Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2: Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Ultrasonic Therapy: The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to produce local hyperthermia in certain diseased or injured parts of the body or to destroy the diseased tissue.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Carboxypeptidase B: A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199 and EC 188.8.131.52.Serpin E2: A protease nexin and serpin subtype that is specific for several SERINE PROTEASES including UROKINASE; THROMBIN; TRYPSIN; and PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATORS.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Kringles: Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Carboxypeptidase U: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal lysine and arginine from biologically active peptides and proteins thereby regulating their activity. It is a zinc enzyme with no preference shown for lysine over arginine. Pro-carboxypeptidase U in human plasma is activated by thrombin or plasmin during clotting to form the unstable carboxypeptidase U.National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports and conducts research, both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseases nervous system. It was established in 1950.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Aminocaproic Acid: An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Mechanical Thrombolysis: Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Anistreplase: An acylated inactive complex of streptokinase and human lysine-plasminogen. After injection, the acyl group is slowly hydrolyzed, producing an activator that converts plasminogen to plasmin, thereby initiating fibrinolysis. Its half-life is about 90 minutes compared to 5 minutes for TPA; (TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR); 16 minutes for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR and 23 minutes for STREPTOKINASE. If treatment is initiated within 3 hours of onset of symptoms for acute myocardial infarction, the drug preserves myocardial tissue and left ventricular function and increases coronary artery patency. Bleeding complications are similar to other thrombolytic agents.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Embolectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Thrombomodulin: A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mice, Inbred C57BLHospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Pipecolic AcidsHepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease: Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome: A grouping of three closely linked conditions: iris nevus (or Cogan-Reese) syndrome, Chandler Syndrome, and essential (progressive) iris atrophy. The most common features of this syndrome are the movement of endothelial cells off the cornea onto the iris leading to corneal swelling, distortion of the iris, and variable degrees of distortion of the pupil. The abnormal cell movement plugs fluid outflow channels of the eye causing GLAUCOMA.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Time-to-Treatment: The interval of time between onset of symptoms and receiving therapy.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Gravity Suits: Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 184.108.40.206.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Enoxaparin: Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
These medications include tissue plasminogen activator, reteplase, streptokinase, and tenecteplase. Thrombolysis is not ... Major risks of thrombolysis are major bleeding and intracranial bleeding. Pre-hospital thrombolysis reduces time to ... Blockage of an artery can lead to tissue death in tissue being supplied by that artery. Atherosclerotic plaques are often ... Tissue death and myocardial scarring alter the normal conduction pathways of the heart, and weaken affected areas. The size and ...
"Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial, Phase I: A Comparison between Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator and ... The 'Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction', or TIMI Study Group is an Academic Research Organization (ARO) affiliated with ... Though these patients have a clear protocol - normally thrombolysis or Percutaneous coronary intervention - and are already ...
Thrombolysis using analogs of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may be used as an alternative or complement to surgery. Where ... The major tissues affected are nerves and muscles, where irreversible damage starts to occur after 4-6 hours of cessation of ... Early symptoms of an arterial embolism in the arms or legs appear as soon as there is ischemia of the tissue, even before any ... In contrast, brain tissue (in cerebral infarction) does not store glycogen, and the heart (in myocardial infarction) is so ...
Frans Van de Werf
Later, he collaborated in Leuven with Désiré Collen to discover the clinical application of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA ... His research is focused on acute coronary syndromes, thrombolysis and antithrombotic treatment. His doctoral thesis was an ... Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. He was awarded the 2005 Joseph Maisin prize for €100000. In 2013, the Frans Van de Werf ...
"Effects of tissue plasminogen activator and a comparison of early invasive and conservative strategies in unstable angina and ... "Coronary thrombolysis with recombinant single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator in patients with acute myocardial ... 1997). "A clinical trial comparing primary coronary angioplasty with tissue plasminogen activator for acute myocardial ... recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, rtPA). More recently, thrombolytic agents similar in structure to rtPA such as ...
... tissue-type) plasminogen activator. Lancet. 1981; 2: 1018-20. Van de Werf F et al. Coronary thrombolysis with tissue-type ... Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial, Phase I: A comparison between intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and ... Coronary thrombolysis with recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator. Circulation. 1984; 70: 700- 7. Weimar W, Stibbe ... Coronary thrombolysis with intravenously administered human tissue-type plasminogen activator produced by recombinant DNA ...
High-intensity focused ultrasound
"Pulsed High-Intensity-focused US and Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) Versus TPA Alone for Thrombolysis of Occluded Bypass ... Tissue damage occurs as a function of both the temperature to which the tissue is heated and how long the tissue is exposed to ... The temperature of tissue at the focus will rise to between 65 and 85 °C, destroying the diseased tissue by coagulative ... and is obtained by dividing Q by the tissue density. This demonstrates that tissue heating is proportional to intensity, and ...
Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor
... fibrinolysis inhibitor potentiates tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced thrombolysis in a rabbit jugular vein thrombolysis ... a Redlitz A, Tan AK, Eaton DL, Plow EF (November 1995). "Plasma carboxypeptidases as regulators of the plasminogen system". J. ... Scaffold (disambiguation) Protein kinase Chemotherapy Thrombolysis Cancer research. ...
Severe cases may require thrombolysis using medication such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), or may require surgery such ... Catheter-based ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis is being investigated. The use of thrombolysis in non-massive PEs is still ... Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is a new technique found to be relatively safe and effective for massive PEs. This ... Some studies (see below) suggest that this finding may be an indication for thrombolysis. Not every person with a (suspected) ...
Strok bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator alters adhesion molecule expression in the ischemic rat brain". Department of ... "Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke". The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA ... "Erythropoietin in combination of tissue plasminogen activator exacerbates brain hemorrhage when treatment is initiated 6h after ... "The nonpeptide glycoprotein IIb/IIIa platelet receptor antagonist SM-20302 reduces tissue plasminogen activator-induced ...
... tissue plasminogen activator treatment in stroke sufferers in the procedure called ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis. ... They are absorbed primarily by connective tissue: ligaments, tendons, and fascia (and also by scar tissue). Conditions for ... or for promoting soft tissue healing. Relatively high power ultrasound can break up stony deposits or tissue, accelerate the ... Using ultrasound to generate cellular effects in soft tissue has fallen out of favor as research has shown a lack of efficacy ...
In increasing numbers of primary stroke centers, pharmacologic thrombolysis with the drug tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), ... Smith WS (June 1, 2006). "Safety of mechanical thrombectomy and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic ... 70 to 80% reduction in diameter). In tissue losses that are not immediately fatal, the best course of action is to make every ... A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries ...
Transcranial pulsed ultrasound
... increased risk of hemorrhage with combined ultrasound and tissue plasminogen activator: results of a phase II clinical trial". ... Daffertshofer, M. "Transcranial low-frequency ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis in brain ischemia: ... By significantly reducing the wave frequency, excitable tissue can be manipulated without overexposure or detectable damage. ... Opposing high-frequency ultrasound, LILFU holds the following benefits: lower absorption in tissue, greater physical ...
"The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ... "Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis". The ... and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of ...
Acute limb ischaemia
More recently, drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, and anisterplase have been used in its place. Mechanical ... Pharmacological thrombolysis requires a catheter insert into the affected area, attached to the catheter is often a wire with ... Sean P. Lyden, Endovascular Treatment of Acute Limb Ischemia: Review of Current Plasminogen Activators and Mechanical ... Another type of thrombolysis disrupts the clot mechanically using either saline jets or, more recently, ultrasound waves. ...
... destruction of blood clots by administering thrombolytic drugs including recombitant tissue plasminogen activator, which ... Mechanical clot retrieval and catheter-guided thrombolysis are used in certain situations. Arterial thrombosis ... of the downstream tissue. The tissue can become irreversibly damaged, a process known as necrosis. This can affect any organ; ... wound healing will reorganise the occlusive thrombus into collagenous scar tissue, where the scar tissue will either ...
... recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), streptokinase, or urokinase). A percutaneous catheter inserted into the femoral ... The treatment options include injection of an anticoagulant, thrombolysis, embolectomy, surgical revascularisation, or ... In the highly metabolically active tissues of the heart and brain, irreversible damage to tissues can occur in as little as 3-4 ... Play media Since oxygen is carried to tissues in the blood, insufficient blood supply causes tissue to become starved of oxygen ...
National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale
The mNIHSS predicts patients at high risk of hemorrhage if given Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and which patients are ... Mishra, NK; Lyden, P; Grotta, JC; Lees, KR (2010). "Thrombolysis Is Associated With Consistent Functional Improvement Across ... Clark WM, Wissman S, Albers GW, Jhamandas JH, Madden KP, Hamilton S (1999). "Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator ( ... a review of the utilization of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & ...
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a different enzyme that promotes the degradation of fibrin in clots but not free ... Medcalf, R. (2011). "Plasminogen activation-based thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke: the diversity of targets may demand new ... This may be aided by fibrinolytic drugs such as Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) in instances of coronary artery occlusion. ... Main articles: Thrombolysis, Thrombosis prophylaxis, and Reperfusion therapy. Anticoagulants are drugs used to prevent the ...
It works by stimulating secondary fibrinolysis by plasmin through infusion of analogs of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), ... Some fibrinolytics are: Streptokinase (Kabikinase) Urokinase Anistreplase (Eminase) Recombinant tissue plasminogen activators ( ... resulting in a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator or rtPA. ... Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in ... Prehospital thrombolysis is always the result of a risk-benefit calculation of the heart attack, thrombolysis risks, and ...
Tissue plasminogen activator
"The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ... The Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Story, Collen, D., Lijnen, H.R. Genentech Press Release 1982 Tissue Plasminogen Activator ... "Complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator and its serpin inhibitor plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 are internalized ... Tissue plasminogen activator also plays a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling. Once in the body, tPA ...
Ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis
... ultrasonography aimed at residual obstructive intracranial blood flow may help expose thrombi to tissue plasminogen activator ... Ultrasound Thrombolysis Stroke Reperfusion therapy Ultrasound-Enhanced Systemic Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke NEJM ... Ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis (UEST) is a medical technology that uses ultrasound to enhance the effects of ... Systemic Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke thedoctorslounge.net Ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis for acute ...
Another clot-dissolving enzyme that works faster and is more specific is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). This drug is ... Medcalf, R. (2011). "Plasminogen activation-based thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke: the diversity of targets may demand new ... This may be aided by fibrinolytic drugs such as Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) in instances of coronary artery occlusion. ... The end result is hemorrhaging and ischaemic necrosis of tissue/organs. Causes are septicaemia, acute leukaemia, shock, snake ...
Another clot-dissolving enzyme that works faster and is more specific is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). This drug is ... Medcalf, R. (2011). "Plasminogen activation-based thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke: the diversity of targets may demand new ... This may be aided by fibrinolytic drugs such as Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) in instances of coronary artery occlusion. ... Main articles: Thrombolysis, Thrombosis prophylaxis, and Reperfusion therapy. This section needs more medical references for ...
Björn Dirk Krapohl
International Studies of Infarct Survival
... tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and anistreplase to each other, and also compared the anticoagulant heparin to no heparin. ... GISSI Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Myocardial infarction management Hennekens, Charles H. (1998), "Trials of ... a randomised comparison of streptokinase vs tissue plasminogen activator vs anistreplase and of aspirin plus heparin vs aspirin ...
Thrombolytic Science International
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has remained the only clot-dissolving, thrombolytic drug available for clinical use in ... Gurewich V. A New Approach to Thrombolysis. J Heart Stroke. 2017;2(3): 1024. Rhodes, Jennifer. (6 February 2012). "Specifying ... preceded by a bolus of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). TS01 targets only the occlusive (bad) clots that lead to stroke, a ...
Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase are the agents that convert plasminogen to the active plasmin, thus ... Thrombolysis refers to the dissolution of the thrombus due to various agents while fibrinolysis refers specifically to the ... t-PA and urokinase are themselves inhibited by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-1 ... plasmin further stimulates plasmin generation by producing more active forms of both tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and ...
Plasminogen activator *Tissue plasminogen activator. *Urinary plasminogen activator. Complement system. *Factor B ... SUB-MICROMOLAR INHIBITOR OF UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ... Thrombolysis/fibrinolysis. *Plasmin. *tPA/urokinase. *PAI-1/2. ... Traditional models of coagulation developed in the 1960s envisaged two separate cascades, the extrinsic (tissue factor (TF)) ... Factor X has been shown to interact with Tissue factor pathway inhibitor. ...
阿司匹林 - 維基百科，自由的百科全書
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2
Thompson PN, Cho E, Blumenstock FA, Shah DM, Saba TM (October 1992). "Rebound elevation of fibronectin after tissue injury and ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (placental PAI, SerpinB2, PAI-2), a serine protease inhibitor of the serpin superfamily, is a ... Sequence, chromosomal assignment, and homology to plasminogen activator-inhibitor". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 166 ( ... Ye RD, Ahern SM, Le Beau MM, Lebo RV, Sadler JE (April 1989). "Structure of the gene for human plasminogen activator inhibitor- ...
肝素 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Activates plasminogen. Familial hyperfibrinolysis and thrombophilia urokinase. Activates ... Hoffman M (August 2003). "Remodeling the blood coagulation cascade". Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. 16 (1-2): 17-20. ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI2). Inactivates tPA & urokinase (placental ... This cleavage is catalyzed by tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is synthesized and secreted by endothelium. Plasmin ...
... tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Although this is true for oral estrogen, ... Thrombolysis. 41 (1): 3-14. doi:10.1007/s11239-015-1311-6. PMC 4715842 . PMID 26780736. Pramilla Senanayake; Malcolm Potts (14 ... Due to structural differences and accompanying differences in metabolism, estrogens differ from one another in their tissue ... as well as estradiol in tissues like the liver and uterus and as a result have disproportionate effects in these tissues. This ...
... is a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) produced by recombinant DNA technology using an established mammalian cell ... Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. 18 (1): 47-50. doi:10.1007/s11239-004-0174-z. PMID 15744554. Ohman EM, Van de Werf F, ... Tenecteplase is a recombinant fibrin-specific plasminogen activator that is derived from native t-PA by modifications at three ... It binds to the fibrin component of the thrombus (blood clot) and selectively converts thrombus-bound plasminogen to plasmin, ...
However, urokinase is not very selective for clot-bound plasminogen, unlike tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) which ... participates in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation. This cascade had been involved in vascular diseases and ... The most important inhibitors of urokinase are the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasminogen activator ... Urokinase is marketed as Abbokinase or Kinlytic and competes with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (e.g., alteplase) as ...
Thrombolysis Compared With Heparin for the Initial Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism | Circulation
Tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism: a collaborative study by the PIOPED Investigators. ... Tissue plasminogen activator in acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 1989; 95: 282S-289S. ... The role of recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator in the treatment of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Intern Med ... A randomized trial of a single bolus dosage regimen of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in patients with acute ...
Thrombolysis Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator: Experience from a Critical Care Setting | SpringerLink
To describe the experience of thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in critically ill children admitted to the ... Thrombolysis Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator: Experience from a Critical Care Setting. *Amna Afzal Saeed1. , ... Saeed, A.A., Abbas, Q., Ishaque, S. et al. Thrombolysis Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator: Experience from a Critical Care ... Wang M, Hays T, Balasa V, Bagatell R, Gruppo R, Grabowski EF et al (2003) Low-dose tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis in ...
Thrombolysis vs. bleeding from hemostatic sites by a prourokinase mutant compared with tissue plasminogen activator. - PubMed ...
Thrombolysis vs. bleeding from hemostatic sites by a prourokinase mutant compared with tissue plasminogen activator.. Gurewich ... or tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) (1.4 mg kg(-1)) by i.v. infusion over 60 min (20% administered as a bolus). Two pairs of ... Thrombolysis was evaluated at 90 min and was comparably effective by both activators. Rethrombosis developed in one t-PA dog. ... Intravascular thrombolysis by M5 was accompanied by significantly less bleeding from hemostatic sites than by t-PA. This was ...
The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic...
The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ... The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ... The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ... The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ...
Intracranial Hemorrhage after Use of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Coronary Thrombolysis | Annals of Internal Medicine |...
Coronary Thrombolysis: Streptokinase or Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator? Annals of Internal Medicine; 112 (7): ... Intracranial Hemorrhage after Use of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Coronary Thrombolysis Carlos S. Kase, MD; Angela M. ... Intracranial Hemorrhage after Use of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Coronary Thrombolysis. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:17-21. ... Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an approved coronary thrombolytic agent, can cause serious bleeding. We report the cases of ...
Randomized Comparison of Coronary Thrombolysis Achieved With Double-Bolus Reteplase (Recombinant Plasminogen Activator) and...
Recombinant Plasminogen Activator) and Front-Loaded, Accelerated Alteplase (Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator) in ... Recombinant Plasminogen Activator) and Front-Loaded, Accelerated Alteplase (Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator) in ... Recombinant Plasminogen Activator) and Front-Loaded, Accelerated Alteplase (Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator) in ... Recombinant Plasminogen Activator) and Front-Loaded, Accelerated Alteplase (Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator) in ...
Hemorrhagic Events during Therapy with Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator, Heparin, and Aspirin for Acute Myocardial...
Setting: Hospitals participating in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction, Phase II trial (TIMI II). ... Hemorrhagic Events during Therapy with Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator, Heparin, and Aspirin for Acute Myocardial ... Hemorrhagic Events during Therapy with Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator, Heparin, and Aspirin for Acute Myocardial ... and the doses of recombinant plasminogen activator (rt-PA) on hemorrhagic events. ...
Tissue-type plasminogen activator gene targets thrombolysis in atriums | springermedizin.de
Our previous investigations showed that retroviral gene transfer of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) effectively ... Tissue-type plasminogen activator gene targets thrombolysis in atriums. Zeitschrift:. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis > ... Tissue-type plasminogen activator gene targets thrombolysis in atriums Autoren:. Yongsheng Gong Fajiu Wang Xia Li Zhixin Gao ... The mechanism of the reaction between human plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 and tissue plasminogen activator. Biochem J 265: ...
A prostacyclin analog impairs the response to tissue-type plasminogen activator during coronary thrombolysis: evidence for a...
A prostacyclin analog impairs the response to tissue-type plasminogen activator during coronary thrombolysis: evidence for a ... A prostacyclin analog impairs the response to tissue-type plasminogen activator during coronary thrombolysis: evidence for a ... A prostacyclin analog impairs the response to tissue-type plasminogen activator during coronary thrombolysis: evidence for a ... A prostacyclin analog impairs the response to tissue-type plasminogen activator during coronary thrombolysis: evidence for a ...
The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic...
Thrombolysis is of net benefit in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, who are younger than 80 years of age and are treated ... The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ... The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic ... Tissue Plasminogen Activator / administration & dosage*, adverse effects, therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult. ...
Inogatran, a novel direct low molecular weight thrombin inhibitor, given with, but not after, tissue-plasminogen activator,...
... tissue-plasminogen activator, improves thrombolysis.. L Chen, W W Nichols, C Mattsson, A C Teger-Nilsson, T G Saldeen and J L ... tissue-plasminogen activator, improves thrombolysis.. L Chen, W W Nichols, C Mattsson, A C Teger-Nilsson, T G Saldeen and J L ... tissue-plasminogen activator, improves thrombolysis.. L Chen, W W Nichols, C Mattsson, A C Teger-Nilsson, T G Saldeen and J L ... tissue-plasminogen activator, improves thrombolysis. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
Incidence, predictors and clinical characteristics of orolingual angio-oedema complicating thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen...
... predictors and clinical characteristics of orolingual angio-oedema complicating thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator ... predictors and clinical characteristics of orolingual angio-oedema complicating thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator ... Background Orolingual angio-oedema is a recognised complication of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischaemic stroke. We ... which has implications for the assessment and delivery of thrombolysis. ...
Rheolytic Catheter Thrombectomy, Balloon Angioplasty, and Direct Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Thrombolysis of Dural...
Rheolytic Catheter Thrombectomy, Balloon Angioplasty, and Direct Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Thrombolysis of Dural ... Rheolytic Catheter Thrombectomy, Balloon Angioplasty, and Direct Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Thrombolysis of Dural ... Rheolytic Catheter Thrombectomy, Balloon Angioplasty, and Direct Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Thrombolysis of Dural ... Rheolytic Catheter Thrombectomy, Balloon Angioplasty, and Direct Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Thrombolysis of Dural ...
Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Lesion Volume Predicts Favorable Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis With Tissue...
Weighted Imaging Lesion Volume Predicts Favorable Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis With Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator ... Weighted Imaging Lesion Volume Predicts Favorable Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis With Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator ... Weighted Imaging Lesion Volume Predicts Favorable Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis With Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator ... Weighted Imaging Lesion Volume Predicts Favorable Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis With Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator ...
In Situ Pulmonary Thrombolysis Using Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator after Cesarean Delivery | Anesthesiology | ASA...
In Situ Pulmonary Thrombolysis Using Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator after Cesarean Delivery Anesthesiology 8 1999, ... In Situ Pulmonary Thrombolysis Using Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator after Cesarean Delivery ... In Situ Pulmonary Thrombolysis Using Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator after Cesarean Delivery ... In Situ Pulmonary Thrombolysis Using Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator after Cesarean Delivery . Anesthesiology 1999;91( ...
PDF] Effect of ultrasound on tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced thrombolysis. - Semantic Scholar
... such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). We hypothesized that exposure of the clot to ultrasound during thrombolytic ... No evidence for tissue damage was noted in rabbits exposed to intermittent ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS Exposure of whole blood ... clots in vitro to intermittent ultrasound combined with t-PA caused a significant enhancement of thrombolysis compared with t- ... Tissue plasminogen activator concentration dependence of 120 kHz ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis.. George J. Shaw, Jason M. ...
Impact of Extraischemic Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis with Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator
... , Takuro Endo ... Impact of Extraischemic Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis with Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Takuro Endo1, ... Impact of Extraischemic Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis with Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator. J Neurol ... Demchuk AM, Khan F, Hill MD (2008) Importance of leukoaraiosis on CT for tissue plasminogen activator decision making: ...
Impact of Extraischemic Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis with Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator | Abstract
Thrombolysis is efficacious for acute ischemic stroke; however it might increase the risk of following hemorrhage. Generally, ... Impact of Extraischemic Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis with Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator ... Methods: Acute ischemic stroke patients who were treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator ... Background: Thrombolysis is efficacious for acute ischemic stroke; however it might increase the risk of following hemorrhage. ...
Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator thrombolysis in treatment of central retinal artery occlusion. |...
Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator thrombolysis in treatment of central retinal artery occlusion. , ... Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator thrombolysis in treatment of central retinal artery occlusion. Jorge ... Kattah JC, Wang DZ, Reddy C. Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator thrombolysis in treatment of central ...
Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke (Alteplase, Activase®) | National Institute of Neurological Disorders...
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to brain tissue is blocked by a blood clot (ischemic stroke), or when a blood vessel in ... Coronary thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator in patients with evolving myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. ... Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke (Alteplase, Activase®) Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic ... Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated thrombolysis of cerebral emboli and its effect on hemorrhagic infarction in rabbits. ...
Monitoring intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with diffusion and...
Early recanalization achieved by thrombolysis can save tissue at risk if present and may result in significantly smaller ... Stroke MRI may be used as a single imaging tool in acute stroke to identify and monitor candidates for thrombolysis. It is ... and tissue at risk at an early stage may be useful. We studied the feasibility of stroke MRI for the initial evaluation and ... or after thrombolysis and on days 2 and 5. We assessed clinical scores (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS], ...
Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in fulminant pulmonary embolism...
Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in fulminant pulmonary embolism ... Administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during usual CPR manoeuvres when there was a strong suspicion of FPE ... Thrombolysis using plasminogen activator and heparin reduces cerebral no-reflow after resuscitation from cardiac arrest: an ... Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 108 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac ...
Rescue Stenting for Failed Mechanical Thrombectomy
Intensive blood pressure reduction with intravenous thrombolysis therapy for acute ischaemic stroke (ENCHANTED): an...
Tissue Plasminogen Activator / administration & dosage* * Tissue Plasminogen Activator / therapeutic use * Treatment Outcome ... Methods: We did an international, partial-factorial, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial of thrombolysis-eligible patients (age ... Intensive blood pressure reduction with intravenous thrombolysis therapy for acute ischaemic stroke (ENCHANTED): an ...
A Study of Intravenous Thrombolysis With Alteplase in MRI-Selected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Fibrinolytic Agents. Fibrin Modulating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... A Study of Intravenous Thrombolysis With Alteplase in MRI-Selected Patients (MR WITNESS). The safety and scientific validity of ... Intravenous thrombolysis in unwitnessed stroke onset: MR WITNESS trial results. Ann Neurol. 2018 May;83(5):980-993. doi: ... Baseline Predictors of Poor Outcome in Patients Too Good to Treat With Intravenous Thrombolysis. Stroke. 2016 Dec;47(12):2986- ...
Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal With Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Drug: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) Pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis, consisting of ... Plasminogen. Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Fibrinolytic Agents. Fibrin Modulating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of ... J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2006 Feb;21(1):41-8. Review. Vedantham S, Millward SF, Cardella JF, Hofmann LV, Razavi MK, Grassi CJ, ... Vedantham S, Vesely TM, Sicard GA, Brown D, Rubin B, Sanchez LA, Parti N, Picus D. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis and early ...
Efficacy and Safety of MRI-based Thrombolysis in Wake-up Stroke - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Experimental: intravenous tissue plasminogen activator Intervention drug: intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), ... Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Plasminogen. Fibrinolytic Agents. Fibrin Modulating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase) 0.9 mg/kg body-weight up to a maximum of 90 mg, 10% as bolus, 90% over 1 ... Efficacy and Safety of MRI-based Thrombolysis in Wake-up Stroke (WAKE-UP). The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
Stroke: Part II. Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke - American Family Physician
At present, only tissue plasminogen activator has been labeled for acute stroke treatment; however, other agents are on the ... Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator has been labeled for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, but it must be ... Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator has been labeled for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, but it must be ... Criteria for Thrombolysis of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Inclusion criteria ...
11 economic evidence of interventions for acute myocardial infarction…
... pre-hospital thrombolysis; STEMI: ST-elevation myocardial infarction; TL: thrombolysis; t-PA: tissue-type plasminogen activator ... The objective of agents10,11,13-20,21, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) was this paper is to complement the clinical ... A policy statement from the Primary Angioplasty Versus Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator: European Society of Cardiology, Eur ... thrombolysis, economics, health economics, costs, quality TL thrombolysis adjusted life years, quality of life, wellbeing or ...
Stroke prevention and stroke thrombolysis: quantifying the potential benefits of best practice therapies | The Medical Journal...
Roughly a quarter of stroke patients were ineligible for treatment with tissue plasminogen activator because of intracerebral ... The effects of ischaemic stroke (the most common kind) can potentially be minimised with thrombolysis.5 However, thrombolysis ... Potential prevention of disability from stroke by thrombolysis was assessed by comparing actual versus potential thrombolysis ... Eligibility for thrombolysis was determined at or shortly after admission.. The Royal Adelaide Hospital serves a local ...
Ischaemic strokeThrombectomyIschemic stroke patientsStreptokinase or tissue plasminogAbstractTherapyReperfusionClinicalAcute strokeRecanalizationHemorrhage after thrombolysisInfusionAssociated with recombinant tissueDoses of recombinantNational Institutes of HealtInhibitorIntravenous Thrombolysis With AlteplaseCentral retinal aPerfusion-weightedPrimary angioplastyUltrasound-enhanced thrombolysisOutcomesComplicationsPatients with acuteNeutrophil ExtraPharmacomechanical catheter-directedSystemicCerebralCoronary ThrombolysisStroke thrombolysisBenefits of thrombolysisMortalityActivaseComplicationPercutaneousPrehospital thrombolysisHemorrhagic transformation
- The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke (the third in. (nih.gov)
- Thrombolysis is of net benefit in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, who are younger than 80 years of age and are treated within 4·5 h of onset. (nih.gov)
- Thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke. (nih.gov)
- Background Orolingual angio-oedema is a recognised complication of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischaemic stroke. (bmj.com)
- The effects of ischaemic stroke (the most common kind) can potentially be minimised with thrombolysis. (mja.com.au)
- Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational study. (springer.com)
- Thrombolysis and thrombectomy are emergency treatments for ischaemic stroke. (rcn.org.uk)
- Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke - results from 25 patients treated in a Greek tertiary care hospital. (ebscohost.com)
- Background In 2003, the EMEA approved the use of intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA (Actilyse(r)) for therapy of acute ischaemic stroke within three hours from system onset, under the condition that these patients are treated according to the SITS-MOST protocol (Safe Implementation of. (ebscohost.com)
- Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis is effective in treating acute ischaemic stroke, but may not be a viable option in developing countries. (scielo.org.za)
- Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, alteplase) is the only effective specific treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. (scielo.org.za)
- Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) when administered for acute ischaemic stroke produces improved outcome, 1 and benefit may exist within a treatment window as long as six hours. (bmj.com)
- A combination of AngioJet rheolytic catheter thrombectomy, balloon angioplasty, and continuous direct superior sagittal sinus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion led to venous recanalization with a successful clinical outcome, without worsening of the preexisting intracranial hemorrhages. (ajnr.org)
- Staged escalation therapy in acute basilar artery occlusion: intravenous thrombolysis and on-demand consecutive endovascular mechanical thrombectomy: preliminary experience in 16 patients. (medscape.com)
- Over the past decade, mechanical thrombectomy by endovascular means emerged as a complementary treatment to systemic intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). (onlinejacc.org)
- Reperfusion by thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy can rescue penumbra and improve stroke outcomes, but these treatments are currently available to a minority of patients. (springer.com)
- Currently a minority of patients are able to receive thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy. (springer.com)
- Currently the standard treatment for the acute phase of HF is thrombolysis or thrombectomy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This lack of data therefore does not make it possible to determine the effectiveness of thrombolysis or thrombectomy treatments in these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In the intensive care of the neuro-vascular unit, the patient is received as quickly as possible to decide whether he can benefit from an extreme emergency treatment (intravenous thrombolysis or thrombectomy). (clinicaltrials.gov)
Ischemic stroke patients4
- Acute ischemic stroke patients who were treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator administration within 4.5 hrs following onset were consecutively screened (n=112). (jneuro.com)
- IV thrombolysis could benefit acute ischemic stroke patients with both baseline cerebral microbleeds and atrial myxoma. (frontiersin.org)
- Methods- We analyzed data of prospectively studied MRI selected acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator within 6 hours. (ahajournals.org)
- Prognosis comparisons in acute ischemic stroke patients with thrombolysis and nonthrombolysis. (deepdyve.com)
Streptokinase or tissue plasminog2
- it involves the administration of drugs such as streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to prevent further blood clots from forming. (britannica.com)
- Thrombolysis with streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator. (anaesthesiauk.com)
- 2. Health Economics Group, Peninsula College of Medicine Dentistry, Exeter University, Exeter,United Kingdom KEYWORDS Abstract Aims: The aims of this review are to identify and evaluate studies exploring the cost-effectiveness of primary angioplasty (PPCI) vs. thrombolysis (TL) for treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (slideshare.net)
- Total 9 patients (7 males, 2 females) received systemic tPA therapy for thrombolysis with mean age of 74.64 ± 69.58 months. (springer.com)
- Systemic tPA therapy was very safe in pediatric critically ill patients and was effective for thrombolysis and did not show any adverse effects in children with varying underlying diagnosis. (springer.com)
- To assess the effects of invasive procedures, hemostatic and clinical variables, the timing of beta-blocker therapy, and the doses of recombinant plasminogen activator (rt-PA) on hemorrhagic events. (annals.org)
- Coronary artery often reoccludes after therapy of acute myocardial infarction with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator rt-PA, most likely due to in situ thrombin generation during thrombolysis. (aspetjournals.org)
- BACKGROUND The efficacy of fibrinolytic therapy is limited by the small surface area of the clot that is available for the binding of the thrombolytic agent, such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). (semanticscholar.org)
- Thrombolytic therapy with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) administration is efficacious treatment for acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 hours of the onset, and also is recommended as best therapy in clinical guideline for stroke in Japan [ 1 ]. (jneuro.com)
- All centres capable of administering thrombolysis therapy according to Canadian guidelines were eligible to submit patient data to the registry. (cmaj.ca)
- Stroke thrombolysis is a safe and effective therapy in actual practice. (cmaj.ca)
- 16 Nevertheless, use of thrombolysis for stroke remains controversial, particularly because it is unclear whether such a therapy that is dependent on time, technology and infrastructure can be broadly and safely applied. (cmaj.ca)
- Therapy of basilar artery occlusion: a systematic analysis comparing intra-arterial and intravenous thrombolysis. (medscape.com)
- Acute Ischemic stroke (AIS) remains a leading cause of adult disability, cognitive impairment and mortality worldwide despite the development of revascularization therapies (intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA) and endovascular therapy). (strokecenter.org)
- The aim of this study is to assess the impact of NETs composition of thrombi retrieved during endovascular therapy in AIS patients on IV t-PA induced thrombolysis, clinical outcome and AIS etiologies. (strokecenter.org)
- 17 In Australia, the National Heart Foundation has stated that if patients cannot reach a hospital for thrombolytic therapy within 90 minutes of calling the emergency service, out-of-hospital thrombolysis should be considered. (mja.com.au)
- Canonical Wnt Pathway Maintains Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity upon Ischemic Stroke and Its Activation Ameliorates Tissue Plasminogen Activator Therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
- Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). (springer.com)
- Number needed to treat to benefit and to harm for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy in the 3- to 4.5-hour window. (springer.com)
- Throbolytic therapy or thrombolysis involves the administration of 'clot-busting' drugs directly after a stroke to break up the congealed thrombi that are compromising blood flow in the brain. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Thrombolysis, also called thrombolytic therapy, is usually an emergency treatment used to dissolve blood clots and is commonly used to treat stroke. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy may be contraindicated and may not work. (appliedradiology.com)
- GR32191 reduced the time to reperfusion by 47% (n = 6, P less than .05), consistent with a role for TXA2-mediated platelet activation in impairing thrombolysis. (aspetjournals.org)
- Inertial Cavitation Ultrasound with Microbubbles Improves Reperfusion Efficacy When Combined with Tissue Plasminogen Activator in an In Vitro Model of Microvascular Obstruction. (semanticscholar.org)
- Since previous studies demonstrated superiority of tissue plasminogen activator [tPA] on reperfusion of an occluded coronary artery compared to streptokinase [SK] , this study was conducted to determine whether a combination of tPA at lower dose and SK might achieve similar results at reduced cost. (who.int)
- Perfusion-weighted imaging-diffusion-weighted imaging mismatch patients treated with tissue plaminogen activator had higher recanalization rates and enhanced reperfusion at day 3 (81% vs 47% in controls), and a greater proportion of severely hypoperfused acute mismatch tissue not progressing to infarction (82% vs -25% in controls). (nih.gov)
- Whereas hemorrhagic transformation should be regarded as a clinically irrelevant epiphenomenon of ischemic damage and reperfusion, parenchymal hemorrhage appears to be related to biologic effects of tissue plasminogen activator and other pre-existing pathologic conditions, which deserve further investigation. (ahajournals.org)
- 3,4 However, asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation is mainly considered to be an epiphenomenon of reperfusion into ischemic tissue without any clinical impact. (ahajournals.org)
- Intravenous thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are alternative treatment options for coronary reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction. (bmj.com)
- However, a recent clinical trial, combining tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) with the prostacyclin analog, iloprost, did not detect such a benefit. (aspetjournals.org)
- Furthermore, we explored the premorbid clinical settings and outcome of the patients who suffered from EH after thrombolysis. (jneuro.com)
- WAKE-UP is an investigator initiated European multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial of MRI based thrombolysis in acute stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset, e.g. due to recognition of stroke symptoms on awakening. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The outcomes of stroke patients undergoing thrombolysis in Canada are commensurate with the results of clinical trials. (cmaj.ca)
- Small phase I-II randomized and non-randomized clinical trials have shown promising results concerning the potential applications of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis in the setting of acute cerebral ischemia. (biomedsearch.com)
- Initial clinical experience with IV tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a multicenter survey. (deepdyve.com)
- Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke with onset of stroke symptoms within 4.5 hours of receiving thrombolysis were included. (scielo.org.za)
- Thrombolysis in routine clinical practice in a South African setting has similar safety and early efficacy outcomes to controlled trials and open-label studies in developing and developed countries. (scielo.org.za)
- The benefits of thrombolysis have been consistently reproduced when used in routine clinical practice across different patient populations. (scielo.org.za)
- Patient eligibility was defined by the Stroke Unit protocol and included patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke in whom it was ascertained that the time of onset of stroke symptoms was within 3 hours of receiving thrombolysis. (scielo.org.za)
- Stroke MRI may be used as a single imaging tool in acute stroke to identify and monitor candidates for thrombolysis. (scienceopen.com)
- Intravenous thrombolysis with Alteplase is available as effective and safe treatment of acute stroke within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Thrombolysis in the treatment of acute stroke: is there a role for streptokinase when tissue plasminogen activator is not available? (bvsalud.org)
- Treatment of acute stroke has not improved significantly despite the availability of intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator [tPA].The drug is expensive and is offered to a selected few. (bvsalud.org)
- Use of MRI in acute stroke was also assessed in patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by prospectively recording reasons for exclusion. (bmj.com)
- In acute stroke patients, penumbral tissue is non-functioning but potentially salvageable within a time window of variable duration and represents target tissue for rescue. (springer.com)
- ANN NEUROL 2010;68:959-962 T he most serious complication of intravenous thrombolysis (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator [rt-PA]) in the treatment of acute stroke is intracranial hemorrhage. (docme.ru)
- Early recanalization achieved by thrombolysis can save tissue at risk if present and may result in significantly smaller infarcts and a significantly better outcome. (scienceopen.com)
- The combination of alteplase, a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, and edaravone, an antioxidant, reportedly enhances recanalization after acute ischemic stroke. (hindawi.com)
- Intravenous thrombolysis of basilar artery occlusion: thrombus length versus recanalization success. (medscape.com)
- Timing of recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis and functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. (springer.com)
Hemorrhage after thrombolysis6
- Our results confirmed that extraischemic hemorrhage after thrombolysis could cause worse outcome. (jneuro.com)
- Trouillas reported that cerebral hemorrhage after thrombolysis could be classified into three types, i.e., hemorrhagic infarction (HI), parenchymal hemorrhage and extraischemic hematoma (EH) [ 2 ]. (jneuro.com)
- Parenchymal hemorrhage after thrombolysis is associated with a higher mortality and worse outcome in surviving patients. (ahajournals.org)
- 5-7 At the same time, it is still uncertain by which means (if at all) patients at high risk of severe intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombolysis can be identified before the initiation of treatment. (ahajournals.org)
- For this purpose, we analyzed data of a prospective multicenter study of IV-PA within 6 hours in MRI selected patients to determine whether pretreatment PWI and DWI lesion volumes can be related to symptomatic or asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombolysis within an expanded time window. (ahajournals.org)
- Dzialowski I, Pexman JH, Barber PA, Demchuk AM, Buchan AM, Hill MD. Asymptomatic hemorrhage after thrombolysis may not be benign: prognosis by hemorrhage type in the Canadian alteplase for stroke effectiveness study registry. (springer.com)
- The purpose of the RAPID II study was to determine whether a double-bolus regimen of reteplase, a recently developed deletion mutant of wild-type tissue plasminogen activator, could improve 90-minute coronary artery patency rates achieved with the most successful standard regimen, an "accelerated" front-loaded infusion of alteplase. (ahajournals.org)
- Five other dogs were given inogatran (bolus and continuous infusion) only after thrombolysis by rt-PA was obtained (group C). Time to reflow was similar in all dogs. (aspetjournals.org)
- Design In 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction, LMWH (nadroparine) was given as a body weight adjusted intravenous bolus with thrombolysis (rt-PA infusion) and in weight adjusted subcutaneous doses at six hours, and every 12 hours thereafter for 72 hours. (bmj.com)
Associated with recombinant tissue1
Doses of recombinant1
National Institutes of Healt1
- This study was conducted to examine the modulation of thrombolysis, indices of thrombin generation and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) by a novel low molecular weight direct thrombin inhibitor, inogatran. (aspetjournals.org)
- Plasminogen activator, tissue type (PLAT) and its inhibitor serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) cooperatively regulate PLAT activity in various reproductive processes. (bioportfolio.com)
- Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Gene Expression will be evaluated clinically and histopathologically through Hematoxylin and eosin as well as by qua. (bioportfolio.com)
- In particular how upregulation of the protease inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) promotes the pathogenesis of thrombotic and fibrotic diseases. (google.com)
- Wood bark smoke induces lung and pleural plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and stabilizes its mRNA in porcine lung cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
Intravenous Thrombolysis With Alteplase1
Central retinal a1
- Stroke MRI (diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging [DWI and PWI, respectively], magnetic resonance angiography, and T2-weighted imaging) was performed before, during, or after thrombolysis and on days 2 and 5. (scienceopen.com)
- Perfusion-weighted imaging-diffusion-weighted imaging mismatch was present in 16 of 19 patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator, and 16 of 21 controls. (nih.gov)
- We studied whether perfusion-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging has the potential to identify patients at risk of severe intracerebral hemorrhage after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. (ahajournals.org)
- Ansah DA, Patel KN, Montegna L, Nicholson GT, Ehrlich AC, Petit CJ (2016) Tissue plasminogen activator use in children: bleeding complications and thrombus resolution. (springer.com)
- The thrombolysis was not associated with any fatal complications. (meta.org)
- The focus of treatment is to limit the size of the area of tissue lost from lack of blood (infarct) and to prevent and treat complications, such as arrhythmia . (britannica.com)
- 3 ) The primary reason for the low risk of lytic complications in stroke mimics is that this population does not have ischemic, friable brain tissue that can transform into hemorrhage. (ahrq.gov)
- Iatrogenic deaths from thrombolysis complications occur in about 1% of AMI patients. (positivehealth.com)
Patients with acute1
- Neutrophils contribute to the clearance of pathogens through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a process known as NETosis, but the excessive release of NETs has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including vasculitis, by inducing tissue injury. (bioportfolio.com)
- This method of rt-PA delivery, pharmacomechanical catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis (PCDT),is thought to be safer, more effective, and more efficient than previous methods. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To describe the experience of thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), retrospective review of medical records of all children (1 month-16 years), who were admitted in PICU since January 2014 to December 2017 and received systemic tPA for thrombolysis was done. (springer.com)
- Systemic hemostasis with recombinant-activated factor VII followed by local thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in intraventricular hemorrhage. (duke.edu)
- Beginning with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, this paper traces the gradual shift of systemic thrombolysis from a competing to complementary treatment modality. (onlinejacc.org)
- Both cerebral microbleeds and cardiac myxoma may increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis. (frontiersin.org)
- We report a case of multiple cerebral microbleeds treated with IV thrombolysis with later findings of cardiac myxoma. (frontiersin.org)
- We report a patient with multiple cerebral microbleeds who was treated with thrombolysis and was later found to have cardiac myxoma. (frontiersin.org)
- Extracellular proteolysis initiated by the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to its receptor (uPAR) regulates the development of inhibitory neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex. (bioportfolio.com)
- Does High Cerebral Microbleed Burden Increase the Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke? (bioportfolio.com)
- Cerebral -amyloid detected by Pittsburgh compound B positron emission topography predisposes to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-related hemorrhage. (docme.ru)
- Coronary Thrombolysis: Streptokinase or Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator? (annals.org)
- A prostacyclin analog impairs the response to tissue-type plasminogen activator during coronary thrombolysis: evidence for a pharmacokinetic interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
- Inhibition of thromboxane (TX) A2 with aspirin enhances the response to coronary thrombolysis. (aspetjournals.org)
- However, experimental evidence suggests that platelet activation during coronary thrombolysis is mediated by a number of agonists, in addition to TXA2. (aspetjournals.org)
- A long standing interest has been understanding why the current standard of care for thrombotic stroke, thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is not effective when given more than 4.5 hours after the onset of ischemic stroke and why tPA treatment significantly increases the risk of hemorrhagic conversion. (google.com)
- Cathflo® Activase® (Alteplase) is a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) produced by recombinant DNA technology. (rxlist.com)
- Alteplase (Activase), also referred to as tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) is a "clotbuster" drug used in emergency settings. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Alteplase (Activase), also called as tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) is a "clotbuster" drug used in emergency settings. (emedicinehealth.com)
- However, hemorrhagic complication is sometimes observed following the thrombolysis, and it might affect disease state and prognosis. (jneuro.com)
- Background and Purpose- Intracerebral hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. (ahajournals.org)
- 1,2 However, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage still represents the most feared complication of treatment with IV-tPA and one of the reasons for the limited use of thrombolysis. (ahajournals.org)
- Prehospital thrombolysis may be appropriate for some regions. (mja.com.au)
- One study reported a median CTN time for a metropolitan area of 95 minutes, with only 46% of patients treated within 90 minutes, and a median CTN time of 150 minutes (5% of patients treated within 90 minutes) in a rural area without prehospital thrombolysis. (mja.com.au)
- If ischemic stroke is confirmed and contraindications are excluded prehospital thrombolysis is applied. (jove.com)
- In order to reduce this time, prehospital thrombolysis at the emergency site would be preferable. (jove.com)
- One way to avoid these delays may be a start of specific stroke treatment at the emergency site, i.e. prehospital thrombolysis. (jove.com)
- The present study investigates the association between hour-to-hour blood pressure (BP) variability and severe hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) during hyperacute stage. (springer.com)
- Hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic brain tissue: asymptomatic or symptomatic? (springer.com)