Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Pharmacovigilance: The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Mendelian Randomization Analysis: The use of the GENETIC VARIATION of known functions or phenotypes to correlate the causal effects of those functions or phenotypes with a disease outcome.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Neurophysiology: The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Republic of BelarusPerception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Rest: Freedom from activity.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United StatesSeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Pearl, Judea (2000). Causality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Tian, Jin; Pearl, Judea (2002). "A general identification condition ... White, Halbert; Chalak, Karim; Lu, Xun (2011). "Linking granger causality and the pearl causal model with settable systems". ... Causality in Time Series Challenges in Machine Learning. 5. Rothman, Kenneth J.; Greenland, Sander; Lash, Timothy (2008). ...
Causality , Civilization". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-05-30. [1] H. D. Betz, The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, Including the ...
Causality; the place of the causal principle in modern science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1960. La ciencia, su ...
Heckman, J. J. (2008). "Econometric Causality". International Statistical Review. 76 (1): 1-27. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2007. ...
Conditional mutual information Causality Causality (physics) Structural equation modeling Rubin causal model Mutual information ... Hence, it is advantageous when the model assumption of Granger causality doesn't hold, for example, analysis of non-linear ... Hlaváčková-Schindler, Katerina; PALUS, M; VEJMELKA, M; BHATTACHARYA, J (1 March 2007). "Causality detection based on ... Barnett, Lionel (1 December 2009). "Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy Are Equivalent for Gaussian Variables". Physical ...
... , or Agent causality, is an idea in philosophy which states that an agent can start new causal chains not ...
Alfredo Morabia (2005). "Epidemiological causality". History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences. 27 (3-4): 365-79. PMID ... Michael Kundi (July 2006). "Causality and the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence". Environmental Health Perspectives. 114 ...
Mind and Causality. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 69 ff. ISBN 1588114759. Karl Raimund Popper (1999). "Notes of a realist on ... Causal determinism is the concept that events within a given paradigm are bound by causality in such a way that any state (of ... Circular causality departs so strongly from the classical tenets of necessity, invariance, and precise temporal order that the ... In 1739, David Hume in his A Treatise of Human Nature approached free will via the notion of causality. It was his position ...
Farmer, Lindsay (2007). "Complicity beyond causality". Criminal Law and Philosophy. Springer Science+Business Media. 1: 151-156 ...
Causality is abandoned. For example, spontaneous emissions are merely emissions stimulated by a "virtual" electromagnetic field ... and also that the jolting of the electron and the generation of a new photon in Compton scattering obey causality to within 10 ...
Causality before Hume.) Clatterbaugh, Kenneth (July 1998). "What is problematic about 'masculinities'?". Men and Masculinities ... Clatterbaugh, Kenneth; Bobro, Marc (July 1996). "Unpacking the Monad: Leibniz's Theory of Causality". The Monist. Oxford ... "Cartesian causality, explanation, and divine concurrence". History of Philosophy Quarterly. University of Illinois Press. 12 (2 ...
One theory states that stable wormholes are possible, but that any attempt to use a network of wormholes to violate causality ... Since the underlying behavior does not violate local causality or allow FTL communication, it follows that neither does the ... A number of authors have published papers disputing Nimtz's claim that Einstein causality is violated by his experiments, and ... Fearn, Heidi (2007). "Can Light Signals Travel Faster than c in Nontrivial Vacuua in Flat space-time? Relativistic Causality II ...
Fundamentals of Causality. In: Rouse, W., Boff, K. and Sanderson, P., eds., Complex Socio-Technical Systems: Understanding and ... Causality is one of the key concepts employed in the sciences. In our attempt to understand and influence the world around us, ... Influencing the Causality of Change IOS Press. Mumford, S., 2012. Metaphysics: A Very Short Introduction Oxford University ...
Aristotle on Causality (link to section labeled "Four Causes"). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2008. Hennig, Boris. "The ... Aristotle on Causality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2008. Lindberg, David. The Beginnings of Western Science (1992). p ... Anthropic principle Biosemiotics Causality Convergent evolution Four discourses, by Jacques Lacan Proximate and ultimate ... Indeed, without finality, efficient causality becomes inexplicable. Finality thus understood is not purpose but that end ...
Causality versus interdependence. Macroeconomics before microeconomics. DIsequilibrium and instability (not equilibrium) as the ...
"Aristotle on Causality". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford. Retrieved 2014-03-10. ...
ISBN 0-262-08271-3. Salmon, Wesley C. (1998). Causality and Explanation. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-19-510864-4. "Zeno's Paradoxes: A ...
Wold's writings on causality and recursive-chain models have been recognized[citation needed] as scientific inventions by ... "Causality and Econometrics," Econometrica, 22(2), p p. 162-177. 1964.Econometric model building : essays on the causal chain ... There is an extensive bibliography published with the ET interview (below). Causality, 2nd ed. "A synthesis of pure demand ... Systems under Indirect Observation: Causality, Structure, Prediction (edited by K. G. Jöreskog and H. Wold), North-Holland. ...
... "computational causality". Using this terminology, it is computational causality, not system causality, that is relevant to the ... "computational causality" is explained using the example of current and voltage in a resistor: "The computational causality of ... over connections between computational causality and system causality. Signal-flow graphs can be used for analysis, that is for ... This point is discussed further in the subsection Interpreting 'causality'. In the most general case, the values for all the xk ...
"Causality and Freedom". By: Mohsen Araki. Retrieved 2014-10-07. "Imam Abul Qasim al-Khoei". Arsalan Rizvi. 2008-08-24. ... Defending principles of "Sadrian philosophy", with his full support to Sadrian view in the interpretation of causality and its ... he criticized the Sadrian philosophical thought and presented a new viewpoint on the relation between causality and human ... 1375 solar http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/vol17-no2-spring-2003/causality-and-freedom-ayatullah-mohsen-araki/abstract ...
Aristotle on Causality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2008. Aristotle, "Book 5, section 1013a", Metaphysics, Hugh ...
Probability, causality and freedom . In: Philosophia naturalis, German:Wahrscheinlichkeit, Kausalität und Freiheit. In: ...
all societies excluding animalistic ones have a concept of causality. Causality imposes moral obligations. Max Weber identifies ... i.e., x produces y, according to the definition of causality x and y refer to classes of concrete phenomena rather that to ... but the more difficult it is to be certain of its actual causality or effectiveness; and vice versa, the more abstract x or y, ... the more difficult it is to identify it as cause or effect, but the less difficult it is to ascertain logically its causality ...
Decision and Causality. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139107990. Gibbard, A.; Harper, W.L. (1981), "Counterfactuals and ...
February 5, 2010). Heuristics, Probability and Causality. a Tribute to Judea Pearl (1st ed.). London: College Publications. ... and Causality. Dechter received a Presidential Young Investigator Award from the United States National Science Foundation in ...
Mendelian randomisation: why epidemiology requires a formal language for causality in "Causality and Probability in the ... Sheehan, N A, Meng, S. and V Didelez (2011). Mendelian randomisation: a tool for assessing causality in observational ... Inferring causality from observational epidemiological data. Because subjects have not been randomised to an epidemiological ... Inferring epidemiological causality using Mendelian randomisation. With Vanessa Didelez, Debbie Lawlor, Jonathan Sterne and ...
A tool for discovering causality Theory of causality - A first-order theory of causality in Wikiversity Stanford Encyclopedia ... Causality is metaphysically prior to notions of time and space. Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world ... Here the notion of causality is one of contributory causality as discussed above: If the true value a j ≠ 0 {\displaystyle a_{j ... ISBN 2-296-01198-5. Causality at PhilPapers Causality at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project The Art and Science of Cause ...
Information causality is a physical principle suggested in 2009. Information Causality states that information gain that a ... Information Causality as a Physical Principle, Nature 461, 1101 (2009). arXiv:0905.2292 [quant-ph]. ...
This article is about causality in philosophy. For the physical definition of "causality", see Causality (physics). ... Here the notion of causality is one of contributory causality as discussed above: If the true value a. j. ≠. 0. {\displaystyle ... Conditional statements are not statements of causality. An important distinction is that statements of causality require the ... The contemporary philosophical literature on causality can be divided into five big approaches to causality. These include the ...
A team of researchers from University of Queensland have found that tobacco use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia.
... Endymion Wed, 15 Oct 2008 11:16:35 -0700 ... If causality is illusory, are there rules that govern human behavior, ,such as karma, in place of God, so that man have to ... Practical aspects of Causality Bill, You convinced me you are doing the right thing in your place in Thailand. Deeds are more ... Practical aspects of Causality Hi Bill, It makes sense to start to alleviate my suffering by getting rid of my attachments. I ...
Bell inequality; Quantum foundations; causal models; causality; local causality; local realism; nonlocal causality; nonlocality ... Experimental test of nonlocal causality.. Ringbauer M1, Giarmatzi C1, Chaves R2, Costa F3, White AG1, Fedrizzi A4. ... B) A relaxation of local causality, where A may have direct causal influence on B. The Bell-local models in (A) are the ... We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bells local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal ...
Models for simultaneous causality are developed. The paper contrasts the Neyman-Rubin model of causality with the econometric ... Economists embrace a scientific approach to causality and model the preferences and choices of agents to infer subjective ( ... realized outcomes, subjective and objective evaluations, Neyman-Rubin model, Roy model, econometrics, causality, ... Heckman, James J., Econometric Causality. , Vol. , pp. -, . Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1136230 or http://dx. ...
Sobel, D. M. (in press). Causality. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.), Sage Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA ... Sobel, D. M., & Buchanan, D. W. (2009). Bridging the gap: Causality at a distance in childrens categorization and inferences ... Buchanan, D. W. & Sobel, D. M. (2008). Childrens developing inferences about object labels and insides from causality-at-a- ...
Tag Archives: causality. Articles and Essays, Philosophy, Physics, Science, Unpublished Light Travel Time Effects and ... This reversal of causality has implications in every facet of our existence, all the way up to our notion of free will. ... But there is a curious inversion of logic, or reversal of causality in the theory of evolution. This is almost the opposite of ... causalitycosmic microwave backgroundexpanding universegamma ray burstsgrblight travel timemicrowave background radiation ...
A robust causality assessment method (CAM) is not only indispensable for the diagnosis of suspected drug-induced liver injury ( ... Drug-induced liver injury DILI Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment RUCAM Causality assessment methods ... robust causality evaluation by RUCAM, the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method. Eur J Pharmaceut Med Res 3(12):154-177 ... Causality assessment of herb-induced liver injury using multidisciplinary approach and the Roussel Uclaf Causality assessment ...
Buy Causality and Motivation by Roberto Poli from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE ... Causality and Motivation (Hardback). Roberto Poli (editor) Sign in to write a review ...
... the bone of contention is really on understanding of causality, says Braimoh Bello. ... The other concept in causality is whether a cause is necessary or sufficient for a disease to occur. A necessary cause is one ... There are two other important concepts in causality. The first is understanding the causal chain of a disease, while the second ... Thabo Mbeki, HIV/AIDS and Causality. 2016-04-02 20:29 Braimoh Bello ...
The Granger-causality tests was based on two testing approaches: vector error correction modelling (VECM) approach outlined in ... Empirical evidence from causality tests based on the two alternative approaches indicates that the causal link between real ... "A Multivariate Causality Analysis of Export and Growth for Turkey," EERI Research Paper Series EERI_RP_2007_05, Economics and ... "A Multivariate Causality Analysis of Export and Growth for Turkey," MPRA Paper 3565, University Library of Munich, Germany. ...
It performs Granger-causality tests and STAR-EXT estimation to assess the causality direction and the nonlinear nature of the ... It performs Granger-causality tests and STAR-EXT estimation to assess the causality direction and the nonlinear nature of the ... Keywords: New firms Employment creation Causality Nonlinearities STAR-EXT; Other versions of this item:. *Joao Ricardo Faria & ... "Entrepreneurship and unemployment: a nonlinear bidirectional causality," Working Papers 2008/6, Nottingham Trent University, ...
Bohm, D. (1984). Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. First published in 1957. ... Bohm (ibid., p. 95) took the view that the abandonment of causality had been too hasty: ...
But again, we dont necessarily have to worry that its reverse causality. What do we do about reverse causality? Well, we try ... 6.5 Reverse causality. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 ... At least we dont have to worry about the possibility that its reverse causality at work. It could be that theres a spurious ... In this module, we want to talk about reverse causality, which is especially a problem if were dealing with cross-sectional ...
true causality links, from a population of possible links:. Small values of indicate that the retrieved links out of are ... no causality) at value. Results for Bonferroni adjusted value at 1% (i.e., for ) are reported in Appendix E. We also tested ... J. Pearl, Causality, Cambridge University Press, 2009. *J. Massey, Causality, Feedback And Directed Information, Citeseer, 1999 ... Causality and Inference Network Retrieval. We tested the agreement between the causality structure of the underlying process ...
This research topic will review and further explore the nature of the mutual influence between time and causality, how causal ... and suggests that our representations of time and causality are mutually influencing one another. At present, the theoretical ...
38 (last row), along with the true causality maps (first row). Each panel represents the estimated 8. ×. 8. causality map at a ... Extracting neuronal functional network dynamics via adaptive Granger causality analysis. Alireza Sheikhattar, Sina Miran, Ji ... Extracting neuronal functional network dynamics via adaptive Granger causality analysis. Alireza Sheikhattar, Sina Miran, Ji ... 2011) A Granger causality measure for point process models of ensemble neural spiking activity. PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1001110. ...
Explore causality profile at Times of India for photos, videos and latest news of causality. Also find news, photos and videos ... causality News: Latest and Breaking News on causality. ... Delhi: Fire breaks out in four chemical factories, no causality ... Fire breaks out in slum cluster in Sahibabad, shanties gutted but no causality ...
The direction of causality, however, is unclear. We use employment data from the ES202 program and prices from the American ... Obesity and Depression: Establishing Causality. iHEA 2007 6th World Congress: Explorations in Health Economics Paper ... Colman, Greg and Kelly, Inas, Obesity and Depression: Establishing Causality. iHEA 2007 6th World Congress: Explorations in ...
1 Receiving Gods Blessings with Awareness When a blessing (nima) comes to you from an apparent outward entity, do notreceive that blessing in t...
Bohm (ibid., p. 95) took the view that the abandonment of causality had been too hasty: it is quite possible that while the ... Bohm, D. (1984). Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. First published in 1957. ...
  • Company executives hire process-engineering professionals to accurately identify causality so that harmful problems are not perpetuated. (icr.org)
  • Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. (springer.com)
  • Causality is quantified from conditional transfer entropy and the network is constructed by retaining only the statistically validated contributions. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 ) point out that the issues with bias and variance in the conditional GG causality can be addressed using a state-space approach and a single-model fit. (pnas.org)
  • We investigate how efficiently a known underlying sparse causality structure of a simulated multivariate linear process can be retrieved from the analysis of time series of short lengths. (hindawi.com)
  • Costatini V, Mattini C (2009) The causality between energy consumption and economic growth: a multi-sectoral analysis using non stationary cointegrated panel data. (springer.com)
  • 7. Causes of changes in X, need not be causes of X. That's often obvious in known-causality cases (pills lowering cholesterol aren't its cause) but routinely obfuscated in analysis-of-variance research . (bigthink.com)
  • While time-varying causality is significant for the precise analysis of variables, heteroskedastic variances influence the tests for causality and nonlinearity such as time- varying properties. (scirp.org)
  • Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce data dimension and Granger causality and divergence techniques were applied to analyse connectivity along the atria, in three main regions: pulmonary veins, left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA). (mdpi.com)
  • In artificial intelligence, the development of graphical methods has lent impetus to a probabilistic analysis of causality. (kent.ac.uk)
  • We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. (nih.gov)
  • Today it is widely believed that any hopes of restoring local causality within a realistic theory have been undermined by Bell's theorem and its supporting experiments. (pitt.edu)
  • This confusion is partially because causality flows from aerosol to clouds and clouds to aerosol, and it is hard to tell what is happening in observations. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • We evaluate the performance of our tests against the AIC, BIC, and a recently published causality inference test in simulation studies. (genetics.org)
  • However, persuading non-statisticians about causality poses some distinct challenges, because lay audiences are prone to characteristic errors of judgment and inference wherever statistics is involved, as Kahneman's research shows. (experts.com)
  • We conclude that when time series are short, with their lengths shorter than the number of variables, sparse models are better suited to uncover true causality links with LoGo retrieving the true causality network more accurately than Glasso and ridge. (hindawi.com)
  • These features are the outworking of systems with intrinsic sensors and programmed logic that are accurately described with engineering causality-which is characterized as internal to them. (icr.org)
  • The main points of our work were ( i ) to characterize statistical properties of the traditional computation of Granger-Geweke (GG) causality and ( ii ) to analyze how the dynamics of the system are represented in the GG-causality measure. (pnas.org)
  • In this paper, time series statistics from 1980 to 2017 will be used to analyze the relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption to will examine how energy use in the country affects economic growth using causality models. (springer.com)
  • Granger causality is one of most representative methods to analyze causality between economic variables. (scirp.org)
  • p. 95) took the view that the abandonment of causality had been too hasty: 'it is quite possible that while the quantum theory, and with it the indeterminacy principle, are valid to a very high degree of approximation in a certain domain, they both cease to have relevance in new domains below that in which the current theory is applicable. (meta-religion.com)
  • This text authored by Mohsen Mohammadi Araghi which addresses the topics of freewill and causality in contemporary Islamic and western philosophy and the theory of moral obligation. (al-islam.org)
  • More than 20 participants from various countries throughout the Eastern Mediterranean Region were in Oman to build their skills in the detection and investigation of adverse events using the new WHO methodology for assessing the causality of adverse events following immunization. (who.int)
  • These findings, of no causality from economic growth to energy consumption and the other way round, imply that energy conservation will not have a significant impact on economic growth and economic growth will have insignificant effect on changes in energy consumption. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • One viewpoint on this question is that cause and effect are of one and the same kind of entity, with causality an asymmetric relation between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exports, economic growth and causality in Korea ," Applied Economics Letters , Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(11), pages 693-696. (repec.org)
  • It further suggests the existence of only one-directional causality running from exports to domestic savings. (journals.co.za)
  • Now in a huge Artificial Intelligence breakthrough, researchers have developed the first robust model for general causality which identifies multiple causal connections without time-sequence data: a Multivariate Additive Noise Model (MANM). (eurekalert.org)
  • On the other end of the genetic causality spectrum, the vast majority of genetic variants that exhibit low penetrance and exert negligible or modest effect sizes (2,7) . (onlinejacc.org)