DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Mice, Inbred C57BLMethyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 220.127.116.11.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.DNA Breaks, Single-Stranded: Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA Breaks: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 18.104.22.168.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.GuanineL-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.DNA-Formamidopyrimidine Glycosylase: A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 22.214.171.124.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein: A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Recombinational DNA Repair: Repair of DNA DAMAGE by exchange of DNA between matching sequences, usually between the allelic DNA (ALLELES) of sister chromatids.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Retinal DiseasesLipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ataxia Telangiectasia: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by choreoathetosis beginning in childhood, progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA; TELANGIECTASIS of CONJUNCTIVA and SKIN; DYSARTHRIA; B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, and RADIOSENSITIVITY to IONIZING RADIATION. Affected individuals are prone to recurrent sinobronchopulmonary infections, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and other malignancies. Serum ALPHA-FETOPROTEINS are usually elevated. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p688) The gene for this disorder (ATM) encodes a cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase and has been mapped to chromosome 11 (11q22-q23).Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Damage to the successor teeth. Dental trauma to the primary teeth might cause damage to the permanent teeth. Damage to ... When the injured teeth are painful while functioning due to damage to the periodontal ligaments (e.g., dental subluxation), a ... The facial nerve and parotid duct should be examined for any potential damage when the buccal mucosa is involved. ... Common complications are pulpal necrosis, pulpal obliteration, root resorption and damage to the successors teeth in primary ...
DNA damage. Marking sites of DNA damage is an important function for histone modifications. It also protects DNA from ... H3S10 phosphorylation has also been linked to DNA damage caused by R-loop formation at highly transcribed sites.. ... Stewart GS, Wang B, Bignell CR, Taylor AM, Elledge SJ (Feb 2003). "MDC1 is a mediator of the mammalian DNA damage checkpoint". ... and forms a domain extending many kilobases either side of the damage. Gamma H2AX acts as a binding site for the ...
Superficial fruit damage is common in apple varieties which form compact fruit clusters, though more significant damage may ... Diet and damage. The insect is regarded as an herbivorous generalist, and the larvae feed on numerous horticultural crops ... Internal damage to apple, pear, and citrus fruits is less common, but a young larva may enter the interior of an apple or pear ... The larvae cause significant damage to foliage and fruit. Early instars feed on tissue beneath the upper epidermis (surface ...
5 Brain damage and mental changes *5.1 Extent of brain damage. *5.2 First-hand reports of mental changes *5.2.1 Harlow's 1848 ... Extent of brain damage. Debate as to whether the trauma and subsequent infection had damaged both of Gage's frontal lobes, or ... damage. Specifically, Van Horn et al. estimated that although "extensive damage occurred to left frontal, left temporal polar, ... Brain damage and mental changes. "The leading feature of this case is its improbability." Harvard's Henry J. Bigelow in 1854. ...
Possible reply to argument from brain damage. An argument was given by a Christian , and a similar type argument was ... Can this be included as a reply to the brain damage argument raised by Churchland or is this website not acceptable as a ... Regarding the second part, the argument is that brain damage can affect things that every dualist would consider purely ... Vallicella on the website NewDualism.org and he attempts to give a reply to the issue of brain damage/tampering with the brain ...
Damage to Nazca Lines. In December 2014, Greenpeace came under criticism following a publicity stunt within the Nazca ... Scopelianos, Sarah, "Cops investigate GM crop damage"  15 July 2011 *^ Alberts, et al, "Standing Up for GMOs"  20 ... Their environmental impacts have been shown repeatedly to be less damaging to the environment, and a boon to global ... Greenpeace responded with apologies, claiming that demonstrators took care to avoid damage, but this is contradicted by video ...
Breakage and other damage. Hair can be damaged by chemical exposure, prolonged or repeated heat exposure (as through the ... Treatment of damage. Split ends. Split ends, known formally as trichoptilosis, happen when the protective cuticle ... Damage or changes made to the visible hair shaft cannot be repaired by a biological process, though much can be done to manage ... Typically, the damaged hair fiber splits into two or three strands and the split may be two to three centimeters in length. ...
Israel denied that it carried out any attacks in the area at the time. According to the New York Times, "the damage ... For casualties, see Table 1; for damages, see Tables 15-21. *^ "IAF assassinates Hamas's rocket chief in Gaza Strip". Jerusalem ... It also damaged a mosque and a water tower. On 8 November, the IDF made a short-range incursion into Gaza after finding ... Damage. Based on a large-scale survey by workers in the field, which Al Mezan claims to be extremely accurate, Al Mezan ...
Organ damage. Cardiotoxicity (heart damage) is especially prominent with the use of anthracycline drugs (doxorubicin, ... The liver damage can consist of damage to liver cells, hepatic sinusoidal syndrome (obstruction of the veins in the liver), ... Hepatotoxicity (liver damage) can be caused by many cytotoxic drugs. The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be ... As these drugs cause damage to cells, they are termed cytotoxic. They prevent mitosis by various mechanisms including damaging ...
Nerve damage. *Damage to the vagus nerve after surgery. Evolutionary causes. Clearance of air from stomach ...
Damage. The fire covered 13 acres (53,000 m2) in 17 city blocks and destroyed between 530 and 700 buildings. This part ... The 1835 Great Fire of New York was one of three fires that rendered extensive damage to New York City in the 18th and 19th ... A report from London gave a colorful account of the damage, praising the resilience of the population: A most awful ... 20 million of property damage (equivalent to $508 million in 2018). ...
Damaging agents. The tamarack has thin bark and is therefore highly susceptible to fire damage, except perhaps in older, ... During an outbreak, the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) can severely damage tamarack. The larch-bud moth (Zeiraphera ... However, this rust, caused by the fungus Melampsora medusae, and other rusts do little damage to tamarack. The needle-cast ... fungus Hypodermella laricis has attacked tamarack in Ontario and has the potential for local damage. ...
In addition to the necessity of patching the damaged surface and repainting, if enough of the paper has been eaten, the gypsum ... Drywall damage caused by termites eating the paper, causing the paint to crumble. ...
Ecosystem damage and loss of land. Merowe Dam in Sudan. Hydroelectric power stations that use dams submerge large areas of land ...
"Collateral damage" section needed. Since there is no "criticism" section I suggest to create a "collateral damage" ...
Damage to enamel. Teeth enamel can have an adverse negative effect by whitening treatment. Evidence from studies show ... Although this effect is not as damaging as phosphoric acid etch, the increased irregularity of the teeth surface makes the ... If heavy staining or tetracycline damage is present on a patient's teeth, and whitening is ineffective (tetracycline staining ... Hydrogen peroxide with concentrations of 10% or higher can cause tissue damage, be corrosive to mucous membranes and cause ...
Several mechanisms are responsible for either inducing hepatic injury or worsening the damage process. Many chemicals damage ... "Liver Damage from Supplements is on the Rise".. *^ Chalasani, Naga P.; Hayashi, Paul H.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Navarro, Victor ... higher concentrations cause more liver damage) and well characterized mechanisms of toxicity, such as directly damaging liver ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage. Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and ...
Radiation damage. A common problem to X-ray crystallography and electron crystallography is radiation damage, by which ... Radiation damage was recently investigated using MicroED of thin 3D crystals in a frozen hydrated state. ... One technique used to limit radiation damage is electron cryomicroscopy, in which the samples undergo cryofixation and imaging ... This is especially troublesome in the setting of electron crystallography, where that radiation damage is focused on far fewer ...
Nerve damage. *Damage to the vagus nerve after surgery. Other known associations. *Although no clear ...
Damage was extensive in northern Bihar and minor damage was also reported from parts of Odisha. Shaking was felt in high- ... and another 120 incurred partial damage. Repair estimates are $160 million to restore 1,000 damaged and destroyed ... Damaged in the quakes were the structures in the three Durbar squares, the temple of Changu Narayan, and the 1655 temple in ... Smaller landslides occurred in the Trishuli River Valley with reports of significant damage at Mailung, Simle, and Archale. ...
... s are capable of a DNA damage response that is a critical mechanism for maintaining genome stability. The DNA damage ... Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may also be harmful or fatal to people. Both illegal ... DNA damage and repair. Plants are continuously exposed to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. These stresses often cause ... Yoshiyama, K.O. (2016). "SOG1: a master regulator of the DNA damage response in plants". Genes and Genetic Systems. 90 (4): 209 ...
Damage. BPH infest the rice crop at all stages of plant growth. As a result of feeding by both nymphs and adults at ... They damage rice directly through feeding and also by transmitting two viruses, rice ragged stunt virus and rice grassy stunt ...
Accident and neurological damage. In October 1981, Cochrane was involved in a single-vehicle accident on his way home ... However, damage to this area has left his semantic memory fully intact. This implies that episodic and semantic components of ... Both forms of amnesia are characterized by damage to the medial temporal lobes, specifically within the hippocampal region. ... As a result of his neurological damage, Cochrane suffered severe cognitive deficits that hindered his ability to form new ...
Tissue damaged by inflammation. After inflammation has damaged tissue (when combatting bacterial infection for example) ... blood vessels are repaired and new cells form in the damaged site similar to the cells that were damaged and removed. Some ... Red blood cells are also removed from the damaged tissue by macrophages. Failure to remove all of the damaged cells and ... It is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and ...
a b c S.Korea 'Unlikely' to Have Damaged N.Korean Artillery Positions Chosun Ilbo, 2010-12-1. ... Three of the six K9 Thunder 155mm guns stationed on Yeonpyong returned fire, while two were damaged and one blocked by a dud ... Extent of NK damage remains uncertain, The Korea Times, 2010-11-26. ... The shelling caused widespread damage on the island, killing four South Koreans and injuring 19. South Korea retaliated by ...
DNA damage and repair. DNA damage. DNA damage (or RNA damage in the case of some virus genomes) appears to be a ... Oxidative DNA damages usually involve only one of the DNA strands at any damaged site, but about 1-2% of damages involve both ... Types of damage. Some cell damage can be reversed once the stress is removed or if compensatory cellular changes occur. ... Repair of DNA damages. Five major pathways are employed in repairing different types of DNA damages. These five pathways ...
Even small amounts of ozone can cause ozone cracking in many polymers over time, in addition to the damage by the radiation ... All liquids are subject to radiation damage, with few exotic exceptions; e.g. molten sodium, where there are no chemical bonds ... In living organisms, which are composed mostly of water, majority of the damage is caused by the reactive oxygen species, free ... Two main approaches to reduce radiation damage are reducing the amount of energy deposited in the sensitive material (e.g. by ...
In mice, the damage can be partly repaired by neural precursor cells, delivered into the blood or spinal fluid. ... Equally important, however, is the repair of existing damage, and this is where Pluchino et al.1 come in. The authors started ... In damaged areas, they give rise to a pool of new myelin-producing cells (the oligodendroglial cells), and to new neurons (Fig ... When the damage is confined, a local injection of neural precursors might be beneficial. Similarly, in previous studies7,8, ...
As well, the reactive oxygen can damage enzymes that function to repair damaged DNA. There is evidence that radiation damage in ... Even the neighbouring cells may be damaged genetically. Thus, radiation damage, especially due to low levels of radiation, may ... which reacts with cellular components in a way that is damaging. DNA can be damaged, as can components called bases, which are ... Cheung, Kin P. Plasma Charging Damage. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2000. Mangano, Joseph, J. Low level radiation and Immune System ...
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... helps a reader get compensation for a camera damaged by a flight attendant. ... Can you please advise me on how I can pursue this claim? I do not think it is fair that I should be responsible for damage ... If an employee of the airline admits liability, then the airline should pay for the damage in much the same way that it would ... I checked the wording used by other airlines and most add the phrase "unless the damage was caused by our negligence or the ...
1.0 out of 5 stars Damaged Package Reviewed in the United States on April 13, 2019. Flavor: ChocolateSize: 30 Servings (Pack of ... The package was damaged and half of the protien powder was already spilled into the package it came in. The lid was opened and ...
Many invasive species call Hawaii "home." NWRC researchers are helping local wildlife managers reduce damage from coqui frogs, ... Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a rapidly expanding invasive species in the United States damaging agriculture, natural resources ... Invasive feral swine cause more than $1.5 billion annually in damage and management costs nationwide. ...
Many invasive species call Hawaii "home." NWRC researchers are helping local wildlife managers reduce damage from coqui frogs, ... Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a rapidly expanding invasive species in the United States damaging agriculture, natural resources ... Although beneficial in its native habitats of South America, the nutria (Myocastor coypus) causes significant ecological damage ... Invasive feral swine cause more than $1.5 billion annually in damage and management costs nationwide. ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
... damage (sco); cacat (id); skade (nn); 伤害 (zh-sg); 傷害 (zh-tw); šteta (hr); schade (nl); skada (sv); szkoda (pl); damage (en); ... Air raid damage done at one of the hospitals of the St. Johns Ambulance Association (4688505570).jpg 600 × 449; 48 KB. ... Media in category "Damage". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 492 total. ... Damage to the bike. Broken steering wheel. Broken while driving.JPG 1,822 × 1,065; 493 KB. ...
Coreflooding can also be used to simulate the sequences performed in the well, to try to identify the damaging mechanism. ... SPE 178018 Evaluation of Damage Mechanisms in Tight Gas Reservoirs: Field Example From Perth Basin by Nick Bahrami, SGS ... In a corresponding article from 2015, I quoted the title of Brant Bennions 1999 article "Formation Damage-The Impairment of ... Flemings main interest is within the area of formation damage from drilling and completion fluids and in wells under ...
Colorado flood damage. (Photo © Matt Sellars) An SUV slid into a crevice created by the flooding in west Boulder. ... Sellars said the worst damage hes seen in Boulder was the buildings swept away in the mud: "I tried to sneak up the canyon a ... The storms have damaged 17,500 structures and destroyed 1,500, the Colorado Office of Emergency Management said. ... His home lost power, but the damage to surrounding structures, including an office building plowed over by the water, was more ...
Water Damage Restoration - ☎ (888) 424-0570 Call Us Now! We are water damage experts and will be in your door ASAP. W... ... Water Damage Restoration Anchorage Ak - Water Damage Restoration - ☎ (888) 424-0570 Call Us Now!. We are water damage experts ... These are some of our Water Damage Restoration Services:. 24/7 Emergency Water Damage Mitigation. High Powered Water Extraction ... Water Damage Restoration in West Valley City. Flooring Replacement and Installations. Content Cleaning and Restoration. ...
visual analogue scale to measure the severity of damage.. Download. Myositis Damage Index -- Word Format(79KB) Myositis Damage ... Myositis Disease Damage Index (MDI). Description:. This partially validated tool measures the degree of disease damage of all ... Physician Global Damage -- Word Format(28KB) Physician Global Damage -- PDF Format(118KB) ... Disease Damage Core Set Measures. Disease Damage includes persistent changes in anatomy, physiology, pathology or function ...
The Damage Done. The 10 big takeaways from Americas adventure in Iraq are also clues to its uncertain future. By Ian ... With U.S. military engagement in Iraq having come to an end, here are 10 key metrics that reveal both the damage wrought by the ...
Damage to the right side of your brain can cause problems with attention, memory, problem solving, and more. Speech-language ... About Right Hemisphere Brain Damage. Right hemisphere brain damage, or RHD, is damage to the right side of the brain. Our ... Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHD). [en Español]. Damage to the right side of your brain can cause problems with attention, ... A person with RHD may have trouble communicating with others because of this damage. In many cases, the person with RHD is not ...
RESEARCH Oxidative damage and my i by Equal Contributors "... Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius ... Oxidative Damage in the Thymus by Histopathological Lesions , 2014 "... The purpose of this study was to observe the ... oxidative damage in different tissues by Jasna Aladrović, Blanka Beer Ljubić, Suzana Milinković Tur, Sandra Plužarić ... Coccidian Infection Causes Oxidative Damage in by unknown authors , 2012 "... The main tenet of immunoecology is that ...
Smith writes "the authors think that ERVs are not just a marker of the damage caused by alcoholism, but that the ERVs are ... This new research showing that dopamine receptor D2 can prevent alcohol-induced brain damage is extremely interesting to me and ... new research shows that dopamine receptor D2 can prevent alcohol-induced brain damage. Justin Eure writes, "mice without those ... actively contributing to the brain damage due to alcoholism." But does the expression of ERVs encourage alcoholism, or vice ...
I sustained some brain damage as a child in a traffic accident and as a result I have no sense of smell. I have always doubted ... I sustained some brain damage as a child in a traffic accident and as a result I have no sense of smell. I have always doubted ... But if the "damage" shuts down obsessive survival-oriented, discursive, egoistic circuitry, isnt it possible that the subject ... Likewise, if some sort of brain damage leads to "self-transcendence", its taken to be proof of the illusoriness of the ...
Circumcisions Psychological Damage. CDC wants all males to be cut--but its harmful psychologically. Posted Jan 11, 2015 ... Circumcisions Psychological Damage. Read about how early trauma influences brain development and morality in Neurobiology and ... Please, let us always talk about ... Circumcisions Physical Damage, too. Submitted by Edward von Roy on January 12, 2015 - 9: ... I do not think the idea that circumcision causes psychological damage with negative consequences for the subject is either ...
No ones going to say that the hurricane was a blessing, considering all of the damage, but its because of that damage that ... Articles tagged "damage". Videos: bad baggage handlers (or, Remind me again why we pay to check luggage!). by Gadling Staff on ... Harvey was able to produce a few photos showing that the dresser was already damaged before the cruise claimed, and now that ... 28 people in Grenada were killed, 18,000 people were homeless, and 90% of the buildings were damaged and 30% were destroyed. ...
My 7 Year-Old Sons Life List Mice, Antelopes, and Your To-Do List Brain Damage Pill Priorities and Posteriorities ... My 7 Year-Old Sons Life List Mice, Antelopes, and Your To-Do List Brain Damage Pill Priorities and Posteriorities ... I have learned that using this "brain damage pill" metaphor stimulates me to behave in the way my "higher self" wants me to ... Not exercising is like taking a brain damage pill hits the sweet spot. Its true (for me). Its simple. Its concrete. Its ...
You probably dont need to be told that Mondo-the collectible-art-producing arm of Tim Leagues Alamo Drafthouse empire-is the reigning champ of kickass, screenprinted movie posters. Oh, sure: many may have attempted to challenge the Mondo crew at their own … ...
NASHVILLE, Tenn. -- The war in Iraq is not over, but one legacy is already here in this city and others across America: an epidemic of brain-damaged soldiers.
Underlying nerveNerve damageOxidative damageReutersBrain-damagedUltraviolet2017RadiationOccurResearchersMinimizeSevereIrreversible damagePermanentlyBlood vesselsMoldReactiveSpermNervesExtentHarmLaryngealOrganismsTimeCoronavirusMitigateDiabetesMechanismStormsGenetic damageLiver cell damageRisksRapidlyFindingsBulkSymptoms1986MitochondriaMainPatientsPotentiallyHydrogenAssess the damageRestorationTypeLung damage
- High blood sugar can lead to nerve damage called diabetic neuropathy. (cdc.gov)
- Nerve damage is one possible complication from having high blood sugar levels for a long time. (cdc.gov)
- Nerve damage can cause health problems ranging from mild numbness to pain that makes it hard to do normal activities. (cdc.gov)
- Half of all people with diabetes have nerve damage. (cdc.gov)
- Symptoms of nerve damage usually develop slowly, so it's important to notice your symptoms early so you can take action to prevent it from getting more serious. (cdc.gov)
- There are four main types of nerve damage. (cdc.gov)
- Symptoms depend on the type of nerve damage you have and which nerves are affected. (cdc.gov)
- These are all symptoms of peripheral nerve damage. (cdc.gov)
- Peripheral nerve damage affects your hands, feet, legs, and arms, and it's the most common type of nerve damage for people with diabetes. (cdc.gov)
- Keeping your blood sugar as close to your target range as possible is the best way to help prevent or delay nerve damage. (cdc.gov)
- Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy (new-ROP-uh-thee). (diabetes.org)
- About half of all people with diabetes have some form of nerve damage. (diabetes.org)
- If you keep your blood glucose levels on target, you may help prevent or delay nerve damage. (diabetes.org)
- If you already have nerve damage, this will help prevent or delay further damage. (diabetes.org)
- Sometimes diabetics face the problem of peripheral nerve damage, in which case, the peripheral nerves, mostly in legs and feet, of the person get damaged. (amazonaws.com)
- Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box. (medlineplus.gov)
- nerve damage On December 23 2008 I underwent a left side endarterectomy, the doctor said the operation was a 'little difficult' apparently my wife said that my hair on my left side was covered in blood. (medhelp.org)
- Nerve damage to the feet can affect balance and coordination. (cancer.org)
- That medicine is known to cause nerve damage, or neurotoxicity. (cancer.org)
- Nerve damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy. (medlineplus.gov)
- About one half of people with diabetes develop nerve damage. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some people who have diabetes that develops slowly already have nerve damage when they are first diagnosed. (medlineplus.gov)
- These other nerve problems won't have the same symptoms and will progress in a different manner than nerve damage caused by diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Over time, nerve damage can also occur in the fingers and hands. (medlineplus.gov)
- Damage to nerves that control digestion almost always occurs in people with severe nerve damage in their feet and legs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Feet that are very sweaty (early nerve damage). (medlineplus.gov)
- Follow your provider's advice on how to slow diabetic nerve damage. (medlineplus.gov)
- When you have nerve damage in your feet, the feeling in your feet can be reduced. (medlineplus.gov)
- Especially if the chemicals are not a true gel manicure, they can get into the abrasion and migrate, causing nerve damage. (mercola.com)
- It's important to realize that chemicals readily absorb through your skin, and in this case, the unknown chemicals used in what appears to have been a fake "gel manicure," may have caused Ubell-Meyer's nerve damage. (mercola.com)
- The kinds of damage experienced by living things range from microscopic direct DNA damage and cell damage in a biological cell, to damage to larger systems such as nerve damage, brain damage, and articular cartilage damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease Weiss et al. (psu.edu)
- The purpose of this study was to observe the histopathological lesions and oxidative damage in-duced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) in the thymus. (psu.edu)
- Oxidative damage resulting from the excessive production of reactive oxygen species during immune response is hypothesized to form one of such costs. (psu.edu)
- associated with hyperglycemia will also disrupt glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic -cells, because pancreatic -cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage . (psu.edu)
- Mitochondria oxidative damage? (bio.net)
- DNA damage in a father's sperm has been tied to a child's risk of childhood cancer, he told Reuters Health by email. (reuters.com)
- LONDON (Reuters) - A compound found in the common curry spice turmeric appears to delay the liver damage that eventually causes cirrhosis, scientists said on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
- TAIPEI (Reuters) - An earthquake shook Taiwan on Thursday, causing buildings to sway in the capital, Taipei, but there were no immediate reports of injuries or damage. (reuters.com)
- The war in Iraq is not over, but one legacy is already here in this city and others across America: an epidemic of brain-damaged soldiers. (washingtonpost.com)
- This is Sunny Byrd's special page and it is dedicated to all brain damaged birds. (angelfire.com)
- There are not a lot of resources out there for the parronts of brain damaged birds, so we created this group to share information, and to have someplace to cry on someone's shoulder who has been there. (angelfire.com)
- In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as ultraviolet light and other radiations can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as one million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
- A theory published almost 40 years ago states that HSPC niches in terrestrial animals evolved at sites that minimize damage from ionizing radiation 9 , with the assumption that water would have provided aquatic organisms with protection from damaging ultraviolet light. (nature.com)
- B. Konze-Thomas, J. W. Levinson, V. M. Maher, and J. J. McCormick, Correlation among the rates of dimer excision, DNA repair replication, and recovery of human cells from potentially lethal damage induced by ultraviolet radiation, Biophys. (springer.com)
- Now researchers have found that ultraviolet radiation seeping through CFLs may damage skin cells. (scientificamerican.com)
- Physical agents such as heat or radiation can damage a cell by literally cooking or coagulating their contents. (wikipedia.org)
- This article deals with Radiation damage due to ionizing radiation on physical objects. (wikipedia.org)
- Because DNA is the blueprint for the structure and all the activities that occur in cells, the radiation-induced damage to DNA is lethal to the affected cells. (faqs.org)
- Radiation exposure that does not kill cells outright can cause sublethal damage that scrambles the sequence of information contained in the DNA. (faqs.org)
- In other words, exposure to a low level of radiation can be damaging over time. (faqs.org)
- There is evidence that radiation damage in one cell can be passed on to neighbouring cells. (faqs.org)
- Thus, radiation damage, especially due to low levels of radiation, may be more extensive than previously assumed. (faqs.org)
- This increased risk of radiation damage is of concern, as terrorist organizations such as al Qaeda have made efforts to develop and deploy 'dirty bombs'-conventional explosives that release a payload of radioactive material. (faqs.org)
- Because these compounds have an electron affinity similar to oxygen and/or are free radicals, it was postulated that their presence might have an effect on the formation of DNA base damage induced by radiation. (springer.com)
- They genetically engineered fish to lack melanocyte pigmentation, and showed that UV radiation caused higher levels of DNA damage in these fish than in controls, as well as an increase in HSPC death. (nature.com)
- Damage to structures and other objects can take a number of forms, such as fire damage caused by the effects of burning, water damage done by water to materials not resistant to its effects, and radiation damage due to ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- Some cell damage can be reversed once the stress is removed or if compensatory cellular changes occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the damage appears to occur as a result of an out-of-control inflammatory response kicked off by the immune system. (aarp.org)
- It is very unusual for a patient to have symptoms of liver damage due to taking statins because if liver function tests are taken occasionally to check the liver enzymes, the problem is never allowed to develop to the stage where symptoms occur. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Water damage can significantly affect your business or commercial property, and significant damage can occur if the water damage happens overnight or on a weekend when no one is around. (dailystrength.org)
- Damage can occur where atomic bonds are not completely broken, but are shifted to create unstable pockets of concentration and diffusion of the material, which are more susceptible to later breakage. (wikipedia.org)
- The propensity for damage to occur to physical objects and systems, as well as to intangible characteristics, is built into the prices of goods and services that depend on the supply of these things, particularly as a component of insurance costs. (wikipedia.org)
- NWRC researchers are helping local wildlife managers reduce damage from coqui frogs, mongoose, and rodents. (usda.gov)
- Damage should, therefore, continue to be an important outcome in AAV clinical trials and long-term cohort studies, with use of the VDI as a primary outcome measure," the researchers emphasize in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases . (news-medical.net)
- Researchers found clear evidence that something had happened to damage their cerebral function. (bbc.co.uk)
- Contrary to popular belief, most brain damage in premature babies is caused by infections, not a lack of oxygen, researchers at Johns Hopkins University say. (latimes.com)
- Putting patients on ice after they suffer cardiac arrest helps to prevent brain damage caused by the drop in blood circulation, an international team of researchers reported Monday. (latimes.com)
- The curlicue compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) oft touted as an Earth-friendly alternative to standard incandescent bulbs may cause skin damage, according to a new study by researchers at Stony Brook University. (scientificamerican.com)
- Past studies indicated that UV emissions from CFLs could harm previously damaged tissue and worsen chronic skin conditions, but researchers were curious about what these lamps do to healthy skin. (scientificamerican.com)
- Researchers from Stockton University in New Jersey say that hydrogen peroxide found in these products damage dentin, the layer located below enamel. (menshealth.com)
- Grbic, who was not associated with the study, explains researchers already know that hydrogen peroxide damages dentin and enamel. (menshealth.com)
- His home lost power, but the damage to surrounding structures, including an office building plowed over by the water, was more severe, he said. (yahoo.com)
- It doesn't have any engines mind, the wings are detached and, in the words of the sales pitch, there is 'Severe water damage throughout airframe', but it could be yours for around $2m. (economist.com)
- If you feel that you water damage is so severe that you can not take care of it yourself, call a water damage professional. (ehow.com)
- Necrosis is characterised by cytoplasmic swelling, irreversible damage to the plasma membrane, and organelle breakdown leading to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- Study findings reveal the significant burden of disease among patients with antineutrophil-cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis (AAV), with many individuals showing irreversible damage shortly after diagnosis. (news-medical.net)
- By ionization, causing electrical breakdown, particularly in semiconductors employed in electronic equipment, with subsequent currents introducing operation errors or even permanently damaging the devices. (wikipedia.org)
- Contaminated drinking water from a Cornish reservoir is probably to blame for permanently brain damaging some residents, says research. (bbc.co.uk)
- mold damage, in flip, can purpose your property to rot, can reason excessive structural harm. (google.com)
- Weakened structures become even more weak if the water and chemical damage is not treated quickly, and you have already read about mold problems that will for sure happen if not treated. (buzzfeed.com)
- The Leading Service Master in Indianapolis for Fire Damage, Water Restoration, and Mold Removal Services. (youtube.com)
- At Alert Disaster Restoration, we provide 24/7 emergency response for water damage in Bakersfield , and our team will quickly get to work to mitigate the damages and to prevent mold growth from occurring. (dailystrength.org)
- We understand how important it is to respond quickly to water damage to prevent further damage and mold growth. (dailystrength.org)
- We are also open 24/7 as we know the urgency of anything related to Water Damage or Mold. (thumbtack.com)
- As well, the reactive oxygen can damage enzymes that function to repair damaged DNA. (faqs.org)
- Much of this damage is suggested to be a consequence of elevated production of reactive oxygen species by the mitochon-drial respiratory chain during hyperglycemia. (psu.edu)
- In skin cells, UVA creates reactive oxygen, which can damage their inner workings, and penetrates further into skin. (scientificamerican.com)
- The sperm of men who smoke, compared to those who don't, have more damaged DNA, fewer active energy-generating mitochondria and more proteins indicating a revved up immune response, according to a small study. (reuters.com)
- The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource for all possible DNA damages in sperm, the relation to fertility and infertility, and possible transgenerational heritable effects. (springer.com)
- High blood sugar damages your nerves, and these nerves may stop sending messages to different parts of your body. (cdc.gov)
- If both the left and right nerves are damaged, a hole may need to be cut into the windpipe (tracheotomy) right away to allow breathing. (medlineplus.gov)
- In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is composed of a series of organ-specific questions relating to the presence or absence of a given sign or symptom or problem to measure the extent of damage, and an overall rating of the disease damage of each system using a 10 cm. visual analogue scale to measure the severity of damage. (nih.gov)
- Damage extent and predictors in adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and polymyositis as determined with the myositis damage index. (nih.gov)
- Depending on the extent of the hail damage, there are different approaches to repairing exterior window trim. (ehow.com)
- If the damage isn't to the extent that it bothers the homeowner aesthetically, no action is required. (ehow.com)
- From a Sony factory in Enfield to a furniture store on Reeves Corner in Croydon, the extent of the damage caused by blazes started by rioters in the capital is revealed. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Scientists have discovered that the presence of specific proteins in the blood are indicative of early liver cell damage and can determine the point at which cell death occurred, the type of cell death, and the extent of any damage. (redorbit.com)
- by the time maximum home or business proprietors phrase water damage, the harm has already been done. (google.com)
- when you have water harm because of heavy rain, a broken machine, basis leaks, sump pump failure, or another water damage, name MRC restoration at once. (google.com)
- Damage is one of several verbs which refer to ways of causing injury or harm. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Damage and harm are the most general verbs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This partially validated tool measures the global evaluation by the treating physician of the overall disease damage of the patient at the time of assessment using a 10 cm. visual analogue scale and a 5 point Likert scale. (nih.gov)
- When this issue occurs, Scanregw.exe detects that the registry is damaged in memory and marks the registry as damaged so that the real-mode Scanreg.exe is run the next time the computer starts. (microsoft.com)
- Higher GFR is a sign of hyperfiltration - a kidney abnormality that can lead to kidney damage and failure over time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Over time, such DNA damage might contribute to cancer or other diseases," Bhatti added. (medicinenet.com)
- Renal damage was common at both time points, as indicated by proteinuria, a glomerular filtration rate below 50 mL/min, and/or hypertension. (news-medical.net)
- Over time, we have seen damages decrease because of this policy. (wm.edu)
- Our findings suggest, for the first time, that there might be a predictable pattern of physical damage to the human brain after blast exposure, which standard clinical neuroimaging techniques currently cannot detect," the authors write. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Fire and smoke damage can strike your home or business at any time, destroying all your personal belongings or business within a matter of minutes. (buzzfeed.com)
- My vet thinks that Sunee stroked at some point, and he does have some neurological damage (he has a head swinging tic and a few other problems) but he is so far out from the original illness that there is nothing we can do for him except keep him comfortable and give him the best life possible for however much time he has left. (angelfire.com)
- Water damage is the nightmare of every homeowner, whether it's a burst pipe, a hard rain, or simply forgetting to turn off a faucet, water can do a large amount of damage in a short amount of time. (ehow.com)
- Diabetes and also damage your kidneys so it is very important to control diabetes at the right time. (selfgrowth.com)
- It is very necessary to control diabetes at the right time because diabetes can damage your kidney and after that, your blood will not be purified by them. (selfgrowth.com)
- Another United States Department of Defense document uses "[u]nintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. (wikipedia.org)
- The storms have damaged 17,500 structures and destroyed 1,500, the Colorado Office of Emergency Management said. (yahoo.com)
- Periodic window trim inspection should be performed, especially after new storms or extreme weather change, to ensure no further damage is occurring due to the original hail damage. (ehow.com)
- In a study published in Gut, a British Medical Journal title, Austrian scientists found that feeding the compound curcumin to mice reduced the types of inflammation that can cause liver cell damage, blockage and scarring. (reuters.com)
- They found the curcumin diet significantly reduced bile duct blockage and curbed liver cell damage and scarring by interfering with chemical signalling pathways involved in inflammation. (reuters.com)
- Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a rapidly expanding invasive species in the United States damaging agriculture, natural resources, property, cultural sites, and are a disease risk to people, pets, and livestock. (usda.gov)
- This removed the protection provided by the physical location of the melanocytes - again, the HSPCs were rapidly damaged by UV. (nature.com)
- Please could you tell me what the symptoms of liver damage due to taking statins to reduce cholesterol are? (netdoctor.co.uk)
- These symptoms suggest there is structural damage to the brain but, often, none can be observed during standard brain scans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Children's Hospital is now treating at least four teens for serious lung damage, and in Wisconsin, 25 more kids are getting medical care for similar symptoms. (msn.com)
- They also observed DNA damage and activity in the mitochondria, the so-called powerhouses of the cell. (reuters.com)
- Incidentally, I agree vis a vis mitochondria: they are the major (95%) source of intracellular free radicals and therefore one of the major sources of entropic damage within cells. (bio.net)
- Fleming's main interest is within the area of formation damage from drilling and completion fluids and in wells under production. (spe.org)
- 7. A frost damage proofed pile according to claim 5, wherein said elastic material essentially consists of a high molecular elastic material whose main chain comprises hard and soft segments. (google.com)
- Seismologists say a strong earthquake has struck off the northeastern coast of Japan's main Honshu island, but no tsunami warning was issued and there were no immediate reports of damage. (voanews.com)
- Development and initial validation of myositis activity and damage indices in patients with adult onset disease. (nih.gov)
- Although experts don't yet have conclusive data on the percentage of patients who have heart damage as a result of COVID-19 infections , estimates run as high as 25 or 30 percent. (aarp.org)
- Data for 629 European clinical trial patients with a new diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA or Wegener's) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) showed that 34.5% of the group had at least one marker of damage on the 64-item Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) at baseline and 5.1% of the group met criteria for five or more items. (news-medical.net)
- Of note, the pattern of damage differed by diagnosis, with renal issues more common in patients with MPA and non-renal complications experienced more often by those with GPA, note Joanna Robson (University of Oxford, UK) and co-authors. (news-medical.net)
- Potentially treatment-related damage was also reported at long-term follow-up by 65.6% of the 270 patients with complete data, with 30.0% having at least one item and 16.7% three or more items on the VDI. (news-medical.net)
- Such focus may potentially aid refinement of therapeutic regimens and limit long-term damage, with possible benefits in terms of associated mortality. (news-medical.net)
- Doctors have found a disturbing downside to some powerful new drugs that harness the immune system to fight cancer: In rare cases, they may cause potentially fatal heart damage, especially when used together. (cnbc.com)
- It's not possible to assess the damage to our reputation. (techtarget.com)
- We do not give prices until we come out and give you a risk-free estimate and assess the damage in your home. (thumbtack.com)
- We will then come out (if you want to work with us) and offer you a risk-free estimate to assess the damage of your home. (thumbtack.com)
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- We hope, you liked our Water Damage Restoration Anchorage Ak! (youtube.com)
- When you have to do a flood water damage restoration , your health and safety have to be your concern. (selfgrowth.com)
- You can depend on us for expert water damage restoration and fire damage restoration services at your home or business. (youtube.com)
- We put advanced technologies to work on basement flood cleanup, flood damage restoration and fire and smoke mitigation. (youtube.com)
- Water Damage Restoration by Ireland Restoration services enjoys Quality Restoration Vendor status with all major insurance carriers. (youtube.com)
- One of the challenges for those involved with understanding an unexpected decline in well performance is identifying the exact causes for the reduced productivity because we cannot see downhole what type of damage has occurred and where. (spe.org)
- Water damage legal liability insurance refers to a type of policy that provides financial protection to a person or business that unintentionally causes water damage to the property of another. (investopedia.com)
- Water damage legal liability insurance is a type of policy that covers an individual or business that unintentionally causes water damage to someone else's property or possessions. (investopedia.com)
- The effect of three sensitizers, misonidazole, p-nitroacetophenone and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidino-1-oxy (TMPN), on formation of thymine damage of the 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type by irradiation with gamma rays was characterized in HeLa cells. (springer.com)
- When your home or business sustains any type of water damage, immediate action is crucial. (youtube.com)