Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune
Antigens, Human Platelet
Platelet Factor 4
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Drug Administration Schedule
Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic
Blood Cell Count
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Jacobsen Distal 11q Deletion Syndrome
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex
Rho(D) Immune Globulin
Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Blood Coagulation Disorders
Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Combined Modality Therapy
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and fluorouracil-related toxicity. (1/2544)Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolism. We report lymphocytic DPD data concerning a group of 53 patients (23 men, 30 women, mean age 58, range 36-73), treated by 5-FU-based chemotherapy in different French institutions and who developed unanticipated 5-FU-related toxicity. Lymphocyte samples (standard collection procedure) were sent to us for DPD determination (biochemical method). Among the whole group of 53 patients, 19 had a significant DPD deficiency (DD; below 150 fmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, i.e. less than 70% of the mean value observed from previous population study). There was a greater majority of women in the DD group (15 out of 19, 79%) compared with the remaining 34 patients (15 out of 34, 44%, P<0.014). Toxicity was often severe, leading to patient death in two cases (both women). The toxicity score (sum of WHO grading, theoretical range 0-20) was twice as high in patients with marked DD (below 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 11, mean score = 13.2) compared with patients with moderate DD (between 150 and 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 8, mean score = 6.8), P = 0.008. In the DD group, there was a high frequency of neurotoxic syndromes (7 out of 19, 37%). The two deceased patients both had severe neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cardiac toxicity was relatively rare (1 out of 19, 5%). These data suggest that women are particularly prone to DPD deficiency and allow a more precise definition of the DD toxicity profile. (+info)
A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration. (2/2544)2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing. (+info)
Phase I and pharmacologic study of the combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan administered intravenously every 21 days as first-line therapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. (3/2544)PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of administering topotecan in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin without and with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support as first-line chemotherapy in women with incompletely resected stage III and stage IV ovarian carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting doses were paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 administered over 24 hours (day 1), followed by cisplatin 50 mg/m2 over 3 hours (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d over 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days (days 2 to 6). Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. After encountering dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) without G-CSF support, the maximum-tolerated dose was defined as 5 microg/kg of G-CSF subcutaneously starting on day 6. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received a total of 116 courses at four different dose levels. The DLT was neutropenia. At the first dose level, all six patients experienced grade 4 myelosuppression. G-CSF support permitted further dose escalation of cisplatin and topotecan. Nonhematologic toxicities, primarily fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and neurosensory neuropathy, were observed but were generally mild. Of 15 patients assessable for response, nine had a complete response, four achieved a partial response, and two had stable disease. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia was the DLT of this combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan. The recommended phase II dose is paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 (day 1), followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d (days 2 to 6) with G-CSF support repeated every 3 weeks. (+info)
Rituximab therapy in hematologic malignancy patients with circulating blood tumor cells: association with increased infusion-related side effects and rapid blood tumor clearance. (4/2544)PURPOSE: Rituximab was recently approved for use in relapsed, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, few data exist regarding the safety of this agent in patients with a high number of tumor cells in the blood. METHODS AND RESULTS: After the observation at our institution of a rapid reduction of peripheral-blood tumor cells with associated severe pulmonary infusion-related toxicity in two patients with refractory hematologic malignancies, data on three additional cases were collected from physician-submitted reports of adverse events related to rituximab treatment. Five patients with hematologic malignancies possessing a high number of blood tumor cells were treated with rituximab and developed rapid tumor clearance. The median age was 68 years (range, 26 to 78 years). Patients were diagnosed with B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), or transformed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1). All of these patients had bulky adenopathy or organomegaly. All five patients developed a unique syndrome of severe infusion-related reactions, thrombocytopenia, rapid decrement in circulating tumor cell load, and mild electrolyte evidence of tumor lysis, and all required hospitalization. In addition, one patient developed ascites. These events resolved, and four patients were subsequently treated with rituximab without significant complications. CONCLUSION: Rituximab administration in patients who have a high number of tumor cells in the blood may have an increased likelihood of severe initial infusion-related reactions. These data also suggest that rituximab may have activity in a variety of other lymphoid neoplasms, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. (+info)
Phase I-II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin in stage IIIB-IV non-small-cell lung cancer. (5/2544)PURPOSE: Platinum-based chemotherapy currently represents standard treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Gemcitabine is one of the most interesting agents currently in use in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, and high response rates have been reported when it is administered in combination with cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin in a phase I-II study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IIIB-IV non-small-cell lung cancer received carboplatin at area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 5 mg/mL/min and gemcitabine at an initial dose of 800 mg/m2, subsequently escalated by 100 mg/m2 per step. Gemcitabine was administered on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin on day 8 of the 28-day cycle. Dose escalation proceeded up to dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), which was defined as grade 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia or grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity. RESULTS: Neutropenia was DLT, inasmuch as it occurred in three of five patients receiving gemcitabine 1,200 mg/m2. Nonhematologic toxicities were mild. Gemcitabine 1,100 mg/m2 plus carboplatin AUC 5 was recommended for phase II studies. An objective response was observed in 13 (50%) of 26 patients, including four complete responses (15%) and nine partial responses (35%). Median duration of response was 13 months (range, 3 to 23 months). Median overall survival was 16 months (range, 3 to 26 months). CONCLUSION: The combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin is well tolerated and active. Neutropenia was DLT. The observed activity matches that observable in cisplatin-gemcitabine studies, whereas duration of response and survival are even higher. A phase II trial is under way. (+info)
A phase I/II study of continuous intra-arterial chemotherapy using an implantable reservoir for the treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer: a Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) study 9113. JCOG Breast Cancer Study Group. (6/2544)BACKGROUND: Liver metastasis from breast cancer has a poor prognosis. While there are some reports of good response rates of hepatic metastasis from breast cancer by hepatic intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, no phase I study including pharmacokinetic analysis has been reported. We performed a phase I/II study of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil to find the maximum tolerated dose and response rate in patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: A hepatic arterial catheter with an access port was inserted into the proper hepatic artery. Patients received 30 mg/m2 adriamycin on days 1 and 8 and 100 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil at level 1, 200 mg/m2 at level 2,300 mg/m2 at level 3 and 400 mg/m2 at level 4 continuously from day 1 through day 14 every 28 days. At least two cycles were required before evaluation. Twenty-eight patients were entered into this study and 26 patients were evaluable. Seventeen patients had hepatic metastasis only, although nine patients had additional metastasis to other sites. RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity of thrombocytopenia and neurotoxicity occurred at level 4. Leukocytopenia (ECOG grade 3-4) was observed in five (19%), thrombocytopenia in three (12%) and anemia in two (8%) patients. There were 11 catheter-related complications which were not dose dependent. Seven out of 13 evaluable patients (54%) responded at level 3. The median duration of response was 5.8 months (range, 1-23+) and median survival was 25.3 months (range, 6.2-54.7+). CONCLUSION: Hepatic arterial infusion therapy appears to be safe and effective but catheter-related complications must be overcome before starting a phase III trial. (+info)
Distinct human immunodeficiency virus strains in the bone marrow are associated with the development of thrombocytopenia. (7/2544)We analyzed bone marrow and blood from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and described the HIV-1 quasispecies in these cellular compartments. HIV-1 isolates from the bone marrow of thrombocytopenic patients contained distinct amino acids in the V3 loop and infected T-cell lines, implicating this virus in the development of thrombocytopenia. (+info)
Identification of mutations in the c-mpl gene in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. (8/2544)Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare disorder expressed in infancy and characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia and megakaryocytopenia with no physical anomalies. Our previous hematological analysis indicated similarities between human CAMT and murine c-mpl (thrombopoietin receptor) deficiency. Because the c-mpl gene was considered as one of the candidate genes for this disorder, we analyzed the genomic sequence of the c-mpl gene of a 10-year-old Japanese girl with CAMT. We detected two heterozygous point mutations: a C-to-T transition at the cDNA nucleotide position 556 (Q186X) in exon 4 and a single nucleotide deletion of thymine at position 1,499 (1,499 delT) in exon 10. Both mutations were predicted to result in a prematurely terminated c-Mpl protein, which, if translated, lacks all intracellular domains essential for signal transduction. Each of the mutations was segregated from the patient's parents. Accordingly, the patient was a compound heterozygote for two mutations of the c-mpl gene, each derived from one of the parents. The present study suggests that at least a certain type of CAMT is caused by the c-mpl mutation, which disrupts the function of thrombopoietin receptor. (+info)
There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:
1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.
In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.
The main symptoms of PTI include:
* Purple spots or bruises (purpura) on the skin, which may be caused by minor trauma or injury.
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), typically less than 50,000 platelets/mm3.
* Mild anemia and reticulocytosis (increased immature red blood cells).
* Elevated levels of autoantibodies against platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) and other platelet proteins.
* No evidence of other causes of thrombocytopenia, such as bone marrow disorders or infections.
The exact cause of PTI is unknown, but it is believed to involve an immune-mediated response triggered by a genetic predisposition. Treatment options for PTI include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and splenectomy in severe cases. The prognosis for PTI is generally good, with most patients experiencing resolution of symptoms and normalization of platelet counts within a few months to a year after treatment. However, some individuals may experience recurrent episodes of thrombocytopenia and purpura throughout their lives.
The exact cause of NAIT is not fully understood, but it is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition is more common in certain ethnic groups, such as African Americans and Hispanics, and in mothers who have a history of previous pregnancy complications or blood type incompatibility with their baby.
The symptoms of NAIT can vary from mild to severe and may include:
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin)
* Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums)
* Bleeding in the digestive tract
If NAIT is suspected, the baby's platelet count will be checked and the mother's blood will be tested for antibodies against the baby's platelets. Treatment may involve intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to reduce the mother's antibody production or a blood transfusion to increase the baby's platelet count. In severe cases, phototherapy may be used to help break down the antibodies and prevent bleeding.
Prevention of NAIT is challenging, but it is important for pregnant women to be aware of their risk factors and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms of the condition. Proper monitoring and prompt treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected babies.
There are two main types of PTP:
1. Type 1: This is the most common form of PTP, and it is caused by a defect in the ADAMTS13 gene. This gene helps to regulate the activity of platelets and is essential for their proper function.
2. Type 2: This type of PTP is less common and is caused by mutations in other genes that are involved in platelet formation and function.
PTP can be diagnosed with a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for the condition include platelet transfusions, medications to increase platelet production, and surgery to remove any abnormal platelets from the bloodstream. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary.
While there is no cure for PTP, with proper treatment, people with this condition can lead relatively normal lives and reduce their risk of complications. It is important for individuals with PTP to avoid activities that could cause injury or trauma, take precautions to prevent bleeding, and seek medical attention promptly if they experience any signs of bleeding or bruising.
White blood cells are an important part of the immune system, and they help to fight off infections and diseases. A low number of white blood cells can make a person more susceptible to infections and other health problems.
There are several different types of leukopenia, including:
* Severe congenital neutropenia: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes a severe decrease in the number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell.
* Chronic granulomatous disease: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of white blood cells and can cause recurring infections.
* Autoimmune disorders: These are conditions where the immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells, including white blood cells. Examples include lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
* Bone marrow failure: This is a condition where the bone marrow does not produce enough white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets.
Symptoms of leukopenia can include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.
In DIC, the body's normal blood coagulation mechanisms become overactive and begin to form clots throughout the circulatory system, including in small blood vessels and organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including bleeding, fever, and organ failure.
DIC is often seen in sepsis, which is a severe infection that has spread throughout the body. It can also be caused by other conditions such as trauma, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.
Treatment of DIC typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating an infection or injury, as well as supporting the body's natural clotting mechanisms and preventing further bleeding. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.
In summary, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a serious medical condition that can cause widespread clotting and damage to the body's organs and tissues. It is often seen in sepsis and other severe conditions, and treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and supporting the body's natural clotting mechanisms.
1. Iron deficiency anemia: This is the most common hematologic complication of pregnancy, caused by the increased demand for iron and the potential for poor dietary intake or gastrointestinal blood loss.
2. Thrombocytopenia: A decrease in platelet count, which can be mild and resolve spontaneously or severe and require treatment.
3. Leukemia: Rare but potentially serious, leukemia can occur during pregnancy and may require prompt intervention to ensure the health of both the mother and the fetus.
4. Thrombosis: The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
5. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding during pregnancy, which can be caused by various factors such as placenta previa or abruption.
6. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the kidneys and liver, which can increase the risk of hemorrhage and other complications.
7. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, often in the fallopian tube, which can cause severe bleeding and be life-threatening if left untreated.
Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.
Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.
Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.
Bunyaviridae infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, especially in certain populations such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of Bunyaviridae infections can include fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the eyes, ears, or gastrointestinal tract.
There is no specific treatment for Bunyaviridae infections, but supportive care and management of symptoms can help alleviate the severity of the illness. Prevention of Bunyaviridae infections includes avoiding insect bites by using protective clothing and insect repellents, as well as controlling the populations of potential vector insects in affected areas.
Examples of diseases caused by Bunyaviridae viruses include Rift Valley fever, which is common in Africa and the Middle East, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, which is found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Other examples of Bunyaviridae infections include La Crosse encephalitis, which is found in North America, and Japanese encephalitis, which is prevalent in parts of Asia.
It's important to note that Bunyaviridae infections can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other viral or bacterial infections. Laboratory testing, such as PCR or ELISA assays, is often necessary to confirm the presence of a Bunyaviridae virus.
Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae infections include avoiding insect bites, controlling vector populations, and implementing public health measures such as surveillance, education, and vaccination programs. Research into the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against Bunyaviridae viruses is ongoing, but there are currently no licensed treatments available for these infections.
Symptoms of TTP typically begin in adulthood and may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and skin purpura (red or purple spots on the skin). The disorder can be acute or chronic, and it can be inherited in an autosomal dominant or acquired manner.
Acquired TTP is often caused by certain medications, autoimmune disorders, or infections. Inherited TTP is caused by mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene. Treatment for TTP typically involves plasmapheresis, a process that removes harmful antibodies from the blood, and/or immunosuppressive drugs to suppress the immune system. In severe cases, a bone marrow or kidney transplant may be necessary.
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The primary symptoms of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome include:
1. Eczema and skin rashes
2. Immune system dysfunction, leading to recurrent infections
3. Bleeding disorders, including easy bruising and nosebleeds
4. Delayed development and growth retardation
5. Short stature
6. Poor muscle tone and coarse facial features
7. Heart defects, such as ventricular septal defects
8. Kidney disease or dysfunction
9. Increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications through medications, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and other supportive measures.
The prognosis for individuals with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome varies depending on the severity of their symptoms and the presence of any comorbidities. With appropriate medical care, many individuals with this condition can lead relatively normal lives, but they may require lifelong monitoring and treatment to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
Some common types of blood platelet disorders include:
1. Thrombocytopenia: This is a condition in which there are too few platelets in the blood. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including autoimmune disorders, bone marrow disorders, and certain medications.
2. Bernard-Soulier syndrome: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the function of platelets and causes easy bruising and prolonged bleeding.
3. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the platelets' ability to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding.
4. Platelet dysfunction: This can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, infections, and autoimmune disorders. It can lead to excessive bleeding or prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
5. Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the development of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to a lack of platelets in the blood.
6. Grey platelet syndrome: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the structure of platelets, making them more prone to rupture and lead to easy bruising and prolonged bleeding.
7. Platelet-type von Willebrand disease: This is a mild bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together to form clots.
8. acquired platelet dysfunction: This can be caused by various conditions such as infections, medications, and autoimmune disorders.
These disorders can be diagnosed through blood tests, including a complete blood count (CBC) and a platelet function test. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
There are several types of hemorrhagic disorders, including:
1. Hemophilia: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot and stop bleeding. People with hemophilia may experience spontaneous bleeding or bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. von Willebrand disease: A mild bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of a protein called von Willebrand factor, which is important for blood clotting.
3. Platelet disorders: Disorders that affect the platelets, such as thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) or thrombocytosis (high platelet count).
4. Bleeding and clotting disorders caused by medications or drugs.
5. Hemorrhagic stroke: A type of stroke that is caused by bleeding in the brain.
6. Gastrointestinal bleeding: Bleeding in the digestive tract, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as ulcers, inflammation, or tumors.
7. Pulmonary hemorrhage: Bleeding in the lungs, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as pneumonia, injury, or tumors.
8. Retinal hemorrhage: Bleeding in the blood vessels of the retina, which can be caused by high blood pressure, diabetes, or other eye disorders.
Symptoms of hemorrhagic disorders can vary depending on the specific condition and the location of the bleeding. Common symptoms include bruising, petechiae (small red spots on the skin), nosebleeds, gum bleeding, and heavy menstrual periods. Treatment for hemorrhagic disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, blood transfusions, or surgery.
The term splenomegaly is used to describe any condition that results in an increase in the size of the spleen, regardless of the underlying cause. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, or genetic disorders.
Splenomegaly can be diagnosed through a physical examination, where the doctor may feel the enlarged spleen during an abdominal palpation. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the extent of the splenomegaly.
Treatment for splenomegaly depends on the underlying cause. For example, infections such as malaria or mononucleosis are treated with antibiotics, while cancerous conditions may require surgical intervention or chemotherapy. In some cases, the spleen may need to be removed, a procedure known as splenectomy.
In conclusion, splenomegaly is an abnormal enlargement of the spleen that can be caused by various factors and requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Examples of hematologic diseases include:
1. Anemia - a condition where there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body.
2. Leukemia - a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood, causing an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
3. Lymphoma - a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.
4. Thalassemia - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia and other complications.
5. Sickle cell disease - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, causing red blood cells to become sickle-shaped and prone to breaking down.
6. Polycythemia vera - a rare disorder where there is an overproduction of red blood cells.
7. Myelodysplastic syndrome - a condition where the bone marrow produces abnormal blood cells that do not mature properly.
8. Myeloproliferative neoplasms - a group of conditions where the bone marrow produces excessive amounts of blood cells, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis.
9. Deep vein thrombosis - a condition where a blood clot forms in a deep vein, often in the leg or arm.
10. Pulmonary embolism - a condition where a blood clot travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms.
These are just a few examples of hematologic diseases, but there are many others that can affect the blood and bone marrow. Treatment options for these diseases can range from watchful waiting and medication to surgery, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of hematologic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.
The symptoms of HUS include:
* Abdominal pain
* Shortness of breath
* Pale or yellowish skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
If you suspect that someone has HUS, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order blood tests to diagnose the condition. Treatment for HUS typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as stopping certain medications or treating an infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as kidney failure.
Preventative measures to reduce the risk of developing HUS include:
* Practicing good hygiene, especially during outbreaks of diarrheal illnesses
* Avoiding certain medications that are known to increase the risk of HUS
* Maintaining a healthy diet and staying hydrated
* Managing any underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes.
In healthy individuals, the normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. In thrombocytosis, the platelet count is significantly higher than this range, often above 600,000 platelets/μL.
Thrombocytosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Bone marrow disorders: Disorders such as essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis can lead to an overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow.
2. Infection: Sepsis and other infections can cause a temporary increase in platelet production.
3. Inflammation: Certain inflammatory conditions, such as appendicitis and pancreatitis, can also lead to thrombocytosis.
4. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, can cause an overproduction of platelets.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as estrogens and corticosteroids, can increase platelet production.
Thrombocytosis can lead to a range of complications, including:
1. Blood clots: The excessive number of platelets in the blood can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the veins and arteries.
2. Pulmonary embolism: If a blood clot forms in the lungs, it can cause a pulmonary embolism, which can be life-threatening.
3. Stroke: Thrombocytosis can increase the risk of stroke, especially if there are existing risk factors such as high blood pressure or a history of cardiovascular disease.
4. Heart attack and heart failure: Excessive platelet activity can increase the risk of heart attack and heart failure.
5. Gastrointestinal bleeding: The increased number of platelets in the blood can make it more difficult to control bleeding, especially in the gastrointestinal tract.
Thrombocytosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number of platelets in the blood, as well as other components such as red and white blood cells.
2. Blood smear: A sample of blood is examined under a microscope to assess the shape and size of the platelets.
3. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: These tests involve removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue to examine the number and type of cells present.
4. Imaging studies: Imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to look for evidence of blood clots or other complications.
Treatment for thrombocytosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:
1. Medications: Drugs such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners may be used to reduce the risk of blood clots and other complications.
2. Plateletpheresis: This is a procedure in which the patient's blood is removed and the platelets are separated from the rest of the blood components. The remaining blood is then returned to the body.
3. Splenectomy: In some cases, surgical removal of the spleen may be necessary to treat thrombocytosis.
4. Chemotherapy: This is a treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells, which can cause thrombocytosis in some cases.
Overall, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of thrombocytosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:
1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.
Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.
Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.
In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.
The symptoms of hypersplenism can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and easy bruising or bleeding. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, certain medications, and autoimmune disorders. Treatment for hypersplenism typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and may involve supportive care such as blood transfusions or platelet transfusions to help raise the levels of red blood cells and platelets in the body. In severe cases, surgery to remove the spleen may be necessary.
The term hypersplenism is derived from the Greek words hyper meaning excessive or above normal, splen meaning spleen, and -ism meaning a condition or state. It was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe this rare but potentially serious condition.
Examples of autoimmune diseases include:
1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.
The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.
Symptoms of pancytopenia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include blood transfusions, antibiotics, or immunosuppressive medications. In severe cases, pancytopenia can lead to anemia, infections, or bleeding complications that can be life-threatening.
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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a specific type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells. This can happen due to various underlying causes such as infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer.
In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies that coat the surface of red blood cells and mark them for destruction by other immune cells called complement proteins. This leads to the premature destruction of red blood cells in the spleen, liver, and other organs.
Symptoms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a pale or yellowish complexion. Treatment options for AIHA depend on the underlying cause of the disorder, but may include medications to suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood, and in severe cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) or bone marrow transplantation.
In summary, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to premature destruction of red blood cells and various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, plasmapheresis, and in severe cases, splenectomy or bone marrow transplantation.
The syndrome is typically diagnosed based on the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or lupus anticoagulant in the blood. Treatment for antiphospholipid syndrome may involve medications to prevent blood clots, such as heparin or warfarin, and aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation. In some cases, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be given to reduce the levels of antibodies in the blood. Plasmapheresis, a process that removes antibodies from the blood, may also be used in some cases.
Antiphospholipid syndrome is associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and may be triggered by certain medications or infections. It is important for individuals with antiphospholipid syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications.
1. Platelet disorders: These include conditions such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), where the immune system attacks and destroys platelets, leading to a low platelet count and bleeding symptoms.
2. Von Willebrand disease: This is a bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together and form clots.
3. Hemophilia A and B: These are genetic disorders that affect the blood's ability to clot and stop bleeding.
4. Vitamin K-dependent bleeding disorders: These include conditions such as vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy, which is caused by a deficiency of vitamin K and leads to abnormal clotting and bleeding.
5. Other causes: Purpura can also be caused by other medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, and certain medications.
The symptoms of purpura can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Easy bruising (especially on the skin and joints)
* Petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin)
* Prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites
* Gingival bleeding (bleeding from the gums)
* Heavy menstrual periods
* Bleeding into joints and muscles
If you suspect that you or someone else may have purpura, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional will perform a physical examination and order laboratory tests to determine the underlying cause of the bleeding disorder. Treatment for purpura depends on the specific cause, but may include medications to increase platelet count or clotting factor, or surgery to correct an underlying condition.
The syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material that occurs early in fetal development, often before the 10th week of pregnancy. The exact cause of the deletion is not fully understood, but it is thought to be the result of a mistake made during cell division.
The symptoms of Jacobsen syndrome can vary widely among individuals with the condition, but may include:
* Developmental delays and intellectual disability
* Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial septal defect (ASD)
* Cleft palate or other facial abnormalities
* Limb abnormalities such as clubfoot or missing fingers or toes
* Hearing loss
* Vision problems
* Increased risk of infections
There is no cure for Jacobsen syndrome, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. This may include surgery to correct physical abnormalities, speech and language therapy to improve communication skills, and other supportive therapies such as physical therapy and occupational therapy.
The prognosis for individuals with Jacobsen syndrome varies depending on the severity of the symptoms and the presence of any additional medical conditions. However, with appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with the condition are able to lead fulfilling lives.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
Examples of syndromes include:
1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects intellectual and physical development.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a missing or partially deleted X chromosome that affects physical growth and development in females.
3. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
4. Alzheimer's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality and behavior.
5. Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement.
6. Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to infertility and other physical characteristics.
7. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, characterized by cardiovascular problems, developmental delays, and a distinctive facial appearance.
8. Fragile X syndrome: The most common form of inherited intellectual disability, caused by an expansion of a specific gene on the X chromosome.
9. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a defect in the hypothalamus, leading to problems with appetite regulation and obesity.
10. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dry eyes and mouth.
Syndromes can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for a syndrome depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms and signs presented by the patient.
The syndrome is caused by mutations in the ITGA2B gene, which encodes a protein called integrin alpha-IIb. This protein is essential for platelet adhesion and aggregation, which are important steps in the formation of blood clots. Individuals with BSS may experience mild to severe bleeding, including spontaneous bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
The symptoms of BSS can vary in severity and may include:
1. Mild to moderate bleeding episodes, which may be spontaneous or triggered by trauma or surgery.
2. Prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
3. Easy bruising, especially in the extremities (hands and feet).
4. Petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin).
6. Gingival bleeding (bleeding from the gums).
7. Post-injury bleeding.
8. Prolonged bleeding after dental extractions or other medical procedures.
9. Bleeding into the joints (hemarthrosis).
BSS is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for BSS typically involves platelet transfusions and/or medications to improve platelet function. In severe cases, liver or bone marrow transplantation may be considered.
The prognosis for BSS varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of other medical conditions. In general, individuals with mild forms of the syndrome may experience few complications and can lead relatively normal lives. However, those with more severe forms of the disorder may have a higher risk of bleeding complications and may require more frequent platelet transfusions or other treatments to manage their condition.
Genetic counseling is important for individuals with BSS, as the disorder can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a single copy of the mutated gene can cause the condition, and each child of an affected parent has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. Family members may wish to consider genetic testing to determine their risk of developing BSS.
Overall, BSS is a rare but potentially serious bleeding disorder that requires careful management and monitoring to prevent complications. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with BSS can lead fulfilling lives and manage their condition effectively.
The symptoms of Phlebotomus Fever can include high fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and swelling in the lymph nodes. In more severe cases, the disease can cause respiratory problems, kidney failure, and even death.
Phlebotomus Fever is most commonly found in dry, desert regions of the world, such as North Africa, the Middle East, and the southwestern United States. The disease is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history.
Treatment for Phlebotomus Fever typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and reduce symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care and manage complications. Prevention of Phlebotomus Fever includes protecting against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where the disease is common.
The two main types of TMAs are:
1. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): This is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by the formation of antibodies against ADAMTS13, an enzyme involved in platelet function. TTP patients have low levels of ADAMTS13 and abnormal platelets that are prone to clotting.
2. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): This is a condition that occurs when red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the circulation, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and kidney failure. HUS can be caused by various factors, such as infections, certain medications, or genetic mutations.
Both TTP and HUS can lead to TMAs, which can cause severe morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Treatment options for TMAs include plasmapheresis, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as dialysis in cases of acute kidney injury. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential to prevent long-term complications and improve patient outcomes.
* High fever that lasts for more than 2 days
* Severe headache, muscle and joint pain, and rash
* Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
* Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, nose, or gums
* Decreased urine output or no urine output for more than 6 hours
* Rapid heart rate (more than 120 beats per minute)
* Low blood platelet count (less than 50,000 cells/mm3)
* Serious complications such as hemorrhagic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or multi-organ failure
Severe dengue is a medical emergency and requires immediate hospitalization and careful monitoring. Treatment includes fluid replacement therapy, pain management, and supportive care to prevent complications.
Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.
Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
1. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the immune system, often involving the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
3. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): A group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
5. Osteopetrosis: A rare genetic disorder that causes an overgrowth of bone, leading to a thickened bone marrow.
6. Bone marrow failure: A condition where the bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and other complications.
7. Myelofibrosis: A condition characterized by the scarring of the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
8. Polycythemia vera: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
9. Essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of platelets, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
10. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of rare blood disorders that are characterized by the overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
These are just a few examples of bone marrow diseases. There are many other conditions that can affect the bone marrow, and each one can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a bone marrow disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform tests and provide a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.
The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.
There are several subtypes of LES, including:
1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.
There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.
It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several types of intracranial hemorrhage, including:
1. Cerebral hemorrhage: Bleeding within the cerebral tissue itself, which can cause damage to brain cells and lead to a variety of complications.
2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding between the brain and the thin membrane that covers it (the meninges), which can cause severe headaches and other symptoms.
3. Epidural hemorrhage: Bleeding between the dura mater, a protective layer of tissue surrounding the brain, and the skull.
4. Subdural hemorrhage: Bleeding between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, which can cause severe headaches and other symptoms.
The symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage can vary depending on the location and severity of the bleeding, but may include:
* Sudden, severe headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Confusion and disorientation
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Loss of consciousness
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT or MRI scans), and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the hemorrhage. Treatment depends on the location and severity of the bleeding, but may include medications to control symptoms, surgery to repair the source of the bleeding, or other interventions as needed.
Types of Blood Coagulation Disorders:
1. Hemophilia A: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot, leading to prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. Hemophilia B: Similar to hemophilia A, but caused by a deficiency of factor IX instead of factor VIII.
3. Von Willebrand Disease (VWD): A bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, which is needed for blood clotting.
4. Platelet Disorders: These include conditions such as low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) or abnormal platelet function, which can increase the risk of bleeding.
5. Coagulopathy: A general term for any disorder that affects the body's blood coagulation process.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
Blood coagulation disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood clotting factor assays and platelet function tests.
Treatment and Management:
Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. Some common treatments include:
1. Infusions of clotting factor concentrates to replace missing or deficient factors.
2. Desmopressin, a medication that stimulates the release of von Willebrand factor and platelets.
3. Platelet transfusions to increase platelet count.
4. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming.
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or joints.
Prevention and Prognosis:
Prevention of blood coagulation disorders is often challenging, but some steps can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. These include:
1. Avoiding trauma or injury that can cause bleeding.
2. Managing underlying medical conditions such as liver disease, vitamin deficiencies, and autoimmune disorders.
3. Avoiding medications that can interfere with blood clotting.
The prognosis for blood coagulation disorders varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some conditions, such as mild hemophilia A, may have a good prognosis with appropriate treatment, while others, such as severe hemophilia B, can have a poor prognosis without proper management.
Complications and Comorbidities:
Blood coagulation disorders can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities, including:
1. Joint damage and chronic pain due to repeated bleeding into joints.
2. Infection and sepsis from bacteria entering the body through bleeding sites.
3. Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
4. Nerve damage and neuropathy from bleeding into nerve tissue.
5. Increased risk of bleeding during surgery or trauma.
6. Emotional and social challenges due to the impact of the condition on daily life.
7. Financial burden of treatment and management costs.
8. Impaired quality of life, including reduced mobility and activity levels.
9. Increased risk of blood clots and thromboembolic events.
10. Psychological distress and anxiety related to the condition.
Blood coagulation disorders are a group of rare and complex conditions that can significantly impact quality of life, productivity, and longevity. These disorders can be caused by genetic or acquired factors and can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities. Diagnosis is often challenging, but prompt recognition and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes. Management strategies include replacing missing clotting factors, using blood products, and managing underlying conditions. While the prognosis varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, early diagnosis and effective management can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of complications.
In medical terminology, nausea is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "dyspepsia," which refers to a general feeling of discomfort or unease in the stomach, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, belching, or heartburn. However, while nausea and dyspepsia can be related, they are not always the same thing, and it's important to understand the specific underlying cause of any gastrointestinal symptoms in order to provide appropriate treatment.
Some common causes of nausea include:
* Gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gastritis
* Motion sickness or seasickness
* Medication side effects, including chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, and painkillers
* Pregnancy and morning sickness
* Food poisoning or other infections
* Migraines and other headaches
* Anxiety and stress
Treatment for nausea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, anticholinergics, or anti-nausea drugs, as well as non-pharmacological interventions such as ginger, acupressure, or relaxation techniques. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent dehydration or other complications.
There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:
1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.
Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.
There are different types of fever, including:
1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.
The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Elevated body temperature
* Muscle aches
* Loss of appetite
In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.
Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.
In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.
Preventive measures for fever include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.
Hellp Syndrome is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Treatment typically involves providing supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and fluid and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing the underlying cause of the syndrome, such as preeclampsia or eclampsia. In severe cases, delivery of the baby may be necessary to prevent further complications.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
PMF is a chronic disease that worsens over time, and it can lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, and bone damage. Treatment options include medications to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease, as well as blood transfusions and splenectomy (removal of the spleen) in severe cases. The median age at diagnosis is around 60 years old, and the disease affects approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year.
* American Cancer Society. (2019). What is primary myelofibrosis? Retrieved from
* Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. (n.d.). Primary Myelofibrosis. Retrieved from
Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome
Scott Murphy (physician)
List of OMIM disorder codes
Biological response modifier
Von Willebrand disease
Embolic and thrombotic events after COVID-19 vaccination
Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT): An overview
Immune thrombocytopenia: MedlinePlus Genetics
Pathology Case Study: Anemia, Thrombocytopenia and Renal Insufficiency
Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
Thrombocytopenia After Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine
Platelet Disorders: Overview of Platelet Disorders, Pathophysiology of Platelet Disorders, Autoimmune Thrombocytopenias
Fatal Subacute Immuno-Thrombocytopenia Due to Pure Megakaryocytary Aplasia | Acta Haematologica | Karger Publishers
Phosphate-Buffered Tirofiban and Related Thrombocytopenia Risks - MPR
Webinar April 27, 2021 - Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS): Update...
Study of host immunity in patients with Helicobacter pylori-related idiopathic thrombocytopenia
Figure 6 - Rapid Spread of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus by Parthenogenetic Asian Longhorned Ticks - Volume...
FDA approves Shionogi's Mulpleta for CLD-associated thrombocytopenia - Pharmaceutical Technology
A Prospective, One-arm and Open Clinical Study of Zanubrutinib in the Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenia - Full Text View -...
Safety and Efficacy of (PN-152,243)/PN-196,444 in the Prevention of Thrombocytopenia
Diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia, including secondary forms, and selection of second-line treatment | Haematologica ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center
Idiopathic thrombocytopenia in dogs - Pet forum for dogs cats and humans - Pets.ca
Cureus | Newly Diagnosed Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Post COVID-19 Vaccine Administration
Whipple's in the valleys: a case of Whipple's with thrombocytopenia and endocarditis | Journal of Clinical Pathology
Role of ITPA gene polymorphism in ribavirin-induced anemia and thrombocytopenia in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C
Webinar April 27, 2021 - Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS): Update...
WHO EMRO | Review: Immune thrombocytopenia in children with reference to low-income countries | Volume 15, issue 3 | EMHJ...
Outcomes of endoscopic intervention for overt GI bleeding in severe thrombocytopenia<...
General Clinical Guidance for the Evaluation and Interpretation of Complete Blood Count, Hemoglobin Electrophoresis, Thyroid...
Thrombocytopenia | Clinical Gate
Measles and Mumps Vaccines - Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines - NCBI Bookshelf
Immune Thrombocytopenia Archives - MRCEM Success
Non-Heparin Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia<...
- Immune thrombocytopenia is a disorder characterized by a blood abnormality called thrombocytopenia, which is a shortage of blood cells called platelets that are needed for normal blood clotting. (medlineplus.gov)
- People with immune thrombocytopenia can have significant bleeding episodes, such as nose bleeds (epistaxis) or bleeding in the moist lining (mucosae) of the mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- While immune thrombocytopenia can be diagnosed at any age, there are two periods when the condition is most likely to develop: early childhood and late adulthood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Immune thrombocytopenia in children is often preceded by a minor infection, such as an upper respiratory infection, but the relationship between the infection and immune thrombocytopenia is not clear. (medlineplus.gov)
- In adults, the development of immune thrombocytopenia is usually gradual and the condition tends to persist throughout life. (medlineplus.gov)
- The incidence of immune thrombocytopenia is approximately 4 per 100,000 children and 3 per 100,000 adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- In adults with immune thrombocytopenia, women are affected more often than men. (medlineplus.gov)
- The genetic cause of immune thrombocytopenia is unclear. (medlineplus.gov)
- In immune thrombocytopenia, the immune system abnormally destroys platelets and makes fewer platelets than normal. (medlineplus.gov)
- People with immune thrombocytopenia produce antibodies that attack normal platelets. (medlineplus.gov)
- In some people with immune thrombocytopenia, the abnormal immune reactions may coincide with an infection by certain viruses or bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
- Genetic variations (polymorphisms) in a few genes have been found in some people with immune thrombocytopenia and may increase the risk of abnormal immune reactions. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, the contribution of these genetic changes to the development of immune thrombocytopenia is unclear. (medlineplus.gov)
- When the condition is due to the targeted destruction of platelets by the body's own immune cells, it is known as primary immune thrombocytopenia. (medlineplus.gov)
- Immune thrombocytopenia following bacterial or viral infection is considered primary because the infection triggers a platelet-specific immune reaction, typically without any other signs or symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, immune thrombocytopenia can be a feature of other immune disorders, such as common variable immune deficiency , which occurs when the immune system has a decreased ability to protect the body against foreign invaders, or other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus . (medlineplus.gov)
- Immune thrombocytopenia can also occur with other blood disorders, including a form of cancer of the blood-forming tissue known as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- When immune thrombocytopenia is a feature of other disorders, the condition is known as secondary immune thrombocytopenia. (medlineplus.gov)
- Immune thrombocytopenia and other autoimmune disorders can run in families, but the inheritance pattern is usually unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
- such as a parent or sibling) with immune thrombocytopenia likely have an increased risk of developing the disorder themselves. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, there were reports of an expected side effect-a rare blood disorder called immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) which occurred in a small number of people after getting their COVID-19 vaccine in February 2021. (health.com)
- What Is Immune Thrombocytopenia? (health.com)
- With immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in particular, the body's immune system attacks and destroys its own platelets and produces fewer platelets than normal. (health.com)
- How Did Immune Thrombocytopenia Become Connected With COVID-19 Vaccines? (health.com)
- To evaluate the safety and efficacy of zanubrutinib in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia in 30 patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, which is characterized by decreased platelet count and skin and mucosal bleeding. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- At present, clinical studies on the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia with BTK inhibitor (BRN1008) have been carried out abroad. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This article summarizes our approach to the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), its secondary forms, and choice of second-line treatment options. (haematologica.org)
- Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a complicated disease because of its heterogeneity and lack of diagnostic markers making selection of treatment difficult. (haematologica.org)
- Autoimmune disorders can lead to low platelets - ITP Immune Thrombocytopenia is not uncommon. (pets.ca)
- ABSTRACT Immune thrombocytopenia is a benign and self-limiting disorder. (who.int)
- This paper reviews the research about immune thrombocytopenia, comparing low- and high-income countries. (who.int)
- One such disease in children is immune thrombocytopenia (also called immune thrombocytopenic purpura or ITP), which is the most common acquired bleeding illness in children . (who.int)
- The American Society of Hematology defines it as an isolated thrombocytopenia with clinically no apparent associated conditions or no other cause of thrombocytopenia, such as HIV infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, lymphoproliferative disorders, myelodysplasia, agammaglobulinaemia or hypogammaglobulinaemia, drug-induced thrombocytopenia, alloimmune thrombocytopenia or congenital/hereditary non-immune thrombocytopenia . (who.int)
Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome1
- This COCA Call will present the latest evidence on thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after administration of the Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. (cdc.gov)
Cases of thrombocytopenia2
- It is a retrospective study done on 100 cases of thrombocytopenia referred for bone marrow examination in a tertiary care hospital from January 2016 to October 2016. (who.int)
- All cases of thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 1,50,000/µl) diagnosed on hematology analyzer and later confirmed by peripheral blood film examination, referred for bone marrow examination for various reasons were included in this study. (who.int)
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse reaction to the drug heparin resulting in an abnormally low amount of platelets (thrombocytopenia). (nih.gov)
- To test the role of T helper cell Th1 immunity we recruited 24 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenia associated with H. pylori seropositivity. (who.int)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection not only leads to a compromised immune system, but also disrupts normal haematopoiesis, resulting in the frequent manifestation of cytopenias (anaemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia). (who.int)
- In this review, we describe the frequencies of anaemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia reported for HIV-infected, treatment-naïve cohorts studied in eastern and southern sub-Saharan African countries. (who.int)
- Learn more about low platelet counts, or thrombocytopenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- When Do Symptoms of Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Begin? (nih.gov)
- The Food and Drug Administration approved lusutrombopag (Mulpleta, Shionogi Inc.) for thrombocytopenia in adults with chronic liver disease who are scheduled to undergo a medical or dental procedure. (hematology.org)
- Retrieved from https://www.hematology.org/education/clinicians/drug-resources/fda-alerts/2018/fda-approves-lusutrombopag-thrombocytopenia-adults-chronic-liver-disease . (hematology.org)
- The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Japanese pharmaceutical company Shionogi's drug Mulpleta (lusutrombopag) indicated for thrombocytopenia in adult patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) scheduled to undergo a medical procedure. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- We investigated the role of inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1127354) in predicting RBV-induced anemia and thrombocytopenia among Egyptian patients with CHC genotype 4 infection. (eurekamag.com)
- Rs1127354 ITPA polymorphism was associated with RBV-induced anemia and thrombocytopenia in Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection. (eurekamag.com)
- Thrombocytopenia is a known complication of human imnunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV-1) infection, and more data need to be collected on its frequency, severity, and clinical sequelae. (johnshopkins.edu)
- For example, cytopenias such as thrombocytopenia may occur during early stages of infection. (who.int)
- However, the spectrum of disease ranges from mild to moderate thrombocytopenia , which refers to a low platelet count, to more severe. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Complete blood counts show mild anemia (hemoglobin 10.2 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia with a platelet count of 5x10 9 /L The internist sends her urgently to the emergency room concerned that she might possibly have leukemia. (haematologica.org)
- Before apheresis, the donor's blood count showed mild thrombocytopenia after G-CSF mobilization. (cdc.gov)
- Methods: A retrospective study was done on 100 patients of thrombocytopenia referred for bone-marrow aspiration in a tertiary care hospital catering to both rural and urban population from January 2016 to October 2016. (who.int)
- Trial data from the two pharmaceutical companies, published in separate reports in the New England Journal of Medicine , did not mention thrombocytopenia among adverse events recorded during clinical trials. (health.com)
- Phosphate-buffered tirofiban, currently marketed as a generic drug, is associated with a higher rate of thrombocytopenia with a potentially increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes compared with citrate-buffered tirofiban," the authors write. (empr.com)
- Conclusion: Further studies on the evaluation of megakaryocytic alteration and their contribution to thrombocytopenia can provide growing knowledge to the pathogenesis of numerous hematopoietic disorders that may identify broader clinical applications of the newer strategies to regulate platelet count and functioning. (who.int)
- Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), a 3. (cdc.gov)
- For patients with acute coronary syndrome, phosphate-buffered tirofiban, but not citrate-buffered tirofiban, is associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia, according to a study published in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions. (empr.com)
- Results: The commonest cause of thrombocytopenia for which bone marrow examination was sought was megaloblastic anemia(76%), followed by acute leukemia(7%), aplastic anemia(5%), myelodysplastic syndrome (4%) which was followed by ITP(3%), and one case each of gelatinous marrow transformation, malaria and NHL spillover. (who.int)
- This particular case involves the diagnosis of a 68-year-old female admitted due to "worsening anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal insufficiency. (merlot.org)
- The commonest cause of thrombocytopenia for which bone marrow was sought came out to be megaloblastic anemia followed by acute leukemia and aplastic anemia. (who.int)
- Several sections of the labeling were updated in February 2020 to include thrombocytopenia. (medscape.com)
- The thrombocytopenia and anaemia resolved rapidly with antibiotic therapy, her behaviour returned to normal and she remains clinically well. (bmj.com)
- Although subjects infected by heterosexual exposure had a lower frequency of thrombocytopenia, intravenous drug users and homosexual men exhibited similar frequencies of thrombocytopenia. (johnshopkins.edu)
- The exposures experienced by two workers of the printing industry, one with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and one with thrombocytopenia, were investigated retrospectively. (cdc.gov)
- RESEARCH LETTERS rabies-endemic countries, physicians should emphasize the Endemic Severe Fever high likelihood of transmission of rabies virus after muco- sal exposure and try to persuade persons at risk to receive with Thrombocytopenia postexposure prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
- How Concerned Should You Be About Getting Thrombocytopenia After a COVID-19 Vaccine? (health.com)
- CDC recommends pausing the use of the J&J COVID-19 vaccine until the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices is able to further review these cerebral venous sinus thrombosis cases in the context of thrombocytopenia and assess their potential significance. (cdc.gov)
- The presence of thrombocytopenia in combination with detection of antiplatelet antibodies. (nih.gov)
- So far I have not heard that helicobacter is a causative agent for thrombocytopenia in dogs. (pets.ca)
- Thrombocytopenia was more frequent in white males and older subjects. (johnshopkins.edu)
- The importance of recognizing the oral manifestations of thrombocytopenia is highlighted here, since the oral cavity is a frequent site of hemorrhage and could be the only manifestation of the disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Aim: Calculate the prevalence of various conditions causing thrombocytopenia, in cases referred for bone marrow examination, and Understand the various megakaryocytic alterations in hematological disorders presenting with thrombocytopenia due to different mechanisms. (who.int)
- Doctors that treat Childhood Thrombocytopenia in California. (vitadox.com)
- Conclusion: In this study cohort, we observed that endoscopy for overt GIB in the setting of severe thrombocytopenia in patients with LC and NLC appears safe, has moderate diagnostic and therapeutic yields with high initial hemostasis rate, and is associated with a significant decrease in pRBC and platelet transfusions. (elsevier.com)
- To evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous rhTPO versus placebo in reducing the cumulative proportion of patients who experience severe chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia. (knowcancer.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of thrombocytopaenia in these patients by assessing all-cause mortality. (nebraska.edu)
- Conclusion: In patients with HFrEF, higher degree of thrombocytopaenia is associated with higher all-cause mortality. (nebraska.edu)
- Introduction This case report details the second described case of Whipple's disease-related thrombocytopenia in the medical literature. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions This report confirms the association of thrombocytopenia with Whipple's disease, likely due to peripheral platelet sequestration, which resolves rapidly with treatment. (bmj.com)
- Here we present a study done to understand the prevalence of various conditions leading to thrombocytopenia, referred for bone marrow examination. (who.int)
- Background and Aims: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in the setting of thrombocytopenia raises concerns about endoscopic procedure risk. (elsevier.com)
- If there is a history of thrombocytopenia in a previous sibling, doctors can test the fetus before it is born. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Associated with a higher1
- Background: Studies suggest that thrombocytopaenia is associated with a higher mortality in several diseases. (nebraska.edu)
- Other studies related benzene exposure to the development of CML and thrombocytopenia. (cdc.gov)
- Herein, we report a case of multifocal progressive kaposiform hemangioendothelioma , wherein sirolimus treatment caused severe thrombocytopenia . (bvsalud.org)
- Thrombocytopenia is a medical term that means low platelet count. (health.com)
- Thrombocytopenia occurs frequently in HIV-infected people, primarily in those with AIDS, low CD4 cell numbers, and advanced stages of diseases. (johnshopkins.edu)
- The patient was treated with oral sirolimus (2.5 mg/ m2/day) and developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia 8 days later. (bvsalud.org)