An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.16.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 1.1.1.3.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Serine-threonine protein kinases that relay signals from CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and are involved in control of CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; and APOPTOSIS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A PYRIDOXAL-phosphate containing enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration and deamination of L-serine to form pyruvate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.13.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Amino acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
An enzyme that activates threonine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.3.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of glycine and 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate to form serine. It also catalyzes the reaction of glycine with acetaldehyde to form L-threonine. EC 2.1.2.1.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde, orthophosphate, and NADP+ to yield L-4-aspartyl phosphate and NADPH. EC 1.2.1.11.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying threonine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A bifunctional protein consisting of aspartokinase, and homoserine dehydrogenase activities. It is found primarily in BACTERIA and in PLANTS.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.

AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase. (1/3530)

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle is activated by vigorous exercise and ischaemic stress. Under these conditions AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase causing increased oxidation of fatty acids. Here we show that AMPK co-immunoprecipitates with cardiac endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylates Ser-1177 in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) to activate eNOS both in vitro and during ischaemia in rat hearts. In the absence of Ca2+-calmodulin, AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS at Thr-495 in the CaM-binding sequence, resulting in inhibition of eNOS activity but Thr-495 phosphorylation is unchanged during ischaemia. Phosphorylation of eNOS by the AMPK in endothelial cells and myocytes provides a further regulatory link between metabolic stress and cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation regulates the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII. (2/3530)

Protein kinase C is processed by three phosphorylation events before it is competent to respond to second messengers. Specifically, the enzyme is first phosphorylated at the activation loop by another kinase, followed by two ordered autophosphorylations at the carboxyl terminus (Keranen, L. M., Dutil, E. M., and Newton, A. C. (1995) Curr. Biol. 5, 1394-1403). This study examines the role of negative charge at the first conserved carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation position, Thr-641, in regulating the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII. Mutation of this residue to Ala results in compensating phosphorylations at adjacent sites, so that a triple Ala mutant was required to address the function of phosphate at Thr-641. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses of phosphorylation site mutants reveal that negative charge at this position is required for the following: 1) to process catalytically competent protein kinase C; 2) to allow autophosphorylation of Ser-660; 3) for cytosolic localization of protein kinase C; and 4) to permit phorbol ester-dependent membrane translocation. Thus, phosphorylation of Thr-641 in protein kinase C betaII is essential for both the catalytic function and correct subcellular localization of protein kinase C. The conservation of this residue in every protein kinase C isozyme, as well as other members of the kinase superfamily such as protein kinase A, suggests that carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation serves as a key molecular switch for defining kinase function.  (+info)

Is human thioredoxin monomeric or dimeric? (3/3530)

We have examined the molecular weight and rotational correlation time of human thioredoxin by analytical ultracentrifugation and NMR spectroscopy, respectively. Two variants of human thioredoxin were studied, namely human thioredoxin identical in amino acid sequence to the one whose NMR structure we previously determined (C62A, C69A, C73A, M74T) and human thioredoxin (C62A, C69A, C73A, M74) containing the wild-type amino acid methionine at position 74. In both cases, the experimental data indicate that the predominant species is monomeric and we find no evidence for the existence of a well-defined dimeric form as was observed in the recently reported crystal structure (Weichsel et al., 1996) of human thioredoxin and the C73S mutant.  (+info)

The nucleoprotein of Marburg virus is target for multiple cellular kinases. (4/3530)

The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues in a ratio of 85:15, regardless of whether the protein is isolated from virions or from eukaryotic expression systems. Phosphotyrosine is absent. Although many potential phosphorylation sites are located in the N-terminal half of NP, this part of the protein is not phosphorylated. Analyses of phosphorylation state and phosphoamino acid content of truncated NPs expressed in HeLa cells using the vaccinia virus T7 expression system led to the identification of seven phosphorylated regions (region I*, amino acids 404-432; II*, amino acids 446-472; III*, amino acids 484-511; IV*, amino acids 534-543; V*, amino acid 549; VI*, amino acids 599-604; and VII*, amino acid 619) with a minimum of seven phosphorylated amino acid residues located in the C-terminal half of NP. All phosphothreonine residues and consensus recognition sequences for protein kinase CKII are located in regions I*-V*. Regions VI* and VII* contain only phosphoserine with three of four serine residues in consensus recognition motifs for proline-directed protein kinases. Mutagenesis of proline-adjacent serine residues to alanine or aspartic acid did not influence the function of NP in a reconstituted transcription/replication system; thus it is concluded that serine phosphorylation in the most C-terminal part of NP is not a regulatory factor in viral RNA synthesis.  (+info)

CPCCOEt, a noncompetitive metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, inhibits receptor signaling without affecting glutamate binding. (5/3530)

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors characterized by a large, extracellular N-terminal domain comprising the glutamate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the pharmacological profile and site of action of the non-amino-acid antagonist 7-hydroxyiminocyclopropan[b]chromen-1a-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (CPCCOEt). CPCCOEt selectively inhibited glutamate-induced increases in intracellular calcium at human mGluR1b (hmGluR1b) with an apparent IC50 of 6.5 microM while having no agonist or antagonist activity at hmGluR2, -4a, -5a, -7b, and -8a up to 100 microM. Schild analysis indicated that CPCCOEt acts in a noncompetitive manner by decreasing the efficacy of glutamate-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis without affecting the EC50 value or Hill coefficient of glutamate. Similarly, CPCCOEt did not displace [3H]glutamate binding to membranes prepared from mGluR1a-expressing cells. To elucidate the site of action, we systematically exchanged segments and single amino acids between hmGluR1b and the related subtype, hmGluR5a. Substitution of Thr815 and Ala818, located at the extracellular surface of transmembrane segment VII, with the homologous amino acids of hmGluR5a eliminated CPCCOEt inhibition of hmGluR1b. In contrast, introduction of Thr815 and Ala818 at the homologous positions of hmGluR5a conferred complete inhibition by CPCCOEt (IC50 = 6.6 microM), i.e., a gain of function. These data suggest that CPCCOEt represents a novel class of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists inhibiting receptor signaling without affecting ligand binding. We propose that the interaction of CPCCOEt with Thr815 and Ala818 of mGluR1 disrupts receptor activation by inhibiting an intramolecular interaction between the agonist-bound extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain.  (+info)

The role of the flap residue, threonine 77, in the activation and catalytic activity of pepsin A. (6/3530)

Flexible loops, often referred to as flaps, have been shown to play a role in catalytic mechanisms of different enzymes. Flaps at the active site regions have been observed in the crystal structures of aspartic proteinases and their residues implicated in the catalytic processes. This research investigated the role of the flap residue, threonine 77, in the activation of pepsinogen and the catalytic mechanism of pepsin. Three mutants, T77S, T77V and T77G, were constructed. Differences in amino acid polarity and hydrogen bonding potential were shown to have an influence on the activation and catalytic processes. T77S activated at the same rate and had similar catalytic parameters as the wild-type pepsin. The activation rates of T77V and T77G were slower and their catalytic efficiencies lower than the wild-type. The results demonstrated that the threonine 77 polar side chain played a role in a proteolysis. The contribution of the side chain to zymogen activation was associated with the proteolytic cleavage of the prosegment. It was postulated that the hydroxyl group at position 77 provided an essential hydrogen bond that contributed to proper substrate alignment and, indirectly, to a catalytically favorable geometry of the transition state.  (+info)

EPR spectroscopy of VO2+-ATP bound to catalytic site 3 of chloroplast F1-ATPase from Chlamydomonas reveals changes in metal ligation resulting from mutations to the phosphate-binding loop threonine (betaT168). (7/3530)

Site-directed mutations were made to the phosphate-binding loop threonine in the beta-subunit of the chloroplast F1-ATPase in Chlamydomonas (betaT168). Rates of photophosphorylation and ATPase-driven proton translocation measured in coupled thylakoids purified from betaT168D, betaT168C, and betaT168L mutants had <10% of the wild type rates, as did rates of Mg2+-ATPase activity of purified chloroplast F1-ATPase (CF1). The EPR spectra of VO2+-ATP bound to Site 3 of CF1 from wild type and mutants showed that EPR species C, formed exclusively upon activation, was altered in CF1 from each mutant in both signal intensity and in 51V hyperfine parameters that depend on the equatorial VO2+ ligands. These data provide the first direct evidence that Site 3 is a catalytic site. No significant differences between wild type and mutants were observed in EPR species B, the predominant form of the latent enzyme. Thus, the phosphate-binding loop threonine is an equatorial metal ligand in the activated conformation but not in the latent conformation of Site 3. The metal-nucleotide conformation that gives rise to species B is consistent with the Mg2+-ADP complex that becomes entrapped in a catalytic site in a manner that regulates enzymatic activity. The lack of catalytic function of CF1 with entrapped Mg2+-ADP may be explained in part by the absence of the phosphate-binding loop threonine as a metal ligand.  (+info)

Defining the substrate specificity of cdk4 kinase-cyclin D1 complex. (8/3530)

cdk4 kinase-cyclin D1 complex (cdk4/D1) does not phosphorylate all of the sites within retinoblastoma protein (Rb) equally. Comparison of five phosphorylation sites within the 15 kDa C domain of Rb indicates that Ser795 is the preferred site of phosphorylation by cdk4/D1. A series of experiments has been performed to determine the properties of this site that direct preferential phosphorylation. For cdk4/D1, the preferred amino acid at the third position C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine/threonine is arginine. Substitution of other amino acids, including a conservative change to lysine, has dramatic effects on the rates of phosphorylation. This information has been used to mutate less favorable sites in Rb, converting them to sites that are now preferentially phosphorylated by cdk4/D1. A conserved site at Ser842 in the related pocket protein p107 is also preferentially phosphorylated by cdk4/D1. Although Rb and p107 differ significantly in sequence, the Rb Ser795 site can replace the p107 Ser842 site without affecting the rate of phosphorylation. These results suggest that although a determinant of specificity resides in the sequences surrounding the phosphorylated site, the structural context of the site is also a critical parameter of specificity.  (+info)

Weanling crossbred pigs (avg initial wt 6.4 kg) were fed diets containing six levels of threonine to determine the threonine requirement of young pigs fed diets somewhat similar to those used in commercial swine production. The diets (16% crude protein) were composed primarily of grain sorghum, oat groats and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins, lysine, tryptophan, methionine and isoleucine, and were calculated to be adequate in all nutrients except threonine and crude protein. Threonine levels were .53, .57, .62, .68, .75 and .83% of the diet. There were two trials, each with 96 pigs. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 28 d. The addition of threonine increased weight gain (P|.02) and feed efficiency (P|.001), with most of the response occurring between .53 and .68% threonine. There was little further response when threonine was increased above .68%. Plasma threonine concentrations increased as dietary threonine increased, with a sharp rise when dietary threonine exceeded .68%.
To the Editor.-. We read with great interest the paper of Järvenpää et al1 about milk protein quantity and quality in the term infant and we agree with the conclusions. In the discussion, referring to their previous study in preterm infants,2 they concluded that their results show a positive correlation between the plasma threonine concentration and the threonine intake but they cannot support our data3 showing that the ability to metabolize a high threonine intake is impaired in preterm infants as compared with term infants.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-305 and Thr-312 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-308 via disrupting the interaction between AKT1 and PDPK1. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-473 also probably interferes with phosphorylation at this site.; Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity. Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA. This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation. Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1. Phosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by IKBKE and TBK1. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by signaling through activated FLT3 (By similarity). Ser-473 ...
Histone phosphorylation is sometimes associated with mitosis and meiosis. We have recently identified a phosphorylation of the 127th threonine on TH2A (pTH2A), a germ cell-specific H2A variant, in condensed spermatids and mitotic early preimplantation embryos of mice. Here, we further report the existence of pTH2A at the centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes and oocytes. Moreover, we identified Haspin, a known kinase for the 3rd threonine on H3, is responsible for pTH2A in vivo. In contrast to the severe meiotic defect in oocytes treated with a Haspin inhibitor, pTH2A-deficient mice, in which the 127th threonine was replaced by alanine, maintained the fertility and exhibited no obvious defect in both oocytes and spermatogenesis ...
Metazoans respond to various forms of environmental stress by inducing the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) at serine-51, a modification that leads to global inhibition of mRNA translation. We demonstrate induction of the phosphorylation of eIF2α in mammalian cells after either pharmacological inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway or genetic or small interfering RNA-mediated ablation of Akt. This increase in the extent of eIF2α phosphorylation also occurred in Drosophila cells and depended on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein kinase PERK, which was inhibited by Akt-dependent phosphorylation at threonine-799. The activity of PERK and the abundance of phosphorylated eIF2α (eIF2αP) were reduced in mouse mammary gland tumors that contained activated Akt, as well as in cells exposed to ER stress or oxidative stress. In unstressed cells, the PERK-eIF2αP pathway mediated survival and facilitated ...
Serine is derived from 3-phospho-D-glycerate, an intermediate of glycolysis [MD:M00020], and glycine is derived from serine. Threonine is an essential amino acid, which animals cannot synthesize. In bacteria and plants, threonine is derived from aspartate [MD:M00018 ...
Serine is derived from 3-phospho-D-glycerate, an intermediate of glycolysis [MD:M00020], and glycine is derived from serine. Threonine is an essential amino acid, which animals cannot synthesize. In bacteria and plants, threonine is derived from aspartate [MD:M00018 ...
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NetPhosBac 1.0 server predicts serine and threonine phosphorylation sites in bacterial proteins. This service is closely related to NetPhos, NetPhosK and NetPhosYeast. ...
Learn more about Threonine uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Threonine
Threonine is necessary for the formation of tooth enamel, and elastin and collagen. Threonine has also been used as part of a treatment to help alleviate anxiety and in some cases, depression.
[109 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Threonine Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Threonine in Global market, especially in North...
Threonine (l-threonine, Thr, T) amino acid molecule. Stylized skeletal formula (chemical structure). Atoms are shown as color-coded circles: hydrogen (hidden), carbon (grey), nitrogen (blue), oxygen (red). - Stock Image F012/6361
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A 14-day growth trial was conducted to determine the threonine: lysine ratio necessary to optimize growth performance of the segregated early-weaned (SEW) pig. Twelve experimental diets included two levels of lysine (1.15% and 1.5% apparent digestible lysine) and six apparent digestible threonine: lysine ratios (40, 45, 50, 55, 60, and 65 %) in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement. Growth performance was improved by feeding 1.5% rather than 1.15% digestible lysine. Growth performance decreased linearly as the digestible threonine: lysine ratio increased. Although a significant quadratic response was not observed, this reduction in growth performance did not appear to occur until the threonine ratio exceeded 45% of lysine on an apparent digestible basis. These data indicate that the threonine requirement for the SEW pig is approximately 45% of digestible lysine ...
The aim was to evaluate the association of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) with threonine (T), in broiler diets, on performance, carcass quality and gut histomorphometric variables. One hundred Ross male broilers (1 to 43 days old) were distributed into four treatments D1: basal diet (BD), D2: BD plus 5 g Sc/kg feed, D3: BD plus 30% T and D4: D3 plus 5 g Sc/kg feed. Productive variables measured were: average daily weight gain (ADWG) (g/broiler/day), average daily feed consumption (ADFC) (g/broiler/day), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Also, were determinate: carcass yield (CY) (%), breast weight (BW) (g), thigh weight (TW) (g) and abdominal fat weight (AFW) (g). Moreover, villus height (VH) (µ), crypt depth (CD) (µ), villus area (VA) (µ2) and VH/CD ratio were measured. Results shown that D4 had higher ADWG than D3 group (P≤0.05) and exhibited the best FCR than D2 and D3 group (P≤0.05). Also, D4 had higher BW than D3 group (P≤0.05) and lower AFW than D1 (P≤0.05). The CY and TW were not
Activation of protein kinases plays an important role in the Ca2+-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion by nutrients. The aim of the present study was to identify kinase substrates with the potential to regulate secretion because these have been poorly defined. Nutrient stimulation of the rat insulinoma RINm5F cell line and rat pancreatic islets resulted in an increase in the threonine phosphorylation of a 200-kDa protein. This was secondary to the gating of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels because it was reproduced by depolarizing KCl concentrations and blocked by the Ca2+ channel antagonist, verapamil. The peak rises in [Ca2+]i preceded or were coincident with the maximal threonine phosphorylation in response to both glyceraldehyde and KCl. In digitonin-permeabilized RINm5F cells a rise in Ca2+ from 0.1 to 0.15 microM was sufficient to increase phosphorylation. Protein kinase C, protein kinase A, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II did not appear to be responsible for the phosphorylation, yet
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Fig. 5. Phosphorylation analysis of treated A431 cell line using sequential multiplex analyte capturing. A431 cell cultures were treated with EGF, PMA, and a combination of sodium vanadate and hydrogen peroxide to give different responses in receptor signaling. First, nine different color-coded beads (assay panel 1) conjugated with antibodies specific for total EGFR and EGFR phosphorylation at threonines 654 and 669; serine 1047; and tyrosines 845, 1045, 1068, 1086, and 1173 were incubated with the protein extract sample overnight. To carry out the detection, the beads were then removed from the sample using a magnetic bead handling robot and added to a solution of biotinylated EGFR-specific antibody followed by a third incubation step with SAPE. After removing the beads of panel 1 from the sample, antibody-coupled beads from assay panel 2 (seven RTKs: EGFR, HER2, HGFR, IGF-1R, PDGFRβ, VEGFR2, and Tie-2) were added and incubated with the sample overnight. Generic phosphorylation was detected by ...
2LMS: A single N-acetylgalactosamine residue at threonine 106 modifies the dynamics and structure of interferon alpha2a around the glycosylation site.
Threonine containing medications, Threonine indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names information from Drugs-about.com
Threonine content and RDA percentage, per serving and per 100g, in 20 types of summer squash. The amount of Threonine is 0.031 g to 0.015 g per 100g, in summer squash.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. serine/threonine kinase 31 - Other-unique family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The PRC leaderships decision to devote not inconsiderable resources to legal development seems premised on the notion that such development is correlated to overall economic development. To wit, law, legal institutions and legal personnel of the type described in part one are seen as having the potential to foster economic growth and, in particular, foreign involvement in the economy and are to be encouraged for that reason, among others. This is, of course, hardly a new thought. Weber compensated for many a sociological error (as, for example, in his accounts of Chinese life) by explaining how legal rationality spurred the development of capitalist societies by facilitating the predictability he indicates business so prizes (Rheinstein, 1954:29-30). North earned the Nobel Prize by pushing this line of thought further in demonstrating how relative clarity in and security of property rights, spawned in important part through formal legal institutions, had been a prime factor in the rise of major ...
The AlphaLISA® SureFire® Ultra™ p-4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) assay is a sandwich immunoassay for quantitative detection of phospho-4EBP1 (phosphorylated on Thr37/46) in cellular lysates using Alpha Technology.
Threonine, an essential amino acid, is not manufactured by the body and must be acquired from food. It is an important constituent in many body proteins and is
Hop on to get the meaning of S51T acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang S51T means... AcronymsAndSlang. The S51T acronym/abbreviation definition. The S51T meaning is Serine 51 to Threonine. The definition of S51T by AcronymAndSlang.com
Creative-Proteomics offer cas mannopyranosyl threonine. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
The AlphaLISA® SureFire® Ultra™ p-JNK1/2/3 (Thr183/Tyr185) HV (high volume) assay is a sandwich immunoassay for quantitative detection of phospho-JNK1/2/3 (phosphorylated on Thr183/Tyr185) in cellular lysates using Alpha no-wash technology ...
[129 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global L-Threonine Sales Market Report 2020 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies sales (consumption) of L-Threonine in Global...
Comprehensive supplier list for L-Threonine, L-arginyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-a-aspartyl-L-seryl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-cysteinyl-L-arginyl-,L-Threonine, L-arginyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-leucyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-methionyl-L-asparaginyl-L-tyrosyl-
After activated by phosphorylation at Thr172, AMPK leads to INNO-406 価格 your inhibition of ATP consum ing processes like gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synth e
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EWGs Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases.
C. Signals conveyed by upstream kinases impinge on serine and threonine residues situated in the N-terminal transacti- vation domain and also in the Proprnaolol domain.
Mammalian Unc-51-like kinases 1 and 2 (ULK1 and ULK2) belong to the ULK/Atg1 family of serine/threonine kinases, which are conserved from yeast to mammals ...
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in peptidyl threonine modification ...
Translational coupling in the threonine operon of Escherichia coli K-12.: In an attempt to express the two distal genes of the Escherichia coli threonine operon
Seversal short-chain alcohols, especially ethanol, is abundent in the natural habitats of Drosophilu melanogaster and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays a key role in the detoxification ethanol and other alcohols. In general, primary alcohols are converted to aldehydes, and secondary alcohols to ketones by ADH. The purpose of this study is to define the function and regulation mechanism of Adh gene by examing how dietary threonine effects on the expression of the Adh gene during the development of Drosophilu melanogaster. In this study, two other wild type strain, one homozygous for Adh^(F) and one for Adh^(S), from Chunan Korea were used. ADH activity was measured by spectrophotometric method and ADH CRMs was calculated by using radial immunodiffusion. To exam the Adh gene expression, northern hybridization analysis was carried. The rusults obtained were as follows: The activities of Adh^(F) strain were about two fold higher than Adh^(S) strain and ADH CRMs were about 1.5 fold higher. ADH ...
Dietary protein dilution (DPD) promotes metabolic-remodelling and -health but the precise nutritional components driving this response remain elusive. Here, by mimicking amino acid (AA) supply from a casein-based diet, we demonstrate that restriction of dietary essential AA (EAA), but not non-EAA, drives the systemic metabolic response to total AA deprivation; independent from dietary carbohydrate supply. Furthermore, systemic deprivation of threonine and tryptophan, independent of total AA supply, are both adequate and necessary to confer the systemic metabolic response to both diet, and genetic AA-transport loss, driven AA restriction. Dietary threonine restriction (DTR) retards the development of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. Liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 is required for the metabolic remodelling with DTR. Strikingly, hepatocyte-selective establishment of threonine biosynthetic capacity reverses the systemic metabolic response to DTR. Taken together, our studies of ...
The RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Market research report presents an all-inclusive study of the global RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market. The report includes all the major trends and technologies performing a major role in the RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market development during forecast period. The key players in the market are Almac Discovery Ltd, ArQule Inc, AstraZeneca Plc, Bayer AG, Critical Outcome Technologies Inc, Merck & Co Inc, Novartis AG. An attractiveness study has been presented for each geographic area in the report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall competitive scenario of the RAC Beta Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase market globally.. Apply here for the SAMPLE copy of the report @: https://www.promarketresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=24915. Furthermore, the report comprises an outline of the diverse tactics used by the key players in the market. It also details the competitive scenario of the RAC Beta ...
Aberrant expression of cyclin D1, frequently observed in human malignant disorders, has been linked to the control of G1→S cell cycle phase transition and development and progression in carcinogenesis. Cyclin D1 level changes are partially controlled by GSK-3β-dependent phosphorylation at threonine-286 (Thr286), which targets cyclin D1 for ubiquitination and proteolytic degradation. In our continuing studies on the mechanism of prostate cancer prevention by resveratrol, focusing on the role of its recently discovered target protein, quinone reductase 2 (NQO2), we generated NQO2 knockdown CWR22Rv1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing approach. We found that, compared with cells expressing NQO2 (shRNA08), NQO2 knockdown cells (shRNA25) displayed slower proliferation and G1 phase cell accumulation. Immunoblot analyses revealed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of retinoblastoma Rb and cyclin D1 in shRNA25 compared with shRNA08. Moreover, shRNA25 cells showed a 37% ...
PubMed journal article: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and threonine aldolase: are they identical?. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows the yeast to grow on media with L-serine or L-threonine as sole nitrogen source. A mutant, cha1 (catabolism of hydroxyamino acids), lacking this enzyme activity has been isolated. We have cloned the CHA1 gene by complementation of a cha1 mutation. Northern analysis showed that CHA1 mRNA has a size of about 1200 ribonucleotides. CHA1 is probably the structural gene for the enzyme; it is an abundant RNA in cells grown with serine and threonine as nitrogen source, whereas it is not detected when cells are grown on ammonium or proline, i.e., the transcription of the CHA1 gene is induced by serine or threonine. Under induced growth conditions haploid ilv1 CHA1 strains do not require isoleucine, i.e., the catabolic deaminase is able to substitute for the biosynthetic threnonine deaminase encoded by the ILV1 gene. We have identified a nuclear, recessive mutation, sil1, that suppresses ilv1 mutations by increased ...
In the current study, we show for the first time that insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation, measured by the PAS antibody, and specific phosphorylation at sites Ser-588, Thr-642, and Ser-666 are impaired in human skeletal muscle in conjunction with the decrement in insulin action typical with advancing age and a sedentary lifestyle (Figs. 2 and 4). Impaired insulin-mediated AS160 phosphorylation has been reported in other insulin-resistant conditions, including type 2 diabetes (12) and polycystic ovary syndrome (14), using the PAS antibody. The PAS antibody may recognize multiple phosphorylation sites on AS160; however, current research suggests this antibody is limited to only recognizing AS160 phosphorylation on Thr-642 (9,23). More recently, site-specific impairments were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes (Ser-318, Ser-588, and Ser-751) (13) and in healthy individuals after fasting-induced insulin resistance (Ser-588 and Ser-751) (4). The current data (Figs. 2 and 4), in ...
To test this pathway, we traced the metabolic fate of [U-14C]Thr in mESCs with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 14C was incorporated into Gly and Glu, indicating that Thr was used to synthesize these amino acids (Fig. 2B). In contrast, MEFs incubated with [U-14C]Thr did not exhibit Thr catabolism (fig. S2A). We also traced the fate of [U-13C]Thr in mESCs with LC-MS/MS metabolomics (fig. S2, B to F, and table S1). mESCs used Thr to synthesize acetyl-CoA-derived tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates (Fig. 2, C and D). At steady state, [U-13C]Thr contributed ~20% of the citrate via acetyl-CoA, whereas [U-13C]glucose contributed ~35% via acetyl-CoA (+2 isotopomer). Thus, Thr contributes significantly to the acetyl-CoA pool in mESCs (Fig. 2D). [U-13C]Thr-derived Gly also donated its 13C-methyl group to ultimately generate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5mTHF) and SAM (+1 isotopomer), whereas [U-13C]Ser-derived Gly contributed little to the synthesis of these metabolites (Fig. 2, C and ...
The report comprises the current size of the Threonine Acid market. It also provides with different types of product segments of the global market. Furthermore, the Threonine Acid market research report gives an in-depth information about the overall market and various product segments and their growth trends. The future market forecasts about the global Threonine Acid market are also covered in the research report. In addition, the overall market potential is further described in the report along with different countries around the globe.. The latest and the newest trends of the Threonine Acid industry are also included in this report. Moreover, overall global market size, the market size by product segment, growth rates of the global market along with and different product segments of the market, and various product segments with their value and volumes evaluation are also included in the research report.. The Market Research Store report offers the global market potential rates of the ...
Highly conserved threonine residues were noted near the C-terminus of the external surface glycoproteins of HIV-1, SIV, and influenza A virus; this threonine residue was shown to be the efficient target of O-glycosylation on all three viruses. In all three cases, this O-glycosylated threonine was essential for the infectivity of the virus. We will define the functional role of C-terminal threonine glycosylation for HIV-1 and we will develop assays amenable to high throughput screening for the development of antiviral drugs. We will delineate protein-peptide and peptide-peptide interactions that are dependent on the O-glycosylated threonine of gp120. We will also examine whether there are rare examples of naturally-occurring HIV-1 sequences that are functional without an O-glycosylated threonine at this location ...
An obvious necessity for a successful protein-protein binding is a spatial matching. Therefore, it is becoming apparent that Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS proteins in close proximity to their PTB (receptor-binding) region affects insulin signaling. We could show that mutation of seven Ser sites located within or in close proximity to the PTB domain of IRS-1 protects it from autologous desensitization as well as desensitization induced by IRS kinases triggered by inducers of insulin resistance (71). Autologous desensitization is exemplified by the atypical PKCζ, which is activated in response to insulin to mediate glucose uptake in adipocytes (7) and skeletal muscle (12, 70) downstream of IRS-1 and PI3K (70). In addition to its role as a mediator of insulin action, PKCζ is involved in a self-attenuated mechanism induced by insulin to negatively regulate the function of IRS proteins upon prolonged insulin stimulation (72, 90). It involves Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS proteins, mediated by ...
Mycolic acids are essential components of the mycobacterial cell envelope and their biosynthetic pathway is a well-known source of antituberculous drug
casSAR Dugability of C4ZPS8 | thrL | thr operon leader peptide - Also known as LPT_ECOBW, thrL. This protein is involved in control of the biosynthesis of threonine.
RAC Gamma Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Market Forecast To 2026 | Covid-19 Impact And Global Analysis By Type, Application, And End User
Aida Kalantari, Abderahmane Derouiche, Lei Shi, Ivan Mijakovic. Serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation regulates DNA binding of bacterial transcriptional regulators . Microbiology, Microbiology Society, 2015, 161, pp.1720-1729. 〈10.1099/mic.0.000148〉. 〈hal-01598625〉 ...
In the following article, the three most important reactions of the metabolism of amino acids, i.e. transamination, deamination and decarboxylation, are explained in a compact overview. Proteins ✓, glutamine and glutamate ✓, serine family ✓, threonine metabolism ✓. Learn more!
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Receptor Interacting Serine Threonine Kinase 3 (RIPK3) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Buy or Rent Chapter 06- Signal Transduction by Serine/Threonine Kinase-Coupled Receptors (Cellular Signal Processing) as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
PKMYT1 (protein kinase, membrane associated tyrosine/threonine 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
L-Threonine is an essential amino acid that helps to maintain the proper protein balance in the body.Stanford Chemicals offers the best L-Threonine.
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Isoform 1: Acts as a catabolic phospho-lyase on both gamma- and beta-phosphorylated substrates. Degrades O-phospho-threonine (PThr) to alpha-ketobutyrate, ammonia and phosphate (By similarity).
Also known as SgK071, a unique kinase belonging to no group or family. Single orthologs have been found in other vertebrates and lower metazoans including Nematostella, but are absent from Drosophila and C. elegans ...
NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK, also known as MAP3K14) is a serine/threonine protein-kinase that is crucial for activation of the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. Although NIK has been shown to promote tumorigenesis in ...
Read G as the fourth line in that block, from the third-letter line on right-hand side of the table The codon 5-ACG-3 codes for the amino acid Thr (Threonine). ...
Serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation[edit]. Addition of a negatively charged phosphate group can lead to major changes in ... SLBP are marked for degradation by phosphorylation at two threonine residues by cyclin dependent kinases, possibly cyclin A/ ... "Phosphorylation of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP) on two threonines triggers degradation of SLBP, the sole cell cycle- ...
Threonine[edit]. In plants and microorganisms, threonine is synthesized from aspartic acid via α-aspartyl-semialdehyde and ... Aspartate can be converted into lysine, asparagine, methionine and threonine. Threonine also gives rise to isoleucine. The ... Aspartate kinase becomes downregulated by the presence of threonine or lysine. Lysine[edit]. Lysine is synthesized from ... AK-I is feed-back inhibited by threonine, while AK-II and III are inhibited by lysine. As a sidenote, AK-III catalyzes the ...
... threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an ... is most often valine or threonine and forms part of the S1' subsite in thermolysin and neprilysin, 'b' is an uncharged residue ...
This reaction provides DL-threonine. Crotonic acid is mainly used as a comonomer with vinyl acetate. The resulting copolymers ... Carter, H. E.; West, H. D. (1955). "dl-Threonine". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, 3, p. 813 Entry on Butensäuren. at: ...
... (PP1) belongs to a certain class of phosphatases known as protein serine/threonine phosphatases. This ... Wera S, Hemmings BA (October 1995). "Serine/threonine protein phosphatases". The Biochemical Journal. 311 ( Pt 1) (1): 17-29. ... "Three-dimensional structure of the catalytic subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase-1". Nature. 376 (6543): 745-53. ...
Receptor serine/threonine kinases; Receptor guanylyl cyclases and histidine kinase associated receptors. Receptor tyrosine ...
Hz2V110 is homologous to serine/threonine protein kinase (S_TPK). S_TPK catalyzes phosphorylation of serine and threonine ... Edelman AM, Blumenthal DK, Krebs EG (June 1987). "Protein serine/threonine kinases". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 56 (1): 567 ...
... has been used as a food acidulant since 1946. It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[3] USA[4] and Australia and New Zealand.[5] As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and can be denoted by the E number E297. It is generally used in beverages and baking powders for which requirements are placed on purity. Fumaric acid is used in the making of wheat tortillas as a food preservative and as the acid in leavening.[6] It is generally used as a substitute for tartaric acid and occasionally in place of citric acid, at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is used. As well as being a component of some artificial vinegar flavors, such as "Salt and Vinegar" flavored potato chips,[7] it is also used as a coagulant in stove-top pudding mixes. The European Commission Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition, part of DG Health, found in 2014 that fumaric acid is "practically non-toxic" ...
... those of which were much greater than that of known polar amino acids such as serine and threonine.[21] Hydrophobicity scales, ...
Threonine. 1.020 g. Isoleucine. 1.233 g. Leucine. 1.797 g. Lysine. 2.011 g. ...
... (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.[1] Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. Coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a β-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid through an amide linkage [2] and 3'-phosphorylated ADP. The acetyl group (indicated in blue in the structural diagram on the right) of acetyl-CoA is linked to the sulfhydryl substituent of the β-mercaptoethylamine group. This thioester linkage is a "high energy" bond, which is particularly reactive. Hydrolysis of the thioester bond is exergonic (−31.5 kJ/mol). CoA is acetylated to acetyl-CoA by the breakdown of carbohydrates through glycolysis and by the breakdown of fatty acids through β-oxidation. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy ...
HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine (Van Koverin and Nissen 1992), an essential amino acid. The first step in HMB metabolism is the reversible transamination of leucine to [α-KIC] that occurs mainly extrahepatically (Block and Buse 1990). Following this enzymatic reaction, [α-KIC] may follow one of two pathways. In the first, HMB is produced from [α-KIC] by the cytosolic enzyme KIC dioxygenase (Sabourin and Bieber 1983). The cytosolic dioxygenase has been characterized extensively and differs from the mitochondrial form in that the dioxygenase enzyme is a cytosolic enzyme, whereas the dehydrogenase enzyme is found exclusively in the mitochondrion (Sabourin and Bieber 1981, 1983). Importantly, this route of HMB formation is direct and completely dependent of liver KIC dioxygenase. Following this pathway, HMB in the cytosol is first converted to cytosolic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA), which can then be directed for cholesterol synthesis (Rudney 1957) (Fig. 1). In fact, ...
Threonine. 0.422 g. Isoleucine. 0.576 g. Leucine. 1.027 g. Lysine. 0.497 g. ...
Threonine. 0.598 g. Isoleucine. 0.702 g. Leucine. 1.488 g. Lysine. 0.580 g. ...
THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase. →succinyl-CoA→TCA. *Propionyl-CoA carboxylase. *Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase ...
InChI=1S/C25H40N7O19P3S/c1-12(23(37)38)24(39)55-7-6-27-14(33)4-5-28-21(36)18(35)25(2,3)9-48-54(45,46)51-53(43,44)47-8-13-17(50-52(40,41)42)16(34)22(49-13)32-11-31-15-19(26)29-10-30-20(15)32/h10-13,16-18,22,34-35H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,27,33)(H,28,36)(H,37,38)(H,43,44)(H,45,46)(H2,26,29,30)(H2,40,41,42)/t12?,13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1 ...
Threonine. 0.407 g. Isoleucine. 0.483 g. Leucine. 0.890 g. Lysine. 0.369 g. ...
Threonine. 1.269 g. Isoleucine. 1.286 g. Leucine. 2.163 g. Lysine. 1.276 g. ...
... (symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter - interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction. Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl. ...
Threonine. 2.7 g. 4.660 g. 3.574 g 3.928 g. 3.428 g. 3.694 g. 4.734 g. 4.087 g. 5.168 g. 2.9 g. 5.001 g. 4.2 g. 4.119 g ...
THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase. →succinyl-CoA→TCA. *Propionyl-CoA carboxylase. *Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase ...
Threonine. 0.604 g. Isoleucine. 0.686 g. Leucine. 1.075 g. Lysine. 0.904 g. ...
... threonine, or cysteine to activate it as a nucleophile. In a histidine proton shuttle, histidine is used to quickly shuttle ...
Threonine. 2.97 g. Isoleucine. 3.209 g. Leucine. 4.947 g. Lysine. 3.025 g. ...
THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase. →succinyl-CoA→TCA. *Propionyl-CoA carboxylase. *Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase ...
Threonine. 0.086 g. Isoleucine. 0.095 g. Leucine. 0.143 g. Lysine. 0.143 g. ...
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system.[21] At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the presynaptic cell. Glutamate acts on ionotropic and metabotropic (G-protein coupled) receptors.[21] In the opposing postsynaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor or the AMPA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain.[22] The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and other parts of the brain. Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but also through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission.[23] In addition, glutamate plays ...
see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. 2.7.12: protein-dual-specificity. *see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases ...
Threonine. 0.687 g. Isoleucine. 0.866 g. Leucine. 1.399 g. Lysine. 1.217 g. ...
... (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP). The glycerate is a biochemically significant metabolic intermediate in both glycolysis and the Calvin cycle. This anion is often termed PGA when referring to the Calvin cycle. In the Calvin cycle, 3-phosphoglycerate is the product of the spontaneous scission of an unstable 6-carbon intermediate formed upon CO2 fixation. Thus, two equivalents of 3-phosphoglycerate are produced for each molecule of CO2 that is fixed.[1][2] ...
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PSP)[1] is a form of phosphoprotein phosphatase that acts upon phosphorylated serine/ ... threonine residues. Serine and threonine phosphates are stable under physiological conditions, so a phosphatase enzyme has to ... Serine and threonine are amino acids which have similar side-chain compositions that contain a hydroxyl group and thus can be ... Shi Y (October 2009). "Serine/threonine phosphatases: mechanism through structure". Cell. 139 (3): 468-84. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
... is enantiomer of D-threonine (CHEBI:16398) L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is tautomer of L-threonine ... L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a proteinogenic amino acid (CHEBI:83813) L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a threonine (CHEBI:26986) L- ... L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) L-threonine (CHEBI:16857) is a L-α-amino acid (CHEBI:15705) L ... D-threonine (CHEBI:16398) is enantiomer of L-threonine (CHEBI:16857). L-threonin-O3-yl group (CHEBI:32825) is substituent group ...
A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.1) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ... Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Non-specific serine/threonine ... While serine/threonine kinases all phosphorylate serine or threonine residues in their substrates, they select specific ... specifically protein-serine/threonine kinases. These enzymes transfer phosphates to the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine ...
2-AMINO-3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID, DL-THREONINE, DLTHREONINE, L-THREONINE, and THREONINE ...
Yamashita A. (2018) Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase SMG1. In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, Cham ...
Threonine is metabolized in at least three ways: In many animals it is converted to pyruvate via threonine dehydrogenase. An ... In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, ... In humans the gene for threonine dehydrogenase is an inactive pseudogene, so threonine is converted to α-ketobutyrate. The ... Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which ...
Learn more about Threonine uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that ... Threonine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used as a medicine. Doses of up to 4 grams of threonine daily have been used safely for up to ... Medications used for Alzheimers disease (NMDA antagonists) interacts with THREONINE. There is some concern that threonine ... When taken by mouth: Threonine is LIKELY SAFE when used in food amounts. Its been proposed that people need to get about 0.5 ...
As an essential amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in humans, hence we must ingest threonine or, more commonly, threonine ... Racemic threonine (equal portions of L and D threonine) can be prepared in the laboratory from crotonic acid by alpha- ... Threonine also reflects an element of human responsibility, for ones diet must contain sufficient threonine to synthesize the ... Fortunately, most proteins contain threonine and so a deficiency is unlikely. Foods high in threonine include milk, cottage ...
In enzymology, a threonine aldolase (EC 4.1.2.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-threonine ⇌ {\displaystyle ... This enzyme is also called L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism ... Alasdair J Edgar (2005) Mice have a transcribed L-threonine aldolase/GLY1 gene, but the human GLY1 gene is a non-processed ... KARASEK MA, GREENBERG DM (1957). "Studies on the properties of threonine aldolases". J. Biol. Chem. 227 (1): 191-205. PMID ...
Threonine is an essential dietary amino acid for humans. However, extracellular uptake and/or catabolism of threonine could be ... Threonine was found to selectively suppress interaction between HU and disruption of threonine biosynthesis, in a concentration ... Preferential use of threonine aldolase for threonine catabolism, with its associated production of acetaldehyde during cycles ... 2 b-d). This finding led to the prediction that disabling both threonine biosynthesis and threonine uptake would be synergistic ...
This entry represents serine/threonine-protein kinases (EC:2.7.11.1) such as Rio3. RIO kinases are atypical members of the ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase Rio3 (IPR017406). Short name: Ser/Thr_kinase_Rio3 ...
2 they concluded that their results show a positive correlation between the plasma threonine concentration and the threonine ... intake but they cannot support our data3 showing that the ability to metabolize a high threonine intake is impaired in preterm ...
serine/threonine protein kinase 15. C. reinhardtii. 48.6. 324. NP_116620.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * ... microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinase 3. X. laevis. 76.0. 1253. NP_648778.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene ... Microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 1 (MAST1). Human protein-coding gene MAST1. Represented by 98 ESTs from 57 cDNA ... Homo sapiens microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 1 (MAST1), mRNA. PA. BC027985.1. Homo sapiens microtubule ...
... that has an ability to produce L-threonine, in a ferment ... A method for producing L-threonine is described which includes ... Examples of such an enzyme include threonine dehydrogenase, threonine deaminase, and threonine dehydratase. Strains having ... L-threonine biosynthetic genes may be introduced into an Escherichia bacterium in which threonine degradation is suppressed. ... Expression of the threonine operon is inhibited by isoleucine and threonine present in the culture medium, and is suppressed by ...
4), has strong homology to a cytoplasmic Xenopus serine/threonine protein kinase XEEK1 (ref. 5), and weaker similarity to many ... A serine/threonine kinase gene defective in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. *Akseli Hemminki1. , ... 4), has strong homology to a cytoplasmic Xenopus serine/threonine protein kinase XEEK1 (ref. 5), and weaker similarity to many ... Su, J.-Y., Erikson, E. & Maller, J. L. Cloning and characterization of a novel serine/threonine protein kinase expressed in ...
AMINOSYN II (isoleucine, leucine, lysine acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, alanine, arginine, ... AMINOSYN II (isoleucine, leucine, lysine acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, alanine, arginine, ... AMINOSYN-PF (isoleucine, leucine, lysine acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, alanine, arginine, ... AMINOSYN-PF (isoleucine, leucine, lysine acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, alanine, arginine, ...
More information: Foods rich in threonine. Threonine supplements. Although you can take supplements of threonine, it is ... What is threonine?. Threonine is an essential amino acid that the body can not synthesize and therefore must be provided by the ... Properties of threonine. Threonine promotes the proper functioning of the liver and prevents the toxicity that would represent ... Foods containing threonine. Animal foods are those that contain more threonine, especially cheese and protein supplements made ...
... Systematic (IUPAC) name (2S,3R)-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid Identifiers CAS number 72-19-5 EINECS 200- ... As an essential amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in humans, hence we must ingest threonine in the form of threonine- ... Allo-threonine. With two chiral centers, threonine can exist in four possible stereoisomers, or two possible diastereomers of L ... Threonine is metabolized in two ways: * It is converted to pyruvate via Threonine Dehydrogenase. An intermediate in this ...
S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain. cd06610. Location:1 → 235. STKc_OSR1_SPAK; Catalytic domain of the ... serine/threonine kinase 39. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. MODEL. Organism. Falco cherrug Lineage. Eukaryota; ... STK39 serine/threonine kinase 39 [ Falco cherrug (Saker falcon) ] Gene ID: 102051947, updated on 12-Sep-2018 ... Serine/Threonine Kinases, Oxidative stress response kinase and Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase. ...
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Threonine has also been used as part of a treatment to help alleviate anxiety and in some cases, depression. ... Threonine is necessary for the formation of tooth enamel, and elastin and collagen. ... Buy Threonine Supplements and Products Threonine General Information Threonine Uses & Scientific Evidence For Threonine Dosage ... Threonine Uses & Scientific Evidence For. Threonine is necessary for the formation of tooth enamel, and elastin and collagen, ...
The dimeric intermediate substructures of threonine deaminase, which are obtained by alkaline dialysis of the native tetrameric ...
L-Threonine methyl ester hydrochloride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, ...
a protein]-serine/threonine phosphate + H2O = [a protein]-serine/threonine + phosphate. ... sp,P03772,PP_LAMBD Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase OS=Escherichia phage lambda PE=1 SV=1 ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
L-Threonine has L(E)C50 well above 0.1 mg/l. Further, L-threonine is not classified as a CMR and there is no evidence for ... L-Threonine has a low logKow (, 0). Therefore, the substance does not fulfill the screening criteria for bioaccumulation (B). ... L-Threonine is readily biodegradable. Therefore, the substance does not fulfill the screening criteria for persistence (P). ...
The product under assessment is l‐threonine produced by fermentation with a ■■■■■ strain of C. glutamicum (■■■■■). l‐Threonine ... l‐Threonine produced using C. glutamicum ■■■■■ is safe for the consumer. The additive is not a skin or eye irritant and is not ... For l‐threonine to be as efficacious in ruminants as in non‐ruminant species, it requires protection against degradation in the ... l‐Threonine produced using C. glutamicum ■■■■■ is safe for the environment. The product under assessment is considered an ...
l‐Threonine produced using E. coli CGMCC 7.232 is safe for the consumer. In absence of data, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude ... The product l‐threonine, manufactured by fermentation with E. coli CGMCC 7.232, does not raise any safety concern with regard ... l‐Threonine produced using E. coli CGMCC 7.232 is considered safe for the target species. The FEEDAP Panel has concerns ... l‐Threonine produced using E. coli CGMCC 7.232 is safe for the environment. The product under assessment is considered an ...
Threonine-trna ligase activity. Specific Function. Not Available. Gene Name. TARS. Uniprot ID. P26639. Uniprot Name. Threonine ... Threonine-trna ligase activity. Specific Function. Not Available. Gene Name. TARS2. Uniprot ID. Q9BW92. Uniprot Name. Threonine ... Threonine synthase activity. Specific Function. Not Available. Gene Name. THNSL1. Uniprot ID. Q8IYQ7. Uniprot Name. Threonine ... Also, threonine prevents excessive liver fat. Nutrients are more readily absorbed when threonine is present. ...
... *Formula: C11H15F6NO5Si ... Other names: L-Threonine, N,O-di(trifluoroacetyl)-, trimethylsilyl ester; Trimethylsilyl 2-[(trifluoroacetyl)amino]-3-[( ...
  • Serine and threonine are amino acids which have similar side-chain compositions that contain a hydroxyl group and thus can be phosphorylated by enzymes called serine/threonine protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A serine/threonine protein kinase ( EC 2.7.11.1 ) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine (which have similar sidechains). (wikipedia.org)
  • At least 125 of the 500+ human protein kinases are serine/threonine kinases (STK). (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology , the term non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase describes a class of enzymes that belong to the family of transferases , specifically protein-serine/threonine kinases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Types include those acting directly as receptors ( Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase ) and Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein involved in the synthesis of the essential amino acid threonine. (uniprot.org)
  • The L-isomer of threonine, which is the only form that is involved in protein synthesis, is one of the 20 standard amino acids common in animal proteins and required for normal functioning in humans . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This entry represents serine/threonine-protein kinases ( EC:2.7.11.1 ) such as Rio3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Nezu, J. Molecular cloning of a novelserine/threonine protein kinase expressed in human fetalliver(unpublished). (nature.com)
  • Su, J.-Y., Erikson, E. & Maller, J. L. Cloning and characterization of a novel serine/threonine protein kinase expressed in early Xenopus embryos. (nature.com)
  • Symptoms of a Threonine deficiency include emotional agitation, mental health deterioration, decreased digestion, intestinal malfunctions, increased liver fat, deterioration of nutrient absorption, and decreased protein uptake. (herbalremedies.com)
  • a protein]-serine/threonine phosphate + H 2 O = [a protein]-serine/threonine + phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • The serine/threonine phosphatases of the PPP family are mostly regulated by protein-protein interactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Based on comparative protein sequence alignments and biochemical cross-talk experiments with the response regulator substrate of the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1, we propose that eukaryotic phytochromes are histidine kinase paralogs with serine/threonine specificity whose enzymatic activity diverged from that of a prokaryotic ancestor after duplication of the transmitter module. (pnas.org)
  • In this regard, biochemical analysis of purified oat phytochrome A in the mid-1980s ( 10 - 13 ) revealed an associated polycation-stimulated, pyrophosphate-inhibited serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase activity implicating phytochrome itself to be the enzyme responsible. (pnas.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 aa 324-388. (abcam.com)
  • NIM1, also known as Serine/threonine-protein kinase NIM1, is a 436 amino acid protein that is 50 kDa. (novusbio.com)
  • Protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine (Ser/Thr/Tyr) is well established as a key regulatory posttranslational modification in eukaryotes, but little is known about its extent and function in prokaryotes. (mcponline.org)
  • For some time the field of protein phosphorylation maintained this clear-cut picture of eukaryotes using serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation and bacteria using histidine and aspartate phosphorylation instead. (mcponline.org)
  • Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Pim 1 (Oncogene PIM1 or PIM1 or EC 2.7.11.1) pipeline Target constitutes close to 15 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Pim 1 (Oncogene PIM1 or PIM1 or EC 2.7.11.1) - Proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1 is an enzyme encoded by the PIM1 gene. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Pim 1 (Oncogene PIM1 or PIM1 or EC 2.7.11.1) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • It yielded a serine/threonine protein kinase called protein kinase N 1 (PKN1). (nih.gov)
  • DUBLIN--( BUSINESS WIRE )--The "Serine Threonine Protein Kinase ATR - Pipeline Review, H2 2019" drug pipelines has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (businesswire.com)
  • Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia And Rad3 Related Protein or FRAP Related Protein 1 or ATR or EC 2.7.11.1) pipeline Target constitutes close to 17 molecules. (businesswire.com)
  • Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia And Rad3 Related Protein or FRAP Related Protein 1 or ATR or EC 2.7.11.1) - Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR is an enzyme encoded by the ATR gene. (businesswire.com)
  • The Bub1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase that acts in the mitotic spindle checkpoint by recruiting components and promoting kinetochore formation in the inner centromere. (rndsystems.com)
  • Threonine is changed in the body to a chemical called glycine. (webmd.com)
  • Threonine is an amino acid. (ewg.org)
  • Threonine is an α- amino acid that is common in many proteins and together with serine and tyrosine is one of three proteinogenic amino acids bearing an alcohol group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Threonine is also classified as an "essential amino acid" since it cannot be synthesized by the human body from other compounds through chemical reactions and thus has to be taken in with the diet. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, the name L -threonine is used for one single enantiomer , (2 S , 3 R )-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As an essential amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in humans, hence we must ingest threonine or, more commonly, threonine-containing proteins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threonine was the last of the 20 common proteinogenic amino acids to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acid was named threonine because it was similar in structure to threonic acid, a four-carbon monosaccharide with molecular formula C4H8O5 Threonine is one of two proteinogenic amino acids with two stereogenic centers, the other being isoleucine. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As an essential amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in humans, and needs to be present in proteins in the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threonine is an essential amino acid that the body can not synthesize and therefore must be provided by the diet. (botanical-online.com)
  • Although you can take supplements of threonine, it is recommended to cover the needs of this amino acid through a balanced diet . (botanical-online.com)
  • Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T ) [1] is an α- amino acid with the chemical formula HO 2 CCH(NH 2 )CH(OH)CH 3 . (bionity.com)
  • As an essential amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in humans, hence we must ingest threonine in the form of threonine-containing proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Threonine is an essential amino acid that is found in high concentrations in the heart, skeletal muscles and central nervous system. (herbalremedies.com)
  • Amino acid supplements prefaced by the letter L, such as L-Threonine, are more similar to the amino acids in the body than those that start with the letter D, with the exception of D-L phenylalanine, which treats chronic pain. (herbalremedies.com)
  • The product under assessment is considered an efficacious source of the amino acid l‐threonine for all animal species. (europa.eu)
  • Threonine is an essential amino acid, which animals cannot synthesize. (genome.jp)
  • Threonine, an essential amino acid, is not manufactured by the body and must be acquired from food. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The present aim of the paper is to grow and to study the various properties of L-threonine amino acid single crystal in various aspects. (hindawi.com)
  • To learn more about threonine and amino acids, review the accompanying lesson on Threonine Amino Acid: Structure & Function. (study.com)
  • L-threonine is an essential amino acid in humans, meaning that it cannot be synthesized in the body. (xtend-life.com)
  • L-threonine is one of the 20 common proteinogenic amino acids for humans, which are used to construct proteins. (xtend-life.com)
  • The American nutritionist William Cumming Rose discovered threonine during the 1930s, making it the last of the common proteinogenic amino acids to be discovered. (xtend-life.com)
  • Evonik Industries produces and markets all four important amino acids for animal nutrition: DL-Methionine, Biolys® (L-Lysine), L-Threonine and L-Tryptophan. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Any of a group of kinases that phosphorylate the amino acids serine, threonine, and tyrosine in certain proteins, that regulate essential aspects of cell growth and movement, and that can cause cancer and other diseases when dysfunctional. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Douglas Labs L-Threonine 500 mg 60 caps supplies 500 mg of this amino acid in each capsule. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • The remaining three studies deals with the synthesis of C-glycosidic analogues of glycosylated amino acids, hydroxy norvaline, threonine and hydroxylysine.The synthesis of each amino acid required control of several stereogenic centra and utilizes a variety of approaches such as use of stereoselective reactions, chiral auxilaries, chiral templates and asymmetric catalysis. (diva-portal.org)
  • In response to the increased use of high fibre co-products, such as wheat mill run in swine rations, researchers with the Prairie Swine Centre, the University of Saskatchewan and the Western College of Veterinary Medicine are evaluating the requirement for the amino acid Threonine, to maintain efficient growth, especially when pigs are challenged by disease. (farmscape.ca)
  • Phosphorylation is observed on serine, threonine, tyrosine and histidine residues. (abcam.com)
  • We identified 103 unique phosphopeptides from 78 B. subtilis proteins and determined 78 phosphorylation sites: 54 on serine, 16 on threonine, and eight on tyrosine. (mcponline.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells rely extensively on phosphorylating the hydroxyl group of the side chains of serine/threonine/tyrosine for their signal transduction cascades ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The importance of serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases and phosphatases for cell physiology has been widely documented in eukaryotes ranging from yeast ( 4 ) to human ( 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • However, in the last 2 decades evidence has accumulated for serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation in bacteria ( 9 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Interestingly signaling via serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation is often implicated in the regulation of bacterial virulence ( 12 ), and in some cases it is also known to interfere with eukaryotic signal transduction, thereby rendering the host more prone to infection ( 13 , 14 ). (mcponline.org)
  • pro·tein ki·nase/ ( pro´tēn ki´nās ) an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine, threonine, or tyrosine groups in enzymes or other proteins, using ATP as a phosphate donor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These modules contribute to a molecular circuit that regulates threonine metabolism and buffers deficiency in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis. (pnas.org)
  • This work tests a model constructed after unexpectedly finding threonine biosynthesis to play a role in buffering growth inhibition with the deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) biosynthesis inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU) ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein an L-threonine biosynthesis enzyme in the microorganism is modified so that the enzyme is not subject to feedback inhibition by L-threonine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The method according to claim 4, wherein the L-threonine biosynthesis enzyme is selected from the group consisting of aspartokinase, homoserine kinase, threonine synthase, and combinations thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Enzymes involved in a typical biosynthesis of threonine include: aspartokinase β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase homoserine dehydrogenase homoserine kinase threonine synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional feature 'microorganism which already produces L-threonine' was clear to the skilled person, who would be able to distinguish between L-threonine which results from biosynthesis and production of L-threonine. (epo.org)
  • and page 359, section 10.3), which also distinguished between biosynthesis of L-threonine and construction of L-threonine producing strains. (epo.org)
  • These enzymes transfer phosphates to the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine sidechain in proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Like serine, threonine is sometimes in substantial concentrations in the outer regions of soluble proteins due to its hydrophilic nature. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Beyond its role as a key building block of proteins, the role of threonine in human metabolism is unclear. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Threonine also reflects an element of human responsibility, for one's diet must contain sufficient threonine to synthesize the proteins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Both threonine and serine are very hydrophilic, therefore the outer regions of soluble proteins tend to be rich with them. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Fortunately, most proteins contain threonine and so a deficiency is unlikely. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Genes coding for phosphoserine/threonine phosphatases are less numerous in vertebrate genomes than those for serine /threonine kinases, and the complexity of phosphatases function arises in part from the interactions of catalytic subunits with other proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This is most likely to occur if you are a strict vegetarian, as the best sources of L-threonine are animal proteins. (xtend-life.com)
  • The results provide genetic, biochemical, and phenotypic evidence that growth homeostasis is maintained by a molecular circuit that regulates threonine metabolism to buffer depletion of dNTP pools. (pnas.org)
  • Functional Interactions Between dNTP and Threonine Metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threonine also assists metabolism and assimilation. (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • Pathways regulating threonine, methionine and isoleucine metabolism are very efficiently interconnected in plants. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation (addition of phosphate) through the action of a threonine kinase. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we describe the characterization of a recently identified phosphorylation site in GluR1 at threonine 840. (jneurosci.org)
  • A method for producing L-threonine is described which includes the steps of culturing a microorganism belonging to the genus Escherichia that has an ability to produce L-threonine, in a fermentation medium containing a carbon source, a nitrogen source, and a sulfur source, and collecting L-threonine, wherein the sulfur concentration in the medium is regulated so that it is a predetermined level or lower. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The product subject of this assessment is l‐threonine produced by fermentation with a genetically modified strain of Escherichia coli (CGMCC 7.232). (europa.eu)
  • 6. L-threonine-producing microorganisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae, especially of the genus Escherichia, in which one or more genes selected from the group consisting of lpd, aceE and aceF and alleles of the genes which result from the degeneracy of the genetic code or from neutral sense mutations is (are) present in overexpressed form, whereby overexpression is achieved in microorganisms which already produce L-threonine. (epo.org)
  • SummaryA rapid method for purifying L-threonine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K-12 cells, grown on a medium containing L-threonine as carbon source, has been developed. (umich.edu)
  • The following threonine catabolism pathway is initiated by threonine dehydratase which has been cloned and sequenced from Escherichia coli ( Datta et al, 1987 ). (ethz.ch)
  • Serine/Threonine Kinase receptors play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, programmed cell death ( apoptosis ), cell differentiation, and embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that purified recombinant phytochromes from a higher plant and a green alga exhibit serine/threonine kinase activity similar to that of phytochrome isolated from dark grown seedlings. (pnas.org)
  • Your search returned 72 B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • The serine/threonine kinase Pim-2 is a novel anti-apoptotic mediator in myeloma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We demonstrate herein that IL-6 and TNF family cytokines, TNFα, BAFF and APRIL, but not IGF-1 cooperatively enhance the expression of the serine/threonine kinase Pim-2 in MM cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In humans the gene for threonine dehydrogenase is an inactive pseudogene, so threonine is converted to α-ketobutyrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alasdair J Edgar (2005) Mice have a transcribed L-threonine aldolase/GLY1 gene, but the human GLY1 gene is a non-processed pseudogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is an abundant RNA in cells grown with serine and threonine as nitrogen source, whereas it is not detected when cells are grown on ammonium or proline, i.e., the transcription of the CHA1 gene is induced by serine or threonine. (genetics.org)
  • Bartlem D, Lambein I, Okamoto T, Itaya A, Uda Y, Kijima F, Tamaki Y, Nambara E, Naito S (2000) Mutation in the threonine synthase gene results in an over-accumulation of soluble methionine in Arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • The mechanism of the first step is analogous to that catalyzed by serine dehydratase, and the serine and threonine dehydratase reactions are probably catalyzed by the same enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a text-format methionine and threonine pathway map. (ethz.ch)
  • As both threonine and methionine serve as substrates for isoleucine synthesis, their synthesis and catabolism under different developmental and environmental conditions also influence isoleucine availability. (springer.com)
  • Together, methionine gamma-lyase and threonine deaminase maintain the isoleucine equilibrium in plants under varied substrate availabilities. (springer.com)
  • Amir R, Hacham Y, Galili G (2002) Cystathionine gamma-synthase and threonine synthase operate in concert to regulate carbon flow towards methionine in plants. (springer.com)
  • Intriguingly, Eyas harbor a separate threonine (Thr) phosphatase activity, which was previously implicated in innate immunity. (jci.org)
  • Abnormal serine/threonine phosphatase activity has been linked with several diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • In plants and microorganisms , threonine is synthesized from aspartic acid via α-aspartyl-semialdehyde and homoserine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Many plants and some microorganisms can synthesize L-threonine by using homoserine and alpha-aspartyl-semialdehyde to produce aspartic acid. (xtend-life.com)
  • Threonine synthase is a pyridoxal phosphate enzyme which catalyses the last step in the synthesis of threonine in plants and microorganisms. (cea.fr)
  • Other nutrients are also better absorbed when threonine is present, and it has also been used as part treatment of mental health. (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • Nutrients are more readily absorbed when threonine is present. (nutritionreview.org)
  • a central step in threonine catabolism. (drugs.com)
  • Molecular genetics of serine and threonine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (genetics.org)
  • The addition of the phosphate group can be reversed by enzymes called serine/threonine phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • With an easily removed hydrogen on the hydroxyl side chain, threonine is often a hydrogen donor in enzymes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Its hydrogen is easy to remove, so threonine and serine often act as hydrogen donors in enzymes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning revealed that serine/threonine phosphatases belong to two different families of about a dozen of genes each in mammals: the phosphoprotein phosphatase P (PPP) family includes PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and a few related enzymes, PP4, PP5, PP6 and PP7, while the phosphoprotein phosphatase M family (PPM) includes PP2C and related enzymes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recently, however, many kinds of threonine aldolase and corresponding genes were isolated from micro-organisms, and these enzymes were shown to be distinct from serine hydroxymethyltransferase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thus, although serine hydroxymethyltransferase from some mammalian livers exhibits a low threonine aldolase activity, the two enzymes are distinct from each other and mammals lack the "genuine" threonine aldolase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • L-Threonine dehydrogenase of E. coli has an average molecular weight of 140,000 and consists of 4 identical or nearly identical subunits. (umich.edu)
  • Listed below are anti-Taspase, Threonine Aspartase 1 antibodies from multiple suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 27 Taspase, Threonine Aspartase 1 Antibodies across 10 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on l‐threonine produced by fermentation with Corynebacterium glutamicum ■■■■■ when used as a nutritional additive in feed and water for drinking for all animal species and categories. (europa.eu)
  • The product l‐threonine, manufactured by fermentation with E. coli CGMCC 7.232, does not raise any safety concern with regard to the genetic modification of the production strain. (europa.eu)
  • The appropriate dose of threonine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. (webmd.com)
  • A good dose of threonine in the diet ensures the proper production of substances like collagen , essential for proper maintenance of connective tissues, skin and tooth enamel, which are essential to maintain strong, resilient, healthy teeth. (botanical-online.com)
  • The dimeric intermediate substructures of threonine deaminase, which are obtained by alkaline dialysis of the native tetrameric enzyme, are inactive after reassembly unless they are subsequently exposed to maturation-inducing ligands for which the enzyme possesses stereospecific binding sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • The catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows the yeast to grow on media with L-serine or L-threonine as sole nitrogen source. (genetics.org)
  • Prior to the knowledge of their sequence, phosphoserine/threonine phosphatases were classified on the basis of their substrate preference and inhibitor sensitivity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • L-threonine deficiency in rats has been associated with weakened cellular response and antibody formation. (nutritionreview.org)
  • L-threonine supports the immune system through its role in antibody production. (xtend-life.com)
  • Threonine is synthesized from aspartate in bacteria such as E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary studies in patients with the degenerative neuromuscular disease ALS showed definite symptom improvement with L-threonine supplements. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Additional benefits of L-threonine supplements include the support of bone and liver health as well as the immune system. (xtend-life.com)
  • This role means that L-threonine supplements may support the growth of healthy connective tissue, especially in the heart where L-threonine is more concentrated. (xtend-life.com)
  • The most significant indication that you may need L-threonine supplements is if your diet is deficient in L-threonine. (xtend-life.com)
  • The experiments with isolated hepatocytes and cell-free extracts from various animals revealed that threonine is degraded mainly through the pathway initiated by threonine 3-dehydrogenase, and there is little or no contribution by threonine aldolase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and threonine aldolase: are they identical? (unboundmedicine.com)
  • No extensive studies have been carried out on threonine aldolase in animal tissues, and it has long been believed that serine hydroxymethyltransferase and threonine aldolase are the same, i.e. one entity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This is based on the finding that rabbit liver serine hydroxymethyltransferase possesses some threonine aldolase activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ogawa H, Gomi T, Fujioka M. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and threonine aldolase: are they identical? (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A Threonine Stabilizes the NiC and NiR Catalytic Intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Serine and threonine phosphates are stable under physiological conditions, so a phosphatase enzyme has to remove the phosphate to reverse the regulation signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threonine aldolase catalyzes the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent, reversible reaction between threonine and acetaldehyde plus glycine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Health & Nutrition Business Unit of Evonik Industries, Germany is raising its prices for L-Threonine feed grade € 0.12/kg in Europe and US$ 0.15/kg in other regions, due to incurred high costs of raw materials, labor and utilities. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • 1. Effects of dietary threonine:lysine ratio and sanitary conditions on performance, plasma urea nitrogen, plasma-free threonine and lysine of weaned pigs. (evonik.com)
  • Research from the University of Illinois is helping to determine the correct ratio of threonine to lysine in pig diets, and how this ratio is affected by the fiber content of the diets. (thepigsite.com)
  • There's been some confusion about the ideal threonine to lysine ratio," says Stein. (thepigsite.com)
  • Both low- and high-fiber diets were then supplemented with threonine to achieve a standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine (SID Thr:Lys) ratio of 0.45, 0.54, 0.63, 0.72, 0.81, or 0.90. (thepigsite.com)
  • The paper, " Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts ," was co-authored by John Mathai of Illinois, John Htoo of Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH, John Thomson of Evonik Degussa Corporation in Kennesaw, Georgia, and Kevin Touchette of Ajinomoto Heartland Inc. (thepigsite.com)
  • Threonine is used to synthesize glycine during the endogenous production of L-carnitine in the brain and liver of rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threonine promotes the proper functioning of the liver and prevents the toxicity that would represent a malfunction of its functions. (botanical-online.com)
  • Another states that Threonine "is very useful in indigestion and intestinal malfunctions and prevents excessive liver fat. (nutritionreview.org)
  • L-threonine may support liver health by helping to minimize the accumulation of fats around the liver. (xtend-life.com)
  • The most common signs of an L-threonine deficiency include a fatty liver, digestion difficulties and emotional agitation. (xtend-life.com)
  • In enzymology, a threonine aldolase (EC 4.1.2.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-threonine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } glycine + acetaldehyde Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-threonine, and two products, glycine and acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threonine aldolase from Candida humicola. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threonine is metabolized in at least three ways: In many animals it is converted to pyruvate via threonine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is converted to pyruvate via Threonine Dehydrogenase. (bionity.com)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase (glycine-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called L-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vegetable sources of L-threonine include black beans, lentils and sesame seeds. (xtend-life.com)
  • Dairy products also contain significant levels of L-threonine, especially cottage cheese. (xtend-life.com)
  • Racemic threonine can be prepared from crotonic acid by alpha-functionalization using mercury(II) acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This procedure yields a racemic mixture of threonine, meaning that it produces both D-threonine and L-threonine. (xtend-life.com)
  • With two chiral centers, threonine can exist in four possible stereoisomers, or two possible diastereomers (not mirror images) of L -threonine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The two stereogenic centers in the threonine moiety were both established by alkylation of Evans' chiral N -acyloxazolidinone enolates. (diva-portal.org)
  • Threonine is important to be familiar with in biology and chemistry, and this quiz/worksheet will help you test your understanding of its definition and related components. (study.com)
  • Aspartic acid can then be reduced to yield L-threonine. (xtend-life.com)
  • Threonine can be prepared in the laboratory by reacting mercury acetate with crotonic acid. (xtend-life.com)