Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Thymus Hyperplasia: Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486)Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Thymus Extracts: Extracts of the thymus that contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities; three distinct substances are already known: thymotoxin, thymin and thymosin.Thymus Hormones: Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Thymoma: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Thymocytes: HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS that have migrated to the THYMUS where they differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES. Thymocytes are classified into maturational stages based on the expression of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsBone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Mice, Inbred AKRAntigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Mice, Inbred BALB CJanus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases: Clonal myeloid disorders that possess both dysplastic and proliferative features but are not properly classified as either MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES or MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lymphopoiesis: Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.

Tumorigenicity of mouse thymoma is suppressed by soluble type II transforming growth factor beta receptor therapy. (1/1008)

Many types of tumor cells overexpress transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is believed to promote tumor progression. We hypothesized that overexpression of the extracellular region of the type II TGF-beta receptor (soluble TbetaRII) would compete for or block TGF-beta binding to TbetaRs on immune cells, preventing TGF-beta-mediated immunosuppression and consequently resulting in the eradication of tumor cells. We tested this in the mouse thymoma cell line EL4, which has been reported to suppress cellular immunity by secreting a large amount of TGF-beta. Transduction of EL4 with recombinant retrovirus encoding soluble TbetaRII resulted in the secretion of heterogeneously glycosylated, 25 to 35 kDa truncated TbetaRII. Inoculation of 1 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(4) soluble TbetaRII-modified EL4 cells (EL4/Ts, EL4 cells transduced with recombinant retrovirus encoding soluble TbetaRII and neomycin resistance gene) s.c. to mice showed reduced tumorigenicity, as indicated by lower overall tumor incidence (7%, 1 of 14; P < 0.001) compared with unmodified EL4 (100%, 9 of 9) or vector-modified EL4 cells (EL4/neo, EL4 cells transduced with recombinant retrovirus encoding neomycin resistance gene; 100%, 4 of 4). Administration of mitomycin C-treated EL4/Ts cells (1 x 10(6)) after EL4 inoculation (1 x 10(4)) reduced tumor incidence from 100% (5 of 5 in mice inoculated with mitomycin C-treated EL4/neo) to 40% (4 of 10, P < 0.05), indicating that supply of soluble TbetaRII could actually block TGF-beta-mediated tumorigenesis. In vitro tumor cytotoxicity assays revealed 3-5-fold higher cytotoxic activity with lymphocytes from EL4/Ts-bearing mice compared with those from EL4- or EL4/neo-bearing mice, indicating that the observed tumor rejection was mediated by restoration of the tumor-specific cellular immunity. These data suggest that expression of soluble TbetaRII is an effective strategy for treating highly progressive tumors secreting TGF-beta.  (+info)

Invasive thymoma with long-term survival by extensive reoperation. (2/1008)

The recurrence of invasive thymoma is often observed; however, no accepted treatment of recurrent invasive thymoma has yet been established. We herein report a 41-year-old woman with invasive thymoma and pleural dissemination who demonstrated long-term survival after undergoing 4 operations. Based on our findings, reoperation is thus suggested in patients with intrathoracic recurrence and long-term survival can be expected.  (+info)

Primary mediastinal malignancies: findings in 219 patients. (3/1008)

The purpose of this study was to determine the demographics, histology, methods of treatment, and survival in primary mediastinal malignancies. We did a retrospective review of the statewide New Mexico Tumor Registry for all malignant tumors treated between January 1, 1973 and December 31, 1995. Benign tumors and cysts of the mediastinum were excluded. Two hundred nineteen patients were identified from a total of 110,284 patients with primary malignancies: 55% of tumors were lymphomas, 16% malignant germ cell tumors, 14% malignant thymomas, 5% sarcomas, 3% malignant neurogenic tumors, and 7% other tumors. There were significant differences in gender between histologies (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of germ cell tumors occurred in males, 66% of neurogenic tumors were in females; other tumors occurred in males in 58% of cases. There were also significant differences in ages by histology (P < 0.001). Neurogenic tumors were most common in the first decade, lymphomas and germ cell tumors in the second to fourth decades, and lymphomas and thymomas in patients in their fifth decades and beyond. Stage at presentation (P = 0.001) and treatment (P < 0.001) also differed significantly between histologic groups. Five-year survival was 54% for lymphomas, 51% for malignant germ cell tumors, 49% for malignant thymomas, 33% for sarcomas, 56% for neurogenic tumors, and 51% overall. These survival rates were not statistically different (P > 0.50). Lymphomas, malignant germ cell tumors, and thymomas were the most frequently encountered malignant primary mediastinal neoplasms in this contemporary series of patients. Demographics, stage at presentation, and treatment modality varied significantly by histology. Despite these differences, overall five-year survival was not statistically different.  (+info)

Promoter element for transcription of unrearranged T-cell receptor beta-chain gene in pro-T cells. (4/1008)

The hallmark of T- and B-lymphocyte development is the rearrangement of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments of T-cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to generate a diverse repertoire of antigen receptor specificities in the immune system. The process of V(D)J recombination is shared in the rearrangement of all seven antigen receptor genes and is controlled by changes in chromatin structure, which regulate accessibility to the recombinase apparatus in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. These chromatin changes are linked to transcription of the locus in its unrearranged (germline) configuration. To understand how germline transcription of the TCRbeta-chain gene is regulated, we determined the structure of germline transcripts initiating near the Dbeta1 segment and identified a promoter within this region. The Dbeta1 promoter is active in the presence of the TCRbeta enhancer (Ebeta), and in this context, exhibits preferential activity in pro-T versus mature T-cell lines, as well as T- versus B-lineage specificity. These studies provide insight into the developmental regulation of TCRbeta germline transcription, one of the earliest steps in T-cell differentiation.  (+info)

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the thyroid gland: differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma. (5/1008)

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the thyroid gland are rare. Apart from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), metastases of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NET may also occur. Features of six patients (five men, one female: age range, 39-67 years) with thyroid metastases from a GEP-NET are described. Thyroid metastases were bilateral in all patients and were associated with enlarged neck lymph nodes in five. In four cases, the thyroid tumor was either the first sign of the disease (n = 2) or was an isolated site of recurrence (n = 2). The tumors were well (n = 3) or poorly differentiated (n = 3). Five tumors for which the primary site could be determined corresponded to foregut-derived tumors (3 lungs, 1 thymus and 1 pancreatic NET). One tumor demonstrated calcitonin (CT) production as shown by immunohistochemistry and elevated plasma CT levels. However, the disease history and the clinical features strongly favored a metastasizing GEP-NET. No tumoral RET proto-oncogene mutation was found in this patient. The differential diagnosis between metastatic GEP-NET and MTC is crucial because prognosis, work-up, and treatment differ greatly.  (+info)

Dermatomyositis associated with invasive thymoma. (6/1008)

We report a case of dermatomyositis (DM) associated with invasive thymoma in a 22-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea which required ventilation support. The reddened elevated scaly eruptions were prominent over the extensor surfaces. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed mediastinal masses, which were diagnosed as mixed type thymoma. Muscle and skin biopsy specimens were compatible with DM. She was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by extended removal of the anterior mediastinal tumor and subsequent radiotherapy. She has had a good clinical course without recurrence of thymoma or DM for more than 3 years. The role of thymoma in the development of DM is discussed.  (+info)

Novel endogenous type D retroviral particles expressed at high levels in a SCID mouse thymic lymphoma. (7/1008)

A xenograft model of the human disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was investigated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Transplantation of human LCH biopsy material into SCID mice resulted in the generation of mouse tumors resembling lymphomas. A thymoma cell line (ThyE1M6) was generated from one of these mice and found to display significant levels of Mg2+-dependent reverse transcriptase activity. Electron microscopy revealed particles with type D retroviral morphology budding from ThyE1M6 cells at a high frequency, whereas control cultures were negative. Reverse transcription-PCR of virion RNA with degenerate primers for conserved regions of various mouse, human, and primate retroviruses amplified novel sequences related to primate type D retroviruses, murine intracisternal A particles, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, and murine long interspersed nuclear elements but not other retroviral classes. We demonstrate that these sequences represent a novel group of endogenous retroviruses expressed at low levels in mice but expressed at high levels in the ThyE1M6 cell line. Furthermore, we propose that the activation of endogenous retroviral elements may be associated with a high incidence of thymomas in SCID mice.  (+info)

Sequences between the enhancer and promoter in the long terminal repeat affect murine leukemia virus pathogenicity and replication in the thymus. (8/1008)

We previously showed that the 93-bp region between the enhancer and promoter (named DEN for downstream of enhancer) of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the MCF13 murine leukemia virus is an important determinant of the ability of this virus to induce thymic lymphoma. In this study we observed that DEN plays a role in the regulation of virus replication in the thymus during the preleukemic period. A NF-kappaB site in the DEN region partially contributes to the effect of DEN on both lymphomagenicity and virus replication. To further study the effects of DEN and the NF-kappaB site on viral pathogenicity during the preleukemic period, we examined replication of wild-type and mutant viruses with a deletion of the NF-kappaB site or the entire DEN region in the thymus. Thymic lymphocytes which were infected with wild-type and mutant viruses were predominantly the CD3(-) CD4(+) CD8(+) and CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(+) cells. The increase in infection by wild-type virus and both mutant viruses of these two subpopulations during the preleukemic period ranged from 9- to 84-fold, depending upon the time point and virus. The major difference between the wild-type and both mutant viruses was the lower rate and lower level of mutant virus replication in these thymic subpopulations. Significant differences in replication between wild-type and both mutant viruses were seen in the CD3(-) CD4(+) CD8(+) and CD3(-) CD4(-) CD8(-) subpopulations, suggesting that these thymic cell types are important targets for viral transformation.  (+info)

  • High EGFR immunoreactivity is seen in more aggressive thymic neoplasms as classified according to the 2004 WHO, but regardless of classification, the presence of EGFR in tumor cells (1+, 2+, and 3+) is associated with improved performance free survival (PFS) and a trend for better OS. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 456 patients who underwent surgery for thymic epithelial neoplasm at Mayo Clinic Rochester (1942 to 2008) were staged (modified Masaoka, proposed Moran, proposed IASLC/ITMIG) and independently classified by 3 thoracic pathologists (World Health Organization, proposed Suster & Moran [S&M], and Bernatz). (elsevier.com)
  • Fifteen patients had a thymus-related syndrome (in 13 patients it resulted myasthenia gravis ), and in 11 patients it improved or remitted after treatment of the pleural recurrence. (curehunter.com)
  • Most thymomas have the potential to behave like a cancer and spread beyond the thymus, but many appear to behave in a benign fashion and are noninvasive. (medicinenet.com)
  • The mediastinum is the site of onset of various types of cancers both of benign and malignant nature, among which thymus tumours and tumours originating from neural elements (neuromas) are the most frequent and treated by the thoracic surgeon . (ieo.it)
  • Mediastinal tumors can be developped in the mediastinum - the area of the chest that separates the lungs and contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, thymus, and trachea. (ieo.it)
  • Thymus cell antigen 1 (Thy1), also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)90, is a 25-37-kDa glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that is expressed in numerous cell types, including T cells, neurons, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and numerous tumor cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Most of the tumours are pleomorphic or mixed-cell types commonly called type-B reticulum cell neoplasms by Dunn, but a few are type-A histiocytomas. (jax.org)
  • Ribonuclease activity in cell-free thymus homogenates was elevated for five strains of mice genetically predisposed toward leukemia or reticulum cell neoplasms (AKR, C58, PL, RF, and SJL). (rupress.org)
  • Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin (derived from bone marrow resident hematopoietic stem cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The thymus provides an inductive environment for development of T cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Niche functionality is likely affected not only by the genomic background of the myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated mutated hematopoietic stem cells, but also by disease-associated 'chronic inflammation', and subsequent adaptive and innate immune responses. (haematologica.org)
  • Philadelphia chromosome negative' myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of relatively rare hematologic diseases characterized by a clonal proliferation of blood cells, most commonly secondary to acquired hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mutations that directly or indirectly induce upregulation of the JAK-STAT pathway. (haematologica.org)
  • In this timely article, we will review current knowledge surrounding the deregulated bone marrow niche in myeloproliferative neoplasms and suggest how this may be targeted, either directly or indirectly, potentially influencing therapeutic choices both now and in the future. (haematologica.org)
  • Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here. (meta.org)
  • A total of 456 patients who underwent surgery for thymic epithelial neoplasm at Mayo Clinic Rochester (1942 to 2008) were staged (modified Masaoka, proposed Moran, proposed IASLC/ITMIG) and independently classified by 3 thoracic pathologists (World Health Organization, proposed Suster & Moran [S&M], and Bernatz). (elsevier.com)
  • This review provides a comprehensive overview of the human neuroendocrine system and its neoplasms, from their discovery to current terminology and classifications. (prolekare.cz)
  • By the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and thymic stroma is mostly replaced by adipose (fat) tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thymus of older people is scarcely distinguishable from surrounding fatty tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • With aging the thymus slowly shrinks, eventually degenerating into tiny islands of fatty tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • may be used as additional codes to indicate either functional activity by neoplasms and ectopic endocrine tissue or hyperfunction and hypofunction of endocrine glands associated with neoplasms and other conditions classified elsewhere. (icd10data.com)
  • During this descent, remnants of thymic tissue occasionally are implanted along the cervical pathway and may appear later as an ectopic cervical thymus (1) . (ajnr.org)
  • As a result, we scored the tissue microarrays (TMAs) for intensity of expression both at the junctional zone ("top"), as well as at the base ("bottom") of each melanocytic neoplasm in which the orientation of the lesion was clearly demonstrable in the specimen core present on the TMA section. (pnas.org)