An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC
5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Genes that are used transgenically, i.e., via GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES to induce CELL DEATH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by alterations of mitochondrial metabolism that result in muscle and nervous system dysfunction. These are often multisystemic and vary considerably in age at onset (usually in the first or second decade of life), distribution of affected muscles, severity, and course. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp984-5)
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
5-Bromo-2'-deoxycytidine. Can be incorporated into DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase, replacing dCTP.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.

Steroids and hematopoiesis. III. The response of granulocytic and erythroid colony-forming cells to steroids of different classes. (1/5245)

Selected androgenic and nonandrogenic steroids enhance in vitro granulocytic and erythroid colony formation by mouse marrow cells, but do so by influencing either different target cells or cells in different states of cell cycle. Etiocholanolone, a naturally occurring nonandrogenic testosterone metabolite, permits cells not in active cycle to respond to colony-stimulating factor or erythropoietin. Fluoxymesterone, a synthetic androgen, appears to enhance colony growth by increasing the responsiveness of target cells to tropic stimuli. The majority of cells responding to this androgen are in active DNA synthesis. Direct comparison, however, of etiocholanolone-dependent erythroid or granulocytic colony-forming cells demonstrates nonidentity of the target cells. Thus colony-forming units responding to different classes of steroids are in different states of cell cycle and are physically separable. The enhancement of the in vitro response of colony-forming cells to regulating hormones by steroids such as etiocholanolane suggests a mechanism by which such agents may be therapeutically effective in certain cases of marrow failure in man.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (2/5245)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (3/5245)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Ambiguity of the thymidine index. (4/5245)

The observed thymidine indices of seven experimental tumor lines are compared as a function of duration of emulsion exposure. The effects of dose level of tritiated thymidine and background threshold are also evaluated. The results indicate that an arbitrary high background threshold discriminates against "lightly" labeled cells at short periods of exposure but that the chosen threshold becomes less critical with longer exposure. The observed thymidine index increases with increasing duration of emulsion exposure but appears to approach a plateau for all tumor systems. The "thymidine index curves" are significantly different for each tumor. There is an inverse relationship between the dose of tritiated thymidine and the duration of exposure required to recognize the same fraction of cells as labeled in a given tumor. Similar experimental conditions do not necessarily guarantee a valid basis for comparison of observed thymidine indices among tumors.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (5/5245)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Modulation of the cytotoxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and methotrexate after transduction of folate receptor cDNA into human cervical carcinoma: identification of a correlation between folate receptor expression and thymidine kinase activity. (6/5245)

Cervical carcinoma is an AIDS-defining illness. The expression of folate receptors (FRs) in cervical carcinoma (HeLa-IU1) cells was modulated by stable transduction of FR cDNA encapsidated in recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 in the sense and antisense orientation (sense and antisense cells, respectively). Although sense cells proliferated slower than antisense or untransduced cells in vivo and in vitro in 2% (but not 10%) FCS, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was significantly increased in sense cells in 10% serum; therefore, the basis for this discrepancy was investigated. The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) was subsequently directly correlated with the extent of FR expression in single cell-derived clones of transduced cells. This elevated TK activity was not a result of recruitment of the salvage pathway based on the presence of adequate dTTP pools, normal thymidylate synthase (TS) activity, persistence of increased thymidine incorporation despite the exogenous provision of excess 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, and documentation of adequate folates in sense cells. The increase in TK activity conferred significant biological properties to sense cells (but not antisense or untransduced cells) as demonstrated by augmented phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and concomitantly greater sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of AZT. Conversely, sense cells were highly resistant to methotrexate, but this was reversed by the addition of AZT. The direct correlation of FR expression and TK activity indicates a previously unrecognized consequence of FR overexpression.  (+info)

Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. (7/5245)

The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (8/5245)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

The initial rate of thymidine-3H incorporation into the acid-soluble pool by cultured Novikoff rat hepatoma cells was investigated as a function of the thymidine concentration in the medium. Below, but not above 2 µM, thymidine incorporation followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics at 22°, 27°, 32°, and 37°C with an apparent Km of 0.5 µM, and the Vmax values increased with an average Q10 of 1.8 with an increase in temperature. The intracellular acid-soluble 3H was associated solely with thymine nucleotides (mainly deoxythymidine triphosphate [dTTP]). Between 2 and 200 µM, on the other hand, the initial rate of thymidine incorporation increased linearly with an increase in thymidine concentration in the medium and was about the same at all four temperatures. Pretreatment of the cells with 40 or 100 µM p-chloromercuribenzoate for 15 min or heat-shock (49.5°C, 5 min) markedly reduced the saturable component of uptake without affecting the unsaturable component or the phosphorylation of ...
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I have been trying to do a 3[H] thymidine incorporation assay with CD4+CD25- cells isolated from mouse spleen. Unfortunately, I have been very unlucky. I plated 2.5 x 10^4 T cells and the same number of APC (T cell-depleted, 3000rads irradiated splenocytes) in 96 well plate pre-coated with 10ug/ml anti-CD3 Ab, and cultured for 72 hrs. Then I pulsed with 1uCi/well [3H] thymidine for 18 hrs, harvested on a cell harverster onto a glass filter, let dry, and read the next day. But for some reason, my reading was very low, so low that it seemed to me theres no proliferation at all (somewhere between 2 to 100). I have been very frustrated with it. One person has suggested that 10ug/mL CD3 is too concentrated, and maybe T cells are activated and underwent apoptosis, thats why I didnt see any proliferation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monitoring tumor cell proliferation by targeting DNA synthetic processes with thymidine and thymidine analogs. AU - Schwartz, Jeffrey L.. AU - Tamura, Yasuko. AU - Jordan, Robert. AU - Grierson, John R.. AU - Krohn, Kenneth. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the assumption that measurement of uptake of these nucleosides, a function primarily of thymidine kinase-1 (TK 1) activity, provides an accurate measure of active cell proliferation in tumors. The goal of this study was to test this hypothesis and determine how well these tracers track changes in proliferation of tumor cells. Methods: TK1 activity; S-phase fraction; and uptake of TdR, 3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine (FLT), and 2′-fluoro-5-methyl-1- (β-D-2-arabino-furanosyl) uracil (FMAU) were determined in plateau-phase and exponentially growing cultures of 3 human and 3 murine tumor cell lines. Results: TK1 ...
The inhibitory activity of liver extracts on thymidine incorporation into DNA was markedly enhanced by manganese and zinc. Manganese-activated liver extract (Mn-liver extract) also inhibited incorporation of deoxycytidine and adenine into DNA. The Mn-liver extract had no effect on incorporation of thymidine-5′-triphosphate into DNA but blocked the phosphorylation of deoxythymidine. The phosphorylation of deoxycytidine into deoxycytidine-5′-triphosphate was not inhibited by Mn-liver extract. The results indicate that the inhibition of synthesis of thymidine-5′-triphosphate is the primary locus in the blocking of DNA synthesis and that the inhibition of incorporation of deoxycytidine into DNA is secondary to the lack of thymidine-5′-triphosphate.. ...
This modification is available as part of a custom oligonucleotide configuration. Please use OLIGObuilder™ to generate pricing and order or contact us to speak with a customer service representative. ...
Figure 5. 11E1544K-Fc decreases IGF-II-stimulated proliferation and signaling in a dose- and IGF-II-dependent manner. A, HaCaT cells were stimulated with 6.5 nmol/L IGF-II and increasing doses of 11E1544K-Fc. A significant decrease in [3H]thymidine incorporation was seen with 650 nmol/L (P = 0.005) and 1,300 nmol/L (P = 0.013) 11E1544K-Fc. Points, average (n = 3 experiments with triplicate samples); bars, SE. Inset, the decrease in [3H]thymidine uptake was equated to nanomol per liter of active IGF-II remaining. Six hundred fifty and 1,300 nmol/L IGF2R11E1544K-Fc reduced proliferation by 50% and 73%, respectively, and the respective amount of active IGF-II was reduced by 82% and 90%. B, cells were stimulated with 6.5 nmol/L IGF-II or IGF-I and 650 nmol/L 11E1544K-Fc or 11I1572A-Fc. 11I1572A-Fc failed to inhibit IGF-II-stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation in both HaCaT and immortalized Igf2−/− MEFs. IGF-I, which also stimulates [3H]thymidine incorporation in HaCaT cells, was not inhibited ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Artemisinin and its derivatives exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. The purpose of the current study was to examine the immunosuppressive activity of artemether directly on T lymphocytes and to explore its potential mode of action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vitro, T-cell proliferation was measured using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay in cells stimulated with ConA, alloantigen and anti-CD3 antibody. CFSE-labeled cell division and cell cycle distribution were monitored by flow cytometry ...
3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine 25526-93-6 MSDS report, 3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine safety information specifications ect.
ABSTRACT: To examine the magnitude of phytoplankton-bacterial coupling in low productivity areas, diel changes of bacterial abundance and production as well as primary production (PP) in the oligotrophic Kuroshio surface waters were investigated by on deck carboy incubation and consecutive hydrocast sampling. Both methods yielded similar results. Cell counts varied ,13% in 1 diel cycle, while thymidine (TdR) incorporation rates and TdR incorporation per cell (TdR cell-1) varied 2- to 5-fold with higher values appearing at night. Such opposing trends between the bacterial rate parameters and PP were consistent over different locations and months. When incubated under an artificial light source, the TdR cell-1 in whole water samples were negatively correlated with light intensity and PP. In nutrient enrichment experiments, the addition of labile organic carbon (glucose) had no effect on bacterial growth in noon and midnight samples. Values of the TdR cell-1 in midnight samples increased about 70% ...
A new microradioassay for the detection and quantification of disseminated tumor cells in blood and organ samples of tumor-bearing animals has been worked out in a murine model system for tumor metastasis. In contrast to previous prelabeling or in situ labeling procedures, the basis of this assay is a postlabeling in vitro of tumor cell-containing material with [3H]thymidine. Percoll gradient fractionation and autoradiography revealed that most of the isotope was incorporated into tumor cells. Titration curves with tumor cells from tissue culture were run in parallel and allowed to calculate from the radioactivity of a sample the actual number of proliferating tumor cells. The postlabeling assay correlated fairly well with an agar colony test which measures the clonogenic or stem cell potential of a tumor cell population. About 70% of syngeneic animals which had been inoculated s.c. with ESb tumor cells showed increased [3H]thymidine uptake in their blood, particularly at certain time intervals ...
3 H-thymidine. Tritiated (3H) thymidine. 3 H-thymidine. Original method for measuring cell proliferation Radioactive Not compatible for multiplexed analyses. Br. Br. Br. Br. BrdU. BrdU (5-bromo-2 -deoxyuridine). Br. Br. Br. Br. BrdU. Acid or DNase. Br. Br. Br. Br. BrdU. Slideshow 445482 by zenobia
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was found to inhibit experimental cancer development in mouse and rat lung, colon and mammary gland. Since DHEA is a potent inhibitor of mammalian G-6-PD, the hypothesis that the compound could inhibit cell proliferation through an inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway has been formulated. We studied the effects of DHEA on the proliferation in vitro of human lymphocytes induced by several mitogens (PHA, ConA and PWM), measuring 3H-thymidine uptake. DHEA inhibited 3H-thymidine uptake of mitogen-stimulated cells from both G-6-PD+ and G-6-PD- (mediterranean type deficiency) individuals in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. The inhibitory effect was found even if DHEA was added to cells in the last hours of culture, simultaneously with the addition of 3H-thymidine. These data suggest that the inhibition of thymidine uptake induced by DHEA on human lymphocytes probably does not depend on the inhibition of G-6-PD.. ...
The effects of various concentrations of thymidine on DNA synthesis and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate contents of a highly thymidine-sensitive cultured mouse lymphoma cell line (WEHI-7) and a relatively resistant mouse myeloma cell line (HPC-108) have been studied by 32P-labelling techniques. DNA synthesis in the myeloma cells was inhibited by thymidine at concentrations of 10(-3) M or greater, while DNA synthesis in the lymphoma cells was inhibited by concentrations 30-fold lower, consistent with the 25-fold difference between the two cell lines in sensitivity to growth inhibition by thymidine. Thymidine caused marked elevation of the dTTP and dGTP pools, slight elevation or no change in the dATP pool and a marked decrease in the dCTP pool in cells of both lines. The greater resistance of HPC-108 cells to thymidine inhibition was related to the finding that they normally contained a much higher concentration of dCTP than did the WEHI-7 cells. Pool size measurements on thymidine-treated (10(-4) M)
aorta tissues and then cultured. In vitro cultured VSMCs were stimulated with Ang II (10†8 mol/l) followed by various doses of PAMP or ADM (10†9, 10†8, or 10†7 mol/l). Cell proliferation as assessed by 3H†TdR incorporation. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was measured by counting γ†32P radioactivity with liquid scintillation. In a separate cohort, in vitro cultured rat aortic vessels were treated with different doses of Ang II or PAMP (10†9, 10†8, or 10†7 mol/l). Cellular and secreted levels of PAMP, ADM and Ang II were measured using radioimmunoassay in the tissues and intubation mediums, respectively.. Ang II (10†8 mol/l) treatment significantly increased both 3H†TdR incorporation and PKC activity in VSMCs (by 2.68 and 1.02†fold, respectively; both P,0.01 vs. the control). However, Ang II†induced elevation of 3H†TdR incorporation, and PKC activity was significantly inhibited by various doses of ADM and PAMP (all P,0.01 ...
1. Rat thymus cells were incubated in homologous serum (10%) and medium 199. The effects of various quantities of thymidine or deoxycytidine (0-30μm) on the radioactive labelling of cells with the corresponding radioactive deoxynucleoside were examined. From plots of the reciprocal of the radioactivity incorporated against the total deoxynucleoside concentration (`isotope-dilution plots), values were obtained for (a) the Vmax. of the rate-limiting step governing incorporation of the deoxynucleoside, and (b) the concentration of the pool of compounds competing with the radioactive deoxynucleoside at that rate-limiting step. From changes in these values under different experimental conditions inferences were drawn on the position and control of the rate-limiting step within intact cells. 2. Isotope-dilution plots for deoxycytidine were linear, whereas plots for thymidine were bimodal, indicating an abrupt increase in both the Vmax. and pool concentration at a critical thymidine concentration ...
10 µCi quantities of [2-14C]-Thymidine are available for your research. Application of [14C]Thymidine can be found in: reutilization of 14C-thymidine in the liver of young and adult mice, alkyl-fluorinated thymidine derivatives for imaging cell proliferation, changes in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis during carrot somatic embryogenesis, effect of arachidonic acid on proliferation, cytokines production and pleiotropic genes expression, etc.. ...
BioAssay record AID 100571 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake in amastigotes of Leishmania donovani in infected human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages at a dose of 0.5 ug/ml.
This study examined how L-leucine affected DNA synthesis and cell cycle regulatory protein expression in cultured primary chicken hepatocytes. L-Leucine promoted DNA synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with concomitant increases in cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression. Phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) mediated the L-leucine-induced increases in [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 expression, as U73122 (a PLC inhibitor) or bisindolylmaleimide I (a PKC blocker) inhibited these effects. L-Leucine also increased PKC phosphorylation and intracellular Ca2+ levels. L-Leucine-mediated increases in [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin/CDK expression were sensitive to LY 294002 (PI3K inhibitor), Akt inhibitor, PD 98059 (MEK inhibitor). It was also observed that L-leucine-induced increases of cyclin/CDK expression were inhibited by PI3K siRNA and ERK siRNA; L-leucine increased extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt ...
Sparse and dense cultures of chick embryo cells were affected differently by pH. The rates of cell multiplication and of thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA of dense cultures were increased as the pH was increased from 6.6 to 7.6. At pH higher than 7.6 the rate of multiplication decreased slightly in the dense cultures, but the rate of thymidine-3H incorporation continued to increase. The discrepancy was due in part to cell death and detachment at very high pH, and in part to a more rapid uptake of thymidine-3H at very high pH. Sparse cultures were much less sensitive to pH reduction and, when a suitably conditioned medium was used to minimize cell damage, very sparse cultures grew almost as well at pH 6.7 as at higher pH. The rates of cell multiplication and thymidine-3H incorporation at low pH decreased in the initially sparse cultures before they reached confluent cell densities. There was no microscope evidence of direct contact between plasma membranes of cells at these densities although ...
Colchicine, vinblastine, and vincristine inhibit the mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes by concanavalin A as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and the appearance of blast cells. The inhibitory effect of colchicine could not be accounted for by diminution in cell viability or by metaphase arrest of mitosis in the stimulated cells. Moreover, the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation was not due to blockage of thymidine transport or inhibition of DNA synthesis inasmuch as addition of colchicine had no effect on cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. The time of inhibition was correlated with the kinetics of cellular commitment to lectin activation and the kinetic data indicated that colchicine blocks stimulation early in the sequence of events following addition of the mitogen. These findings support the hypothesis that cytoplasmic microtubular function plays a role in the commitment of resting cells to undergo mitotic division. ...
The BrdU Chemiluminescent Cell Proliferation Assay Kit is a non-isotopic enzyme immunoassay for the quantification of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Evaluation of cell cycle progression is essential for investigations in many scientific fields. Measurement of [3H] thymidine incorporation as cells enter S phase has long been the traditional method for the detection of cell proliferation. Subsequent quantification of [3H] thymidine is performed by scintillation counting or autoradiography. This technology is slow, labor intensive and has several limitations including the handling and disposal of radioisotopes and the necessity of expensive equipment. A well-established alternative to [3H] thymidine uptake has been demonstrated by numerous investigators. In these methods bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, replaces [3H] thymidine. BrdU is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA strands of actively proliferating cells. Following partial denaturation of double stranded DNA, BrdU is ...
If aqueous solutions of thymidine are stored frozen (-20°C), care should be taken to protect the material from U.V. light during the thawing process to prevent possible dimerization.. When [methyl-3H]thymidine is incorporated into cellular DNA and undergoes radiolytic decomposition, [3H]5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (HMdU) is formed.* The formation of HMdU through transmutation of [methyl-3H]thymidine occurs at the rate of B-decay, which is 0.017% per day. The transmutation product is not volatile.. * ...
If aqueous solutions of thymidine are stored frozen (-20°C), care should be taken to protect the material from U.V. light during the thawing process to prevent possible dimerization.. When [methyl-3H]thymidine is incorporated into cellular DNA and undergoes radiolytic decomposition, [3H]5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (HMdU) is formed.* The formation of HMdU through transmutation of [methyl-3H]thymidine occurs at the rate of B-decay, which is 0.017% per day. The transmutation product is not volatile.. * ...
Reagents and in vitro assays. The E18-14C-27 cells (7) were provided by Powel Brown (Baylor), and the other ER-negative breast cancer cells and the RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. Cells were grown in either DMEM (E18 and RAW cells) or DMEM/F-12 (MDA cell lines and SK-BR-3 cells) and 10% fetal bovine serum. Stock solutions of CDDO-Me (18) and 268 (19) were made in DMSO, and appropriate DMSO controls (≤0.1%) were included in all in vitro experiments. RAW cells were treated with drugs for 24 h, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide were measured in the medium with a Quantikine ELISA kit (R&D Systems) or the Griess reaction, respectively. Proliferation was measured 72 h after treatment with a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, and apoptosis was detected using a TACS Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit (R&D Systems) and flow cytometry. Antibodies to ErbB2 (RB-103-PO), phosphorylated STAT3 (9138), IKK (sc-7607), and IKBα (sc-371) were ...
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Bacteria abundance and cell volume and thymidine/leucine incorporation at station TT045_28-7. PANGAEA,
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Bacteria abundance and cell volume and thymidine/leucine incorporation at station TT045_13-2. PANGAEA,
TY - JOUR. T1 - GH3 cells expressing constitutively active Gsα (Q227L) show enhanced hormone secretion and proliferation. AU - Ham, J.. AU - Ivan, M.. AU - Wynford-Thomas, D.. AU - Scanlon, M. F.. PY - 1997/3/14. Y1 - 1997/3/14. N2 - cAMP levels in CH3gsp cells (Q227L mutation of Gsα), in comparison with uninfected GH3 and GH3vt (with vector alone) cells, were two to three fold (P , 0.01) higher (basal), and 10-20 fold (P , 0.001) higher (in the presence of isobutyl methylxanthine, (IBMX)). Proliferation of GHSgsp cells after 7 days in culture, as determined by cell number and [3H]thymidine Incorporation, were up to 25% (respectively P , 0.001 and P , 0.02) higher. After chronic (4 days) but not acute (15 min) exposure to forskolin (10 μM) or dibutyryl cAMP (50 μM) all cell types showed a greater than 200% (P , 0.001) increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Secretion of prolactin and growth hormone by GH3gsp cells were two to four fold (P , 0.001) higher than GH3 and GH3vt cells after 4 h ...
BioAssay record AID 221799 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for antitumor activity against thymidine kinase deficient human B-lymphoblast Raji/0 cells.
[ChEMBL Compound Description] ID:, InChI_Key:, Tradenames:, Synonyms:Thymidine Monophosphate | Thymidine-5-Phosphate | 2-Deoxythymidine Monophosphate | Thymidine-5-Monophosphate Disodium Salt
Leyva, A; Appel, H; and Pinedo, H M., Purine modulation of thymidine activity in l1210 leukemia cells in vitro. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1064 ...
Mammals have two isoenzymes, that are chemically very different, TK1 and TK2. The former was first found in fetal tissue, the second was found to be more abundant in adult tissue, and initially they were termed fetal and adult thymidine kinase. Soon it was shown that TK1 is present in the cytoplasm only in anticipation of cell division (cell cycle-dependent),[10][11] whereas TK2 is located in mitochondria and is cell cycle-independent.[12][13] The two isoenzymes have different reaction kinetics and are inhibited by different inhibitors. The viral thymidine kinases differ completely from the mammalian enzymes both structurally and biochemically and are inhibited by inhibitors that do not inhibit the mammalian enzymes.[14][15][16] The genes of the two human isoenzymes were localized in the mid-1970s.[17][18] The gene for TK1 was cloned and sequenced.[19] The corresponding protein has a molecular weight of about 25 kD. Normally, it occurs in tissue as a dimer with a molecular weight of around 50 ...
The nucleoside analogue 4-thiothymidine has shown great potential in vitro as a photosensitiser for the photodynamic therapy of numerous cancer cell lines. However, the limited penetrating power of UV-A radiation, to which it responds, raises doubts as to its practical usefulness in clinical applications. We addressed this issue by studying the penetration extent of topical thiothymidine and the antiproliferative effect of its combination with UV-A radiation on ex vivo basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) skin cancer biopsies, and normal skin. Our results show that both the intralesional concentration of the drug and the intensity of UV-A radiation are sufficient to activate the molecule and cause extensive death by apoptosis of the malignant cells. Normal skin biopsies were not significantly affected by the treatment.. ...
Agarwal, Shyam S. ; Blumberg, Baruch S. ; Gerstley, Betty Jane S. ; Thomas London, W. ; Millman, Irving ; Sutnick, Alton I. ; Loeb, Lawrence A. (1971) Lymphocyte transformation and hepatitis I. Impairment of thymidine incorporation and DNA polymerase activity Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 137 (4). pp. 1498-1502. ISSN 0037-9727 Full text not available from this repository.. Official URL: Related URL: ...
Thymidine kinase (TK) belongs to the group of oncofetal enzymes. It catalyzes thymidine transformation to thymidine monophosphate in the presence of ATP. Elevated serum levels of TK can be found above all in the acute stages of malignant diseases of the hematopoietic system, in the bronchoendogenic carcinoma, carcinoma of the prostate, testis, and bladder.. ...
An enzyme (abbreviated tk) which plays an important role in the making of thymidine triphosphate from thymine -- the only way thymine, cytosine, and oth...
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EBV Thymidine Kinase, 0.1 mg. Thymidine kinase (TK) belongs to a group of enzymes such as dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase, and DNA polymerase that are involved in DNA synthesis and precursor production.
The report generally describes 5-o-(4,4-dimethoxytrityl)-thymidine, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 5-O-(4,4-Dimethoxytrityl)-thymidine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thymidine in the micromolar range promotes rejoining of UVC-induced DNA stand-breaks and prevents azidothymidine from inhibiting the rejoining in quiescent human lymphocytes. AU - Munch-Petersen, Birgitte. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Journal article. VL - 383. SP - 143. EP - 153. JO - Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. JF - Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. SN - 0027-5107. ER - ...
НИИ атеросклероза: научные исследования, публикации сотрудников института (abstracts, full-text.), дискуссионный клуб, посвященный вопросам механизмов атерогенеза.
The protein encoded by this gene is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a gamma-phosphate group to thymidine. This creates dTMP and is the first step in the biosynthesis of dTTP, which is one component required for DNA replication. The encoded protein, whose levels fluctuate depending on the cell cycle stage, can act as a low activity dimer or a high activity tetramer. High levels of this protein have been used as a biomarker for diagnosing and categorizing many types of cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016 ...
DiviTum™ assay determines the enzymatic activity of TK in patient samples. During the assay procedure, thymidine is replaced by its synthetic analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), which gets phosphorylated and then incorporated into a synthetic DNA strand fixated in each well of a 96-well ELISA immunosorbent titer-plate.. The extent of BrdU incorporation depends on the activity of TK present in the serum sample; the more TK activity in the sample, the more BrdU is incorporated into synthetic DNA strands in the titer-plate well. The synthetic BrdU is then detected with anti-BrdU specific antibodies using the well-known ELISA assay technique. The DiviTum™ technology amplifies the signal, enabling the assay to measure thymidine kinase activity with high sensitivity.. ...
This report focuses on the Thymidine in Global Market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.
You can download our 2017 product catalog in various formats, request to have a hard copy sent to you, or view our products online. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Where a design qualifies for protection as an unregistered design right under the CDPA 1988 the first owner of the UDR is not always the same. This article briefly identifies the first owner in a number of common situations.
Good gardens start from the ground up. Before a single seed is dropped into the ground, pull back any winter mulch, fertilize, adjust the soil acidity and till.Although mulches such as leaves and
Schneider, E; Muller, B; and Schindler, R, Effects of temperature changes on thymidine kinase in heat-and cold-sensitive cell-cycle mutanta and wild-type murine p-815 cells. (1983). Subject Strain Bibliography 1983. 1696 ...
Combinations of thymidine and inosine (ranging from 0 to 7.5 mg/hr) were co-administered during a 72-hr continuous i.v. infusion of 3 μg/hr methotrexate in normal and P388 solid tumor-bearing DBA/2 mice. Methotrexate alone was lethal to all normal mice. Inosine at 1.0-7.5 mg/hr could reverse toxicity up to 100% while ... read more thymidine at 0.5-7.5 mg/hr was less effective (86% survival). Combinations of the nucleosides averted toxicity more effectively than either compound alone and in a synergistic manner. From P388 tumor-bearing mice 27% survived methotrexate and eventually died of tumor. Co-infusion of thymidine or inosine decreased the percentage of toxic deaths and caused an increase in life span of more than 50% as compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. However, the diminishing effect on survival with thymidine and inosine doses above 0.5 mg/hr indicated loss of the antitumor effect of methotrexate. This was also observed with combinations of the nucleosides. The influence of ...
Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli infected with some deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase-less mutants of bacteriophage T4.
Title:Peripherally Located A431 Cells are More Sensitive to Cell Death Induced by Exogenous Oxidative Stress. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Ferda Ari, Mehmet Sarimahmut and Engin Ulukaya. Affiliation:Medical School of Uludag University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, 16059 Gorukle BURSA, Turkey.. Keywords:Apoptosis, cytotoxicity, F-actin, hydrogen peroxide, oxidative stress, phalloidine, epidermoid carcinoma, hydrogen peroxide, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), thymidine. Abstract:The effects of hydrogen peroxide, an oxidative agent, on the growth of A431 (an epidermoid carcinoma) cell line were investigated. It was also explored that whether or not the cell localization (peripheral or central position in a cell population) would modify the cell death-inducing effect of hydrogen peroxide. Anti-growth effect of hydrogen peroxide (0.05-1mM) on cell survival was tested by the MTT viability assay while the effect of it on DNA synthesis was measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation assay. Cell ...
Im on 40wks of telbivudine, at 20wks of treatment, my hbvdna become undectable from 6,000 iu. I have read many post regarding telbivudine. My question is can I shift telbivudine to entacavir or other d...
Telbivudine - Get up-to-date information on Telbivudine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Telbivudine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic study of the discrimination between uridine and thymidine derivatives by hydrophobic, stacking, and intercalating interactions. AU - Rekharsky, M. V.. AU - Nakamura, Asao. AU - Hembury, G. A.. AU - Inoue, Y.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Thermodynamic parameters for the complexation reactions of uridine/thymidine nucleobases and related compounds, with hosts of differing binding modes and properties (natural cyclodextrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methlpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin tetrachloride and bis-intercaland macrocycle) have been determined by titration microcalorimetry and/or fluorometry, in an aqueous buffer. For each of these hosts the effect of the 5-methyl group on the binding affinities was investigated. Although the affinities of uridine and thymidine towards cyclodextrins and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetrachloride are very similar, the intercalation of these compounds into the bis-intercaland macrocycle has been shown to ...
3H]Thymidine Incorporation Studies. Thymidine incorporation studies were performed with cells grown in 35-mm culture dishes. The cells were labeled by the addition of methyl-[3H]thymidine (1 μCi/ml) to the medium, and the reactions were stopped after 1 h. The medium was drawn off, and the cells were rinsed twice with ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The cultures were then fixed with ice-cold 5% trichloracetic acid overnight at 4°C, after which the cells were extracted as previously described (Guo and Reiners, 2000). A second replicate set of nonfixed dishes was treated with 0.25% trypsin-EDTA to estimate cell numbers. [3H]Thymidine was detected by scintillation counting and expressed as disintegration per minute per 103 cells.. Assessment of Apoptosis. The effects of HET0016 to induced apoptosis in 9L cells were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis after the cells were labeled with an annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antibody (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, ...
The efficient incorporation of reporter groups into oligonucleotides at specific sites has been facilitated by the synthesis of a novel modified thymidine monomer with an FMOC-protected hydroxyl group on a linker. The primary hydroxyl group can be deprotected during or after solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and reacted with any reporter phosphoramidite.. Full text not available from this repository.. ...
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Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was straight related to cell country and programmed cell death was switched off in the event of cell distributing. Cellular proliferation and programmed cell death was determined under changing growing status. When cells were grown on different sized, square-shaped FN coated islands, programmed cell death declined and DNA synthesis increased with size runing from 75 to 3000µm2. Death rate for different sized islands were measured by TUNEL staining and the consequences were plotted and showed that a larger surface country of the island possessed a better status for cell spreading and growing This was besides observed that by increasing cell distributing on a homogeneous FN coated would take to cell growing when the entire country of cell to ECM fond regard were kept changeless. Under this conditions growing conditions, DNA synthesis increased and programmed cell death decreased with increased in cell spreading. Using substrates coated with specific antibodies to ...
Abstract. 1. Two patients with acute leukemia had considerable decreases in leukemic cells in the peripheral blood as well as reduction in size of spleen and l
Recombinant protein of human thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP), transcript variant 2, 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
|strong|Human anti BrdU antibody, clone AbD33758kd|/strong| recognizes bromodeoxyuridine (known as BrdU or BrdUrd). BrdU is a synthetic thymidine analogue, which is incorporated into the newly synthes…
Anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody is offered as a stand alone product, for use in labeling cells that have incorporated BrdU (cells incubated in the presence of BrdU will incorporate this thymidine analog into any DNA that is synthesized during that time). This antibody, from the PRB-1 clone ... ...
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octa(thymidine methanephosphonate), (RpRpRpRpRpRpRp)isomer. National Institutes of Health. Create AlertAlert. ...
Crystal Structure of Varicella Zoster Virus Thymidine Kinase Bird LE., Ren J., Wright A., Leslie KD., Degrève B., Balzarini J ...
keywords = "Adenovirus-thymidine kinase, Gene therapy, Leiomyomas",. author = "Salama, {S. A.} and M. Kamel and G. Christman ... In this study, we determined the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfer in ... Dive into the research topics of Gene therapy of uterine leiomyoma: Adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ ... In this study, we determined the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfer in ...
Uptake of [3H]-thymidine into hepatocyte DNA after EGF or HGF treatment. Although [3H]-thymidine uptake was increased after ...
Method of administrating an anticancer drug containing .alpha., .alpha., .alpha.-trifluorothymidine and thymidine phosphorylase ...
As we will see later, the base most affected by the lack of methylation is thymidine. Undermethylation is also responsible for ... and thymidine. Several of the enzymes involved in the creation of these bases are a part of the methylation cycle. For instance ...
... (Azidothymidine or AZT) is a thymidine analogue that selectively inhibits HIVs reverse transcriptase. It is ...
Cytotoxic effects were assessed using MTT and 3H-thymidine assays after the cells had been exposed to the test compounds at the ... The ranges of suppression for 3H-thymidine assay were: IBMA, 2595%; 1,6-HDMA, 9598%; DBP, 4098%; MA, 9799%; BA, 5471%. For MTT ... assay, the ranges of suppression were: IBMA, 096%; 1,6-HDMA, 2689%; DBP, 1780%; MA, 5266%; BA, 027%. The 3H-thymidine assay was ...
Antineoplastic Thymidine-based Nucleoside Analog + Thymidine Phosphorylase Inhibitor. Lonsurf®. Lonsurf® (Trifluridine/ ...
Antineoplastic Thymidine-based Nucleoside Analog + Thymidine Phosphorylase Inhibitor. Lonsurf®. Lonsurf® (Trifluridine/ ...
FLT-PET is a type of imaging (similar concept to the widely used 18-FDG PET-CT) that is based on integration of thymidine into ... FLT (3-deoxy-3-fluorothymidine) is a thymidine analogue which is non-toxic in tracer doses, and can be labeled with 18F. ...
Radioactive thymidine. Illustration of radioactive thymidine. Stencil:. Human - Science, Research. Tags:. science, scientific, ...
Biovicas patented testing method, called DiviTum™, measures levels of the enzyme thymidine kinase in the blood and is able to ...
Targeted transgenic overexpression of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) alters mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial ...
Biovicas patented testing method, called DiviTum™, measures levels of the enzyme thymidine kinase in the blood and is able to ...
This data set quantifies thymidine uptake by bacteria, which can be used to estimate bacterial production. ...
This data set quantifies thymidine uptake by bacteria, which can be used to estimate bacterial production. ...
This data set quantifies thymidine uptake by bacteria, which can be used to estimate bacterial production. ...
This data set quantifies thymidine uptake by bacteria, which can be used to estimate bacterial production. ...
5-O-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)thymidine. Catalogue No:OR11394 CAS Number:40733-28-6 MDL Number: MFCD01631041 Purity: 97% ...
Semisynthesis of human thymidine monophosphate kinase. lorenzos oil essay - After all, writing is a skill, and skills take ...
2H 15N Thymidine 5- triphosphate lithium salt solution Product no.: 120503604 Synonym: 2H15N dTTP Li2-salt ...
  • In this study, we determined the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfer in combination with ganciclovir (Ad-TK/GCV) as a potential therapy for LM. (
  • Biovica's patented testing method, called DiviTum™, measures levels of the enzyme thymidine kinase in the blood and is able to, at a very early stage, detect abnormal cell division in the body, which can be a sign of cancer. (
  • Replicative oncolytic vaccinia virus derived from the Copenhagen strain, genetically modified by inactivation of its thymidine kinase (TK) and ribonucleotide reductase (RR) genes and by addition of genes encoding for the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) cytokine and for a monoclonal antibody targeting the Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Antigen 4 (CTLA-4). (
  • It contains three genetic modifications: 1) deletion of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene, 2) deletion of the viral ribonucleotide reductase (RR) gene and 3) insertion of the chimeric yeast FCU1 suicide gene in the TK locus. (
  • E2F induces transcription of genes including cyclins Aand E, DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase. (
  • A fluorine-18-labeled acycloguanosine derivative substrate for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk). (
  • 18F-FHBG is used as a reporter probe to image the expression of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene in gene transfer therapy. (
  • The technology is based on patented methods to measure Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) protein concentrations in a blood sample. (
  • The selectable marker plasmid pREP7 gets the hygromycin level of resistance gene beneath the control of the thymidine kinase promoter (Invitrogen). (
  • Inhibitory effects of the ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction-mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system on ovarian cancer in mice. (
  • For example, acyclovir is converted to the acyclovir monophosphate by the viral thymidine kinase, while ganciclovir is initially phosphorylated by the enzyme UL-97 kinase, which is found in CMV infected cells. (
  • We extracted HSV DNA from genital ulcer swabs or cervicovaginal lavage fluids from 68 samples obtained from 64 participants randomized to ACV and sequenced the HSV-2 UL23 gene encoding thymidine kinase. (
  • Cellular DNA synthesis is determined using a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. (
  • 2011). We monitored cell proliferation by staining for the proliferation marker Ki67 and calculating incorporation from the thymidine analog EdU. (
  • via [3H]thymidine incorporation), and DOC during two occupations of 76°30′S from 175°W to 168°E. Results from this bloom are compared to blooms observed in the Sargasso Sea in the vicinity of the Bermuda Atlantic Time‐Series Study station (BATS). (
  • Uptake of [ 3 H]-thymidine into hepatocyte DNA after EGF or HGF treatment. (
  • This data set quantifies thymidine uptake by bacteria, which can be used to estimate bacterial production. (
  • The 3H-thymidine assay was more sensitive than the MTT assay.Significance. (
  • Zidovudine (Azidothymidine or AZT) is a thymidine analogue that selectively inhibits HIV's reverse transcriptase. (
  • To identify TRAMs specifically associated with TDF-selection pressure, we compared the proportion of each TRAM to its proportion in a cohort of 5805 individuals with VF on a first-line thymidine analog-containing regimen. (
  • Of the 33 NRTI-associated TRAMs, 12 - A62V, K65R/N, S68G/N/D, K70E/Q/T, L74I, V75L, and Y115F - were more common among individuals receiving a first-line TDF-containing compared to a first-line thymidine analog-containing regimen. (
  • Cytotoxic effects were assessed using MTT and 3H-thymidine assays after the cells had been exposed to the test compounds at the given concentrations for 24h. (
  • Newly synthesized 3'-nitrosourea analogues of thymidine have shown greater inhibitory activity against some cancer cells than BCNU. (
  • They then treated the cell populations with thymidine-to block cells at G1/S phase in the cell cycle. (
  • From left to right the histograms correspond to 7.5, 9, 10.5, 11.5 and 13 h after release of the second thymidine block. (
  • In the first sentence, having to employ the words azido thymidine, humanimmuno-deficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and deoxyribonucleic acid would have resulted in a sentence more than twice as long. (
  • Caged thymidine phosphoramidite for the light-regulation of oligonucleotide function with two-photon excitation. (
  • Caged thymidine morpholino monomer for the light-regulation of antisense function. (
  • Although currently we are unable to articulate the precise roles of these distinct regions of p53 in response to thymidine, our studies suggest that they may function at temporally distinct stages of S-phase. (

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