An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Genes that are used transgenically, i.e., via GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES to induce CELL DEATH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by alterations of mitochondrial metabolism that result in muscle and nervous system dysfunction. These are often multisystemic and vary considerably in age at onset (usually in the first or second decade of life), distribution of affected muscles, severity, and course. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp984-5)
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC 2.7.1.48.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.

Steroids and hematopoiesis. III. The response of granulocytic and erythroid colony-forming cells to steroids of different classes. (1/5245)

Selected androgenic and nonandrogenic steroids enhance in vitro granulocytic and erythroid colony formation by mouse marrow cells, but do so by influencing either different target cells or cells in different states of cell cycle. Etiocholanolone, a naturally occurring nonandrogenic testosterone metabolite, permits cells not in active cycle to respond to colony-stimulating factor or erythropoietin. Fluoxymesterone, a synthetic androgen, appears to enhance colony growth by increasing the responsiveness of target cells to tropic stimuli. The majority of cells responding to this androgen are in active DNA synthesis. Direct comparison, however, of etiocholanolone-dependent erythroid or granulocytic colony-forming cells demonstrates nonidentity of the target cells. Thus colony-forming units responding to different classes of steroids are in different states of cell cycle and are physically separable. The enhancement of the in vitro response of colony-forming cells to regulating hormones by steroids such as etiocholanolane suggests a mechanism by which such agents may be therapeutically effective in certain cases of marrow failure in man.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (2/5245)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (3/5245)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

Ambiguity of the thymidine index. (4/5245)

The observed thymidine indices of seven experimental tumor lines are compared as a function of duration of emulsion exposure. The effects of dose level of tritiated thymidine and background threshold are also evaluated. The results indicate that an arbitrary high background threshold discriminates against "lightly" labeled cells at short periods of exposure but that the chosen threshold becomes less critical with longer exposure. The observed thymidine index increases with increasing duration of emulsion exposure but appears to approach a plateau for all tumor systems. The "thymidine index curves" are significantly different for each tumor. There is an inverse relationship between the dose of tritiated thymidine and the duration of exposure required to recognize the same fraction of cells as labeled in a given tumor. Similar experimental conditions do not necessarily guarantee a valid basis for comparison of observed thymidine indices among tumors.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (5/5245)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Modulation of the cytotoxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and methotrexate after transduction of folate receptor cDNA into human cervical carcinoma: identification of a correlation between folate receptor expression and thymidine kinase activity. (6/5245)

Cervical carcinoma is an AIDS-defining illness. The expression of folate receptors (FRs) in cervical carcinoma (HeLa-IU1) cells was modulated by stable transduction of FR cDNA encapsidated in recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 in the sense and antisense orientation (sense and antisense cells, respectively). Although sense cells proliferated slower than antisense or untransduced cells in vivo and in vitro in 2% (but not 10%) FCS, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was significantly increased in sense cells in 10% serum; therefore, the basis for this discrepancy was investigated. The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) was subsequently directly correlated with the extent of FR expression in single cell-derived clones of transduced cells. This elevated TK activity was not a result of recruitment of the salvage pathway based on the presence of adequate dTTP pools, normal thymidylate synthase (TS) activity, persistence of increased thymidine incorporation despite the exogenous provision of excess 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, and documentation of adequate folates in sense cells. The increase in TK activity conferred significant biological properties to sense cells (but not antisense or untransduced cells) as demonstrated by augmented phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and concomitantly greater sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of AZT. Conversely, sense cells were highly resistant to methotrexate, but this was reversed by the addition of AZT. The direct correlation of FR expression and TK activity indicates a previously unrecognized consequence of FR overexpression.  (+info)

Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. (7/5245)

The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (8/5245)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

The initial rate of thymidine-3H incorporation into the acid-soluble pool by cultured Novikoff rat hepatoma cells was investigated as a function of the thymidine concentration in the medium. Below, but not above 2 µM, thymidine incorporation followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics at 22°, 27°, 32°, and 37°C with an apparent Km of 0.5 µM, and the Vmax values increased with an average Q10 of 1.8 with an increase in temperature. The intracellular acid-soluble 3H was associated solely with thymine nucleotides (mainly deoxythymidine triphosphate [dTTP]). Between 2 and 200 µM, on the other hand, the initial rate of thymidine incorporation increased linearly with an increase in thymidine concentration in the medium and was about the same at all four temperatures. Pretreatment of the cells with 40 or 100 µM p-chloromercuribenzoate for 15 min or heat-shock (49.5°C, 5 min) markedly reduced the saturable component of uptake without affecting the unsaturable component or the phosphorylation of ...
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I have been trying to do a 3[H] thymidine incorporation assay with CD4+CD25- cells isolated from mouse spleen. Unfortunately, I have been very unlucky. I plated 2.5 x 10^4 T cells and the same number of APC (T cell-depleted, 3000rads irradiated splenocytes) in 96 well plate pre-coated with 10ug/ml anti-CD3 Ab, and cultured for 72 hrs. Then I pulsed with 1uCi/well [3H] thymidine for 18 hrs, harvested on a cell harverster onto a glass filter, let dry, and read the next day. But for some reason, my reading was very low, so low that it seemed to me theres no proliferation at all (somewhere between 2 to 100). I have been very frustrated with it. One person has suggested that 10ug/mL CD3 is too concentrated, and maybe T cells are activated and underwent apoptosis, thats why I didnt see any proliferation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monitoring tumor cell proliferation by targeting DNA synthetic processes with thymidine and thymidine analogs. AU - Schwartz, Jeffrey L.. AU - Tamura, Yasuko. AU - Jordan, Robert. AU - Grierson, John R.. AU - Krohn, Kenneth. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the assumption that measurement of uptake of these nucleosides, a function primarily of thymidine kinase-1 (TK 1) activity, provides an accurate measure of active cell proliferation in tumors. The goal of this study was to test this hypothesis and determine how well these tracers track changes in proliferation of tumor cells. Methods: TK1 activity; S-phase fraction; and uptake of TdR, 3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine (FLT), and 2′-fluoro-5-methyl-1- (β-D-2-arabino-furanosyl) uracil (FMAU) were determined in plateau-phase and exponentially growing cultures of 3 human and 3 murine tumor cell lines. Results: TK1 ...
The inhibitory activity of liver extracts on thymidine incorporation into DNA was markedly enhanced by manganese and zinc. Manganese-activated liver extract (Mn-liver extract) also inhibited incorporation of deoxycytidine and adenine into DNA. The Mn-liver extract had no effect on incorporation of thymidine-5′-triphosphate into DNA but blocked the phosphorylation of deoxythymidine. The phosphorylation of deoxycytidine into deoxycytidine-5′-triphosphate was not inhibited by Mn-liver extract. The results indicate that the inhibition of synthesis of thymidine-5′-triphosphate is the primary locus in the blocking of DNA synthesis and that the inhibition of incorporation of deoxycytidine into DNA is secondary to the lack of thymidine-5′-triphosphate.. ...
This modification is available as part of a custom oligonucleotide configuration. Please use OLIGObuilder™ to generate pricing and order or contact us to speak with a customer service representative. ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Artemisinin and its derivatives exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. The purpose of the current study was to examine the immunosuppressive activity of artemether directly on T lymphocytes and to explore its potential mode of action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vitro, T-cell proliferation was measured using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay in cells stimulated with ConA, alloantigen and anti-CD3 antibody. CFSE-labeled cell division and cell cycle distribution were monitored by flow cytometry ...
3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine 25526-93-6 MSDS report, 3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine safety information specifications ect.
A new microradioassay for the detection and quantification of disseminated tumor cells in blood and organ samples of tumor-bearing animals has been worked out in a murine model system for tumor metastasis. In contrast to previous prelabeling or in situ labeling procedures, the basis of this assay is a postlabeling in vitro of tumor cell-containing material with [3H]thymidine. Percoll gradient fractionation and autoradiography revealed that most of the isotope was incorporated into tumor cells. Titration curves with tumor cells from tissue culture were run in parallel and allowed to calculate from the radioactivity of a sample the actual number of proliferating tumor cells. The postlabeling assay correlated fairly well with an agar colony test which measures the clonogenic or stem cell potential of a tumor cell population. About 70% of syngeneic animals which had been inoculated s.c. with ESb tumor cells showed increased [3H]thymidine uptake in their blood, particularly at certain time intervals ...
3 H-thymidine. Tritiated (3H) thymidine. 3 H-thymidine. Original method for measuring cell proliferation Radioactive Not compatible for multiplexed analyses. Br. Br. Br. Br. BrdU. BrdU (5-bromo-2 -deoxyuridine). Br. Br. Br. Br. BrdU. Acid or DNase. Br. Br. Br. Br. BrdU. Slideshow 445482 by zenobia
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was found to inhibit experimental cancer development in mouse and rat lung, colon and mammary gland. Since DHEA is a potent inhibitor of mammalian G-6-PD, the hypothesis that the compound could inhibit cell proliferation through an inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway has been formulated. We studied the effects of DHEA on the proliferation in vitro of human lymphocytes induced by several mitogens (PHA, ConA and PWM), measuring 3H-thymidine uptake. DHEA inhibited 3H-thymidine uptake of mitogen-stimulated cells from both G-6-PD+ and G-6-PD- (mediterranean type deficiency) individuals in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. The inhibitory effect was found even if DHEA was added to cells in the last hours of culture, simultaneously with the addition of 3H-thymidine. These data suggest that the inhibition of thymidine uptake induced by DHEA on human lymphocytes probably does not depend on the inhibition of G-6-PD.. ...
The effects of various concentrations of thymidine on DNA synthesis and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate contents of a highly thymidine-sensitive cultured mouse lymphoma cell line (WEHI-7) and a relatively resistant mouse myeloma cell line (HPC-108) have been studied by 32P-labelling techniques. DNA synthesis in the myeloma cells was inhibited by thymidine at concentrations of 10(-3) M or greater, while DNA synthesis in the lymphoma cells was inhibited by concentrations 30-fold lower, consistent with the 25-fold difference between the two cell lines in sensitivity to growth inhibition by thymidine. Thymidine caused marked elevation of the dTTP and dGTP pools, slight elevation or no change in the dATP pool and a marked decrease in the dCTP pool in cells of both lines. The greater resistance of HPC-108 cells to thymidine inhibition was related to the finding that they normally contained a much higher concentration of dCTP than did the WEHI-7 cells. Pool size measurements on thymidine-treated (10(-4) M)
aorta tissues and then cultured. In vitro cultured VSMCs were stimulated with Ang II (10†8 mol/l) followed by various doses of PAMP or ADM (10†9, 10†8, or 10†7 mol/l). Cell proliferation as assessed by 3H†TdR incorporation. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was measured by counting γ†32P radioactivity with liquid scintillation. In a separate cohort, in vitro cultured rat aortic vessels were treated with different doses of Ang II or PAMP (10†9, 10†8, or 10†7 mol/l). Cellular and secreted levels of PAMP, ADM and Ang II were measured using radioimmunoassay in the tissues and intubation mediums, respectively.. Ang II (10†8 mol/l) treatment significantly increased both 3H†TdR incorporation and PKC activity in VSMCs (by 2.68 and 1.02†fold, respectively; both P,0.01 vs. the control). However, Ang II†induced elevation of 3H†TdR incorporation, and PKC activity was significantly inhibited by various doses of ADM and PAMP (all P,0.01 ...
1. Rat thymus cells were incubated in homologous serum (10%) and medium 199. The effects of various quantities of thymidine or deoxycytidine (0-30μm) on the radioactive labelling of cells with the corresponding radioactive deoxynucleoside were examined. From plots of the reciprocal of the radioactivity incorporated against the total deoxynucleoside concentration (`isotope-dilution plots), values were obtained for (a) the Vmax. of the rate-limiting step governing incorporation of the deoxynucleoside, and (b) the concentration of the pool of compounds competing with the radioactive deoxynucleoside at that rate-limiting step. From changes in these values under different experimental conditions inferences were drawn on the position and control of the rate-limiting step within intact cells. 2. Isotope-dilution plots for deoxycytidine were linear, whereas plots for thymidine were bimodal, indicating an abrupt increase in both the Vmax. and pool concentration at a critical thymidine concentration ...
10 µCi quantities of [2-14C]-Thymidine are available for your research. Application of [14C]Thymidine can be found in: reutilization of 14C-thymidine in the liver of young and adult mice, alkyl-fluorinated thymidine derivatives for imaging cell proliferation, changes in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis during carrot somatic embryogenesis, effect of arachidonic acid on proliferation, cytokines production and pleiotropic genes expression, etc.. ...
BioAssay record AID 100571 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake in amastigotes of Leishmania donovani in infected human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages at a dose of 0.5 ug/ml.
Sparse and dense cultures of chick embryo cells were affected differently by pH. The rates of cell multiplication and of thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA of dense cultures were increased as the pH was increased from 6.6 to 7.6. At pH higher than 7.6 the rate of multiplication decreased slightly in the dense cultures, but the rate of thymidine-3H incorporation continued to increase. The discrepancy was due in part to cell death and detachment at very high pH, and in part to a more rapid uptake of thymidine-3H at very high pH. Sparse cultures were much less sensitive to pH reduction and, when a suitably conditioned medium was used to minimize cell damage, very sparse cultures grew almost as well at pH 6.7 as at higher pH. The rates of cell multiplication and thymidine-3H incorporation at low pH decreased in the initially sparse cultures before they reached confluent cell densities. There was no microscope evidence of direct contact between plasma membranes of cells at these densities although ...
Colchicine, vinblastine, and vincristine inhibit the mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes by concanavalin A as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and the appearance of blast cells. The inhibitory effect of colchicine could not be accounted for by diminution in cell viability or by metaphase arrest of mitosis in the stimulated cells. Moreover, the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation was not due to blockage of thymidine transport or inhibition of DNA synthesis inasmuch as addition of colchicine had no effect on cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. The time of inhibition was correlated with the kinetics of cellular commitment to lectin activation and the kinetic data indicated that colchicine blocks stimulation early in the sequence of events following addition of the mitogen. These findings support the hypothesis that cytoplasmic microtubular function plays a role in the commitment of resting cells to undergo mitotic division. ...
If aqueous solutions of thymidine are stored frozen (-20°C), care should be taken to protect the material from U.V. light during the thawing process to prevent possible dimerization.. When [methyl-3H]thymidine is incorporated into cellular DNA and undergoes radiolytic decomposition, [3H]5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (HMdU) is formed.* The formation of HMdU through transmutation of [methyl-3H]thymidine occurs at the rate of B-decay, which is 0.017% per day. The transmutation product is not volatile.. * ...
If aqueous solutions of thymidine are stored frozen (-20°C), care should be taken to protect the material from U.V. light during the thawing process to prevent possible dimerization.. When [methyl-3H]thymidine is incorporated into cellular DNA and undergoes radiolytic decomposition, [3H]5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (HMdU) is formed.* The formation of HMdU through transmutation of [methyl-3H]thymidine occurs at the rate of B-decay, which is 0.017% per day. The transmutation product is not volatile.. * ...
Reagents and in vitro assays. The E18-14C-27 cells (7) were provided by Powel Brown (Baylor), and the other ER-negative breast cancer cells and the RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection. Cells were grown in either DMEM (E18 and RAW cells) or DMEM/F-12 (MDA cell lines and SK-BR-3 cells) and 10% fetal bovine serum. Stock solutions of CDDO-Me (18) and 268 (19) were made in DMSO, and appropriate DMSO controls (≤0.1%) were included in all in vitro experiments. RAW cells were treated with drugs for 24 h, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide were measured in the medium with a Quantikine ELISA kit (R&D Systems) or the Griess reaction, respectively. Proliferation was measured 72 h after treatment with a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, and apoptosis was detected using a TACS Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit (R&D Systems) and flow cytometry. Antibodies to ErbB2 (RB-103-PO), phosphorylated STAT3 (9138), IKK (sc-7607), and IKBα (sc-371) were ...
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Bacteria abundance and cell volume and thymidine/leucine incorporation at station KIWI-9/3-1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.131201
Ducklow, Hugh W (2003): Bacteria abundance and cell volume and thymidine/leucine incorporation at station TT045_28-7. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.117080
TY - JOUR. T1 - GH3 cells expressing constitutively active Gsα (Q227L) show enhanced hormone secretion and proliferation. AU - Ham, J.. AU - Ivan, M.. AU - Wynford-Thomas, D.. AU - Scanlon, M. F.. PY - 1997/3/14. Y1 - 1997/3/14. N2 - cAMP levels in CH3gsp cells (Q227L mutation of Gsα), in comparison with uninfected GH3 and GH3vt (with vector alone) cells, were two to three fold (P , 0.01) higher (basal), and 10-20 fold (P , 0.001) higher (in the presence of isobutyl methylxanthine, (IBMX)). Proliferation of GHSgsp cells after 7 days in culture, as determined by cell number and [3H]thymidine Incorporation, were up to 25% (respectively P , 0.001 and P , 0.02) higher. After chronic (4 days) but not acute (15 min) exposure to forskolin (10 μM) or dibutyryl cAMP (50 μM) all cell types showed a greater than 200% (P , 0.001) increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Secretion of prolactin and growth hormone by GH3gsp cells were two to four fold (P , 0.001) higher than GH3 and GH3vt cells after 4 h ...
BioAssay record AID 221799 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for antitumor activity against thymidine kinase deficient human B-lymphoblast Raji/0 cells.
[ChEMBL Compound Description] ID:, InChI_Key:, Tradenames:, Synonyms:Thymidine Monophosphate | Thymidine-5-Phosphate | 2-Deoxythymidine Monophosphate | Thymidine-5-Monophosphate Disodium Salt
Leyva, A; Appel, H; and Pinedo, H M., Purine modulation of thymidine activity in l1210 leukemia cells in vitro. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1064 ...
Mammals have two isoenzymes, that are chemically very different, TK1 and TK2. The former was first found in fetal tissue, the second was found to be more abundant in adult tissue, and initially they were termed fetal and adult thymidine kinase. Soon it was shown that TK1 is present in the cytoplasm only in anticipation of cell division (cell cycle-dependent),[10][11] whereas TK2 is located in mitochondria and is cell cycle-independent.[12][13] The two isoenzymes have different reaction kinetics and are inhibited by different inhibitors. The viral thymidine kinases differ completely from the mammalian enzymes both structurally and biochemically and are inhibited by inhibitors that do not inhibit the mammalian enzymes.[14][15][16] The genes of the two human isoenzymes were localized in the mid-1970s.[17][18] The gene for TK1 was cloned and sequenced.[19] The corresponding protein has a molecular weight of about 25 kD. Normally, it occurs in tissue as a dimer with a molecular weight of around 50 ...
The nucleoside analogue 4-thiothymidine has shown great potential in vitro as a photosensitiser for the photodynamic therapy of numerous cancer cell lines. However, the limited penetrating power of UV-A radiation, to which it responds, raises doubts as to its practical usefulness in clinical applications. We addressed this issue by studying the penetration extent of topical thiothymidine and the antiproliferative effect of its combination with UV-A radiation on ex vivo basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) skin cancer biopsies, and normal skin. Our results show that both the intralesional concentration of the drug and the intensity of UV-A radiation are sufficient to activate the molecule and cause extensive death by apoptosis of the malignant cells. Normal skin biopsies were not significantly affected by the treatment.. ...
Agarwal, Shyam S. ; Blumberg, Baruch S. ; Gerstley, Betty Jane S. ; Thomas London, W. ; Millman, Irving ; Sutnick, Alton I. ; Loeb, Lawrence A. (1971) Lymphocyte transformation and hepatitis I. Impairment of thymidine incorporation and DNA polymerase activity Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 137 (4). pp. 1498-1502. ISSN 0037-9727 Full text not available from this repository.. Official URL: http://ebm.rsmjournals.com/content/137/4/1498.cita.... Related URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3181/00379727-137-35818 ...
Thymidine kinase (TK) belongs to the group of oncofetal enzymes. It catalyzes thymidine transformation to thymidine monophosphate in the presence of ATP. Elevated serum levels of TK can be found above all in the acute stages of malignant diseases of the hematopoietic system, in the bronchoendogenic carcinoma, carcinoma of the prostate, testis, and bladder.. ...
An enzyme (abbreviated tk) which plays an important role in the making of thymidine triphosphate from thymine -- the only way thymine, cytosine, and oth...
Order Thymidine Phosphorylase ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Dog, Guinea Pig and more. Compare Thymidine Phosphorylase ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
EBV Thymidine Kinase, 0.1 mg. Thymidine kinase (TK) belongs to a group of enzymes such as dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase, and DNA polymerase that are involved in DNA synthesis and precursor production.
The report generally describes 5-o-(4,4-dimethoxytrityl)-thymidine, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 5-O-(4,4-Dimethoxytrityl)-thymidine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thymidine in the micromolar range promotes rejoining of UVC-induced DNA stand-breaks and prevents azidothymidine from inhibiting the rejoining in quiescent human lymphocytes. AU - Munch-Petersen, Birgitte. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Journal article. VL - 383. SP - 143. EP - 153. JO - Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. JF - Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. SN - 0027-5107. ER - ...
НИИ атеросклероза: научные исследования, публикации сотрудников института (abstracts, full-text.), дискуссионный клуб, посвященный вопросам механизмов атерогенеза.
DiviTum™ assay determines the enzymatic activity of TK in patient samples. During the assay procedure, thymidine is replaced by its synthetic analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), which gets phosphorylated and then incorporated into a synthetic DNA strand fixated in each well of a 96-well ELISA immunosorbent titer-plate.. The extent of BrdU incorporation depends on the activity of TK present in the serum sample; the more TK activity in the sample, the more BrdU is incorporated into synthetic DNA strands in the titer-plate well. The synthetic BrdU is then detected with anti-BrdU specific antibodies using the well-known ELISA assay technique. The DiviTum™ technology amplifies the signal, enabling the assay to measure thymidine kinase activity with high sensitivity.. ...
This report focuses on the Thymidine in Global Market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.
You can download our 2017 product catalog in various formats, request to have a hard copy sent to you, or view our products online. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Where a design qualifies for protection as an unregistered design right under the CDPA 1988 the first owner of the UDR is not always the same. This article briefly identifies the first owner in a number of common situations.
Good gardens start from the ground up. Before a single seed is dropped into the ground, pull back any winter mulch, fertilize, adjust the soil acidity and till.Although mulches such as leaves and
Schneider, E; Muller, B; and Schindler, R, Effects of temperature changes on thymidine kinase in heat-and cold-sensitive cell-cycle mutanta and wild-type murine p-815 cells. (1983). Subject Strain Bibliography 1983. 1696 ...
Combinations of thymidine and inosine (ranging from 0 to 7.5 mg/hr) were co-administered during a 72-hr continuous i.v. infusion of 3 μg/hr methotrexate in normal and P388 solid tumor-bearing DBA/2 mice. Methotrexate alone was lethal to all normal mice. Inosine at 1.0-7.5 mg/hr could reverse toxicity up to 100% while ... read more thymidine at 0.5-7.5 mg/hr was less effective (86% survival). Combinations of the nucleosides averted toxicity more effectively than either compound alone and in a synergistic manner. From P388 tumor-bearing mice 27% survived methotrexate and eventually died of tumor. Co-infusion of thymidine or inosine decreased the percentage of toxic deaths and caused an increase in life span of more than 50% as compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. However, the diminishing effect on survival with thymidine and inosine doses above 0.5 mg/hr indicated loss of the antitumor effect of methotrexate. This was also observed with combinations of the nucleosides. The influence of ...
Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli infected with some deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase-less mutants of bacteriophage T4.
Title:Peripherally Located A431 Cells are More Sensitive to Cell Death Induced by Exogenous Oxidative Stress. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Ferda Ari, Mehmet Sarimahmut and Engin Ulukaya. Affiliation:Medical School of Uludag University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, 16059 Gorukle BURSA, Turkey.. Keywords:Apoptosis, cytotoxicity, F-actin, hydrogen peroxide, oxidative stress, phalloidine, epidermoid carcinoma, hydrogen peroxide, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), thymidine. Abstract:The effects of hydrogen peroxide, an oxidative agent, on the growth of A431 (an epidermoid carcinoma) cell line were investigated. It was also explored that whether or not the cell localization (peripheral or central position in a cell population) would modify the cell death-inducing effect of hydrogen peroxide. Anti-growth effect of hydrogen peroxide (0.05-1mM) on cell survival was tested by the MTT viability assay while the effect of it on DNA synthesis was measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation assay. Cell ...
Im on 40wks of telbivudine, at 20wks of treatment, my hbvdna become undectable from 6,000 iu. I have read many post regarding telbivudine. My question is can I shift telbivudine to entacavir or other d...
Telbivudine - Get up-to-date information on Telbivudine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Telbivudine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic study of the discrimination between uridine and thymidine derivatives by hydrophobic, stacking, and intercalating interactions. AU - Rekharsky, M. V.. AU - Nakamura, Asao. AU - Hembury, G. A.. AU - Inoue, Y.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Thermodynamic parameters for the complexation reactions of uridine/thymidine nucleobases and related compounds, with hosts of differing binding modes and properties (natural cyclodextrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methlpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin tetrachloride and bis-intercaland macrocycle) have been determined by titration microcalorimetry and/or fluorometry, in an aqueous buffer. For each of these hosts the effect of the 5-methyl group on the binding affinities was investigated. Although the affinities of uridine and thymidine towards cyclodextrins and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetrachloride are very similar, the intercalation of these compounds into the bis-intercaland macrocycle has been shown to ...
3H]Thymidine Incorporation Studies. Thymidine incorporation studies were performed with cells grown in 35-mm culture dishes. The cells were labeled by the addition of methyl-[3H]thymidine (1 μCi/ml) to the medium, and the reactions were stopped after 1 h. The medium was drawn off, and the cells were rinsed twice with ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The cultures were then fixed with ice-cold 5% trichloracetic acid overnight at 4°C, after which the cells were extracted as previously described (Guo and Reiners, 2000). A second replicate set of nonfixed dishes was treated with 0.25% trypsin-EDTA to estimate cell numbers. [3H]Thymidine was detected by scintillation counting and expressed as disintegration per minute per 103 cells.. Assessment of Apoptosis. The effects of HET0016 to induced apoptosis in 9L cells were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis after the cells were labeled with an annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antibody (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, ...
The efficient incorporation of reporter groups into oligonucleotides at specific sites has been facilitated by the synthesis of a novel modified thymidine monomer with an FMOC-protected hydroxyl group on a linker. The primary hydroxyl group can be deprotected during or after solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and reacted with any reporter phosphoramidite.. Full text not available from this repository.. ...
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Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was straight related to cell country and programmed cell death was switched off in the event of cell distributing. Cellular proliferation and programmed cell death was determined under changing growing status. When cells were grown on different sized, square-shaped FN coated islands, programmed cell death declined and DNA synthesis increased with size runing from 75 to 3000µm2. Death rate for different sized islands were measured by TUNEL staining and the consequences were plotted and showed that a larger surface country of the island possessed a better status for cell spreading and growing This was besides observed that by increasing cell distributing on a homogeneous FN coated would take to cell growing when the entire country of cell to ECM fond regard were kept changeless. Under this conditions growing conditions, DNA synthesis increased and programmed cell death decreased with increased in cell spreading. Using substrates coated with specific antibodies to ...
Abstract. 1. Two patients with acute leukemia had considerable decreases in leukemic cells in the peripheral blood as well as reduction in size of spleen and l
Recombinant protein of human thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP), transcript variant 2, 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody is offered as a stand alone product, for use in labeling cells that have incorporated BrdU (cells incubated in the presence of BrdU will incorporate this thymidine analog into any DNA that is synthesized during that time). This antibody, from the PRB-1 clone ... ...
Cancer, Human, Cell, Cancers, Selenium, Treatment, Cells, Lung, Men, Women, Drugs, Cell Cycle, Literature, Role, Hormone, Cell Lines, Sodium, Thymidine, Risk, Melanoma
Kornfeld S, Glaser L (June 1961). "The enzymic synthesis of thymidine-linked sugars. I. Thymidine diphosphate glucose". J. Biol ... Pazur JH, Shuey EW (June 1961). "The enzymatic synthesis of thymidine diphosphate glucose and its conversion to thymidine ... thymidine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, thymidine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, and TDP-glucose ...
... thymidine at position 265). The silent allele has evolved at least twice in the black population of Africa and evidence for ...
Kornfeld S; Glaser L (1962). "The synthesis of thymidine-linked sugars. V. Thymidine diphosphate-amino sugars". J. Biol. Chem. ...
It phosphorylates thymidine to create thymidine monophosphate (dTMP). This kinase uses an ATP molecule to supply the phosphate ... Because of this, thymidine kinase activity is closely correlated with the cell cycle and used as a tumor marker in clinical ... Thymidine kinase is one of the many nucleoside kinases that are responsible for nucleoside phosphorylation. ... This transfer of a phosphate from one nucleotide to another by thymidine kinase, as well as other nucleoside and nucleotide ...
replacement of thymidine kinase (TK)). RCN was successful in 50% of voluntary participants allowing them to survive subsequent ...
"Altered thymidine metabolism due to defects of thymidine phosphorylase". J Biol Chem. 277 (6): 4128-33. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Thymidine phosphorylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYMP gene. Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth ... 2002). "Thymidine phosphorylase and breast carcinoma". Anticancer Res. 22 (4): 2355-60. PMID 12174926. Asai K, Nakanishi K, ... 2000). "Thymidine phosphorylase expression in normal and hyperplastic endometrium". J. Clin. Pathol. 53 (9): 704-8. doi:10.1136 ...
FLT is phosphorylated as though it were thymidine, and is subsequently incorporated into DNA. Thymidine is essential for DNA ... FLT accumulates in proliferating cells where it indicates the activity of the enzyme thymidine kinase - cell division can ...
... thymidine 2'-dioxygenase, thymidine 2'-hydroxylase, thymidine 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase, and thymidine dioxygenase. It has 2 ... Bankel L, Lindstedt G, Lindstedt S (1972). "Thymidine 2'-hydroxylation in Neurospora crassa". J. Biol. Chem. 247 (19): 6128-34 ...
5-Ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) is a thymidine analogue which is incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells. EdU is used to ... Chehrehasa, F; Meedeniya, AC; Dwyer, P; Abrahamsen, G; Mackay-Sim, A (February 2009). "EdU, a new thymidine analogue for ... Cavanagh, Brenton; Walker, T; Norazit, A; Meedeniya, A. C. (15 September 2011). "Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis ...
Other names in common use include thymidine diphospho-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose aminotransferase, thymidine diphospho-4-amino- ... 6-deoxyglucose aminotransferase, thymidine diphospho-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose transaminase, thymidine diphospho-4-keto-6-deoxy- ... 3 Purification and properties of thymidine diphosphate 4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose transaminase from Escherichia coli strain B". J ... Matsuhashi M, Strominger JL (1966). "Thymidine diphosphate 4-acetamido-2,6-dideoxyhexoses. ...
... triphosphate inhibits HIV's reverse transcriptase by competing with the natural substrate, thymidine triphosphate. ... Stavudine is a nucleoside analog of thymidine. It is phosphorylated by cellular kinases into an active triphosphate. ...
Thymidine synthesis first requires reduction of the uridine to deoxyuridine (see next section), before the base can be ... In order to synthesize thymidine, a component of DNA which only exists in the deoxy form, uridine is converted to deoxyuridine ... Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ... by ribonucleotide reductase), and then is methylated by thymidylate synthase to create thymidine. The breakdown of DNA and RNA ...
... is a synthetic thymidine β-L-nucleoside analogue; it is the L-isomer of thymidine. Telbivudine impairs hepatitis B ...
V Isolation and crystallization of thymidine diphosphate-D-glucose oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli B". J. Biol. Chem. 244 ... II Purification and properties of thymidine diphosphate d-glucose oxidoreductase". J. Biol. Chem. 240: 1305-8. PMID 14284740. ... Gilbert JM, Matshushi M, Strominger JL (1965). "Thymidine diphosphate 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxyhexoses. ... Other names in common use include thymidine diphosphoglucose oxidoreductase, TDP-glucose oxidoreductase, RmlB, DESIV, and dTDP- ...
Other names in common use include thymidine diphosphoaminodideoxygalactose aminotransferase, and thymidine diphosphate 4-keto-6 ... Oashi H, Matsuhashi M, Matsuhashi S (1971). "Thymidine diphosphate 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxyhexoses. IV Purification and ... properties of thymidine diphosphate 4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose transaminase from Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... thymidine and adenosine: Thymidine analogues: zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) Cytidine analogues: zalcitabine (ddC), ... Excision enhancement mutations, typically M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, and K219E/Q, are selected for by thymidine analogs ... AZT and D4T; and are therefore called thymidine analog mutations (TAMs). Other mutations including insertions and deletions in ...
It is an analog of thymidine, a nucleoside. It has shown effectiveness against herpes simplex virus. Mercuration of the 2'- ...
Pyrimidine analogues Thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymidine kinase Thymidine kinase in clinical chemistry Thymidylate kinase ... Thymidine is one of the nucleotides in DNA. With inhibition of TS, an imbalance of deoxynucleotides and increased levels of ...
"Total Synthesis of Thymidine 2-Deoxypolyoxine C Analogue". J. Org. Chem. 63: 2601-2608. doi:10.1021/jo972116s. ...
Thymidine can be phosphorylated by thymidine kinase (TK). Uridine can be phosphorylated by uridine kinase (UK). Cytidine can be ...
They used tritiated thymidine autoradiography to label the cells. Tritiated thymidine is incorporated into the DNA of dividing ... Therefore, Altman attributed the labeling in this region to the uptake of thymidine by dentate granule cells. However, he could ... Combining electron microscopy and tritiated thymidine labeling, they showed that labeled cells in the rat dentate gyrus have ... since no phenotypic markers were available that could be used in conjunction with thymidine autoradiography. The absence of ...
Huang DY, Chang ZF (June 2001). "Interaction of human thymidine kinase 1 with p21(Waf1)". Biochem. J. 356 (Pt 3): 829-34. doi: ...
This enzyme is also called thymidine-diphosphate-galactose dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in nucleotide sugars ...
Hazra S, Sabini E, Ort S, Konrad M, Lavie A (February 2009). "Extending thymidine kinase activity to the catalytic repertoire ... Saada A, Shaag A, Mandel H, Nevo Y, Eriksson S, Elpeleg O (November 2001). "Mutant mitochondrial thymidine kinase in ... kinetic characterization of human deoxycytidine kinase variants able to phosphorylate 5-substituted deoxycytidine and thymidine ...
Bankel L, Holme E, Lindstedt G, Lindstedt S (1972). "Oxygenases involved in thymine and thymidine metabolism in Neurospora ...
... during which time he published a paper about the effects of administering thymidine to mice. After he obtained his PhD in 1964 ... "Stimulation of mitosis in adult mice by administration of thymidine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
... an analog of thymidine". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 32 (1): 295-6. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(59)90597-9. PMID 13628760. ...
Nelson DJ, Carter CE (1969). "Purification and characterization of Thymidine 5-monophosphate kinase from Escherichia coli B". J ... Kielley RK (1970). "Purification and properties of thymidine monophosphate kinase from mouse hepatoma". J. Biol. Chem. 245 (16 ... Other names in common use include thymidine monophosphate kinase, thymidylate kinase, thymidylate monophosphate kinase, ... thymidylic acid kinase, thymidylic kinase, deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate kinase, TMPK, and thymidine 5'-monophosphate kinase ...
... the first betaherpesvirus with a thymidine kinase gene". Journal of General Virology. 87 (Pt 10): 2781-2789. doi:10.1099/vir. ...
2006). "The role of thymidine phosphorylase and uridine phosphorylase in (fluoro)pyrimidine metabolism in peripheral blood ... "Expression of uridine and thymidine phosphorylase genes in human breast carcinoma". Int J Cancer. 97 (5): 631-5. doi:10.1002/ ...
thymidine incorporation assay - (Nov/09/2004 ). Hi, everyone, I have been trying to do a 3[H] thymidine incorporation assay ... One point Id like to make is that if your thymidine is a bit old, this can present a problem with the sensitivity of the assay ... Then I pulsed with 1uCi/well [3H] thymidine for 18 hrs, harvested on a cell harverster onto a glass filter, let dry, and read ... Although the halflife of the isotope is quite long, the thymidine itself can decay to the point where it isnt incororated into ...
This modification is available as part of a custom oligonucleotide configuration. Please use OLIGObuilder™ to generate pricing and order or contact us to speak with a customer service representative. ...
Tritiated (3H) thymidine. 3 H-thymidine. Original method for measuring cell proliferation Radioactive Not compatible for ... 3 H-thymidine. Tritiated (3H) thymidine. 3 H-thymidine. Original method for measuring cell proliferation Radioactive Not ... PowerPoint Slideshow about Tritiated (3H) thymidine - zenobia. An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download ... On the evolution of thymidine synthesis: lateral gene transfer, viral involvement and early life ...
The cells possess an excess of thymidine kinase, and thymidine is phosphorylated as rapidly as it enters the cells and is ... Persantin and uridine competitively inhibited thymidine incorporation into the acid-soluble pool without inhibiting thymidine ... the initial rate of thymidine incorporation increased linearly with an increase in thymidine concentration in the medium and ... The apparent Km and Ki values were about the same as those for thymidine incorporation into the nucleotide pool. The over-all ...
N2 - The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the ... AB - The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the ... The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the ... abstract = "The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on ...
Thymidine Glycol 50 nmol scale \ 26-6487-05 for more molecular products just contact us ... thymidine kinase/TK TK] Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21). [thymidine kinase TK] Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21). [tmk Rv3247c] ... tdk UU594] Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21). [tdk BC_5330] Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21). [TK UL23] Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7. ... thymidine kinase: TK TK TT95_00102] Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21). [Tk1 Tk-1] Thymidine kinase, cytosolic (EC 2.7.1.21). [Tk1 ...
... fluoro Thymidine MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine safety information specifications ... 3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine 25526-93-6 MSDS. Section 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/MIXTURE Product identifiers. : 3′- ... Current Page: Home › Chemical Dictionary › 25526-93-6 › 3,-Deoxy-3,-fluoro Thymidine 25526-93-6 MSDS ...
Radiolabeled thymidine (TdR), such as tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR), is commonly used in cell proliferation assays. The ... Before the boom in thymidine use caused by the need for thymidine in the production of the antiretroviral drug azidothymidine ( ... AZT), much of the worlds thymidine production came from herring sperm. Thymidine occurs almost exclusively in DNA but it also ... deoxythymidine is often just called thymidine. Thymidine is listed as a chemical teratogen. Iododeoxyuridine is a ...
It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside thymidine. dTMP consists of a phosphate group, the pentose sugar ... Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid (conjugate base thymidylate), deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP ... Unlike the other deoxyribonucleotides, thymidine monophosphate often does not contain the "deoxy" prefix in its name; ... Dorlands Illustrated Medical Dictionary provides an explanation of the nomenclature variation at its entry for thymidine. As a ...
... which plays an important role in the making of thymidine triphosphate from thymine -- the only way thymine, cytosine, and oth ... thymidine kinase (thing). See all of thymidine kinase, no other writeups in this node. ... An enzyme (abbreviated tk) which plays an important role in the making of thymidine triphosphate from thymine -- the only way ... Thymidine kinase is also used as a selectable marker to identify transfected eukaryotic cells. From the BioTech Dictionary at ...
The Effect of Substrate Binding on the Conformation and Structural Stability of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase ... Thymidine kinase Herpes simplex virus type 1, different strains [TaxId: 10298] B. d1e2pb_. Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) P-loop ...
Thymidine, 3-O-acetyl, 5-O-TBDMS. *Formula: C18H30N2O6Si ...
The Effect of Substrate Binding on the Conformation and Structural Stability of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase ... THYMIDINE KINASE protein, length: 331 (BLAST) Sequence Similarity Cutoff. Rank. Chains in Cluster. Cluster ID / Name. ...
V. Vanheusden, P. Van Rompaey, H. Munier-Lehmann, S. Pochet, P. Herdewijn, and S. Van Calenbergh, "Thymidine and thymidine-5′-O ... "Computer-assisted combinatorial design of bicyclic thymidine analogs as inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine ... Design of Thymidine Analogues Targeting Thymidilate Kinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Luc Calvin Owono Owono,1,2,3 Melalie ... B. Gopalakrishnan, V. Aparna, J. Jeevan, M. Ravi, and G. R. Desiraju, "A virtual screening approach for thymidine monophosphate ...
ATP + thymidine = ADP + thymidine 5-phosphate.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... Thymidine kinaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ... Belongs to the thymidine kinase family.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... tr,B1VAS4,B1VAS4_PHYAS Thymidine kinase OS=Phytoplasma australiense OX=59748 GN=tdk PE=3 SV=1 ...
104 patients were enrolled. At week 52, mdian reductions in serum HBV DNA, in log10 copies/ml, for the 5 treatment groups were: 4.66 for lamivudine, 6.43 for LdT 400 mg/day, 6.09 for LdT 600 mg/day, 6.40 for LdT 400 mg/day + lamivudine, and 6.05 for LdT 600 mg/day + lamivudine. All study treatments were well tolerated. Key efficacy results at week 52 for comparisons of treatment type (Lam vs LdT vs Combination) are as follows ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
In vitro transcription of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus. G S Read and W C Summers ... In vitro transcription of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus ... In vitro transcription of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus ... In vitro transcription of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus ...
... Tim ONeal and Clayton Smith 07 Contents:. I. Introduction II. General Structure III. ATP ... Finally, thymidine kinase acts catalytically to phosphorylate thymidine , readiying it for further phosphorylation and eventual ... The thymidine binding site is in the center of each monomer, where helices H2, H3 and H4 form a pocket for dT . ... The two subunits of the thymidine kinase dimer each consist of 376 amino acids (Champness et al, 1998) and contain 15 α-helices ...
ATP + thymidine = ADP + thymidine 5-phosphate.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... Thymidine kinaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ... Belongs to the thymidine kinase family.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ... tr,S5R459,S5R459_9STRE Thymidine kinase OS=Streptococcus lutetiensis 033 GN=tdk PE=3 SV=1 ...
Thymidine powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture; CAS Number: 50-89-5; EC Number: 200-070-4; Synonym: 1-(2-Deoxy-β-D- ... How long can I store media supplemented with Product T1895, Thymidine? Thymidine is a component of Nutrient Mixture F-12 at ... Thymidine powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture Synonym: 1-(2-Deoxy-β-. D. -ribofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil, 1-(2-Deoxy-β ... How can I sterilize a solution of Product T1895, Thymidine? Solutions can be sterile filtered using 0.2 μm filters (low protein ...
AMIGO entry for GO code 0009032: thymidine phosphorylase. 60x45px. This enzyme-related article is a stub. You can help ... thymidine + phosphate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. thymine + 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate. Thus, the two ... I. Thymidine phosphorylase in mammalian tissue". J. Biol. Chem. 207: 245-, 56. PMID 13152099.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is thymidine:phosphate deoxy-alpha-D-ribosyltransferase. Other names in common use ...
... thymidine phosphorylase), Authors: Irene V Bijnsdorp, Godefridus J Peters. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... Altered thymidine metabolism due to defects of thymidine phosphorylase.. Spinazzola A, Marti R, Nishino I, Andreu AL, Naini A, ... Catabolism of thymidine in human blood platelets: purification and properties of thymidine phosphorylase.. ... metabolic process chemotaxis growth factor activity thymidine phosphorylase activity thymidine phosphorylase activity thymidine ...
An unusual internal ribosome entry site in the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. Anthony Griffiths and Donald M. Coen ... The herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene that encodes thymidine kinase (TK) has long served as a model for studies of eukaryotic ... We have investigated a herpes simplex virus mutant that expresses low levels of thymidine kinase (TK), a phenotype associated ... Abbreviations: HSV, herpes simplex virus; TK, thymidine kinase; IRES, internal ribosome entry site; ACV, acyclovir; ACVr, ACV- ...
Metabolic Effects of Non-Thymidine Analogue Anti-HIV Medications. Official Title Effects of Thymidine Sparing Regimens on ... Metabolic Effects of Non-Thymidine Analogue Anti-HIV Medications. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The main objective of this study is to observe the effects of anti-HIV medication lacking thymidine on mitochondrial metabolism ... The changes in mitochondrial activity and fat cell death will be compared between participants taking thymidine-sparing ...
Thymidine Kinase 1 overexpression 293T lysate (whole cell) Lysates datasheet (ab94157). Abcam offers quality products including ... All lanes : Anti-Thymidine Kinase 1 antibody (ab57757) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : Thymidine Kinase 1 overexpression 293T ... ab94157 is a 293T cell transfected lysate in which Human Thymidine Kinase 1 has been transiently over-expressed using a pCMV- ... Similarity: Belongs to the thymidine kinase family. PTM: Phosphorylated on Ser-13 in mitosis. ...
Genetic incorporation of HSV-1 thymidine kinase into the adenovirus protein IX for functional display on the virion. Li, J., Le ... MicroPET imaging of Cre-loxP-mediated conditional activation of a herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase reporter gene. ... Therapy of colon cancer with oncolytic adenovirus is enhanced by the addition of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase. Wildner ... Crystal structures of the thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus type-1 in complex with deoxythymidine and ganciclovir. ...
Thymidine, 3-O-(trimethylsilyl)-, 5-[bis(trimethylsilyl) phosphate] , C19H39N2O8PSi3 , CID 557067 - structure, chemical names ...
Shop a large selection of Proteins A-Z products and learn more about Novus Biologicals PD-ECGF/Thymidine Phosphorylase Protein ... A recombinant protein with a N-Terminal His-tag and corresponding to the amino acids 11-482 of Human PD-ECGF/Thymidine ... The Recombinant Human PD-ECGF/Thymidine Phosphorylase Protein has been validated for the following applications: SDS-Page. ... Phosphorylase The Recombinant Human PD-ECGF/Thymidine Phosphorylase Protein is derived from E. coli. ...
Escherichia coli, strain 15T-L-, inactivation by H3-thymidine decay was used in a study of DNA segregation. Two characteristics ... DNA Segregation in Escherichia coli: Observations by Means of Tritiated Thymidine Decay ... DNA Segregation in Escherichia coli: Observations by Means of Tritiated Thymidine Decay ... DNA Segregation in Escherichia coli: Observations by Means of Tritiated Thymidine Decay ...
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Thymidine Kinase 1/TK1 antibody [EPR3193]. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt and ... Anti-Thymidine Kinase 1/TK1 antibody [EPR3193] (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab201259) *Anti-Thymidine Kinase 1/TK1 antibody [EPR3193] - ... Anti-Thymidine Kinase 1/TK1 antibody [EPR3193]. See all Thymidine Kinase 1/TK1 primary antibodies. ... Kindly advise which of the following will specificaly recognize Thymidine Kinase 1 and will not cross react with Thymidine ...
African swine fever virus and Escherichia coli thymidine kinases: a biochemical, molecular and phylogenetic analysis THYMIDINE ... Thymidine incorporation rates and bacterioplankton dynamics during early spring in Lake Erken THYMIDINE$ ... Thymidine incorporation as a measure of bacterial production in lakes THYMIDINE$ ... Thymidine incorporation as a measure of bacterial production in lakes Acta Univ. upsaliensis.Comprehensive summaries of Uppsala ...
Compare Thymidine Phosphorylase ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order Thymidine Phosphorylase ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Dog, Guinea Pig and more. ... Browse our Thymidine Phosphorylase (TYMP) ELISA Kits. Full name:. Thymidine Phosphorylase ELISA Kits (TYMP). On www.antibodies- ... Top referenced Thymidine Phosphorylase ELISA Kits. Show all Thymidine Phosphorylase (TYMP) ELISA Kits with Pubmed References. * ...
... thymidine kinase 1, soluble , thymidine kinase 1 , Thymidine kinase, cytosolic , thymidine kinase , thymidine kinase 1 soluble ... anti-Thymidine Kinase 1, Soluble Antikörper catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate of ATP to thymidine to form ... catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate of ATP to thymidine to form thymidine 5-phosphate (dTMP) ... anti-Thymidine Kinase 1, Soluble (TK1) (AA 1-234) Antikörper Primary Antibody TK1 Reaktivität: Human ELISA, WB Wirt: Maus ...
The object of this study was to clarify the association of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)/thymidine ... Angiogenesis and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase expression in cervical cancer.. Kodama ...
The effects of insulin and glucagon on DNA synthesis as noted by tritiated thymidine incorporation into the esophagus, ... The hormones affected the incorporation of thymidine into DNA in all of the examined organs but in different ways and at ... The findings indicated that insulin and glucagon were each capable of stimulating thymidine incorporation into DNA in the small ... Circadian stage-dependent effects of insulin and glucagon on incorporation of (3H)thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid in the ...
  • The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the assumption that measurement of uptake of these nucleosides, a function primarily of thymidine kinase-1 (TK 1 ) activity, provides an accurate measure of active cell proliferation in tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Other names in common use include pyrimidine phosphorylase , thymidine-orthophosphate deoxyribosyltransferase , animal growth regulators, blood platelet-derived endothelial cell , growth factors , blood platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor , deoxythymidine phosphorylase , gliostatins , pyrimidine deoxynucleoside phosphorylase , and thymidine:phosphate deoxy-D-ribosyltransferase . (wikidoc.org)
  • Thymidine phosphorylase is located at chromosome 22 in the region of q13.33. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Thymidine phosphorylase was first identified as the platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, because it was related to endothelial cell growth (Miyazono et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1989). Later on, it was found that it was identical to thymidine phosphorylase (Furukawa et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1992). Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is the most correct name to refer to this protein, since it catalyzes the phopshorolysis of thymidine to thymine. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • A recombinant protein with a N-Terminal His-tag and corresponding to the amino acids 11-482 of Human PD-ECGF/Thymidine Phosphorylase The Recombinant Human PD-ECGF/Thymidine Phosphorylase Protein is derived from E. coli. (fishersci.com)
  • The Recombinant Human PD-ECGF/Thymidine Phosphorylase Protein has been validated for the following applications: SDS-Page. (fishersci.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 37 Thymidine Phosphorylase (TYMP) ELISA Kits from 12 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Thymidine Phosphorylase Antibodies (125) and Thymidine Phosphorylase Proteins (15) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A total of 181 Thymidine Phosphorylase products are currently listed. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Data show that thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP ) positive patients had higher systemic immune-inflammation index ( SII (show TCEA1 ELISA Kits )) score. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Investigated the contribution of myeloma-expressed thymidine phosphorylase (TP ) to bone lesions. (antibodies-online.com)
  • TP(thymidine phosphorylase ) curbed the expression of three proteins- IRF8 (show IRF8 ELISA Kits ), RUNX2 (show RUNX2 ELISA Kits ), and osterix (show SP7 ELISA Kits ). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Angiogenesis and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase expression in cervical cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The object of this study was to clarify the association of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)/thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase), separately assessed in cancer cells and in stroma cells, with clinicopathological factors including tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in cervical cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a multifunctional protein frequently overexpressed in many types of cancer. (igi-global.com)
  • Recognizes a protein (amino acid 482) of 55kDa (in vivo 110kDa homodimer), identified as platelet-derived endothelial growth factor (PD-ECGF), same as thymidine phosphorylase (TP) or gliostatin. (genetex.com)
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human Placenta stained with Thymidine Phosphorylase / PD-ECGF Monoclonal Antibody (SPM322). (genetex.com)
  • Neither compound was a substrate of recombinant human thymidine phosphorylase nor were their respective 5′-monophosphates substrates of 5′-deoxynucleotidase 1, thereby indicating potential in vivo stability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The authors found that an enzyme produced by myeloma cells, called thymidine phosphorylase (TP), suppressed osteoblast activity (new bone formation) and enhanced osteoclast activity (bone resorption). (sciencemag.org)
  • MNGIE is a fatal, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in TYMP, a nuclear gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP), leading to accumulation of thymidine (dThd) and deoxyuridine (dUrd) in all tissues. (bmj.com)
  • Objective- Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) reportedly promotes endothelial cell migration and induces heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), also known as platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), has been reported to elicit a strong angiogenic response reflecting enhanced endothelial cell migration, but not proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • From this study, (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxy-4'-thiouridine emerged as a promising candidate compound for the treatment of HSV-1 TK gene-transfected tumors in vivo, due to its metabolic stability (i.e., resistance to hydrolysis by thymidine phosphorylase). (kuleuven.be)
  • Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is an enzyme involved in the reversible conversion of thymidine to thymine and is identical to an angiogenic factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), TP is expressed at higher levels in a wide variety of solid tumors than in the adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Takebayashi, Y.: 'Thymidine phosphorylase in human esophageal squmous cell carcinoma'Cancer. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thymidine phosphorylase (TP, EC 2. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Yuichi Nakajima, Radha Madhyastha and Masugi Maruyama, " 2-Deoxy-D-Ribose, a Downstream Mediator of Thymidine Phosphorylase, Regulates Tumor Angiogenesis and Progression", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2009) 9: 239. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Since thymine nucleotides are precursors of DNA (but not RNA), the prefix "deoxy" is often left out, i.e., deoxythymidine is often just called thymidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme (abbreviated tk ) which plays an important role in the making of thymidine triphosphate from thymine -- the only way thymine , cytosine , and other pyrimidine molecule s are able to become part of nucleic acid s. (everything2.com)
  • Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are thymidine and phosphate , whereas its two products are thymine and 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate . (wikidoc.org)
  • TP catalyzes the phosphorolysis of thymidine (TdR) to thymine and 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate (dR-1-P). TP can also catalyze the formation of thymidine from thymine and dR-1-P. TP also catalyzes the phosphorolysis of deoxyuridine to uracil and dR-1-P. TP also has deoxyribosyl transferase activity by which the deoxyribosyl moiety is transferred from a pyrimidine nucleoside to another pyrimidine base. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In order to label DNA in Escherichia coli , either radioactive thymine or thymidine is generally used because these compounds are specifically incorporated into DNA. (asm.org)
  • The availability of thyA mutants unable to synthesize thymidylate makes it possible to control the specific activity of the isotopic labeling of newly synthesized DNA by adjusting the specific activity of exogenous thymine or thymidine. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, TTP pools are decreased in most of the strains when they grow at high thymidine concentrations, and some mutants requiring low concentrations of thymine ( thyA deoC mutants) are very sensitive to thymidine, most likely due to the inhibition of TMP kinase ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Results from pulse-chase experiments indicate that a rapid turnover of dTTP to thymidine may be involved in limiting the level of thymine nucleotides in the cell. (rupress.org)
  • 4), an enzyme involved in the reversible conversion of thymidine to thymine, is an important mediator of angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, metastasis and invasion. (eurekaselect.com)
  • article{c7e8dbb6-62ac-4ab9-b344-d3300129820a, abstract = {A simplified method using centrifugation and microcentrifuge tubes instead of filtration to measure bacterial activity using thymidine or leucine incorporation, originally used in aquatic habitats, has been adapted for soil. (lu.se)
  • Instead of thymidine, RNA contains uridine (uracil joined to ribose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Persantin and uridine competitively inhibited thymidine incorporation into the acid-soluble pool without inhibiting thymidine phosphorylation. (rupress.org)
  • At concentrations below 2 µ M , thymidine incorporation into DNA also followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was inhibited in an apparently competitive manner by Persantin and uridine. (rupress.org)
  • Evidence is presented that indicates that uridine and thymidine are transported by different systems. (rupress.org)
  • Thymidine kinase activity in rat C6 glioma cells is inhibited by 50 to 70% after 4 hr incubation with 20 mM D-glucosamine. (nih.gov)
  • The magnitude of inhibition of thymidine kinase activity and amino acid incorporation by D-glucosamine was comparable to that produced by cycloheximide, suggesting that the inhibition might arise from interference with enzyme synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • However, whereas the kinetics of recovery of amino acid incorporation from inhibition was rapid, thymidine kinase activity was depressed for at least 6 hr after drug washout. (nih.gov)
  • talks.cam : Can serum thymidine kinase activity differentiate canine IBD and GI lymphoma? (cam.ac.uk)
  • The cell line LM(TK-) Cl 1D, a derivative of mouse L fibroblasts deficient in thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21) that shows very little thymidine kinase activity in extracts of whole cells as compared to the parental line, and that does not incorporate thymidine or 5-bromodeoxyuridine into nuclear DNA, has maintained the capacity to incorporate these precursors into mitochondrial DNA at a substantial rate. (caltech.edu)
  • These results strongly suggest that the loss of thymidine kinase activity in the extramitochondrial compartment of LM(TK-) Cl 1D cells has not been accompanied by the loss of the mitochondria-associated enzyme activity, pointing to a different genetic or epigenetic control of the extramitochondrial and mitochondrial enzymes. (caltech.edu)
  • The main objective of this study is to observe the effects of anti-HIV medication lacking thymidine on mitochondrial metabolism and adipocyte apoptosis (fat cell death). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • On the other hand, the use of a thymidine concentration higher than that required can affect nucleotide metabolism by allosterically inhibiting ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, decreasing dCTP pools ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Among these targets is human thymidine phosporylase (TP), a multifunctional protein that has an important role in pyrimidine nucleoside metabolism and is associated with the maintenance of healthy mitochondria and the recovery of cells from pathological stress. (igi-global.com)
  • Cytosolic thymidine kinase, TK1, is a well-known cell cycle regulated enzyme of importance in nucleotide metabolism as well as an activator of antiviral and anticancer drugs as AZT. (ruc.dk)
  • In recent years, development of PET radiotracer has focused on thymidine (TdR) analogs for imaging cell proliferation that are resistant to metabolism in vivo. (usc.edu)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is thymidine:phosphate deoxy-alpha-D-ribosyltransferase . (wikidoc.org)
  • However, when this threonine was changed to serine the enzyme was still active but with different apparent Michaelis constants (Km) for thymidine and ATP. (nih.gov)
  • The wild-type thymidine kinase has apparent Km's of 0.5 and 20 microM for thymidine and ATP, respectively, while the mutant enzyme displayed Km's of 2.3 and 60 microM for thymidine and ATP. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that this homologous segment is essential for the function of the thymidine kinase and is involved in the substrate binding domain of the enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Thymidine kinase (TK) is a key enzyme of the salvage pathway that recycles thymidine nucleosides to produce deoxythymidine triphosphate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thymidine kinase (TK) is a crucial enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Aims: Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis and an important proliferation marker. (diva-portal.org)
  • The inhibition is uncompetitive with respect to thymidine, reducing both the apparent Km and Vmax of the enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • The results presented are best explained by assuming either that two forms of thymidine kinase are present in rat C6 cells and are differently affected by D-glucosamine or that D-glucosamine acts by two separate mechanisms to inhibit a single form of the enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Thymidine analogs containing o -carboranylalkyl groups at the 3-position were screened as potential substrates for human thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), an enzyme that is selectively expressed in a variety of rapidly proliferating cells, including tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They can be phosphorylated to their corresponding 5′-monophosphates by thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of γ-phosphate group from ATP to the 5′-hydroxyl group of dThd and deoxyuridine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To be retained in cells, [18F]FLT is phosphorylated by thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), the first enzyme in the salvage pathway for DNA synthesis, and for this reason the cellular incorporation of [18F]FLT is dependent on TK1 activity. (bl.uk)
  • The activity of thymidine kinase may also be increased by concentrations of thymidine greater than 5μ m , which overcome the inhibition of the enzyme by dTTP. (biochemj.org)
  • Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a salvage enzyme that phosphorylates thymidine, imported from surrounding fluids, to create dTMP, which is further phosphorylated to the DNA precursor dTTP. (nih.gov)
  • Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) is a key enzyme in DNA synthesis and it is up-regulated in the S phase of cell growth. (labroots.com)
  • 5-Ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) is a thymidine analog which is incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells and is used to assay DNA synthesis in cell culture or living tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of inorganic orthophosphate, it catalyzes the reversible phospholytic cleavage of thymidine and deoxyuridine to their corresponding bases and 2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate. (genetex.com)
  • The PmTK1 gene was sub-cloned into Escherichia coli KY895 and it sensitized the host towards 2',2'-difluoro-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine, dFdC), 3'-azido-thymidine (AZT) and 5-fluoro-deoxyuridine (5F-dU). (lu.se)
  • When [methyl- 3 H]thymidine is incorporated into cellular DNA and undergoes radiolytic decomposition, [ 3 H]5-hydroxymethyl-2''-deoxyuridine (HMdU) is formed. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Mutations in the thymidine kinase gene ( tk ) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) explain most cases of virus resistance to acyclovir (ACV) treatment. (asm.org)
  • Synergistic effects on ganglionic herpes simplex virus infections by mutations or drugs that inhibit the viral polymerase and thymidine kinase. (harvard.edu)
  • Since thymidine analog-associated mutations (TAMs) in HIV-1 confer reduced TFV susceptibility, patients with TAM-containing HIV-1 may benefit from higher TFV-DP levels delivered by TAF. (asm.org)
  • The effect of accumulated thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) on phenotypic resistance over time has been poorly characterized in the African setting. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 6 , 7 Unsurprisingly, therefore, thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) have been reported in patients following viral failure of tenofovir-containing first-line regimens, 8 contributing to multidrug resistance in these individuals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The hormones affected the incorporation of thymidine into DNA in all of the examined organs but in different ways and at different circadian stages. (cdc.gov)
  • The TP gene encodes an angiogenic factor which promotes angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo and is involved in nucleotide synthesis and thymidine phosphorolysis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1989). It is implicated in nucleotide synthesis and degradation of thymidine. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The effects of insulin and glucagon on DNA synthesis as noted by tritiated thymidine incorporation into the esophagus, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, cecum, colon, rectum, and spleen were determined using 6 week old female BALB/Cann-mice on 12 hour light, 12 hour dark schedules. (cdc.gov)
  • Thymidine kinase (TK) belongs to a group of enzymes such as dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase, and DNA polymerase that are involved in DNA synthesis and precursor production. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • TK is responsible for catalyzing the phosphorylation of thymidine, which functions as a part of the pyrimidine salvage pathway involved in DNA synthesis. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Thymidine kinases are key enzymes in the salvage pathway of TdR synthesis and have been the targets for designing nucleoside analogues for monitoring cellular proliferation. (usc.edu)
  • Although Somjen et al 21 reported that TP/PD-ECGF inhibits DNA synthesis in cultured smooth muscle cells based on radiolabeled thymidine uptake and incorporation, previous reports have shown that the effects of TP/PD-ECGF on cellular uptake of [methyl-3H]thymidine arise from its effect on the availability of thymidine in the extracellular culture medium, 22,23 and the mechanism has not been elucidated. (ahajournals.org)
  • The efficient incorporation of reporter groups into oligonucleotides at specific sites has been facilitated by the synthesis of a novel modified thymidine monomer with an FMOC-protected hydroxyl group on a linker. (soton.ac.uk)
  • 1. Thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) carried out at 72 h before partial hepatectomy (PH) reduced the induction of hepatic thymidylate synthetase (TS) and thymidine kinase (TK), which are rate-determining enzymes in DNA synthesis, at 24 h after PH. (clinsci.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) converts ganciclovir (GCV) into an active compound, which can be incorporated into DNA molecules and terminate DNA synthesis. (cun.es)
  • Upon inhibition of DNA synthesis, net thymidine incorporation into the acid-soluble pool ceased rapidly. (rupress.org)
  • Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Apart from the complex de novo synthesis of dTTP through UDP reduction, dTTP is provided through salvage of thymidine catalyzed by the thymidine kinases, the cytosolic and cell cycle regulated TK1 and the mitochondrial and constitutively expressed TK2. (ruc.dk)
  • We transcribed in vitro a cloned 3.5-kilobase fragment of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA that contains the gene for the viral thymidine kinase. (pnas.org)
  • We have investigated a herpes simplex virus mutant that expresses low levels of thymidine kinase (TK), a phenotype associated with drug resistance and pathogenicity, despite a single-base deletion in the gene. (pnas.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene that encodes thymidine kinase (TK) has long served as a model for studies of eukaryotic gene expression ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the Pasteurella multocida genome only one putative deoxyribonucleoside kinase encoding gene, for thymidine kinase 1 (PmTK1), was identified. (lu.se)
  • Colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480 was transfected with adenovirus expression vector containing cytosine deaminase (CD) and thymidine kinase (TK) fusion gene. (wjgnet.com)
  • The present study aimed to examine the apoptotic effects of adenovirus (ADV)‑mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (ADV‑TK) combined with ganciclovir (GCV) in tissues obtained from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of this gene therapy program. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy (GMCI) is a clinical intervention that forms a tumor-specific vaccine effect via intratumoral delivery of adenovirus (ADV)-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (ADV-TK) followed by a systemic anti-herpetic prodrug, such as valacyclovir or ganciclovir (GCV), in combination with standard tumor resection surgery or radiation ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Plant thymidine kinase 1: a novel efficient suicide gene for malignant glioma therapy. (curehunter.com)
  • A conserved open reading frame that overlaps the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene is important for viral growth in cell culture. (asm.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) is an extensively studied form of cytotoxic gene therapies. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Ann-Marie Maatta, Haritha Samaranayake, Jere Pikkarainen, Thomas Wirth and Seppo Yla-Herttuala, " Adenovirus Mediated Herpes Simplex Virus-Thymidine Kinase/Ganciclovir Gene Therapy for Resectable Malignant Glioma", Current Gene Therapy (2009) 9: 356. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In mammals thymidine kinase supplies deoxyribonucleotides for DNA replication and DNA repair, and the expression of the gene is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. (deepdyve.com)
  • A series of selective antiherpetic compounds were found to exert pronounced cytostatic activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) thymidine kinase (TK) gene-transfected mammary carcinoma FM3A cells. (kuleuven.be)
  • The rapid gene repair observed clearly demonstrates that culturing of TK1+ cells in thymidine free media has no effect on the level of preferential repair. (nih.gov)
  • The growth of TK1+ cells in thymidine free media (Raji TK+ Thy-) had no impact on the proficiency of single strand repair of bulk DNA in Raji TK1+ cells (Figure 5A) or gene region-specific repair of TP53 (Figure 5B) or hTERT (Figure 5C). (nih.gov)
  • Substituted 3'-thiourea derivatives of beta-thymidine (dThd) and 5'-thiourea derivatives of alpha-dThd have been evaluated for their inhibitory activity against recombinant human cytosolic dThd kin. (ugent.be)
  • Substituted 3'-thiourea derivatives of beta-thymidine (dThd) and 5'-thiourea derivatives of alpha-dThd have been evaluated for their inhibitory activity against recombinant human cytosolic dThd kinase-1 (TK-1), human mitochondrial TK-2, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) TK, and varicella-zoster virus TK. (ugent.be)
  • The initial rate of thymidine- 3 H incorporation into the acid-soluble pool by cultured Novikoff rat hepatoma cells was investigated as a function of the thymidine concentration in the medium. (rupress.org)
  • The effects of thymidine and its analogues on the differentiation of antibody-forming cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thymidine (Tdr) and its analogues 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdr) and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdr) inhibited the development of antibody-producing cells (PFC) in cultures of explants of rabbit spleen stimulated with sheep red cells in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vanheusden V, Van Rompaey P, MUNIER-LEHMANN H, POCHET S, HERDEWIJN P, Van Calenbergh S. Thymidine and thymidine-5 '-O-monophosphate analogues as inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidylate kinase. (ugent.be)
  • 3 Although countries have scaled up use of tenofovir, thymidine analogues such as stavudine or zidovudine are still in use. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 , 5 As tenofovir becomes available, increasing numbers of individuals are substituting thymidine analogues for tenofovir without documented viral suppression at switch, carrying risk for acquisition of drug resistance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our results suggest that thymidine kinase contributes to several DNA repair pathways by providing deoxythymidine triphosphate that serve as precursors for DNA repair and to balance deoxyribonucleotides pools. (deepdyve.com)
  • Radiolabeled thymidine (TdR), such as tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR), is commonly used in cell proliferation assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thymidine is incorporated into dividing cells and the level of this incorporation, measured using a liquid scintillation counter, is proportional to the amount of cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of T cell proliferation and the production of inflammatory cytokines may be induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) protein, which has been described to resemble a super-antigen molecule ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The findings indicated that insulin and glucagon were each capable of stimulating thymidine incorporation into DNA in the small intestine. (cdc.gov)
  • As the purpose of this protein is to phosphorylate an unphosphorylated thymidine (dT), one of the most important abilities of TK is its ability to bind ATP as a substrate and eventally catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to thymidine. (kenyon.edu)
  • Pretreatment of the cells with 40 or 100 µ M p -chloromercuribenzoate for 15 min or heat-shock (49.5°C, 5 min) markedly reduced the saturable component of uptake without affecting the unsaturable component or the phosphorylation of thymidine. (rupress.org)
  • Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid (conjugate base thymidylate), deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), or deoxythymidylic acid (conjugate base deoxythymidylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of a nucleotide-binding domain in HSV-1 thymidine kinase: effects on catalytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • The apparent K m and K i values were about the same as those for thymidine incorporation into the nucleotide pool. (rupress.org)
  • The over-all results indicate that uptake is the rate-limiting step in the incorporation of thymidine into the nucleotide pool as well as into DNA. (rupress.org)
  • Plasencia, Javier 2014-12-24 00:00:00 Thymidine kinase catalyzes the first step in the nucleotide salvage pathway by transferring a phosphate group to a thymidine molecule. (deepdyve.com)
  • The thymidine of dTTP is hydrogen bonded to main-chain atoms predominantly coming from the lasso loop. (ruc.dk)
  • Serum deoxycytidine normally maintains a sufficient intracellular concentration of dTTP to inhibit partially the activity of thymidine kinase. (biochemj.org)
  • When the dTTP concentration is lowered, either by decreasing the concentration of deoxycytidine or by inhibiting thymidylate synthetase, the activity of thymidine kinase increases. (biochemj.org)
  • Pasteurella multocida thymidine kinase 1 efficiently activates pyrimidine nucleoside analogs. (lu.se)
  • In vivo labeling of fission yeast DNA with thymidine and thymidine analogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside thymidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • To examine the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype and body composition changes induced by thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI) use in HIV-positive individuals. (edu.au)
  • The addition of D-glucosamine or its metabolites to cell-free thymidine kinase produced an inhibition which differed quantitatively and qualitatively from that which resulted from treatment of intact cells with D-glucosamine. (nih.gov)
  • These compounds showed partial competitive inhibition for thymidine phosphorylation by TK1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ganciclovir is a potent HSV TK targeting drug that binds specifically to the viral thymidine kinase in place of dT. (kenyon.edu)
  • In this study, a human mitochondrial thymidine kinase (hTK2) was expressed in an attempt to characterize in detail its kinetic parameters. (usc.edu)
  • Munch-Petersen, B 2010, ' Enzymatic Regulation of Cytosolic Thymidine Kinase 1 and Mitochondrial Thymidine Kinase 2: A Mini Review ', Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids , vol. 29, no. 4-6, pp. 363-369. (ruc.dk)
  • Human mitochondrial thymidine kinase is selecti. (ugent.be)
  • This antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide selected from the N-terminal region of Epstein-Barr thymidine kinase. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This antibody reacts to Epstein-Barr thymidine kinase. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The thymidine kinase encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 contains an amino acid sequence homologous to a consensus sequence related to the ATP-binding site in many proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Preclinical safety evaluation of 18F-FHBG: a PET reporter probe for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) or mutant HSV1-sr39tk's expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We engineered T cells to express CD19-specific CAR, firefly luciferase (ffLuc), and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (TK) using the non-viral-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system adapted for human application. (springermedizin.de)
  • Extracts from uninfected HeLa cells produced five in vitro transcripts, one of which initiated at the in vivo start site for the thymidine kinase mRNA (an early viral message). (pnas.org)
  • Virological failure occurs in 15%-35% of patients treated with thymidine analogue-containing first-line cART within the first year, with the majority harbouring resistance to NNRTI and lamivudine in areas without access to viral load monitoring. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We report here the cloning and successful application of a novel thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) from the tomato plant, with favorable characteristics in vitro and in vivo. (curehunter.com)
  • 9-(4-(18)F-Fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl]butyl)guanine ((18)F-FHBG) is a sensitive and specific PET reporter probe for imaging the PET reporter genes, herpes simplex 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and its mutant HSV1-sr39tk. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Analyses were also carried out for each HLA supertype strata, for five HLA genes, within the thymidine-exposed group. (edu.au)
  • The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has two thymidine kinase genes (AtTK1a and AtTK1b) and microarray data suggest they might have redundant roles. (deepdyve.com)
  • Application of [ 3 H]Thymidine can be found in: carboxy-terminal PTH fragments stimulating incorporation in vascular endothelial cells, quantification of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) hypersensitivity in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), influence of parasympathetic non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mechanisms on uptake (rat) in response to mastication, measurement of dendritic cell induced T cell response by intracellular ATP levels and uptake in human immunology, etc. (perkinelmer.com)
  • 2-Deoxy-D-ribose (D-dRib), one of the degradation products of thymidine generated by TP activity, promotes angiogenesis and the chemotactic activity of endothelial cells and also confers resistance to hypoxia-induced apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Inhibitory effect of solar radiation on thymidine and leucine incorporation by freshwater and marine bacterioplankton. (asm.org)
  • A simplified method using centrifugation and microcentrifuge tubes instead of filtration to measure bacterial activity using thymidine or leucine incorporation, originally used in aquatic habitats, has been adapted for soil. (lu.se)
  • catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate of ATP to thymidine to form thymidine 5'-phosphate (dTMP). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Among the degradation products of thymidine produced by PD-ECGF/TP, 2-deoxy-D-ribose partially prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis, 2-Deoxy-L-ribose abrogated the effects of 2-deoxy-D-ribose. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The selectivity of ACV as an antiherpesvirus drug is based on its specific interaction with virus-encoded enzymes, thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (DNA Pol). (asm.org)
  • The sugars that are formed by degradation of thymidine are thought to play a role in the induction of angiogenesis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • What concentration of Product T1895, Thymidine,is used for testing this product for cell culture applications? (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The tested working concentration for cell culture for Thymidine is 8 mg/L. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Changes of thymidine concentration in the growth medium affect the chromosome replication time of Thy − strains without at the same time causing a detectable difference in the growth rate (R. H. Pritchard and A. Zaritsky, Nature 226:126-131, 1970). (asm.org)
  • Consequently, the optimal thymidine concentration cannot be determined by ascertaining which concentration produces the highest growth rate. (asm.org)
  • Here we present a method for determining the optimal thymidine concentration of any Thy − Escherichia coli strain. (asm.org)
  • On the one hand, the use of any thymidine concentration lower than that required slows down replication velocity without changing the growth rate, and as replication initiates once every cell cycle, the consequence is an increasing number of replication forks along the chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Finally, the use of any thymidine concentration higher than that required decreases the specific activity of the labeling, and therefore a higher radioactive concentration must be used. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, procedures for securing the optimal thymidine concentration have not always been carried out properly or have even been ignored. (asm.org)
  • Finding the optimal thymidine concentration, i.e., the minimal thymidine concentration giving the minimal C period, is therefore an important factor for determining the required growth medium of a Thy − mutant, and it is essential for any analysis related to DNA replication and the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • But in contrast to any other requirements for bacterial growth, optimal thymidine concentration cannot be determined by ascertaining the concentration of thymidine giving the highest growth rate ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • In this work we show how the results from runout experiments can be used to obtain the optimal thymidine concentration for any Thy − strain. (asm.org)
  • The rescue by thymidine was concentration dependent, but as little as 0.5 µ m thymidine was sufficient to substantially reduce the synergistic cytotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Between 2 and 200 µ M , on the other hand, the initial rate of thymidine incorporation increased linearly with an increase in thymidine concentration in the medium and was about the same at all four temperatures. (rupress.org)
  • and pool concentration at a critical thymidine concentration (approx. (biochemj.org)
  • Hi, everyone, I have been trying to do a 3[H] thymidine incorporation assay with CD4+CD25- cells isolated from mouse spleen. (protocol-online.org)
  • Hi Victoria, One point I'd like to make is that if your thymidine is a bit old, this can present a problem with the sensitivity of the assay. (protocol-online.org)
  • Immunology] Can 3H thymidine labeling in lymphocytes be successfully measured after cells are fixed? (bio.net)
  • When incorporated into ODN probes, the bis-substituted 3n7nz A ( 1 ) selectively recognized thymidine on target strands which was reported by a distinct change in its emission wavelength in the long wavelength region, whereas 37nz A ( 2 ) showed a preference for pairing to cytidine and a smaller wavelength shift. (rsc.org)
  • 5'-O-(4,4'-Dimethoxytrityl)-thymidine (CAS 40615-39-2) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in February, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that 5'-O-(4,4'-Dimethoxytrityl)-thymidine (CAS 40615-39-2) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Before the boom in thymidine use caused by the need for thymidine in the production of the antiretroviral drug azidothymidine (AZT), much of the world's thymidine production came from herring sperm. (wikipedia.org)