRH-Rs) to determine whether the size of the hormone-responsive phosphoinositide pool in mammalian cells is directly related to receptor number. (cornell.edu)
  • Long-term efficacy of modified-release recombinant human thyrotropin augmented radioiodine therapy for benign multinodular goiter: results from a multicenter, international, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-selection study. (harvard.edu)
  • In the present study we examined the clinical value of a differential response of thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation (rhTSH Tg testing) and its correlation with (131)I uptake and whole-body scanning (rhTSH-WBS) in 104 patients who had previously undergone near-total thyroidectomy and (131)I ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). (unife.it)
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against various thyroid components, namely the thyrotropin receptor, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin, as well as by an inflammatory cellular infiltrate of variable severity within the gland. (marshfieldlabs.org)
  • Among the autoantibodies found in autoimmune thyroid disease, thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) are most closely associated with disease pathogenesis. (marshfieldlabs.org)
  • These autoantibodies, also known as long-acting-thyroid-stimulator (LATS) or thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI), bind to the receptor and transactivate it, leading to stimulation of the thyroid gland independent of the normal feedback-regulated thyrotropin (TSH) stimulation. (marshfieldlabs.org)
  • Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). (utmb.edu)
  • Background: Autoantibody mimicry of hormone action at the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) and aberrant signaling of TSH-R by autoantibodies (TSH-R-Ab) causes autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both of which affect millions of patients worldwide. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Background: Thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) blocking autoantibodies (TBAb) are present in 10-15% of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • A canine and feline pituitary-thyroid function test based on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation of endogenous thyrotropin is described. (avmi.net)
  • The effects of dieting and weight loss upon the stimulation of thyrotropin (TSH) by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and suppression of cortisol secretion by dexamethasone in men and women. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To determine the clinical and biochemical relationships between a second-generation thyrotropin receptor-binding inhibition antibody (TRAb) immunoassay, detecting stimulatory and blocking antibodies, with the thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) bridging immunoassay detecting the stimulatory component only. (ekjo.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor: stimulating and blocking antibodies derived from the lymphocytes of patients with Graves disease. (unipi.it)
  • This report characterizes four antibodies as presumptive thyrotropin receptor antibodies because they specifically inhibit thyrotropin binding and competitively inhibit thyrotropin-induced cAMP levels in human thyroid cells. (unipi.it)
  • These two antibodies do not react with human thyroid gangliosides but are strong inhibitors of thyrotropin binding to liposomes containing the high-affinity glycoprotein component from human, bovine, and rat thyroid membranes. (unipi.it)
  • Thyrotropin Alfa" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The amino acid sequence of thyrotropin alfa is identical to that of human pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Thyrotropin Alfa" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Thyrotropin Alfa" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Thyrotropin Alfa" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • In TED patients, these cells express a higher level of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor than ordinary fibroblasts [ 3 ]. (ekjo.org)
  • Tests to date, have shown Thyrotropin TRH (tripeptide hypothalamic regulatory hormone) is effective in regulating hormones concerned with the thyroid hormone. (usapeptides.info)
  • Secretion of the TSH LM22A-4 molecule from thyrotroph and the transcriptions of TSHβ and αGSU genes are stimulated by the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) generated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. (bioerc-iend.org)
  • The thyrotropin test is needed for screening and diagnosis of thyroid diseases (it is the most sensitive indicator of thyroid dysfunction), for monitoring the treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and for investigating the causes of female infertility. (telesante.lt)
  • Effects of Thyrotropin on Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Metabolism and Serum Lipids. (harvard.edu)
  • Examples of such peptides include neurotensin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (novusbio.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) activates not merely the secretion of thyrotropin (TSH) but also the transcription of TSHβ and α-glycoprotein (αGSU) subunit genes. (bioerc-iend.org)
  • The data unequivocally establish the pluritopic nature of the immunoglobulins in Graves disease and relate individual components or determinants of the thyrotropin receptor structure with specific autoimmune immunoglobulins. (unipi.it)
  • The first exon of the human thyrotropin-β (hTSHβ) gene has been demonstrated in our laboratory to contain a major thyroid hormone inhibitory element. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Molecular cloning of the human thyrotropin-beta subunit gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its presence in the anterior pituitary gland may be involved in mediating the paracrine signaling feedback inhibition of thyrotropin along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously found that chronic hypoxia inhibited thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA expression in rat paraventricular nucleus (PVN). (nel.edu)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation in the spinal cord increases blood pressure and sympathetic tone to the vasculature and the adrenals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) is a heterodimer of the α chain (α subunit of glycoprotein hormone αGSU) and β chain (TSHβ). (bioerc-iend.org)
  • Lower limit of normal Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) test result referent values for adults is 0.3 (mlU/L). (lab-test-results.com)
  • The test most frequently ordered to test thyroid function is thyrotropin, commonly referred to as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). (lab-test-results.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor number determines the size of the TRH-responsive phosphoinositide pool. (cornell.edu)
  • The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog taltirelin is of high pre-clinical interest given its neuronal-stimulant properties, minimal endocrine activity, tongue muscle activation following microperfusion into the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) or systemic delivery, and high TRH receptor expression at the HMN compared to rest of the brain. (nature.com)
  • Norepinephrine attenuates hypoxia-inhibited thyrotropin-releasing hormone release in median eminence and paraventricular nucleus of rat hypothalamus. (nel.edu)
  • There are two standard blood tests of thyroid function: the measurement of thyroid hormone, usually T4, and the measurement of thyrotropin (TSH). (cdc.gov)
  • their ability to inhibit thyrotropin-induced cAMP increases in thyroid cells competitively is complemented by more than additive agonism at low (10 pM) thyrotropin concentrations. (unipi.it)
  • in contrast, they are poor inhibitors of 125I-labeled thyrotropin binding to liposomes containing the glycoprotein component of the human thyrotropin receptor. (unipi.it)
  • Some patients with GD also have TRAb, which do not transactivate the thyrotropin receptor. (marshfieldlabs.org)
  • The subunits of pituitary thyrotropin--their relationship to other glycoprotein hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study has determined the correct initial doses of levothyroxine (LT 4 ) to give pregnant women with newly discovered hypothyroidism, leading to prompt attainment of normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels. (medscape.com)
  • Thyrotropin Receptor Autoantibody Assessment in Thyroid Eye Disease: Does the Assay Type Matter? (ekjo.org)
  • We measured the thyrotropin response (delta TSH) to 200 micrograms of thyroliberin in 131 subjects without thyroid dysfunction or other disease and with basal values for thyroid function that were within the normal reference intervals for our laboratory. (lu.se)
  • Thus they have no intrinsic stimulatory action in assays of thyroid function but rather inhibit thyrotropin activity in the assays tested. (unipi.it)