Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Dysgeusia: A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.PhenylthioureaSodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred C57BLSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cyclamates: Salts and esters of cyclamic acid.
  • The chorda tympani is responsible for taste sensations from the anterior two thirds of the tongue, the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) is responsible for taste sensations from the posterior one third of the tongue while a branch of the vagus nerve (X) carries some taste sensations from the back of the oral cavity . (ipfs.io)
  • No comparable approach to odor identification tests is available because only 5 basic taste sensations exist and only 4 of these (sweet, salty, bitter, and sour) are tested. (medscape.com)
  • Because gustatory functions are tied to the sense of smell , the somatosensory system , and the perception of pain (such as in tasting spicy foods), it is difficult to examine sensations mediated through an individual system. (ipfs.io)
  • The distortion in the sense of taste is the only symptom, and diagnosis is usually complicated since the sense of taste is tied together with other sensory systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the sense of taste is conveyed via three of the twelve cranial nerves . (ipfs.io)
  • it is also a component of a parotid salivary protein important to the development and maintenance of normal taste buds. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are few case reports claiming calcium channel blockers like Amlodipine also cause dysguesia by blocking calcium sensitive taste buds. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single taste bud is innervated by several afferent nerves, while a single efferent fiber innervates several taste buds. (ipfs.io)
  • The salivary glands are responsible for keeping the taste buds moist with saliva. (ipfs.io)
  • In a study conducted by Masahide Yasuda and Hitoshi Tomita from Nihon University of Japan, it has been observed that patients suffering from this taste disorder have fewer microvilli than normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every cell in the taste bud forms microvilli at the ends. (ipfs.io)
  • Pavlidis Pavlos led a team of researchers from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki who used electrical stimulation to test the taste threshold of the soldiers and endoscopes to measure the number and shape of a kind of taste bud called fungiform papillae. (eurekalert.org)
  • An alteration in taste or smell may be a secondary process in various disease states, or it may be the primary symptom. (medscape.com)
  • To understand smell, taste and oral condition in end stage renal disease patients, and due to there's no short term reliability of Sniffin'sticks, plus it's expensive and time-consuming to implement the taste assessment tool. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The full evaluation before dialysis include 1.The difference of smell, taste, salivary secretion, oral assessment guide, plaque index and xerostomia on end stage renal disease patients before and after hemodialysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Just like that, the number of children at risk for lead poisoning jumped five-fold yesterday as the Centers for Disease Control announced that it cut its threshold for lead poisoning diagnosis in half. (kqed.org)
  • If the alteration in the sense of taste is due to gum disease, dental plaque, a temporary medication, or a short-term condition such as a cold, the dysgeusia should disappear once the cause is removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The malt presence is strong without tasting 'grainy', and the hops are citrus and pine without being astringent. (beeradvocate.com)
  • A midsummer-fresh tomato taste and a nice, thick texture make this a great option for any soup, stew, or sauce that needs body. (cookinglight.com)
  • The experience of taste comes from these signals, combined with other information about a food's texture, viscosity, mouth feel, appearance, and aroma, as well as a person's appetite, cultural traditions, and past encounters with the food. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • It's also related to cultural expectations of color, texture and taste. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The subjects indicated when they first could tell a solution was more than just water, and when they could describe an actual taste. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • In 2005, Vinnie Cilurzo at Russian River Brewing coined the phrase "lupulin threshold shift," to describe when a once extraordinarily hoppy beer now seems pedestrian. (homebrewersassociation.org)
  • Sure, I'm able to swirl a glass of Cabernet without baptizing the tablecloth, but ask me to describe what the Cab tastes like and I'm Charlie McCarthy without Edgar Bergen. (foodandwine.com)
  • When people describe a liquor as "harsh" or "smooth", they are typically referring to the presence of that characteristic "burning" taste of ethanol. (egullet.org)
  • Examples of substances with strong odors: (Z)-8-tetradecenal (OTV = 0.009 ppb in water) p-vinylguaiacol (OTV = 10 ppb) Threshold in a food is dependent upon: The threshold of the aroma in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the learner who is just getting started in the study of wine, this course will help you take the first steps toward understanding the physiological process of wine tasting. (coursera.org)