An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.

Specific binding of high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein and histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon promoter: HMGI protein acts as a potential antirepressor of the promoter. (1/1371)

The high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein is a nonhistone component of active chromatin. In this work, we demonstrate that HMGI protein specifically binds to the AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter localized upstream of the murine virus-responsive element (VRE). Contrary to what has been described for the human promoter, HMGI protein did not specifically bind to the VRE of the murine IFN-beta promoter. Stably transfected promoters carrying mutations on this HMGI binding site displayed delayed virus-induced kinetics of transcription. When integrated into chromatin, the mutated promoter remained repressed and never reached normal transcriptional activity. Such a phenomenon was not observed with transiently transfected promoters upon which chromatin was only partially reconstituted. Using UV footprinting, we show that the upstream AT-rich sequences of the murine IFN-beta promoter constitute a preferential binding region for histone H1. Transfection with a plasmid carrying scaffold attachment regions as well as incubation with distamycin led to the derepression of the IFN-beta promoter stably integrated into chromatin. In vitro, HMGI protein was able to displace histone H1 from the upstream AT-rich region of the wild-type promoter but not from the promoter carrying mutations on the upstream high-affinity HMGI binding site. Our results suggest that the binding of histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the promoter might be partly responsible for the constitutive repression of the promoter. The displacement by HMGI protein of histone H1 could help to convert the IFN-beta promoter from a repressed to an active state.  (+info)

The SKN-1 amino-terminal arm is a DNA specificity segment. (2/1371)

The Caenorhabditis elegans SKN-1 protein binds DNA through a basic region like those of bZIP proteins and through a flexible amino-terminal arm segment similar to those with which numerous helix-turn-helix proteins bind to bases in the minor groove. A recent X-ray crystallographic structure suggests that the SKN-1 amino-terminal arm provides only nonspecific DNA binding. In this study, however, we demonstrate that this segment mediates recognition of an AT-rich element that is part of the preferred SKN-1 binding site and thereby significantly increases the sequence specificity with which SKN-1 binds DNA. Mutagenesis experiments show that multiple amino acid residues within the arm are involved in binding. These residues provide binding affinity through distinct but partially redundant interactions and enhance specificity by discriminating against alternate sites. The AT-rich element minor groove is important for binding of the arm, which appears to affect DNA conformation in this region. This conformational effect does not seem to involve DNA bending, however, because the arm does not appear to affect a modest DNA bend that is induced by SKN-1. The data illustrate an example of how a small, flexible protein segment can make an important contribution to DNA binding specificity through multiple interactions and mechanisms.  (+info)

The catalytic mechanism of a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase (pdg)/abasic lyase, Chlorella virus-pdg. (3/1371)

The repair of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can proceed via the base excision repair pathway, in which the initial step is catalyzed by DNA glycosylase/abasic (AP) lyases. The prototypical enzyme studied for this pathway is endonuclease V from the bacteriophage T4 (T4 bacteriophage pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-pdg)). The first homologue for T4-pdg has been found in a strain of Chlorella virus (strain Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1), which contains a gene that predicts an amino acid sequence homology of 41% with T4-pdg. Because both the structure and critical catalytic residues are known for T4-pdg, homology modeling of the Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cv-pdg) predicted that a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu-23) would be important for catalysis at pyrimidine dimers and abasic sites. Site-directed mutations were constructed at Glu-23 to assess the necessity of a negatively charged residue at that position (Gln-23) and the importance of the length of the negatively charged side chain (Asp-23). E23Q lost glycosylase activity completely but retained low levels of AP lyase activity. In contrast, E23D retained near wild type glycosylase and AP lyase activities on cis-syn dimers but completely lost its activity on the trans-syn II dimer, which is very efficiently cleaved by the wild type cv-pdg. As has been shown for other glyscosylases, the wild type cv-pdg catalyzes the cleavage at dimers or AP sites via formation of an imino intermediate, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to be covalently trapped on substrate DNA when the reactions are carried out in the presence of a strong reducing agent; in contrast, E23D was very poorly trapped on cis-syn dimers but was readily trapped on DNA containing AP sites. It is proposed that Glu-23 protonates the sugar ring, so that the imino intermediate can be formed.  (+info)

Identification and characterisation of the Drosophila melanogaster O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase cDNA. (4/1371)

The protein O 6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase(alkyltransferase) is involved in the repair of O 6-alkylguanine and O 4-alkylthymine in DNA and plays an important role in most organisms in attenuating the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of certain classes of alkylating agents. A genomic clone encompassing the Drosophila melanogaster alkyltransferase gene ( DmAGT ) was identified on the basis of sequence homology with corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and man. The DmAGT gene is located at position 84A on the third chromosome. The nucleotide sequence of DmAGT cDNA revealed an open reading frame encoding 194 amino acids. The MNNG-hypersensitive phenotype of alkyltransferase-deficient bacteria was rescued by expression of the DmAGT cDNA. Furthermore, alkyltransferase activity was identified in crude extracts of Escherichia coli harbouring DmAGT cDNA and this activity was inhibited by preincubation of the extract with an oligonucleotide containing a single O6-methylguanine lesion. Similar to E.coli Ogt and yeast alkyltransferase but in contrast to the human alkyltransferase, the Drosophila alkyltransferase is resistant to inactivation by O 6-benzylguanine. In an E.coli lac Z reversion assay, expression of DmAGT efficiently suppressed MNNG-induced G:C-->A:T as well as A:T-->G:C transition mutations in vivo. These results demonstrate the presence of an alkyltransferase specific for the repair of O 6-methylguanine and O 4-methylthymine in Drosophila.  (+info)

Reactivity of potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride with mismatched bases and a simple mutation detection protocol. (5/1371)

Many mutation detection techniques rely upon recognition of mismatched base pairs in DNA hetero-duplexes. Potassium permanganate in combination with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) is capable of chemically modifying mismatched thymidine residues. The DNA strand can then be cleaved at that point by treatment with piperidine. The reactivity of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in TEAC toward mismatches was investigated in 29 different mutations, representing 58 mismatched base pairs and 116 mismatched bases. All mismatched thymidine residues were modified by KMnO4/TEAC with the majority of these showing strong reactivity. KMnO4/TEAC was also able to modify many mismatched guanosine and cytidine residues, as well as matched guanosine, cytidine and thymidine residues adjacent to, or nearby, mismatched base pairs. Previous techniques using osmium tetroxide (OsO4) to modify mismatched thymidine residues have been limited by the apparent lack of reactivity of a third of all T/G mismatches. KMnO4/TEAC showed no such phenomenon. In this series, all 29 mutations were detected by KMnO4/TEAC treatment. The latest development of the Single Tube Chemical Cleavage of Mismatch Method detects both thymidine and cytidine mismatches by KMnO4/TEAC and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in a single tube without a clean-up step in between the two reactions. This technique saves time and material without disrupting the sensitivity and efficiency of either reaction.  (+info)

A new promoter polymorphism in the gene of lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 is associated with expired myocardial infarction in patients with low atherosclerotic risk profile. (6/1371)

Recent findings suggest that inflammation plays a role in atherosclerosis and its acute complications. Cellular response in infections with Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which activates monocytes to expression of cytokines, growth factors, and procoagulatory factors via LPS receptor CD14. Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells are stimulated by a complex of LPS and soluble CD14. In this study, LPS receptor CD14 was analyzed to find genetic variants and check them for an association with coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction (MI). When screening the CD14 gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, a promoter polymorphism was detected and confirmed as a T-to-C exchange at position -159. We determined the genotypes of 2228 men who had undergone coronary angiography for diagnostic purposes. Within the total study group there was no significant association of either genotype with MI or coronary artery disease. However, in a subgroup with low coronary risk (normotensive nonsmokers), a relative risk for MI in probands homozygous for the T allele could be evaluated (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.4; P<0.05). The association was even stronger in low-risk patients older than 62 years (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.6 to 9.0; P<0.01). In conclusion, we describe a new CD14 promoter polymorphism that is associated with MI, especially in older patients with a low atherosclerotic risk profile.  (+info)

The Cys4 zinc finger of bacteriophage T7 primase in sequence-specific single-stranded DNA recognition. (7/1371)

Bacteriophage T7 DNA primase recognizes 5'-GTC-3' in single-stranded DNA. The primase contains a single Cys4 zinc-binding motif that is essential for recognition. Biochemical and mutagenic analyses suggest that the Cys4 motif contacts cytosine of 5'-GTC-3' and may also contribute to thymine recognition. Residues His33 and Asp31 are critical for these interactions. Biochemical analysis also reveals that T7 primase selectively binds CTP in the absence of DNA. We propose that bound CTP selects the remaining base G, of 5'-GTC-3', by base pairing. Our deduced mechanism for recognition of ssDNA by Cys4 motifs bears little resemblance to the recognition of trinucleotides of double-stranded DNA by Cys2His2 zinc fingers.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologues of endonuclease III from Escherichia coli, Ntg1 and Ntg2, are both required for efficient repair of spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in yeast. (8/1371)

Endonuclease III from Escherichia coli is the prototype of a ubiquitous DNA repair enzyme essential for the removal of oxidized pyrimidine base damage. The yeast genome project has revealed the presence of two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NTG1 and NTG2, encoding proteins with similarity to endonuclease III. Both contain the highly conserved helix-hairpin-helix motif, whereas only one (Ntg2) harbors the characteristic iron-sulfur cluster of the endonuclease III family. We have characterized these gene functions by mutant and enzyme analysis as well as by gene expression and intracellular localization studies. Targeted gene disruption of NTG1 and NTG2 produced mutants with greatly increased spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide-induced mutation frequency relative to the wild type, and the mutation response was further increased in the double mutant. Both enzymes were found to remove thymine glycol and 2, 6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine (faPy) residues from DNA with high efficiency. However, on UV-irradiated DNA, saturating concentrations of Ntg2 removed only half of the cytosine photoproducts released by Ntg1. Conversely, 5-hydroxycytosine was removed efficiently only by Ntg2. The enzymes appear to have different reaction modes, as judged from much higher affinity of Ntg2 for damaged DNA and more efficient borhydride trapping of Ntg1 to abasic sites in DNA despite limited DNA binding. Northern blot and promoter fusion analysis showed that NTG1 is inducible by cell exposure to DNA-damaging agents, whereas NTG2 is constitutively expressed. Ntg2 appears to be a nuclear enzyme, whereas Ntg1 was sorted both to the nucleus and to the mitochondria. We conclude that functions of both NTG1 and NTG2 are important for removal of oxidative DNA damage in yeast.  (+info)

Thymine is one of the five bases that form nucleic acids, along with adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The formula of thymine is C5H6N2O2. Thymine is always paired up with adenine through two hydrogen bonds only in DNA to stabilize the nucleic acid structure. Thymine is not present in RNA. Instead, uracil takes place of thymine and binds with adenine. It is a derivative of pyrimidine and can be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon, hence the other name of thymine, 5-methyluracil. Uracil takes its place in RNA, which also binds to adenine. Thymine is a single ring planar molecule. Thymine combined with deoxyribose yields deoxythymidine while Thymine with ribose makes thymidine.. Thymine binds with deoxyribose to form the nucleoside deoxythymidine, which is the same thing as thymidine. This compound can be phosphorylated with one, two, or three phosphoric acid groups creating thymidine mono-, di-, or triphosphate, respectively.. ...
A cellular p53 response, DNA repair enzymes and melanin pigmentation are important strategies utilized by skin keratinocytes against impairment caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In this study a double-immunofluorescence technique was used to investigate UVR-induced thymine dimers and p53 protein simultaneously. Four healthy volunteers were irradiated on both sides of their buttock skin with a single dose of solar-simulating UVR. One side was pretreated with a topical sunscreen. Biopsies from different time-points were immunostained for visualization of thymine dimers, p53 and proliferation. One single physiological dose of UVR generated widespread formation of thymine dimers throughout the epidermis 4h after irradiation. The level of thymine dimers decreased over time and was followed by a p53 response in the same cells. A late proliferative response was also found. The formation of thymine dimers, the p53 response and the late proliferative response were partially blocked by topical ...
Words that start with thymine, Unscrambled words that start with thymine, Words starting with thymine, Words that begin with thymine, Words beginning with thymine, Words with the prefix thymine
137897-78-0 - BSKLJDBBPLYDEP-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 6-((3-Carbamoylphenyl)thio)-1-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)thymine - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
125056-76-0 - JIUORDFAVCUCGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 6-((3,5-Dichlorophenyl)thio)-1-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)thymine - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Lab Reagents Dimer Elisa Laboratories manufactures the elisa thymine dimer reagents distributed by Genprice. The Elisa Thymine Dimer reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact dimer elisa. Other Elisa products are available in stock. Specificity: Elisa Category: Thymine Group: Dimer Dimer information ...
2-[[2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethyl]methylamino]ethanol/ACM68213989 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 6-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-1,3-benzothiazole-2-sulfonamide (C9H10N2O4S2) from the PQR.
1,4-Bis(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-butyne 1606-85-5 NMR spectrum, 1,4-Bis(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-butyne H-NMR spectral analysis, 1,4-Bis(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-butyne C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Molecular dynamics (MD) studies of several radiation originated lesions on the DNA molecules are presented. The pyrimidine lesions (cytosinyl radical, thymine dimer, thymine glycol) and purine lesion (8-oxoguanine) were subjected to the MD simulations for several hundred picoseconds using MD simulation code AMBER 5.0 (4.0). The simulations were performed for fully dissolved solute molecules in water. Significant structural changes in the DNA double helical structure were observed in all cases which may be categorized as: a) the breaking of hydrogen bonds network between complementary bases and resulted opening of the double helix (cytosinyl, radical, 8-oxoguanine); b) the sharp bending of the DNA helix centered at the lesion site (thymine dimer, thymine glycol); and c) the flippingout of adenine on the strand complementary to the lesion (8-oxoguanine). These changes related to the overall collapsing of the double helical structure around the lesion, are expected to facilitate the docking of the ...
Molecular dynamics (MD) studies of several radiation originated lesions on the DNA molecules are presented. The pyrimidine lesions (cytosinyl radical, thymine dimer, thymine glycol) and purine lesion (8-oxoguanine) were subjected to the MD simulations for several hundred picoseconds using MD simulation code AMBER 5.0 (4.0). The simulations were performed for fully dissolved solute molecules in water. Significant structural changes in the DNA double helical structure were observed in all cases which may be categorized as: a) the breaking of hydrogen bonds network between complementary bases and resulted opening of the double helix (cytosinyl, radical, 8-oxoguanine); b) the sharp bending of the DNA helix centered at the lesion site (thymine dimer, thymine glycol); and c) the flippingout of adenine on the strand complementary to the lesion (8-oxoguanine). These changes related to the overall collapsing of the double helical structure around the lesion, are expected to facilitate the docking of the ...
Uracil in RNA replaces thymine in DNA, according to ScienceDaily. Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary base found in both the RNA and DNA...
thymine (thī´mēn), organic base of the pyrimidine [1] family. Thymine was the first pyrimidine to be purified from a natural source, having been isolated from calf thymus and beef spleen in 1893-4.
2) In the RNA complimentary bases Thymine is replaced by a base called Uracil . Note how each nitrogenous base pairs with the nitrogenous base across from it. In DNA and RNA , nitrogenous bases are bonded by Hydrogen bonds. The four nitrogenous bases present in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). Nitrogenous bases are also, as the name implies, bases. We explain Base Pairing of Nitrogenous Bases with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers. These different … Cytosine : 4-Amino-2-oxypyrimidine. Cytosine and thymine are both pyrimidine bases. Specifically, A … Each colored molecule represents a nitrogenous base. A molecule of DNA consists of two strands that form a double helix structure. This DNA strand consists of eight pairs of nitrogenous bases. It is very similar to thymine expect it does not have the methyl group, so it acts differently from thymine. What Are Nitrogenous Bases? In DNA, there are four nitrogenous ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 1527-17-9(2-[2-(Phenylthio)phenyl]acetic acid),please inquire us for 1527-17-9(2-[2-(Phenylthio)phenyl]acetic acid).
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Self classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on CLP - The flammability of a liquid is derived from flash point and was determined to be greater than 100°C. - Based on chemical structure and experience in handling and use of substance the pyrophoric properties and the flammability in contact with water are not to be expected. It can be concluded that the substance is not considered to be classified as a flammable material. Further justification: - The substance does not need to be classified as a self-heating material as the substance is a liquid. ...
Self classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on CLP - The flammability of a liquid is derived from flash point and was determined to be greater than 100°C. - Based on chemical structure and experience in handling and use of substance the pyrophoric properties and the flammability in contact with water are not to be expected. It can be concluded that the substance is not considered to be classified as a flammable material. Further justification: - The substance does not need to be classified as a self-heating material as the substance is a liquid. ...
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Page contains details about nickel-thymine metal-organic molecular chains with thymine filaments . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
HELIX Chromatography is pioneering HPLC with new mixed-mode columns. Buy HPLC Columns from the manufacturer in Chicago. HPLC Methods for analysis of Thymine
Muha et al, 2012 PLoS Genetics. Interconnections of thymineless cell death with cellular signaling pathways. Almost all organisms employ a cluster of metabolic enzymes devoted for thymine biosynthesis in order to utilize thymine bases instead of uracil in their genome. The medical significance of this metabolic pathway is marked by the fact that nearly one-third of anti-cancer drugs used in clinics are targeted against thymidilate biosynthesis (such as fluoro-pyrimidines, anti folates) potentially inducing the so called thymine-less cell death. Personalized medicine aiming to minimize side effects and maximize the efficiency of chemotherapies requires prior knowledge about the characteristics of tumorous cells in order to predict the desired effect of a particular drug. Detailed mapping of protein networks participating or being affected by thymine-less cell death help us to estimate the receptivity of tumorous cells for drugs targeting thymidilate biosynthesis. We would like to contribute for ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
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Biomolecules - Nucleic acids and proteins (Part B) from GTAC. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are the next group of macromolecules that we are looking at. Nucleic acids are made up of monomer units that consist of a phosphate group, a sugar unit and a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous bases in DNA are Thymine (T), Adenine (A), Guanine(G) and Cytosine (C). In RNA, the Thymine (T) is replaced by Uracil (U). Thymine (or Uracil in RNA) always pairs with Adenine (2 hydrogen bonds) and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine (3 hydrogen bonds).. ...
Two seperate strands are held together by hydrogen bonds. They wind around each other in a double helix.. DNA forms complementary base pairing as Adenine always pairs wirh Thymine and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine.. Adenine and Guanine are large with 2 rings they are the purines and Cytosine and Thymine have 1 rings. One large pairs with smaller base so width of a base pair is always the same.. Hydrogen bonding is due to the shape of the molecules two Hydrogen bonds form between Adenine and Thymine whereas three form between Cytosine and Guanine.. ...
The next thing to determine is: which yang symbol (Old or Young) corresponds to which purine nucleic acid (Adenine or Guanine). In the I Ching, yang is associated with energy and yin is associated with matter. Energy for all of the bio-chemical processes in the cell is provided by the chemical Adenosine Triphosphate. Its major component is, of course, the nucleic acid Adenine. Since yang=energy and Adenine is associated with cellular energy production; I assign Adenine to Old Yang because it has two yang lines. Because of the way the nucleic acids bond to each other in the DNA double helix molecule the other nucleic acid to symbol assignments follow logically from this first assignment. Adenine bonds to Thymine with 2 hydrogen atoms and Guanine bonds to Cytosine with 3 hydrogen atoms. Old Yin is the complementary opposite of Old Yang. In the DNA double helix Thymine is always opposite Adenine; therefore it is assigned to Old Yin. (Note: The nucleic acid Uracil substitutes for Thymine in ...
DNA molecule. Computer artwork of a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is composed of two strands twisted into a double helix. Each strand consists of an outer sugar-phosphate backbone (thick silver line) with nucleotide bases attached (lines inside helix). There are four different bases: guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. Guanine always pairs with cytosine and adenine always pairs with thymine. DNA contains sections, called genes, which encode the bodys genetic information. Genes determine each cells structure, function and behaviour. - Stock Image G110/1058
DNA molecule. Computer artwork of a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is composed of two strands twisted into a double helix. Each strand consists of an outer sugar-phosphate backbone (thick blue line) with nucleotide bases attached (blue lines inside helix). There are four different bases: guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. Guanine always pairs with cytosine and adenine always pairs with thymine. DNA contains sections, called genes, which encode the bodys genetic information. Genes determine each cells structure, function and behaviour. - Stock Image G110/0843
2-((2-Aminophenyl)thio)phenyl)(4-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)methanone ;. CAS # 848814-27-7 ;. C21H27N3O3S ;. MW: 401.52 ;. ...
A. 176, 703-714) Erwin Chargaff (1905-2002) was born in Czernowitz, which at that time was a provincial capital of the Austrian monarchy. What are the base-pairing rules for DNA? This helped Watson and Crick assemble the nitrogen bases accurately. Chargaffs rules for the pairing of nitrogen bases is. The Separation and Quantitative Estimation of Purines and Pyrimidines in Minute Amounts (Vischer, E. and Chargaff, E. (1948) J. Biol. A pairs with T and G pairs with C. C. A pairs with G and C pairs with T. D. A pairs with C and G pairs with T. E. T = C and G = A. the color of the nitrogen bases. Chargaff rule: The rule that in DNA there is always equality in quantity between the bases A and T and between the bases G and C. (A is adenine, T is thymine, G is guanine, and C is cytosine. A+G/U+C not equal to 1 ssRNA. A+G/U+C=1 dsRNA. Each of these strands is made up of four nucleotides with different bases; adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine. Each new DNA molecule has one original strand and one new ...
DNA, the genetic material of all living organisms, is a polymer that consists of four different types of molecular units, or bases, connected to a chemical backbone. Shown here are the four bases adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Carbon atoms are represented by grey spheres, nitrogen atoms are shown in blue, hydrogen in white, and oxygen in red. Within the DNA helix, adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine. ...
Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. In this particular case guanine is 30% hence cytosine will be 30% making together 60%. The rest 40% is adenine (20%) and thymine (20%). 20% of 1000 = 200. 600 400 300 200 ...
Pyrimidine nitrogen base are Thymine and Cytosine, thus there are four kinds of nucleotide present in DNA i.e. Adinine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine. ...
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Simultaneous determination of thymine and its sequential catabolites dihydrothymine and β-ureidoisobutyrate in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with pharmacokinetic ...
Synthesis of Tetra(2-hydroxyethoxy)-Substituted Dibenzocyclooctyne Derivatives as Novel, Highly Hydrophilic Tool Compounds for Strain-Promoted Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition ...
Dive into the research topics of Crystal structure of human thymine DNA glycosylase bound to DNA elucidates sequence-specific mismatch recognition. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
DOI: 10.1021/jp9630941. The DNA of all the living beings is composed of just four bases i.e. Know more about these DNA bases in this post. The pyrimidine bases found in DNA or RNA are: cytosine, thymine, and uracil adenine and guanine adenine and thymine cytosine and thymine An important functional feature of the structure of organic bases is that their geometry is: Tetrahedral. This study focused on the correlation between relative reactivity, formation of DBPs and combined toxicity in the chlorination of a binary pyrimidine â ¦ Fig. Although the quantum yields for the â ¦ 2014 Jun;90(6):423-32. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2013.877176. Polyhedral. Thymine is only common in DNA. the large enzyme complex involved in synthesizing RNA from a DNA template is which of the following? The purine and pyrimidine bases branch off this backbone. A pyrimidine is an organic ring consisting of six atoms: 4 carbon atoms and 2 nitrogen atoms. Yes, both DNA and RNA contain both pyrimidine bases and purine bases ...
Citation: Cooke, M.S., Evans, M.D., Burd, R.M., Patel, K., Barnard, A., Lunec, J. and Hutchinson, P.E. (2001) Induction and excretion of UV-induced 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine and thymine dimers in vivo: implications for PUVA. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 116, pp. 281-285 ...
Recently, several classes of compounds have been shown to be potent, selective, and specific inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro. These include the tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO) and the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) derivatives. Both the TIBO and HEPT derivatives specifically inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT). From a comparative study of the characteristics of RT inhibition by TIBO and HEPT, and from the competition between TIBO and HEPT for RT inhibition, we infer that both classes of compounds, although structurally unrelated, are targeted at the same site of the enzyme. Detailed functional and kinetic analyses indicate that this target site is functionally and possibly also spatially related to the substrate binding site. ...
The paper deals with the synthesis of thymine and its derivatives carrying the label at C(6) in the pyrimidine in the methyl group and in deoxy-d-ribose. The molar activity of the preparations ranges...
(Phenylthio)acetic acid, cyclobutyl ester | C12H14O2S | CID 531728 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
I have noticed, in some of our posts, that DNA has been mentioned in connection with evolution, (or against it,) but hasnt been properly explained yet. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid found in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. This Nucleic acid acts as a storage device containing the codes to life, or the amino acids to create life with. DNA is composed of strings made of sugars and phosphates wrapped around each other with rungs of units called nucleotides, creating a shape known as a double helix. The double helix runs in long strands wrapped tightly around itself in a linear unit called a chromosome. There are four different types of nucleotides, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine. These are grouped into two sets, Adenine and Guanine, and Cytosine and Thymine. Thes are the only possible pairs of nucleotides. So Adenine cant pair with Thymine, and Cytosine doesnt mathc up with Guanine. These pairs then are arranged in various orders determining your ...
N-hydroxy-4-((4-(phenylthio)phenyl)sulfonyl)-1-(2-propynyl)-4-piperidinecarboxamide: has antineoplastic activity; structure in first source
UVAB (280-400 nm UV radiation) produced dimers in both dermal and epidermal cells, whereas UVC (254-nm UV radiation) induced a detectable number of dimers only in epidermal cells; b) UVAB-induced dimers were observed in both the nuclei and cytoplasm of affected cells, whereas dimers induced by UVC were confined to nuclei. PMID: 3281146 ...
አር ኤን ኤ ( RNA ) እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ ( DNA ) ከኒክሉኢክ አሲድ ( Nucleic acid ) የተሠራ ነው። እንደ ዲ ኤን ኤ አራት ቤዝ (base) አለው። እነሱም አዴናዪን ( A, adenine) ፤ ዩራሲል ( U, uracil ) ( ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን በዩራሲል ፋንታ ታያሚን ( T, thymine ) ነው ያለው) ጓኒን ( G, guanine ) እና ሳይቶሲን ( C, Cytosine )። ኑክሌይክ አሲዶች ደግሞ ሶስት መሰረታዊ አካላቶች አላቸው። ቤዝ፡ ሱካሩ ( sugar group ) እና ፎስፌት ግሩፑ ( the phosphate group ) ናቸው። አር ኤን ኤን ከዲ ኤን ኤ የሚለየዉ ሌላው ነገር የአር ኤን ኤ ስኳር ሁለተኛ ካርቦን ሀይድሮክሲል ( hydroxyl group (-OH )) ሲኖረው ዲ ኤን ኤ ግን ያለው ኤች ( H ) ብቻ ነው። ይህም አር ኤን ኤን በጣም ተለካካፊ ( reactive ) አድርጎታል። ...
3S,6R,7E,9R,10R,12R,14S,15E,17E,19E,21S,23S,26R,27R,34aS)-9,10,12,13,14,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,32,33,34,34a-Hexadecahydro-9,27-dihydroxy-3-((1R)-2-((1S,3R,4R)-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxycyclohexyl)-1-methylethyl)-10,21-dimethoxy-6,8,12,14,20,26-hexamethyl-23,27-epoxy-3H-pyrido(2,1-c)(1,4)oxaazacyclohentriacontine-1,5,11,28,29(4H,6H,31H)- ...
3S,6R,7E,9R,10R,12R,14S,15E,17E,19E,21S,23S,26R,27R,34aS)-9,10,12,13,14,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,32,33,34,34a-Hexadecahydro-9,27-dihydroxy-3-((1R)-2-((1S,3R,4R)-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxycyclohexyl)-1-methylethyl)-10,21-dimethoxy-6,8,12,14,20,26-hexamethyl-23,27-epoxy-3H-pyrido(2,1-c)(1,4)oxaazacyclohentriacontine-1,5,11,28,29(4H,6H,31H)- ...
Mitochondrial glycosylase/lyase that specifically excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine residues located opposite cytosine or thymine residues in DNA, repairs oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, contributes to UVA ...
A double helix looks like a twisted ladder or a spiral staircase. When Watson and Crick evaluated their DNA model, they realized that the double helix accounted for many of the features in Franklins X-ray pattern but did not explain what forces held the two strands together. They then discovered that hydrogen bonds could form between certain nitrogenous bases and provide just enough force to hold the two strands together. As the figure below shows, hydrogen bonds can form only between certain base pairs-adenine and thymine, and guanine and cytosine. Once they saw this, they realized that this principle, called base pairing, explained Chargaffs rules. Now there was a reason that [A] = [T] and [G] = [C]. For every adenine in a double-stranded DNA molecule, there had to be exactly one thymine molecule; for each cytosine molecule, there was one guanine molecule.. ...
symbol: BrUra; 5‐bromouracil; 5‐bromo‐2,4(1H,3H)‐pyrimidine‐dione; a synthetic analogue of thymine with mutagenic activity. It is incorporated into DNA as bromodeoxyuridine, which replaces thymidine and induces transitions of G‐C base‐pairing to A‐T ... ...
Early in Biologia 2 is a treatment of the role of RNA, including the substitution of uracil for thymine, transcription as distinct from translation, and the functions of messenger, transfer, and ribosomal RNA. Polypeptides are described and peptide bonds mentioned, but not with the NH3-COOH dehydration synthesis. A typical vocab list: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, endocytosis, ribosomes, cellular membrane.. Then, The synthesis proceeds only in the 5-3 sense, which means that the chain that is being copied is read…. Also, (above) DNA is formed by the union of five atoms: carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). The DNA molecule can be decomposed into the monomers that form it. There are called nucleotides, each of which contains three parts: a sugar of five carbons, deoxyribose; the phosphate; and a nitrogenous base, either adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T). Two of these bases, adenine and guanine, are structures of two rings ...
the enzyme RNA polymerase moves along one of the two DNA strands known as the template strand, causing the nucleotides on this strand to join with the individual complementary nucleotides from the pool of nucleotides in the nucleus. An exposed Adenine base on the DNA will join with a Uracil nucleotide, not a thymine! However Thymine on the DNa will still join with an Adenine nucleotide ...
Lipid-containing foods undergo digestion within the body and are broken into fatty acids and glycerol, which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids. Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important ten-step pathway called glycolysis, the net result of which is to break down one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. Two monosaccharides can be joined together by a glycosidic or ether bond into a disaccharide through a dehydration reaction during which a molecule of water is released. A biochemistry major must possess strong skills in chemistry, mathematics, biology, and physics. It deals with the chemistry of life, and as such it draws on the techniques of analytical, organic, and physical chemistry. They are complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecules that can convey genetic information in all living cells and viruses. Adenine binds with thymine and uracil, thymine binds only with adenine, and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another. In ...
DNA from all organisms is made up of the same chemical and physical components. DNA molecules are shaped like a twisted ladder (double helix). Each rung/step is made up of a Base pair of nucleotide (molecules) bases, either A (Adenine) and T (Thymine) or C (Cytosine) and G (Guanine)). These Base pairs are held together by a band of Sugar phosphate on either end. The DNA sequence is a particular side-by-side arrangement of bases (half of the ladder) along the DNA strand (e.g., ATTCCGGA). The genome is an organisms complete set of DNA. DNA in the human genome is arranged into 24 distinct chromosomes. Genes comprise only about 2% of the human genome.. ...
Over 60 years ago, the researchers Crick and Watson identified the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, which is more commonly known as DNA. They compared the double helix to a rope ladder that had been twisted into a spiral. The rungs of this ladder consisted of guanine/cytosine and thymine/adenine base pairs. But what keeps the DNA strands in that spiral structure?. Special measuring system for molecular interactions. Prof. Hendrik Dietz from the Chair of Experimental Biophysics uses DNA as construction material to create molecular structures. Hence, he is greatly interested in gaining a better understanding of this material. There are two types of interactions which stabilize double helices, he explains. For one, DNA contains hydrogen bonds.. For another, there are what experts call base pair stacking forces, which act between the stacked base pairs along the spiral axis. The forces of the hydrogen bonds, on the other hand, act perpendicular to the axis. So far, it is not quite clear to ...
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the primary genetic material in all living organisms - a molecule composed of two complementary strands that are wound around each other in a double helix formation. The strands are connected by base pairs that look like rungs in a ladder. Each base will pair with only one other: adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C). The sequence of each single strand can therefore be deduced by the identity of its partner. Genes are sections of DNA that code for a defined biochemical function, usually the production of a protein. The DNA of an organism may contain anywhere from a dozen genes, as in a virus, to tens of thousands of genes in higher organisms like humans. The structure of a protein determines its function. The sequence of bases in a given gene determines the structure of a protein. Thus the genetic code determines what proteins an organism can make and what those proteins can do. It is estimated that only 1-3% of the DNA in our ...
DNA Did you know…. 1. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. 2. DNA is part of our definition of a living organism. 3. DNA is found in all living things. 4. DNA was first isolated in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher. 5. James Watson and Francis Crick figured out the structure of DNA. 6. DNA is a double helix. 7. The structure of DNA can be likened to a twisted ladder. 8. The rungs of the ladder are made up of bases 9. Adenine (A) is a base. 10. Thymine (T) is a base. 11. Cytosine (C) is a base 12. Guanine (G) is a base. 13. A always pairs with T in DNA. 14. C also pairs with G in DNA. 15. The amount of A is equal to the amount of T, same for C and G. 16. A+T = T+G 17. Hydrogen bonds hold the bases together. 18. The sides of the DNA ladder is made of sugars and phosphate atoms. 19. Bases attached to a sugar; this complex is called a nucleoside. 20. Sugar + phosphate + base = nucleotide. 21. The DNA ladder usually twists to the right. 22. There are many conformations of DNA: A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA ...
A DNA sequence is composed of a series of four possible nucleobases, namely Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine; we will refer to each of these bases by their initial. For our purposes, nucleobases have an associated cyclic order: A is followed by G, which in turn is followed by T, which is followed by C, which is followed by A again. State-of-the-art research in genomics has revealed the startling fact that many diseases are caused by certain subsequences of bases not forming a palindromic sequence! Your mission as a leading researcher at ICPC laboratories is to take a DNA string S and a series of subsets P1, ... , Pt of indices to characters (nucleobases) in S, and transform S so that each of the restrictions of the resulting string to P1, ... , Pt are palindromic. (The restriction of S to a subset P = {i1, i2, ... , ik} of indices, where 0 ≤ i1 , i2 , . . . , ik , ,S,, is the string Si1 Si2 ... Sik). It is possible to inspect any base of S at will, but only three transformations can be ...
Guan has just learnt the four nucleobases in DNA: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. Wait, GUANine. Guan is incredibly intrigued by this based named GUANine. Was it named after me? he thought to himself. Surely it must be, I am so smart. After countless hours of searching Google for the origins of Guanine, his search turned out futile. There was no results found for Wu Guanquns brilliant discovery of new nucleobase Guanine. Devastated, he turns back to his lego DNA play set and starts constructing DNA sequences. ATTGCCGATTGACT, Guan made, hmm, gene for awkwardness. GCTAGCTAGCGCGTAT, Guan made another gene sequence, hmm, gene for being weird. Guan starts off with an empty DNA string. He can then choose any one of four operations to do ...
Correct Answer: E. Explanation:. The complementary base-pairing rule for DNA is that adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). DNA strands run antiparallel, so the complementary strand will be in the 5′-to-3′ direction. The complementary sequence is, therefore, 5′-TACGACTTGA-3′.. ...
DNA is the double stranded nucleic acid that carries your genetic information. Each single strand is composed of units called nucleotides, of which, there are four - cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) and thymine (T). In double stranded DNA, these nucleotides bond in specific base pairs, A with T and C with G.. DNA stores all kinds of biological information and make up our chromosomes, which, in turn, make you who you are… Enough bio, lets get back to solving the algorithm….. Bio Class Dismissed…. As we get into the intermediate and advanced algorithm challenges, each challenge will have multiple (even many) approaches to a solution. My plan with Crooked Code is to explain the solution that I used, then search for solutions used by others in order to illustrate the various ways an algorithm can be written.. This is what freeCodeCamp gives us as a starting point for DNA Pairing:. ...
An image featured on an article on the Wikipedia for Schools from SOS Children: English: The structure of DNA showing with detail showing the structure of the four bases, adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and the location of the major and minor groove.
Thymine - the molecule in the foreground - is one of the four basic building blocks that make up the double helix of DNA. Its such a strong absorber of ultraviolet light that the UV in sunlight ...
RNA vs. DNA DNA:  Double Stranded  Sugar is Deoxyribose  Contains Thymine to pair with Adenine RNA:  Single Stranded  Sugar is Ribose  Contains Uracil to pair with Adenine
10:19, 5 June 2007‎ Aschlafly (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (239 bytes) (+239)‎ . . (New page: A represents either: :Adenine, which is a purine base in DNA and RNA; A pairs with thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. :Adenosine, which is the the nucleoside c...) ...
Man lives by destiny. And its destiny is to live with constructs of itself. DNA. Three little letters that carry the weight of generations. Its the carrier of the information, stored as a code by our nucleobasic friends, adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. More than 99% of these bases are the same in all people.…
Our genetic code owns sequences of A,C,G and T (short for adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine). Hence a comedian will have GAG in his DNA, while a pop diva may own GAGA. So what codes are these folk destined to possess? (Sequences are three letters of longer.). ...
This dataset containts the equilibrium constant of a reaction catalyzed by a nucleoside phosphorylase, namely: 2-deoxythymidine + phosphate ,-, thymine ...
Description Epigenteks anti-5-hydroxymethyluridine recognizes 5-hydroxymethyluridine, which is created by the oxidation of thymine by ionizing radiation or reactive oxygen species. This oxidation effect causes changes in...
7b Thymine; 7 Adenine/thymine WC; 8a Methane; 8 Methane dimer; 9a Ethene; 9 Ethene dimer; 10 Benzene/methane; 11a Benzene; 11 ... Benzene dimer; 12a Pyrazine; 12 Pyrazine dimer; 13 Uracil dimer; 14a Indole; 14 Indole/benzene; 15 Adenine/thymine stack; 16b ...
... contains a thymine base joined to a ribose pentose sugar. ...
The similar structures of guanine:cytosine and adenine:thymine base pairs is illustrated. The base pairs are held together by ... the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. A visit by Erwin Chargaff to England ... bases would be the amine and keto configurations of cytosine and thymine, rather than the imino and enol forms that Crick and ...
Adenine binds with thymine and uracil; thymine binds only with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another ... The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of ... while thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. ...
... cytosine and thymine. Chemically, uracil is similar to thymine, differing only by a methyl group, and its production requires ... Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under conditions found only in outer space, using starting chemicals, like ... the backbone of RNA uses ribose instead of deoxyribose and its nucleobases include uracil instead of thymine). The overall ...
Cytosine, thymine, and uracil are pyrimidines, hence the glycosidic bonds form between their 1 nitrogen and the 1' -OH of the ... A purine base always pairs with a pyrimidine base (guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C) and adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) ... The pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine. It has a single ring structure, a six-membered ring containing nitrogen. ... Nucleotides consist of 3 components: Nitrogenous base Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine (present in DNA only) Uracil (present in ...
Koo, H. S.; Drak, J.; Rice, J. A.; Crothers, D. M. (1990). "Determination of the extent of DNA bending by an adenine-thymine ... Koo, H. S.; Wu, H. M.; Crothers, D. M. (1986). "DNA bending at adenine · thymine tracts". Nature. 320 (6062): 501-6. Bibcode: ...
In DNA, the uracil nucleobase is replaced by thymine. Uracil is a demethylated form of thymine. Uracil is a common and ... Methylated uracil is identical to thymine. Hence the hypothesis that, over time, thymine became standard in DNA instead of ... In RNA, uracil base-pairs with adenine and replaces thymine during DNA transcription. Methylation of uracil produces thymine. ... Apparently, either there was no evolutionary pressure to replace uracil in RNA with the more complex thymine, or uracil has ...
RNA contains uracil instead of thymine. It has been proved in the laboratory that a single strand of DNA of one species can ... Each nucleotide has a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous bases like adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. ...
Thymine-thymine, cytosine-cytosine or cytosine-thymine dimers are formed by the joining of two adjacent pyrimidine bases within ... The most frequent mutations due to inaccurate synthesis past CPDs are cytosine to thymine (C>T) or CC>TT transition mutations. ... UV radiation causes damage to the DNA of cells, typically thymine dimerization, which when unrepaired can create mutations in ... UVA light mainly causes thymine dimers. UVA also produces reactive oxygen species and these inflict other DNA damage, primarily ...
... usually takes the place of thymine in RNA and differs from thymine by lacking a methyl group on its ring. In addition to RNA ... Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming A-T and G-C base pairs.[18][19] ... For example, UV light can damage DNA by producing thymine dimers, which are cross-links between pyrimidine bases.[75] On the ... Purines form hydrogen bonds to pyrimidines, with adenine bonding only to thymine in two hydrogen bonds, and cytosine bonding ...
Although the thymine-thymine CPDs (thymine dimers) are the most frequent lesions caused by UV light, translesion polymerases ... Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.[1][2] ... It returns thymine dimers to their original state.[15]. *Deoxyribodipyrimidine endonucleosidase is found in bacteriophage T4. ... Formation of thymine dimer lesion in DNA. The photon causes two consecutive bases on one strand to bind together, destroying ...
Quinacrine binds to the adenine-thymine-rich regions. Each chromosome has a characteristic banding pattern that helps to ... thymine-adenine rich regions). C-banding: Giemsa binds to constitutive heterochromatin, so it stains centromeres. The name is ... consists mainly of genetically inactive and repetitive DNA sequences as well as containing a larger amount of Adenine-Thymine ...
This enzyme dephosphorylates the 5'- and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides. The gene is located ... mdN binds and dephosphorylates uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides. NT5C GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000205309 - ... phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides (dUMPs and dTMPs). Due to this function, mdN regulates the size of ...
Guanine when alkylated may be mispaired with thymine. Some may cause DNA crosslinking and breakages. Nitrosamines are an ...
These are a ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) and thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG). One particular TET ... 5mC can be converted to thymine (Thy). 5hmU can be cleaved by TDG, MBD4, NEIL1 or SMUG1. AP sites and T:G mismatches are then ... Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) recognizes the intermediate bases 5fC and 5caC and excises the glycosidic bond resulting in an ...
In addition it contains thymine, guanine and cytosine. It was first identified by a German chemist W.G. Ruppel in 1898 while ...
DNA; A: adenine, T: thymine, G: guanine, C: cytosine. Amino acid; C: cysteine, W: tryptophan, Y: tyrosine, V: valine, D: ...
Ethidium intercalated between two adenine-thymine base pairs.. There are several ways molecules (in this case, also known as ...
Complementarity is achieved by distinct interactions between nucleobases: adenine, thymine (uracil in RNA), guanine and ... Adenine and guanine are purines, while thymine, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. Purines are larger than pyrimidines. Both ... In nucleic acid, nucleobases are held together by hydrogen bonding, which only works efficiently between adenine and thymine ... adenine(A), thymine(T), guanine(G), cytosine(C). A=T, G≡C ... Match up between two DNA bases (adenine and thymine) showing ...
Since thymine nucleotides are precursors of DNA (but not RNA), the prefix "deoxy" is often left out, i.e., deoxythymidine is ... Instead of thymidine, RNA contains uridine (uracil joined to ribose). Uracil is chemically very similar to thymine, which is ... Makoto Ishii; Hideyuki Shirae; Kenzo Yokozeko, Enzymatic Production of 5-Methyluridine from Purine Nucleosides and Thymine by ... Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. ...
Ahmad, S. I.; Kirk, S. H.; Eisenstark, A. (1998). "Thymine Metabolism and Thymineless Death in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes". ...
The four nucleobases in DNA are guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine; in RNA, uracil is used in place of thymine. Nucleotides ... while the pyrimidine bases thymine (in DNA) and uracil (in RNA) occur in just one. Adenine forms a base pair with thymine with ... Inosine occurs in tRNAs and will pair with adenine, cytosine, or thymine. This character does not appear in the following table ...
... cytosine and thymine); the molar ratio of adenine to thymine equals 1; the molar ratio of guanine to cytosine equals 1. And, as ... In 1950, Chargaff published that the amounts of adenine and thymine in DNA were roughly or approximately the same, as were the ... guanine and thymine). Several techniques for protein stoichiometry have been developed, amongst which: Absolute Quantification ...
2007). "Thymine dimerization in DNA is an ultrafast photoreaction". Science. 315 (5812): 625-629. Bibcode:2007Sci...315..625S. ...
Thymine and uracil are distinguished by merely the presence or absence of a methyl group on the fifth carbon (C5) of these ... Similarly, the simple-ring structure of cytosine, uracil, and thymine is derived of pyrimidine, so those three bases are called ... These are examples of modified cytosine, thymine or uridine. A vast number of nucleobase analogues exist. The most common ... thymine (T), and uracil (U)-are called primary or canonical. They function as the fundamental units of the genetic code, with ...
Barner, H. D.; Cohen, S. S. (1954). "The Induction of Thymine Synthesis by T2 Infection of a Thymine Requiring Mutant of ... Cohen in Escherichia coli when thymine-requiring mutants of the bacteria lost viability when grown in a medium lacking thymine ... However, nutrient starvation does not generally kill cells to the extent observed in cells that lack thymine. The molecular ... Ahmad, S. I.; Kirk, S. H.; Eisenstark, A. (October 1998). "Thymine Metabolism and Thymineless Death in Prokaryotes and ...
Thymine was the first pyrimidine to be purified from a natural source, having been isolated from calf thymus and beef spleen in ... thymine (thī´mēn), organic base of the pyrimidine [1] family. ... thymine The pyrimidine base that occurs in DNA.. A Dictionary ... thy·mine / ˈ[unvoicedth]īˌmēn; -min/ • n. Biochem. a compound, C5H6N2O2, that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic ... thymine A pyrimidine derivative and one of the major component bases of nucleotides and the nucleic acid DNA.. ...
Thymine News and Research. RSS Thymine is one of the four bases in DNA that make up the letters ATGC, thymine is the "T". The ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. Thymine ... In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby ... During growth of bacteriophage T4, an imbalance of thymine availability, either a deficiency or an excess of thymine, causes ... may form thymine dimers, causing "kinks" in the DNA molecule that inhibit normal function. Thymine could also be a target for ...
The formation of thymine base damage was measured in the presence of increasing concentrations of each of the three sensitizers ... Remsen J.F. (1986) Radiosensitizers and Thymine Base Damage. In: Burns F.J., Upton A.C., Silini G. (eds) Radiation ... on formation of thymine damage of the 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type by irradiation with gamma rays was characterized in HeLa ... is not by an increase in thymine base damage. ...
In enzymology, a thymine dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction thymine + 2-oxoglutarate ... Bankel L, Holme E, Lindstedt G, Lindstedt S (1972). "Oxygenases involved in thymine and thymidine metabolism in Neurospora ... Liu CK, Hsu CA, Abbott MT (1973). "Catalysis of three sequential dioxygenase reactions by thymine 7-hydroxylase". Arch. Biochem ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is thymine,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (7-hydroxylating). Other names in ...
Thymine glycol (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine) is one of the principal DNA lesions that can be induced by oxidation and ... Brain samples from humans who died of stroke were found to be deficient in base excision repair of thymine glycol as well as ... The rate at which oxidative reactions generate thymine glycol and thymidine glycol in the DNA of humans is estimated to be ... On a body weight basis, mice excrete 18 times more thymine glycol plus thymidine glycol than humans, and monkeys four times ...
A pyrimidine base that is a component of nucleotides and thus a normal component of DNA. Uracil replaces thymine in RNA. See the Figure at NHGRI ...
Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary base found in both the RNA and DNA... ... Uracil in RNA replaces thymine in DNA, according to ScienceDaily. ... Uracil in RNA replaces thymine in DNA, according to ScienceDaily. Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary ... Thymine has a longer lifespan, making it the better choice for DNA. In DNA, genetic sequences must be maintained accurately to ...
The paper deals with the synthesis of thymine and its derivatives carrying the label at C(6) in the pyrimidine in the methyl ... The paper deals with the synthesis of thymine and its derivatives carrying the label at C(6) in the pyrimidine in the methyl ... A procedure is proposed for obtaining tritium-labelled thymine compounds: nucleoside, nucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates. ...
Thymine. PDB Entries. 1iqu / 1tpt / 2hn9 / 2hrd / 2j0f / 2o5c / 2o5e / 3fs8 / 3ro7 / 4hn1 … ... Thymine. Accession Number. DB03462 (EXPT03032) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not Available. ... 2,2-anhydro-1-(.beta.-D-arabinofuranosyl)thymine. U.S. Patent US5008384, issued February, 1988. ...
THYMINE-THYMINE MISMATCH AT THE POLYMERASE ACTIVE SITE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1NJY/pdb ...
Adenine and thymine are two of the four nitrogen bases found in the structure of DNA. Because they only pair with each other, ... There are two hydrogen bonds that exist between adenine and thymine. ... There are two hydrogen bonds that exist between adenine and thymine. Adenine and thymine are two of the four nitrogen bases ... Although there are only two hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine, there are three hydrogen bond between the guanine and ...
Thymine dioxygenase 1.14.11.6 1 Nomenclature EC number 1.14.11.6 Systematic name thymine,2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase ... The electrons in a DNA molecule such as thymine, for instance, knit together and are firmly attached to thymines atoms. ... thymine dioxygenase Synonyms 5-hydroxy-methyluracil dioxygenase 5-hydroxy-methyluracil oxygenase thymine 7-hydroxylase thymine ... It is evident from the formulae that in thymine and cytosine a ring-like system of carbon and nitrogen atoms must be assumed. ...
AT stands for Adenine-Thymine (DNA base pairing). AT is defined as Adenine-Thymine (DNA base pairing) very frequently. ... How is Adenine-Thymine (DNA base pairing) abbreviated? ... likely to break at high temperatures than the adenine-thymine ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). Retrieved December 3 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Adenine_Thymine-(DNA-base-pairing)-( ... S.v. "AT." Retrieved December 3 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Adenine_Thymine-(DNA-base-pairing)-(AT).html ...
The ability of EhDNApolA to faithfully incorporate dATP opposite thymine glycol, and its nuclear localization indicates that ...
Video articles in JoVE about thymine include Conjugative Mating Assays for Sequence-specific Analysis of Transfer Proteins ... Thymine: .article_summary_container button.expand{ display: none; } Conjugative Mating Assays for Sequence-specific Analysis of ...
PubMed journal article Inhibition of DNA polymerase activity by thymine hydrates were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime ... Thymine hydrates are stable in DNA and can be detected in control, unirradiated substrates. We examined the effects of thymine ... Thymine hydrates are stable in DNA and can be detected in control, unirradiated substrates. We examined the effects of thymine ... Stability of DNA thymine hydrates.. *Ultraviolet-induced thymine hydrates in DNA are excised by bacterial and human DNA ...
Thymine , C5H6N2O2 , CID 1135 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Functionality of human thymine DNA glycosylase requires SUMO-regulated changes in protein conformation.. Steinacher R1, Schär P ... Base excision repair initiated by human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) results in the generation of abasic sites (AP sites) in ...
... thymine. Apparently, this compound is a thymine-thymine adduct and presumably is formed through the rearrangement of an initial ... Both compounds are closely related to 6-4-[pyrimidin-2-one]-thymine which has been isolated from acid hydrolyzates of ... A product isolated from thymine irradiated with ultraviolet light in frozen aqueous solution undergoes dehydration on heating ... ultraviolet-irradiated DNA and supposedly is derived from cytosine-thymine adduct. Formation of such adducts between pyrimidine ...
Thymine One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA, pairs with adenine. ...
... biosynthesis by converting thymine to 5-hydroxymethyluracil (HOMedU). DNA base J is a hypermodified thymidine residue found in ... Iron; catalytic; for thymine dioxygenase activityBy similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence similarity toi ... Iron; catalytic; for thymine dioxygenase activityBy similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence similarity toi ... Iron; catalytic; for thymine dioxygenase activityBy similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence similarity toi ...
thymine deoxyribonucleoside --, thymidine (Science: biochemistry) term that is always used in practice for the nucleoside ... thymine deoxyriboside, not the riboside which naming of the other nucleosides might lead one to expect. ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Thymine_deoxyribonucleoside&oldid=54782" ...
Optimized PM7 data set: MERS=(2,2,1) GNORM=4 Thymine (THYMIN01) h=-110.6 hr=nist O -0.11905412 +1 -0.0081798 +1 0.2032381 +1 O ... 163 Thymine (THYMIN01) (Previous) Uracil (URACIL). (Back) Elements: O 2 N 2 C 5 H 6 (Z = 16) (Periodic Table) (Next) 4- ... Optimized PM6_D3H4 data set: MERS=(2,2,1) GNORM=5 PM6-D3H4 THREADS=1 Thymine (THYMIN01) (PM6-D3H4) O 0.11023421 +1 -0.0630366 + ...
Computer artwork of an A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair. These are nucleic acids which bond to each other in a DNA chain. The ... Adenine is at lower right and thymine is at upper left. A-T is one of the two base pairs found in DNA (along with C-G (cytosine ... Keywords: a-t base pair, acids, adenine, adenine-thymine, artwork, base pair, biochemical, biochemistry, chemical, chemistry, ... Computer artwork of an A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair. These are nucleic acids which bond to each other in a DNA chain. The ...
thymine answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... thymine is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Thymine." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/759064/all/thymine. Thymine. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. ...
1 mixture of adenine and thymine both substituted with dodecyl groups exhibited supercooling and heat storage phenomena ... Cold crystallization in the mixed system of adenine and thymine dodecyl derivatives A. Kimijima, A. Honda, K. Nomoto and K. ... The 1 : 1 mixture of adenine and thymine both substituted with dodecyl groups exhibited supercooling and heat storage phenomena ... Cold crystallization in the mixed system of adenine and thymine dodecyl derivatives ...
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) functions in base excision repair, a DNA repair pathway that acts in a lesion-specific manner to ... TDG preferentially catalyzes the removal of thymine and uracil paired with guanine, and is also active on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU ... A germline polymorphism of thymine DNA glycosylase induces genomic instability and cellular transformation.. [Ashley Sjolund, ...
Optimization of Environmentally Benign Polymers Based on Thymine and Polyvinyl Sulfonate Using Plackett-Burman Design and ... Water soluble, environmentally benign photopolymers of 1-(4-vinylbenzyl) thymine (VBT) and vinylphenyl sufonate (VPS) undergo a ... this was the first report applying statistical experimental designs to optimize the crosslinking of thymine-based polymers. ...
  • Thymine is one of the four bases in DNA that make up the letters ATGC, thymine is the "T". The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. (news-medical.net)
  • Thymine /ˈθaɪmɪn/ (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G-C-A-T. The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are only two hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine, there are three hydrogen bond between the guanine and cytosine pairs. (reference.com)
  • The pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine, while adenine and guanine are the purines. (reference.com)
  • I realized that I could use a simple quilt block to represent each of the four bases in DNA: cytosine, guanine, adenine, and thymine . (wordnik.com)
  • These symbols represent the four basic chemical letters, or bases, the body uses to form DNA--guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine . (wordnik.com)
  • That's not surprising because the bond formed in DNA between guanine and cytosine is less likely to break at high temperatures than the adenine-thymine bond, so there would be selective pressure for bacteria dwelling in high temperatures to use these more stable bonds in their DNA. (acronymfinder.com)
  • TDG preferentially catalyzes the removal of thymine and uracil paired with guanine, and is also active on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) paired with adenine or guanine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Double-proton transfer in adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine base pairs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The results of a comprehensive study on the double-proton transfer in Adenine-Thymine (AT) and Guanine-Cytosine (GC) base pairs at room temperature in gas phase and with the inclusion of environmental effects are obtained. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA is made up of a unique combination of Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine which only combine in Adenine-Thymine and Guanine-Cytosine pairs. (sorceryscience.com)
  • Thymine (T) is one of four chemical bases in DNA, the other three being adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). Within the DNA molecule, thymine bases located on one strand form chemical bonds with adenine bases on the opposite strand. (genome.gov)
  • In DNA base pairing, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, while in RNA adenine pairs with uracil. (conservapedia.com)
  • A DNA strand contains and a deoxyribose sugar which is connected to the nucleotide bases (A,C,G,T). The base Adenine (A) always links with Thymine (T), and Guanine (G) links with Cytosine (C). The sugar and phosphate make up the 5′-3′ and 3′-5′ structure of the strands, as shown by the image. (maryelizabethbodycare.com)
  • Both enzymes also remove thymine, but not uracil, mismatched to guanine. (pnas.org)
  • Functionality of human thymine DNA glycosylase requires SUMO-regulated changes in protein conformation. (nih.gov)
  • Base excision repair initiated by human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) results in the generation of abasic sites (AP sites) in DNA. (nih.gov)
  • A germline polymorphism of thymine DNA glycosylase induces genomic instability and cellular transformation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) functions in base excision repair, a DNA repair pathway that acts in a lesion-specific manner to correct individual damaged or altered bases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This mechanism is known as active DNA demethylation and the base excision repair enzyme Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) plays an essential role in this process by removing 5-fC and 5-caC which are subsequently replaced by the unmethylated cytosine. (uwo.ca)
  • Human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a mismatch-specific uracil/thymine-DNA glycosylase with an implicated function in the restoration of G*C base pairs at sites of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine deamination. (uzh.ch)
  • Human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) was discovered as an enzyme that can initiate base excision repair at sites of 5-methylcytosine- or cytosine deamination in DNA by its ability to release thymine or uracil from G.T and G.U mismatches. (uzh.ch)
  • 2015) lacks the DNA binding domain and the glycosylase domain and is thus predicted to be unable to recognize and bind damaged DNA, including damaged DNA containing thymine glycol (Tg), although this has not been experimentally tested. (reactome.org)
  • Should the Human Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (prionics.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (prionics.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (prionics.com)
  • Schematic procedure of the Epigenase™ Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) Activity/Inhibition Assay (Colorimetric). (epigentek.com)
  • Illustrated standard curve generated with the TDG assay standard from the Epigenase™ Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) Activity/Inhibition Assay (Colorimetric). (epigentek.com)
  • Demonstration of high sensitivity and specificity of the TDG activity assay achieved by using nuclear extracts with the the Epigenase ™ Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit (Colorimetric). (epigentek.com)
  • The Epigenase™ Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit (Colorimetric) is a complete set of optimized buffers and reagents for measuring the activity/inhibition of total TDG enzyme in nuclear extracts or purified TDG enzymes from a broad range of species such as mammals, plants, fungi, and bacteria, in a variety of forms including but not limited to cultured cells and fresh and frozen tissues. (epigentek.com)
  • To address this issue, Epigentek developed and offers the Epigenase™ Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit (Colorimetric). (epigentek.com)
  • Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) plays critical roles in DNA base excision repair and DNA demethylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Known also as Thymine DNA Glycosylase elisa. (roentgenseifert.com)
  • A 5-meC DNA glycosylase activity was first identified in chicken embryos ( 15 ) and found to copurify with a protein homologous to human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) ( 16 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is believed that thymine replaced uracil (the RNA base) in DNA because of the deleterious effects of slow spontaneous deamination of cytosine to uracil: by employing thymine instead of uracil, any uracil in DNA would clearly be aberrant, allowing a specific mechanism of repair (involving uracil DNA glycosylase) to evolve with impunity. (stackexchange.com)
  • Here, RAD30 is shown to encode a DNA polymerase that can replicate efficiently past a thymine-thymine cis-syn cyclobutane dimer, a lesion that normally blocks DNA polymerases. (sciencemag.org)
  • When incubated in vitro with all four nucleotides, Rad30 incorporates two adenines opposite the thymine-thymine dimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we show that polι is able to facilitate limited translesion replication of a thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD). (embopress.org)
  • UV-induced damage consists of chemical base modifications, whereby two adjacent pyrimidine residues (cytosine or thymine) form a dimer (thymine dimer [TD], cytosine dimer, or thymine-cytosine heterodimer) and 6-4 photoproducts. (asm.org)
  • Cis-syn thymine is classified as a cis-syn cyclobutane dimer of two thymine bases, and is primarily used in studies of UV-induced DNA damage and associated repair mechanisms. (genelink.com)
  • In the cell, cis-syn thymine dimer DNA lesions are primarily formed when two adjacent thymidine bases are irradiated by UV light (most commonly from sunlight). (genelink.com)
  • Oligos synthesized with cis-syn thymine dimer are stable for greater than 6 month when stored frozen, protected from light and preferably in an ethanol precipitated dried state. (genelink.com)
  • The frequency and accuracy of replication past a thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer are very different in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. (mysciencework.com)
  • Dimer Elisa Laboratories manufactures the elisa thymine dimer reagents distributed by Genprice. (prionics.com)
  • The Elisa Thymine Dimer reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (prionics.com)
  • LIMITED QTY-Dinucleotide Standards Thymine Glycol Adenine Dimer d TgpA) is marked as RUO. (prionics.com)
  • Substitution of equally carcinogenic UV-A for UV-B irradiations lowers epidermal thymine dimer levels during skin cancer induction in hairless mice. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • silibinin affords strong protection against UV-induced damage in epidermis by a decrease in thymine dimer positive cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • Dimers were assayed in skin sections by immunofluorescence microscopy with a monoclonal antibody against the cyclobutyl thymine dimer. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • a sensitive radioimmuno assay which is specific for thymine dimer, the main ultraviolet photoproduct, and reinvestigated the thymine dimer excision in fibroblasts from patients with Fanconi's anemia. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • thymine A pyrimidine derivative and one of the major component bases of nucleotides and the nucleic acid DNA . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thymine bases are frequently oxidized to hydantoins over time after the death of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine and thymine are two of the four nitrogen bases found in the structure of DNA. (reference.com)
  • By comparison, polι readily misinserts two bases opposite a 6‐4 thymine-thymine pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproduct (6‐4PP), but complete lesion bypass is only a fraction of that observed with the CPD. (embopress.org)
  • We report a molecular dynamics perturbation thermodynamics (MD/PT) analysis of the relative free energy of solvation of thymine and uracil, both as the free bases and in the context of double-stranded DNA. (caltech.edu)
  • uracil, thymine and cytosine are pyrimidine-bases. (helixchrom.com)
  • In this paper, the site-preference of the nucleic acid bases uracil and thymine hydrogen bonding to the small medical molecule quercetin is investigated using the density functional theory method. (pku.edu.cn)
  • In addition, Mn 2+ induced both the formation and accumulation of DNA single strand breaks (via alkaline comet assay analysis) and oxidatively modified thymine bases (via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis). (elsevier.com)
  • In the present work, the interaction between anticancer drug apalutamide and one of the DNA bases called 2΄-deoxythymidine 5΄-monophosphate (thymine) by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in the solvent water has been investigated for the first time. (magtech.com.cn)
  • Both uracil and thymine bond with adenine, the complementary base found in both the RNA and DNA structures. (reference.com)
  • Here we report the simultaneous detection of all three pyrimidine (cytosine, uracil and thymine) and three purine nucleobases (adenine, xanthine and hypoxanthine) in interstellar ice analogues composed of simple molecules including H 2 O, CO, NH 3 and CH 3 OH after exposure to ultraviolet photons followed by thermal processes, that is, in conditions that simulate the chemical processes accompanying star formation from molecular clouds. (nature.com)
  • Site-Preference of Uracil and Thymine Hydrogen Bonding to Quercetin[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • immunoelectron microscopic studies using a monoclonal antibody against cyclobutane-type thymine dimers were performed. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • Establishment of a monoclonal antibody recognizing cyclobutane-type thymine dimers in DNA: a comparative study with 64M-1 antibody specific for (6-4)photoproducts. (openrepository.com)
  • Reversal of DNA thymine hydrates to thymines by mild heating of the substrate prior to enzymic reaction resulted in partial recovery of nucleotide incorporation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • And in the double helix, thymine pairs with adenine, or the A nucleotide. (genome.gov)
  • Apparently, this compound is a thymine-thymine adduct and presumably is formed through the rearrangement of an initial photoproduct. (sciencemag.org)
  • A sensitive radioimmuno assay (RIA) method for detection of the UV photoproduct, thymine dimers (TT) has been developed. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • One of the common mutations of DNA involves two adjacent thymines or cytosine, which, in presence of ultraviolet light, may form thymine dimers, causing "kinks" in the DNA molecule that inhibit normal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrons in a DNA molecule such as thymine , for instance, knit together and are firmly attached to thymine's atoms. (wordnik.com)
  • The non-bonded interaction effects of the molecule apalutamide with thymine on the electronic properties, chemical shift tensors and natural charges have been also detected. (magtech.com.cn)
  • The similarity of action spectra for thymine dimers in human epidermis and erythema suggests that DNA is the chromophore for erythema. (bentham.co.uk)
  • thymine dimers in human skin exposed to UVB radiation: flow cytometric measurements in replicating and nonreplicating epidermal cells. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • The paper deals with the synthesis of thymine and its derivatives carrying the label at C(6) in the pyrimidine in the methyl group and in deoxy-d-ribose. (springer.com)
  • Thymine and Uracil and are identical structures except for Thymine having an additional methyl group. (wyzant.com)
  • I have read previously that it is due to thymine being "better protected" and therefore more suited to the storage role of DNA, which seems fine in theory, but why does the addition of a simple methyl group make the base more well protected? (stackexchange.com)
  • begingroup$ @fredsbend the 2'OH of the ribose and the methyl group of thymine are pretty far away from each other, there is no obvious way they would affect each other. (stackexchange.com)
  • As this was clearly advantageous, why didn't RNA also evolve to use thymine instead of uracil? (stackexchange.com)
  • The existence of thymine in DNA instead of uracil is apparently due to evolution process which made DNA more stable. (stackexchange.com)
  • Thymine combined with deoxyribose creates the nucleoside deoxythymidine, which is synonymous with the term thymidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate at which oxidative reactions generate thymine glycol and thymidine glycol in the DNA of humans is estimated to be about 300 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • On a body weight basis, mice excrete 18 times more thymine glycol plus thymidine glycol than humans, and monkeys four times more than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thy − auxotrophs lack thymidylate synthetase activity and, hence, cannot produce thymidine nucleotides by the natural route (top panel), while they gained the ability to incorporate thymine into DNA by condensing it with deoxyribose-1-phosphate (dRib-1-P) to thymidine, a reaction catalyzed by thymidine phosphorylase (bottom). (asm.org)
  • L-Ornithine derivatives of thymine, and thymidine gave oligomers by solid phase elongation reactions. (elsevier.com)
  • Thymine dimers were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody against cyclobutyl thymine dimers (anti-TDmAb). (asm.org)
  • Punch biopsies were taken immediately after exposure and paraffin sections were prepared for immunoperoxidase staining with a monoclonal antibody against thymine dimers that were quantitated by image analysis. (bentham.co.uk)
  • A monoclonal antibody specific for u.v.-induced thymine-thymine dimers in single-stranded DNA has been used in an enzyme immunoassay to investigate the loss of antigenicity associated with repair of this lesion in the first 2 h following 10 J/m2 254 nm radiation. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis is associated with the early loss of antigenicity observed in immunoassays using a monoclonal antibody specific for thymine-thymine dimers. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • UV-induced thymine dimers (10 J/m2 of UV-C) were assayed in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts with a monoclonal antibody against these dimers and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • Cyclobutane thymine dimers were quantified in situ by means of an immunofluorescence assay with a specific monoclonal antibody. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • DNA damage directly using a monoclonal antibody to thymine dimers (a major category of DNA lesion induced by UV radiation) on fixed human skin sections and automated image analysis. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • We examined the effects of thymine hydrates in UV-irradiated substrate poly(dA-dT):poly(dA-dT) on E. coli DNA polymerase I activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • How Many Hydrogen Bonds Are Between Adenine and Thymine? (reference.com)
  • There are two hydrogen bonds that exist between adenine and thymine. (reference.com)
  • The 1 : 1 mixture of adenine and thymine both substituted with dodecyl groups exhibited supercooling and heat storage phenomena including cold crystallization. (rsc.org)
  • In March 2015, NASA scientists reported that, for the first time, complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including uracil, cytosine and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under outer space conditions, using starting chemicals, such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymine glycol (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine) is one of the principal DNA lesions that can be induced by oxidation and ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of repair of thymine glycol damage in human fibroblasts was found to decrease with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain samples from humans who died of stroke were found to be deficient in base excision repair of thymine glycol as well as other types of oxidative damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excitation energy in DNA is mobile, and is eventually transferred to thymine residues, which are the sites of radiation damage. (stackexchange.com)
  • Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deoxyribose Deoxythymidine Nucleobase Pyrimidine Thymineless death Uracil Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann (1893) "Ueber das Thymin, ein Spaltungsproduct der Nucleïnsäure" (On thymine, a cleavage product of nucleic acid), Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 26 : 2753-2756. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a pyrimidine nucleobase, thymine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. (conservapedia.com)
  • 5-FU can be a metabolic analog of thymine (in DNA synthesis) or uracil (in RNA synthesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the thymine hydrates formed in UV-irradiated DNA partially inhibit polymerase activity during DNA synthesis and thus could be potentially lethal if unrepaired. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ever since the first thymine-requiring (so-called thymineless) strain of Escherichia coli was isolated in 1947 (described in reference 94 ), thyA mutants have been employed to follow DNA synthesis in vivo ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • Since thymine is a precursor of DNA only, radioactive isotope-labeled thymine and scintillation counters are used to track synthesis in bacteria and their viruses. (asm.org)
  • The most obvious cost of using thymine is the energy requirement for its synthesis (in terms of reducing power - NADPH). (stackexchange.com)
  • Time constants (fs) for the gas-phase thymine and for thymine/water cluster dynamics. (barbatti.org)
  • After UV excitation, gas phase thymine returns to the ground state in 5 ps, showing multiple time constants. (barbatti.org)
  • Three transient species with life times of ≤100 fs, 7 ps and >1 ns were observed in the experiments on gas phase thymine. (unist.ac.kr)
  • Uracil replaces thymine in RNA . (jax.org)
  • What replaces thymine in RNA? (reference.com)
  • Uracil in RNA replaces thymine in DNA, according to ScienceDaily. (reference.com)
  • During this conversion, Uracil (U) replaces Thymine (T). mRNA, short for Messenger RNA, takes the converted genes out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, and to the ribosome in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (maryelizabethbodycare.com)
  • The effect of three sensitizers, misonidazole, p-nitroacetophenone and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidino-1-oxy (TMPN), on formation of thymine damage of the 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type by irradiation with gamma rays was characterized in HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • Water soluble, environmentally benign photopolymers of 1-(4-vinylbenzyl) thymine (VBT) and vinylphenyl sufonate (VPS) undergo a photodimerization reaction when exposed to low levels of ultraviolet irradiation leading to an immobilization of the copolymer on a variety of substrates. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that irradiation of human buttock skin with 300 nm UVR in situ induces thymine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. (openrepository.com)
  • The mutations caused by thymine deficiency appear to occur only at AT base pair sites in DNA and are often AT to GC transition mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of thymine base damage was measured in the presence of increasing concentrations of each of the three sensitizers with and without 500 Gy of cobalt-60 gamma rays, at ice temperature. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the mechanism by which they sensitize under hypoxic conditions, such as found in solid tumors, is not by an increase in thymine base damage. (springer.com)
  • Remsen J.F. (1986) Radiosensitizers and Thymine Base Damage. (springer.com)
  • Dioxygenase that catalyzes the first step of DNA base J (beta-d-glucosyl-HOMedU) biosynthesis by converting thymine to 5-hydroxymethyluracil (HOMedU). (uniprot.org)
  • Computer artwork of an A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair. (sciencephoto.com)
  • These include a fragmentation process wherein the 1-azadienes 38 and 46 are formed, and base-promoted rearrangement of the isoxazole ring in intermediates 50 and 59 to give the bicyclic thymine derivative 53 and the tricyclic succinimide derivative 60, respectively. (rsc.org)
  • The new occurrence of a new pyrimidine base replacing thymine in a bacteriophage DNA:5-hydroxymethyl uracil. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Found in RNA, uracil base pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding and is replaced by thymine in DNA. (conservapedia.com)
  • Base pairs with thymine. (wcrf.org)
  • Conformational studies of the oligomers with CD and NMR revealed that stable intramolecular hydrogen bonding was formed between thymine base and ornithine unit. (elsevier.com)
  • Pre-incubation of the cells with characteristic antioxidants, either 1mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 1mM glutathione (GSH) reduced the level of DNA strand breaks and the formation of thymine base lesions, suggesting protection against oxidative cellular damage. (elsevier.com)
  • In enzymology, a thymine dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction thymine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 5-hydroxymethyluracil + succinate + CO2 The 3 substrates of this enzyme are thymine, 2-oxoglutarate, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 5-hydroxymethyluracil, succinate, and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include thymine 7-hydroxylase, 5-hydroxy-methyluracil dioxygenase, and 5-hydroxymethyluracil oxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the search for new anti-HIV agents, a synthetic route to novel acyclic (flexible) and tricyclic bis-heterocycles has been explored involving in the key steps the [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of the N-3 thymine-substituted enamines 34, 36 and 39 with the nitrile oxide 11, and the ring closure of the isoxazole amide derivatives 49 and 51 to the diazepine 10a, and the diazocine 10b. (rsc.org)
  • A procedure is proposed for obtaining tritium-labelled thymine compounds: nucleoside, nucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates. (springer.com)
  • Science: biochemistry) term that is always used in practice for the nucleoside thymine deoxyriboside , not the riboside which naming of the other nucleosides might lead one to expect . (biology-online.org)
  • Surface hopping photodynamics simulations at ADC(2) level is done for a cluster of thymine interacting with six water molecules. (barbatti.org)
  • We have done excited-state dynamics simulations of thymine microsolvated by a cluster of six water molecules. (barbatti.org)
  • In the water cluster, the nπ* state is destabilized due to the hydrogen bonds formed between water molecules and the nitrogen atoms of thymine. (barbatti.org)
  • The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed for determining the role of electron donor and acceptor of the molecules apalutamide and thymine at the complex thymine/apalutamide. (magtech.com.cn)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Inhibition of DNA polymerase activity by thymine hydrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Rev3 and Rev7 associate to form a DNA polymerase, Polζ, that can weakly bypass cis-syn thymine-thymine (T-T) dimers ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We have demonstrated formation of both cis-thymine hydrate and trans-thymine hydrate (6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine) in UV-irradiated poly(dA-dT):poly(dA-dT). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The direct reaction between copper nitrate, thymine- 1-acetic acid, and 4,4'-bipyridine in water leads to the formation of uniform crystalline nanoribbons of a coordination polymer. (biofisica.info)
  • The study shows small discrepancies between CASSCF and CASPT2 PEHs, displaying a shallow planar or twisted 1 (ππ*) minimum, respectively, and thus featuring a qualitatively similar scenario for supporting the ultrafast bi-exponential deactivation registered in thymine upon UV-light exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • Human melanocytes and keratinocytes exposed to UVB or UVA in vivo show comparable levels of thymine dimers. (openrepository.com)
  • The UVA1 induced a type of lesion called thymine dimers on the deeper basal layers of the skin. (wordnik.com)
  • It is evident from the formulae that in thymine and cytosine a ring-like system of carbon and nitrogen atoms must be assumed. (wordnik.com)
  • We report experimental and theoretical studies on ring cleavage enhancement in collisions of potassium atoms with uracil/thymine in order to further increase the understanding of the complex mechanisms yielding such fragmentation pathways. (edu.au)
  • In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides playing a critical role in active DNA methylation, TDG also removes thymine moieties from G/T mismatches by hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and the mismatched thymine. (epigentek.com)
  • Thymine hydrates are stable in DNA and can be detected in control, unirradiated substrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thymine has greater resistance to photochemical mutation, making the genetic message more stable. (stackexchange.com)
  • Uracil but not thymine forms a stable photohydration product. (stackexchange.com)
  • As judged by elemental analysis, mass, ultraviolet, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, the most probable structures for this compound and its dehydration product, respectively, are 5-hydroxy-6-4'-[5''-methylpyrimidin-2'-one]-dihydrothymine and 6-4'-[5'-methylpyrimidin-2'-one]-thymine. (sciencemag.org)
  • I'd guess it just evolved that way and there was no significant drawback that could be selected against, but there might be a better reason (more difficult biosynthesis of thymine, maybe? (stackexchange.com)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is thymine,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (7-hydroxylating). (wikipedia.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report applying statistical experimental designs to optimize the crosslinking of thymine-based polymers. (hindawi.com)
  • This study shows that urinary dihydrothymine (DHT) and thymine (THY) are useful indexes for detection of DPD deficiency and DHPuria. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • flow cytometric detection of thymine dimers in mononuclear cells from extracorporally UV-irradiated blood. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • detection of cyclobutane thymine dimers, (6-4) photolesions and the Dewar photoisomers in sections of UV-irradiated human skin using specific antibodies, and the demonstration of depth penetration effects. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • But what is it that actually prevents thymine from bonding to adenine in transcription, that is not present in replication? (wyzant.com)
  • Before the semiconservative nature of replication predicted by the double-helix model was demonstrated, running density gradients of DNA labeled with the heavy thymine analogue 5′-bromodeoxyuridine had been considered ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • These were resolved by systematic investigations of pool sizes of thymine metabolites and of the rate of chromosome replication in relation to the external concentrations of thymine (for example, see reference 85 ). (asm.org)
  • Thymine limitation is used as a means to dissociate the rate of DNA replication from the culture growth rate, i.e., to change the relative schedule of the replication and division cycles. (asm.org)
  • The frequency and accuracy of replication past a thymine-thymi. (mysciencework.com)
  • A product isolated from thymine irradiated with ultraviolet light in frozen aqueous solution undergoes dehydration on heating with acids. (sciencemag.org)
  • Both compounds are closely related to 6-4'-[pyrimidin-2'-one]-thymine which has been isolated from acid hydrolyzates of ultraviolet-irradiated DNA and supposedly is derived from cytosine-thymine adduct. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that once the binding site of quercetin is fixed, the hydrogen bonds formed through uracil Site u1 and thymine Site t1 are the strongest, while those formed through uracil Site u2 and thymine Site t2 are the weakest. (pku.edu.cn)
  • When the binding site of uracil or thymine is fixed, the hydrogen bonds formed through the quercetin Site qu1 are the strongest, followed by those formed through quercetin Site qu5, while those formed through quercetin Site qu3 are the weakest. (pku.edu.cn)
  • This is the first known report of Mn 2+ -induction and antioxidant protection of thymine lesions in this SH-SY5Y cell line and contributes new information to the potential use of antioxidants as a therapeutic strategy for protection against Mn 2+ -induced oxidative DNA damage. (elsevier.com)
  • begingroup$ I always just assumed that ribose better attached to uracil and deoxyribose better attached to thymine. (stackexchange.com)
  • Examination of effect of thymine loop length on polymorphism of G-quadruplex. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • During growth of bacteriophage T4, an imbalance of thymine availability, either a deficiency or an excess of thymine, causes increased mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-bonded interaction between the compound apalutamide and thymine has changed the value of λmax. (magtech.com.cn)