Spinal Cord Compression
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Spinal Cord Injuries
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Bone and Bones
Orthopedic Fixation Devices
Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover. (1/1662)OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen. (+info)
Intraoperative ultrasonography evaluation of posterior vertebral wall displacement in thoracolumbar fractures. (2/1662)Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) was used to evaluate the location and compressive effects of intraspinal fragments in thoracolumbar fractures and the efficacy of reduction maneuvers in patients operated on for isolated or attached intraspinal fragments or for global posterior wall disruption. Dynamic IOUS was used to evaluate the effects of traction and lordosis. Fifty-eight patients were evaluated using a 7.5 MHz ultrasound probe, including 27 treated by impaction, 19 by removal of apparently isolated fragments, and 12 by traction followed by lordosis for global posterior wall disruption. IOUS had limitations and problems caused by split fragments and residual pedicular attachments that can compromise intraoperative maneuvers. The risk of secondary displacement of isolated fragments treated by impaction was very high. In particular, the pinching effect produced by T-shaped fractures was commonly responsible for secondary displacement. IOUS evaluation of canal clearance after fragment removal was satisfactory, but did not provide quantitative data. IOUS was easier to perform and apparently more reliable than intraoperative myelography. The dynamic IOUS data suggest that, except for severely tilted fragments that are completely free or remain attached to a pedicle, residual discal attachments significantly influence the likelihood of successful reduction. (+info)
Multiple disc herniations in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. A case report. (3/1662)Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) tarda is a group of inherited dysplasias in which the spine and the epiphyses of long bones are affected from late childhood. A 19-year-old male was diagnosed as SED tarda. He had a thoracic and then lumbar disc herniations which were separated by a 4-year interval. Surgical excision was performed for each disc herniation. This is the first case report of multiple disc herniations in SED. (+info)
Prenatal sonographic features of spondylocostal dysostosis and diaphragmatic hernia in the first trimester. (4/1662)Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder characterized by multiple malformations of the vertebrae and ribs. We describe the sonographic features of an affected fetus at 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The fetus had thoracic scoliosis, multiple vertebral and rib malformations and a grossly dilated stomach that had herniated into the chest through a left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. The stomach spanned the whole length of the fetal trunk. (+info)
Eosinophilic granulated cells comprising a tumor in a Fischer rat. (5/1662)A systemic tumor developed in multiple organs, including spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, ovaries, and thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, of a female F344Du/Crj rat. The tumor was composed of round to indented mononuclear cells containing abundant large eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm. The peripheral blood smear revealed that the large granules in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells were stained basophilic with Giemsa, suggesting a basophil or mast cell origin. However, these granules did not show metachromasia with toluidine blue and were stained blue to dark blue with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin. Cellular morphology and characteristics in the specific stains of tumor cells suggested the development of a tumor of globule leukocytes in a F344Du/Crj rat. (+info)
Fungal spinal osteomyelitis in the immunocompromised patient: MR findings in three cases. (6/1662)The MR imaging findings of fungal spinal osteomyelitis in three recipients of organ transplants showed hypointensity of the vertebral bodies on T1-weighted sequences in all cases. Signal changes and enhancement extended into the posterior elements in two cases. Multiple-level disease was present in two cases (with a total of five intervertebral disks involved in three cases). All cases lacked hyperintensity within the disks on T2-weighted images. In addition, the intranuclear cleft was preserved in four of five affected disks at initial MR imaging. MR features in Candida and Aspergillus spondylitis that are distinct from pyogenic osteomyelitis include absence of disk hyperintensity and preservation of the intranuclear cleft on T2-weighted images. Prompt recognition of these findings may avoid delay in establishing a diagnosis and instituting treatment of opportunistic osteomyelitis in the immunocompromised patient. (+info)
Segmental spinal dysgenesis: neuroradiologic findings with clinical and embryologic correlation. (7/1662)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmental spinal dysgenesis (SSD) is a rare congenital abnormality in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop properly. Our goal was to investigate the neuroradiologic features of this condition in order to correlate our findings with the degree of residual spinal cord function, and to provide insight into the embryologic origin of this disorder. We also aimed to clarify the relationship between SSD and other entities, such as multiple vertebral segmentation defects, congenital vertebral displacement, and caudal regression syndrome (CRS). METHODS: The records of patients treated at our institutions for congenital spinal anomalies were reviewed, and 10 cases were found to satisfy the inclusion criteria for SSD. Plain radiographs were available for review in all cases. MR imaging was performed in eight patients, one of whom also underwent conventional myelography. Two other patients underwent only conventional myelography. RESULTS: Segmental vertebral anomalies involved the thoracolumbar, lumbar, or lumbosacral spine. The spinal cord at the level of the abnormality was thinned or even indiscernible, and a bulky, low-lying cord segment was present caudad to the focal abnormality in most cases. Closed spinal dysraphisms were associated in five cases, and partial sacrococcygeal agenesis in three. Renal anomalies were detected in four cases, and dextrocardia in one; all patients had a neurogenic bladder. CONCLUSION: SSD is an autonomous entity with characteristic clinical and neuroradiologic features; however, SSD and CRS probably represent two faces of a single spectrum of segmental malformations of the spine and spinal cord. The neuroradiologic picture depends on the severity of the malformation and on its segmental level along the longitudinal embryonic axis. The severity of the morphologic derangement correlates with residual spinal cord function and with severity of the clinical deficit. (+info)
Unusual presentation of spinal cord compression related to misplaced pedicle screws in thoracic scoliosis. (8/1662)Utilization of thoracic pedicle screws is controversial, especially in the treatment of scoliosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl seen 6 months after her initial surgery for scoliosis done elsewhere. She complained of persistent epigastric pain, tremor of the right foot at rest, and abnormal feelings in her legs. Clinical examination revealed mild weakness in the right lower extremity, a loss of thermoalgic discrimination, and a forward imbalance. A CT scan revealed at T8 and T10 that the right pedicle screws were misplaced by 4 mm in the spinal canal. At the time of the revision surgery the somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) returned to normal after screw removal. The clinical symptoms resolved 1 month after the revision. The authors conclude that after pedicle instrumentation at the thoracic level a spinal cord compression should be looked for in case of subtle neurologic findings such as persistent abdominal pain, mild lower extremity weakness, tremor at rest, thermoalgic discrimination loss, or unexplained imbalance. (+info)
Types of Spinal Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: Meningiomas, schwannomas, and osteochondromas are common types of benign spinal neoplasms. These tumors usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: Primary bone cancers (chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma) and metastatic cancers (cancers that have spread to the spine from another part of the body) are types of malignant spinal neoplasms. These tumors can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic mutations: Some genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex, increase the risk of developing spinal neoplasms.
2. Previous radiation exposure: People who have undergone radiation therapy in the past may have an increased risk of developing a spinal tumor.
3. Family history: A family history of spinal neoplasms can increase an individual's risk.
4. Age and gender: Spinal neoplasms are more common in older adults, and males are more likely to be affected than females.
1. Back pain: Pain is the most common symptom of spinal neoplasms, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms or legs.
2. Neurological deficits: Depending on the location and size of the tumor, patients may experience neurological deficits such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or difficulty with balance and coordination.
3. Difficulty with urination or bowel movements: Patients may experience changes in their bladder or bowel habits due to the tumor pressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
4. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms or legs due to compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots by the tumor.
5. Fractures: Spinal neoplasms can cause fractures in the spine, which can lead to a loss of height, an abnormal curvature of the spine, or difficulty with movement and balance.
1. Medical history and physical examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination can help identify the presence of symptoms and determine the likelihood of a spinal neoplasm.
2. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans may be ordered to visualize the spine and detect any abnormalities.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests may be ordered to assess liver function, electrolyte levels, or other parameters that can help evaluate the patient's overall health.
1. Surgery: Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove the tumor and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy or as a standalone treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.
4. Supportive care: Patients may require supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and rehabilitation, to help them recover from the effects of the tumor and any treatment-related complications.
The prognosis for patients with spinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and location of the tumor, the extent of the disease, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine, as compared to those with more aggressive tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
The survival rates for patients with spinal neoplasms vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for primary spinal cord tumors is about 60%. However, this rate can be as high as 90% for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine.
There are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, but certain changes may help improve the patient's quality of life and overall health. These may include:
1. Exercise: Gentle exercise, such as yoga or swimming, can help improve mobility and strength.
2. Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help support overall health.
3. Rest: Getting enough rest and avoiding strenuous activities can help the patient recover from treatment-related fatigue.
4. Managing stress: Stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can help reduce anxiety and improve overall well-being.
5. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the patient's condition and make any necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.
In conclusion, spinal neoplasms are rare tumors that can develop in the spine and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, and survival rates vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. While there are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, certain changes may help improve the patient's overall health and well-being. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome.
There are several types of spinal fractures, including:
1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae collapses due to pressure, often caused by osteoporosis or trauma.
2. Fracture-dislocations: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and displaced from its normal position.
3. Spondylolysis: This is a type of fracture that occurs in the spine, often due to repetitive stress or overuse.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a type of fracture where a vertebra slips out of its normal position and into the one below it.
5. Fracture-subluxation: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and partially dislocated from its normal position.
The diagnosis of spinal fractures typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to confirm the presence of a fracture and determine its severity and location. Treatment options for spinal fractures depend on the severity of the injury and may include pain management, bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to stabilize the spine and promote healing. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign the vertebrae and prevent further damage.
Overall, spinal fractures can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several potential causes of chylothorax, including:
1. Injury or trauma to the chest wall or lymphatic vessels
2. Cancer, such as lung, breast, or lymphoma
3. Infection, such as tuberculosis or cat-scratch disease
4. Genetic conditions, such as Turner syndrome or Noonan syndrome
5. Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or sarcoidosis
6. Postoperative complications
8. Abdominal tumors
9. Thoracic injuries
Symptoms of chylothorax may include:
1. Shortness of breath
2. Chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or coughing
3. Coughing up cloudy, milky fluid (chyle)
5. Night sweats
6. Weight loss
8. Swelling in the legs or arms
Diagnosis of chylothorax is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and ultrasound. Treatment options for chylothorax depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
1. Draining the fluid from the pleural space through a procedure called thoracentesis
2. Medications to manage symptoms such as pain and fever
3. Surgery to repair any underlying damage or injuries
4. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat underlying cancer
5. Infection treatment if the chylothorax is caused by an infection
6. Conservative management with supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and respiratory therapy, if the condition is not severe.
The causes of paraparesis can vary and may include:
1. Spinal cord injuries or diseases, such as spinal cord tumors, cysts, or abscesses.
2. Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system.
3. Other demyelinating diseases, such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
4. Peripheral nerve injuries or diseases, such as peripheral neuropathy or polyneuropathy.
5. Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders, such as Moyamoya disease or stenosis.
6. Spinal cord infarction or ischemia due to vessel occlusion or thrombosis.
7. Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis, which can affect the spinal cord and cause weakness in the lower limbs.
8. Metabolic disorders, such as hypothyroidism or hypokalemia.
9. Toxins or drugs that can damage the spinal cord or peripheral nerves.
The symptoms of paraparesis may include:
1. Weakness or paralysis of the legs, which can range from mild to severe.
2. Muscle atrophy or shrinkage in the lower limbs.
3. Loss of reflexes in the legs.
4. Numbness or tingling sensations in the legs.
5. Difficulty walking or maintaining balance.
6. Spasticity or stiffness in the legs.
7. Pain or discomfort in the lower limbs.
The diagnosis of paraparesis involves a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as:
1. Imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, to evaluate the spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
2. Electromyography (EMG) to assess muscle activity and nerve function.
3. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) to evaluate nerve function and identify any abnormalities.
4. Blood tests to rule out metabolic or hematological disorders that may be causing the paraparesis.
5. Lumbar puncture to collect cerebrospinal fluid for laboratory analysis and to rule out certain infections or inflammatory conditions.
Treatment of paraparesis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some possible treatment options include:
1. Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and function.
2. Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills and independence.
3. Assistive devices such as walkers, canes, or wheelchairs to aid mobility.
4. Medications to manage pain, spasticity, or other symptoms.
5. Surgery to relieve compression on the spinal cord or nerves, or to stabilize the spine.
6. Injections of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and swelling.
7. Plasma exchange or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to treat certain autoimmune conditions.
8. Physical activity and exercise to improve overall health and well-being.
It is important for individuals with paraparesis to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and goals. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with paraparesis are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
Some common types of spinal diseases include:
1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.
If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
There are several types of spinal cord compression, including:
1. Central canal stenosis: This occurs when the central canal of the spine narrows, compressing the spinal cord.
2. Foraminal stenosis: This occurs when the openings on either side of the spine (foramina) narrow, compressing the nerves exiting the spinal cord.
3. Spondylolisthesis: This occurs when a vertebra slips out of place, compressing the spinal cord.
4. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out and presses on the spinal cord.
5. Bone spurs: This occurs when bone growths develop on the vertebrae, compressing the spinal cord.
6. Tumors: This can be either primary or metastatic tumors that grow in the spine and compress the spinal cord.
7. Trauma: This occurs when there is a direct blow to the spine, causing compression of the spinal cord.
Symptoms of spinal cord compression may include:
* Pain, numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms and legs
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Muscle wasting or loss of muscle mass
* Decreased reflexes
* Loss of bladder or bowel control
* Weakness in the muscles of the face, arms, or legs
* Difficulty with fine motor skills such as buttoning a shirt or typing
Diagnosis of spinal cord compression is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for spinal cord compression depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.
In conclusion, spinal cord compression is a serious medical condition that can have significant impacts on quality of life, mobility, and overall health. It is important to be aware of the causes and symptoms of spinal cord compression in order to seek medical attention if they occur. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of spinal cord compression can be effectively managed and improved.
There are several different types of spinal cord injuries that can occur, depending on the location and severity of the damage. These include:
1. Complete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is completely severed, resulting in a loss of all sensation and function below the level of the injury.
2. Incomplete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is only partially damaged, resulting in some remaining sensation and function below the level of the injury.
3. Brown-Sequard syndrome: This is a specific type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects one side of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.
4. Conus medullaris syndrome: This is a type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects the lower part of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis in the legs and bladder dysfunction.
The symptoms of spinal cord injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may include:
* Loss of sensation in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Weakness or paralysis in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Difficulty walking or standing
* Difficulty with bowel and bladder function
* Numbness or tingling sensations
* Pain or pressure in the neck or back
Treatment for spinal cord injuries typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative therapies. Medical treatments may include:
* Immobilization of the spine to prevent further injury
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery to relieve compression or stabilize the spine
Rehabilitative therapies may include:
* Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to learn new ways of performing daily activities
* Speech therapy to improve communication skills
* Psychological counseling to cope with the emotional effects of the injury.
Overall, the prognosis for spinal cord injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the age and overall health of the individual. While some individuals may experience significant recovery, others may experience long-term or permanent impairment. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a spinal cord injury are present.
* Thoracic scoliosis: affects the upper back (thoracic spine)
* Cervical scoliosis: affects the neck (cervical spine)
* Lumbar scoliosis: affects the lower back (lumbar spine)
Scoliosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Genetics: inherited conditions that affect the development of the spine
* Birth defects: conditions that are present at birth and affect the spine
* Infections: infections that affect the spine, such as meningitis or tuberculosis
* Injuries: injuries to the spine, such as those caused by car accidents or falls
* Degenerative diseases: conditions that affect the spine over time, such as osteoporosis or arthritis
Symptoms of scoliosis can include:
* An uneven appearance of the shoulders or hips
* A difference in the height of the shoulders or hips
* Pain or discomfort in the back or legs
* Difficulty standing up straight or maintaining balance
Scoliosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
* X-rays: images of the spine that show the curvature
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): images of the spine and surrounding tissues
* Computed tomography (CT) scans: detailed images of the spine and surrounding tissues
Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the condition and can include:
* Observation: monitoring the condition regularly to see if it progresses
* Bracing: wearing a brace to support the spine and help straighten it
* Surgery: surgical procedures to correct the curvature, such as fusing vertebrae together or implanting a metal rod.
It is important for individuals with scoliosis to receive regular monitoring and treatment to prevent complications and maintain proper spinal alignment.
Compression fractures are more common in older adults due to the natural aging process that weakens bones, causing them to become brittle and prone to breaking. This type of fracture can also be caused by other conditions such as cancer or infections that weaken bones.
Compression fractures are often diagnosed with X-rays or CT scans, which show the extent of the fracture and any damage to surrounding tissue. Treatment typically involves pain management, bracing to support the spine, and medication to prevent further bone loss. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to stabilize the spine or correct deformities.
Compression fractures can have a significant impact on quality of life, causing chronic back pain, limited mobility, and emotional distress. However, with proper treatment and support, many people are able to recover and maintain their independence.
Preventing compression fractures is essential, particularly for older adults or those with osteoporosis. This can be achieved through a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Additionally, falling prevention strategies such as removing tripping hazards from the home environment and improving lighting can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.
Overall, compression fractures are a common condition that can significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the causes, diagnosis, and treatment options is crucial for effective management and prevention of this condition.
The term "spondylolysis" comes from the Greek words "spondylo," meaning "vertebra," and "lysis," meaning "destruction." Together, they refer to a condition where there is a fracture or degeneration of one or more vertebrae in the spine.
Spondylolysis can occur at any level of the spine, but it is most common in the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Overuse or repetitive strain: This is the most common cause of spondylolysis, particularly in athletes who participate in high-impact sports. The repeated stress and strain on the vertebrae can lead to small fractures or degeneration over time.
2. Trauma: Spondylolysis can also be caused by a sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the back. This type of trauma can cause a fracture or compression of one or more vertebrae.
3. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to developing spondylolysis due to inherited factors, such as a family history of spinal problems.
4. Degenerative conditions: Spondylolysis can also be caused by degenerative conditions such as osteoporosis, which can lead to weakened bones and increased risk of fracture.
The symptoms of spondylolysis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
1. Back pain: This is the most common symptom of spondylolysis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Stiffness: Patients with spondylolysis may experience stiffness in their back, particularly after periods of rest or inactivity.
3. Limited mobility: Spondylolysis can cause limited mobility in the affected area, making it difficult to bend or twist.
4. Muscle spasms: Muscle spasms are common in patients with spondylolysis, particularly in the back muscles.
5. Tenderness: The affected area may be tender to the touch, and patients may experience pain when pressure is applied to the area.
6. Decreased range of motion: Spondylolysis can cause a decrease in range of motion, making it difficult to move or bend.
7. Numbness or tingling: Patients with spondylolysis may experience numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.
Spondylolysis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment for spondylolysis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Rest and relaxation: Patients with mild cases of spondylolysis may be advised to rest and avoid activities that exacerbate the condition.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve range of motion, strength, and flexibility in patients with spondylolysis.
3. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be prescribed to manage pain associated with spondylolysis.
4. Bracing: Wearing a brace can help support the affected area and improve mobility.
5. Surgery: In severe cases of spondylolysis, surgery may be necessary to repair or stabilize the affected vertebrae.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of spondylolysis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.
There are several types of kyphosis, including:
1. Postural kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by poor posture and is often seen in teenagers.
2. Scheuermann's kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by a structural deformity of the spine and is most common during adolescence.
3. Degenerative kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by degenerative changes in the spine, such as osteoporosis or degenerative disc disease.
4. Neuromuscular kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.
Symptoms of kyphosis can include:
* An abnormal curvature of the spine
* Back pain
* Difficulty breathing
* Difficulty maintaining posture
* Loss of height
* Tiredness or fatigue
Kyphosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, X-rays, and other imaging tests. Treatment options for kyphosis depend on the type and severity of the condition and can include:
* Physical therapy
It is important to seek medical attention if you or your child is experiencing any symptoms of kyphosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further progression of the condition and improve quality of life.
Kyphosis is an exaggerated forward curvature of the spine, also known as "roundback" or "hunchback". This type of curvature can be caused by a variety of factors such as osteoporosis, degenerative disc disease, and Scheuermann's disease.
Lordosis is an excessive inward curvature of the spine, also known as "swayback". This type of curvature can be caused by factors such as pregnancy, obesity, and spinal injuries.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, or birth defects. Scoliosis can be classified into two main types: Cervical (neck) scoliosis and Thoracic (chest) scoliosis.
All three types of curvatures can cause discomfort, pain and decreased mobility if left untreated. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the curvature and may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery.
In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:
1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.
In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.
Symptoms of spinal tuberculosis may include:
* Back pain
* Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Fever, fatigue, and weight loss
* Loss of bladder or bowel control
If left untreated, spinal tuberculosis can lead to severe complications such as paralysis, nerve damage, and infection of the bloodstream. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery to remove infected tissue.
Spinal TB is a rare form of TB, but it is becoming more common due to the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS, which weakens the immune system and makes them more susceptible to TB infections. Spinal TB can be difficult to diagnose as it may present like other conditions such as cancer or herniated discs.
The prognosis for spinal tuberculosis is generally good if treated early, but the condition can be challenging to treat and may require long-term management.
There are several types of osteoporosis, including:
1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.
The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:
1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test
The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.
Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:
1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.
List of anatomy mnemonics
Clearing the cervical spine
Superior costal facet
Serratus posterior inferior muscle
Spinal cord injury
Kitti's hog-nosed bat
Sp7 transcription factor
Vertebral compression fracture
Vertebra, thoracic (mid back): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
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Optimal indicators for identification of compensatory sagittal balance in patients with degenerative disc disease | SpringerLink
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Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Axis Scientific Sacrum
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Tuberculin Test Results (1971-75)
- The last vertebra (on the left side of the picture) attaches to the lumbar (lower) spine, and the top vertebra (on the right) attaches to the cervical (neck) section of the back. (medlineplus.gov)
- The thoracic spine consists of the 12 vertebrae between your neck and lower back. (ucsfhealth.org)
- The ends of your ribs, although not attached to the spine, rest in indentations in the thoracic vertebrae that help support the ribs. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Disc herniation in the thoracic spine is relatively rare compared to the lumbar vertebrae in the lower back and the cervical vertebrae in the neck. (ucsfhealth.org)
- The seven cervical vertebrae begin at the base of the skull and extend down to the thoracic spine. (spine-health.com)
- The thoracic spine makes up the upper back and has twelve vertebral bodies, labeled T1 through T12. (spine-health.com)
- There is little motion in the thoracic spine, so this region has less risk of injury or wear and tear. (spine-health.com)
- The lumbar spine has five vertebral bodies, labeled L1-L5, that extend from the lower thoracic spine to the sacrum at bottom of the spine. (spine-health.com)
- Occiput, cervical spine, and first thoracic vertebra, thus, were depicted in different degrees of rotation with respect to the sagittal plane. (nih.gov)
- These differences indicated the maximal degree of rotation in each of the eight segments between occiput and thoracic spine. (nih.gov)
- The rhomboid major originates on the thoracic spine from the second through the fifth thoracic vertebrae. (verywellhealth.com)
- Maintaining strong extensor muscles in the lumbar and thoracic spine can help prevent problems in your neck as you get older. (verywellhealth.com)
- The lumbar spine is most commonly affected, followed by the thoracic and cervical regions. (medscape.com)
Lumbar and thoracic1
- Heterogeneous bone density of the visualized skeleton and H-shaped lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. (radiopaedia.org)
- In cats, Liu and others [ 4 ] identified an osteoid osteoma in a thoracic vertebral body. (biomedcentral.com)
- The cervical vertebrae also serve an important function in protecting the spinal cord, which travels through a space in the center of the vertebral bones and connects the brain with the rest of the body. (spine-health.com)
- Each vertebral segment is made up of two bony vertebrae with a spinal disc in between. (spine-health.com)
- Vertebral osteomyelitis usually involves two adjacent vertebrae with the corresponding intervertebral disk. (medscape.com)
- Imaging confirmed a well-defined, extradural mass originating from the spinous process of the second thoracic vertebra (T2) leading to severe compression of the spinal cord. (biomedcentral.com)
- Injury to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar or sacral vertebrae, including discs and spinal cord. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Does lumbar lordosis minus thoracic kyphosis predict the clinical outcome of patients with adult degenerative scoliosis? (springer.com)
- To determine whether radiological parameters such as maximal lumbar lordosis-maximal thoracic kyphosis (maxLL-maxTK), sacral slope-pelvic tilt(SS-PT) and sacral slope/pelvic tilt (SS/PT) could be used as indicators for the diagnosis of degenerative disc disease (DDD) in compensatory sagittal balanced patients. (springer.com)
- The cervical vertebrae are protruding, the thoracic vertebrae are kyphosis, and the lumbar vertebrae are protruding. (ecplaza.net)
- Overview This Axis Scientific Vertebrae Set includes Atlas, Axis, Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae with Sacrum and Coccyx securely fastened to the base for a great desktop reference. (anatomywarehouse.com)
- Thoracic and pelvic angles at RHS, step width, mediolateral translation of the C7 and L4 vertebrae, and the ranges of motion (ROMs) of the thorax and pelvis over the gait stride were determined. (cdc.gov)
- Thoracic Paravertebral Block: Thoracic paravertebral block is the technique of injecting local anesthetic along side the thoracic vertebra close to where the spinal nerves emerge from the intervertebral foramen. (who.int)
- Pain and mobility improvements were equal, but the study also reported that those treated with the Kiva system were less likely to have the bone cement leak and were less likely to suffer a fracture in adjacent vertebra than those treated with kyphoplasty, though the difference wasn't statistically significant. (radiologytoday.net)
- Hematogenous osteomyelitis most commonly involves the vertebrae, but infection may also occur in the metaphysis of the long bones, pelvis, and clavicle. (medscape.com)
- Thoracic disc herniations account for less than 1 percent of all protruded discs. (ucsfhealth.org)
- The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pregnancy on thoracic and pelvic kinematics during gait. (cdc.gov)
- 5. Coccyx - 3-5 vertebrae normally. (cuny.edu)
- The spinal column consists of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. (spine-health.com)
- Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed epidural abscesses along thoracic vertebrae T6--T10. (cdc.gov)
- Le présent article décrit les manifestations cliniques, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la schistosomiase médullaire chez cinq patients admis dans les hôpitaux Shaab et Ibn Khaldoun de Khartoum entre 1997 et 2007. (who.int)
- https://www.nysora.com/regional-anesthesia-for-specific-surgical-procedures/abdomen/thoracic-lumbar-paravertebral-block/) After the most prominent C7, processus spinosum in the cervical region was determined by palpation with the patients in a sitting position with their head slightly tilted forward, the relevant area was cleaned, we marked caudally one by one under US guidance. (who.int)
- These are twelve vertebra of the mid back. (medlineplus.gov)
- This arrangement also makes the thoracic vertebrae more stable than other vertebrae. (ucsfhealth.org)
- With the in-plane technique, an 80 mm 22 gauge peripheral block needle was directed caudally to the cephalad, and the needle tip was advanced into the thoracic paravertebral area until the superior costotransverse ligament was passed. (who.int)
- Dreyer & Reinbold Racing said Wilson fractured his 12th thoracic vertebrae and would remain hospitalized for observation. (fox4kc.com)
- RÉSUMÉ La schistosomiase médullaire est une forme rare mais potentiellement curable de la schistosomiase, lorsque le diagnostic a été posé au début de l'affection et que la prise en charge a été rapide. (who.int)
- however, in this article, only thoracic involvement is addressed. (medscape.com)
- The rhomboid minor is superior to the rhomboid major and inserts on the C7 and T1 vertebrae. (verywellhealth.com)
- Thoracic disc herniation is treated with bed rest and pain medications. (ucsfhealth.org)