Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.Diagnostic Techniques, Otological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Respiratory System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Respiratory Tract DiseasesDiagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.MycosesCytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsDiagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Cytochrome a Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.United StatesPotassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.High-Frequency Ventilation: Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
... in patients with neuromuscular disorders helps to evaluate the respiratory status of patients at the ... Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical ... PFTs are normally performed by a respiratory therapist. Pulmonary function testing is a diagnostic and management tool used for ... The nitrogen washout technique uses a non-rebreathing open circuit. The technique is based on the assumptions that the nitrogen ...
Surgery of the respiratory tract is generally performed by specialists in cardiothoracic surgery (or thoracic surgery), though ... Pulmonologists are involved in both clinical and basic research of the respiratory system, ranging from the anatomy of the ... These goals are appropriate for any patients with diminished respiratory reserve whether due to obstructive or intrinsic ... They use radiographic techniques to view vasculature of the lungs and heart to assist with diagnosis. Medication is the most ...
Age range of patients. *Diagnostic or therapeutic. *Organ-based or technique-based ... The lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely ... Thoracic surgery TS Surgery Surgery of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels. ... Age range of patients. Organ-based (O) or technique-based (T) Allergy and immunology. Paediatrics or Internal medicine. Both. I ...
Koumbourlis, Anastassios C. "Scoliosis and the respiratory system". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 7 (2): 152-160. doi:10.1016 ... Respiratory deficiencies may also arise from thoracic deformities and cause abnormal breathing. This directly affects exercise ... In addition, patients not having yet reached skeletal maturity have a higher likelihood of progression (i.e., if the patient ... The 'Harrington rod' technique was the second major treatment for scoliosis to emerge and became the first significant surgical ...
Respiratory careEdit. The respiratory system is the most common system to be affected and the complications are the leading ... Tilton, A.; Miller, M.; Khoshoo, V. (1998). "Nutrition and swallowing in pediatric neuromuscular patients". Seminars in ... For example, orthotics such as AFOs (ankle foot orthoses) are used to stabilise the foot and to aid gait, TLSOs (thoracic ... The more common clinical manifestations of the SMA spectrum that prompt diagnostic genetic testing:. *Progressive bilateral ...
Patients involved in worker's compensation, tort litigation or other compensation systems tend to fare more poorly after ... Evaluation of any new technique is difficult or impossible because physician experience may be minimal or lacking. Patient ... of post-lumbar fusion patients were symptomatic for SI joint dysfunction based on diagnostic blocks. In the past two decades ... Adverse effects, particularly respiratory depression and death, make a fundamental knowledge of methadone's pharmacological ...
Using conventional laryngoscopic techniques, intubation of the trachea can be difficult or even impossible in such patients. ... General anesthetic agents, opioids, and neuromuscular-blocking drugs may diminish or even abolish the respiratory drive. ... Although such medical scoring systems may aid in the evaluation of patients, no single score or combination of scores can be ... Diagnostic or therapeutic manipulation of the airway (such as bronchoscopy, laser therapy or stenting of the bronchi) may ...
Respiratory acidosis in ARDS is often caused by ventilation techniques such as permissive hypercapnia, which attempt to limit ... 2000). "Diabetic patients have a decreased incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome". Crit Care Med. 28 (7): 2187-92. ... Diagnostic criteria for ARDS have changed over time as understanding of the pathophysiology has evolved. The international ... Diffuse compromise of the pulmonary system resulting in ARDS generally occurs in the setting of critical illness. ARDS may be ...
Koumbourlis AC (June 2006). "Scoliosis and the respiratory system". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 7 (2): 152-60. doi:10.1016/ ... Respiratory deficiencies may also arise from thoracic deformities and cause abnormal breathing.[64] This directly affects ... This segmented instrumentation system allowed patients to become mobile soon after surgery.[60] ... This technique used multiple hooks with rods to give stronger fixation in three dimensions, usually eliminating the need for ...
Arthropods and most mollusks have an open circulatory system. In this system, deoxygenated blood collects around the heart in ... European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery: Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 42 (4): ... Patients with heart failure may experience breathlessness especially when lying flat, as well as ankle swelling, known as ... Instead of blood the circulatory fluid is haemolymph which carries the most commonly used respiratory pigment, copper-based ...
Internal control of techniques used in molecular biology, such as western blot and quantitative PCR. As actin is essential for ... Actin-myosin systems act as molecular motors that permit the transport of vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. It ... It is important to state that a patient can show more than one of these phenotypes in a biopsy. The most common symptoms ... It can also be used as a diagnostic tool, as several of its anomalous variants are related to the appearance of specific ...
Shaun Deen, Alexander S. Farivar, ja Brian E. Louie, Thoracic Techniques: Robotic Thymectomy for Thymoma, Indian J Surg Oncol. ... SENIOR OUT-PATIENT PHYSICIAN AND PATHOLOGIST TO THE ROYAL HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN, BRISTOL.),OBSERVATIONS ON THE THYMUS ... "The Discovery of Thymic Protein A - How It Works to Strengthen the Immune System". 2. aprill 2013. Vaadatud 28.12.2014. Inglise ... G. Goldstein ja W. W. Hofmann, Endocrine function of the thymus affecting neuromuscular transmission, Clin Exp Immunol., ...
This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used with patients who have other coexisting respiratory problems and/or who ... The permanent premature muscular tonal loss in the upper airway may be precipitated by traumatic brain injury, neuromuscular ... Grigg-Damberger M (February 2006). "Why a polysomnogram should become part of the diagnostic evaluation of stroke and transient ... Punjabi, N. M. (15 February 2008). "The Epidemiology of Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea". Proceedings of the American Thoracic ...
It is important to state that a patient can show more than one of these phenotypes in a biopsy.[158] The most common symptoms ... Actin-myosin systems act as molecular motors that permit the transport of vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. It ... In somatic cell nuclei, however, actin filaments cannot be observed using this technique.[104] The DNase I inhibition assay, so ... It can also be used as a diagnostic tool, as several of its anomalous variants are related to the appearance of specific ...
Systemic atrophies primarily affecting the central nervous system. *Cytoskeletal defects. *Neuromuscular disorders ... Respiratory onset[edit]. Respiratory-onset ALS is a rare variant that accounts for about 3% of all cases of ALS,[11] in which ... of ALS patients and up to 50% of FTD patients.[54] Other genes known to cause FTD-ALS include CHCHD10, SQSTM1, and TBK1.[49] ... Diagnostic criteria[edit]. The diagnosis of ALS is based on the El Escorial Revised criteria and the Awaji criteria.[10] The ...
In the final stages, patients can lose voluntary control of eye muscles and often die of respiratory failure or pneumonia as a ... Neuromuscular disease. References[edit]. *^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 600882 Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, ... Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's ... a CpG transformation technique which is sensitive to CpG methylation status, in which global hypomethylation has been observed. ...
This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used with patients who have other coexisting respiratory problems and/or who ... "Journal of Thoracic Disease. 7 (8): 1311-1322. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.06.11. PMC 4561280. PMID 26380759.. ... The permanent premature muscular tonal loss in the upper airway may be precipitated by traumatic brain injury, neuromuscular ... Grigg-Damberger M (February 2006). "Why a polysomnogram should become part of the diagnostic evaluation of stroke and transient ...
This technique has some similarity to epidural anaesthesia, and lay people often confuse the two techniques. Important ... "Patient.info. EMIS. Retrieved 2014-09-02.. *^ Lothian JA (2009). "Safe, healthy birth: what every pregnant woman needs to know" ... For example, a thoracic epidural may be performed for upper abdominal surgery, but may not have any effect on the perineum ( ... Large doses of epidurally administered opioids may cause troublesome itching, and respiratory depression.[36][37][38][39] ...
Using conventional laryngoscopic techniques, intubation of the trachea can be difficult or even impossible in such patients. ... General anesthetic agents, opioids, and neuromuscular-blocking drugs may diminish or even abolish the respiratory drive. ... Although such medical scoring systems may aid in the evaluation of patients, no single score or combination of scores can be ... Diagnostic or therapeutic manipulation of the airway (such as bronchoscopy, laser therapy or stenting of the bronchi) may ...
Study Respiratory tract diseases of SA 2 - approach to dyspnoea and common conditions of the dog and cat flashcards from Emily ... What is the basic approach to a dyspnoiec patient? - Same as other systems - history, PE, DDx, diagnostics. - BUT marked ... PLEURAL (i.e. loss of thoracic cavity)- decreased respiratory noise on auscultation, fluid line on percussion. • PULMONARY - ... What is the most effective technique to confirm pulmonary parenchymal or pleural disease? ...
Monitor respiratory and cardiovascular function and urine output.. • With transdermal system, monitor patients pain level ... Patient monitoring. ☞ Assess for muscle rigidity in patients receiving high doses; discuss need for neuromuscular blockers with ... Teach patient proper technique for applying and disposing of transdermal patch.. • Tell patient that transdermal form is ... Opioid antagonists, partial-antagonist opioid analgesics: withdrawal in physically dependent patients. Drug-diagnostic tests. ...
... authors conclude that using NAVA enables a minimally invasive diagnostic adjunct in children with neuromuscular and respiratory ... in these patients, titrating PEEP to the end-inspiratory pressure of the respiratory system may overestimate the incidence of ... whereas all patients with neuromuscular disease or thoracic scoliosis used interfaces without manufactured leaks. Both types of ... Nowadays, this technique is safer, cheaper and simpler than in previous eras. Prospective studies of ECMO for adult respiratory ...
Monitor respiratory and cardiovascular function and urine output.. • With transdermal system, monitor patients pain level ... Patient monitoring. ☞ Assess for muscle rigidity in patients receiving high doses; discuss need for neuromuscular blockers with ... Teach patient proper technique for applying and disposing of transdermal patch.. • Tell patient that transdermal form is ... skeletal and thoracic muscle rigidity (with rapid IV infusion). Interactions. Drug-Drug interaction. Avoid use in patients who ...
NIV using CPAP and bi-level devices for COPD, neuromuscular disease with respiratory failure, and sleep apnoea is offered by ... Bronchoscopies via endotracheal and tracheostomy tubes on ventilated patients for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes are ... EBUS is a technique that uses ultrasound along with bronchoscope to visualize airway wall and the structures adjacent to it.. ... The system has an ultrasound processor and a balloon catheter that are attached to the probe. The balloon is fixed at the tip ...
RSS - Miniaturised Sensor System for respiratory investigations. The Respiratory Sensor System (RSS) is a robust, compact and ... MARES - Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System. MARES is a general-purpose instrument intended for (neuro-) muscular and ... HPS - Mars 500 Human Patient Simulator. HPS is a medical operations related project designed to examine the efficacy of using a ... It is a second generation of a technique which was first flown and tested onboard the Euromir 95 mission. This device is part ...
RSS - Miniaturised Sensor System for respiratory investigations. The Respiratory Sensor System (RSS) is a robust, compact and ... MARES - Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System. MARES is a general-purpose instrument intended for (neuro-) muscular and ... HPS - Mars 500 Human Patient Simulator. HPS is a medical operations related project designed to examine the efficacy of using a ... It is a second generation of a technique which was first flown and tested onboard the Euromir 95 mission. This device is part ...
Pulmonary function testing in patients with neuromuscular disorders helps to evaluate the respiratory status of patients at the ... Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical ... PFTs are normally performed by a respiratory therapist. Pulmonary function testing is a diagnostic and management tool used for ... The nitrogen washout technique uses a non-rebreathing open circuit. The technique is based on the assumptions that the nitrogen ...
... the respiratory system is compensating appropriately. PCO2 = 1.5(HCO3) + 8 ± 2. If the patients pCO2 is higher than expected, ... Neuromuscular disorders (GBS, myasthenia gravis, botulism) Thoracic cage injury (flail chest) Ventilator dysfunction ... Diagnostic importance of an increased serum anion gap. N Engl J Med 1980; 303(15):854-858. 15. Fulop M. Alcoholic ketoacidosis ... The Oxygen Advantage: The Simple, Scientifically Proven Breathing Techniques for a Healthier, Slimmer, Faster, and Fitter You. ...
Infuence of attitude on respiratory job and respiratory muscle muscle in conventional subjects. Break of dawn intervention with ... Automated Culturing Systems Blood education has evolved beyond four decades from guide methods, second not quite being used, to ... Now, patients are erroneously diagnosed of polymyalgia rheumatica or monster cell arteritis [10]. Perforation of the mitral lea ... Molecular diagnostic technologies are transforming the diagnosis of infectious diseases. In the time-honoured string, and ...
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment, Respiratory Muscles, Motor Control, Electromyography, Pulmonary Function ... a multi-source system, with a dedicated current source for each contact. The volume conductor model of a low-thoracic spinal ... recorded from respiratory muscles can be used to assess respiratory motor function and help to diagnose neuromuscular pathology ... Patients ultimately succumb to the disease on average 2-5 years following diagnosis because of respiratory paralysis due to ...
PM is not appropriate for diagnostic evaluation of patients who may have comorbid sleep disorders including central sleep apnea ... Rechtschaffen A, Kales A. A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human ... Respiratory effort-related arousal. See the list below:. * Greater than 10 breaths with increasing respiratory effort or ... 5] neuromuscular disease, or congestive heart failure. PM is not indicated in the absence of a comprehensive sleep evaluation. ...
Central Nervous System Adverse Reactions. As with other penicillins, patients may experience neuromuscular excitability or ... Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders. Epistaxis ( ≤ 1%). Nosocomial Pneumonia Trials. Two trials of nosocomial lower ... Anaerobic Techniques. For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactam can be determined by the reference ... test results in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic ...
Meticulously organized by body system for optimal readability and ease of reference, the 3rd edition of this best-selling ... Diagnostic Methods in Respiratory Disease. 159. Diagnostic Imaging in Respiratory Disease. 160. Surgery of the Nasal Cavity and ... Disorders of Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction. Section 10 Ophthalmology. 131. Ophthalmic Equipment and Techniques. 132. ... Section 9 Nervous System. 125. Diagnostic Approach to Neurologic Disease. 126. Diseases of the Brain. 127. Seizures. 128. ...
A logical body-system organization will save you time in finding the information you need. From well-known editors Kim ... Section V: Respiratory disease. 48. Diagnostic procedures for lower airway disease. 49. Investigating respiratory disease ... 2. Pain management in the trauma patient. 3. Internal hemorrhage and resuscitation. 4. Thoracic and airway trauma. 5. First aid ... NEW images demonstrate advances in various imaging techniques.. *Thoroughly updated drug appendices, including all-new coverage ...
Diagnostic Emergency Ultrasound: Assessment Techniques In The Pediatric Patient - Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice - ... Patients With Neuromuscular Disease. * Patients Who Are Immunodeficient. * Cutting Edge * Transcriptomics. * Scoring Systems/ ... Retrospective analysis; 4779 patients). * Shi T, McLean K, Campbell H, et al. Aetiological role of common respiratory viruses ... Cross-sectional, retrospective, cohort study; 619,102 patients). * Harris M, Clark J, Coote N, et al. British Thoracic Society ...
Techniques to induce general anesthesia -- History of airway management -- Oxygen delivery systems, inhalation, and respiratory ... Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm -- 95. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair -- 96. Peripheral Vascular Surgery -- 97. Patients with ... Monitoring neuromuscular blockade -- 16. Airway equipment -- 17. Pediatric anesthesia systems and equipment -- 18. Infusion ... Clinical Assessment and Diagnostic Procedures in Neurotrauma / Marco Zanello, Matteo Vincenzi and Marco Bandini -- pt. XII. ...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by a new acute onset of hypoxemia secondary to a pulmonary edema of ... Neuromuscular blocking agents in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a summary of the current evidence from ... attention to microbiological investigations which represent a milestone in the diagnostic process and to imaging techniques ... bilateral lung opacities and reduction in respiratory system compliance after an insult direct or indirect to lungs. Its first ...
J clin anesth, dorges v, ocker h, wenzel v, et al administration of both in patients. The head of the sijs. J surg res . Fields ... J thorac cardiovasc surg, eliashar r, dano i, dangoor e, et al sonography of the muscle fibers neuromuscular junction a nucleus ... If this childs appearance becomes abnormal i.E., listless, lethargic, then the still technique has been the hospital does not ... Counterstrain diagnostics and traditional medical therapies cam therapies are commonly provoked. This defect predisposes ...
Endovascular techniques have become the . . .. Lung cancer. Lung cancers are cancers of the lungs and respiratory system. There ... Thoracic surgery patient information. What can I expect?. Most patients will have met the consultant thoracic surgeon at the ... The neuropathology service performs expert and fast nervous system and muscle diagnostic procedures by examining central ... Neuromuscular Disorders. The neuromuscular unit provides a specialist multi-disciplinary approach to the clinical management of ...
Early and late > year old and, of course, the nervous system. Physical examination, as well as being of patients with signicant ... This produces a respiratory cycle. J hum hypertens, smith ba, ferguson db acute hydralazine overdose marked ecg abnormalities ... In disaster response principles of osteopathic technique. Adolescence , english a understanding legal aspects of the aorta ... diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Among children with especially strong manifestations in the right handforearm to monitor ...
... causing respiratory and non-respiratory complaints. [1]This is not a disease process, simply alterations in breathing patterns ... that interfere with normal respiratory processes. They can however, co-exist with disease such as COPD or heart disease, and in ... are abnormal respiratory patterns in relation to over-breathing which ranges from simple upper chest breathing to, at the ... The Human respiratory system is located in the thorax. The thoracic wall consists of skeletal and muscular components, ...
... discusses the latest research innovations and important developments in this ... Respiratory therapy journals, Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, Operative Techniques in Thoracic and ... Respiratory system journals, Respiratory journals impact factor, Respiratory critical care journals, Clinical respiratory ... Respiratory care journals, Respiratory therapy journals. Incentive spirometer Incentive spirometer is a device used to patients ...
We excluded patients with previous extubation failure, injuries that prevent ultrasound realization, pregnancy, neuromuscular ... Central nervous system hemorrhage 1 (4.1) 0 Respiratory insufficiency 6 (25.0) 0 ... Using the formula for the diagnostic test: n=4(zα)2 (pq)/IC2, with a value zα of 1.96 with a 95% significance level for two ... The primary objective in this study was to evaluate whether the combination of thoracic ultrasound assessment of DSF and the ...
Preoperative respiratory assessment is essential. Have also been used to treat tachyarrhythmias. Patients are at high risk of ... Uses a structured and prioritised system ofacross cell membranes. Protein pumps within the mem- patient assessment and ... w the neuromuscular junction. ε δ α α w many parts of the CNS where it has a prominent role in β learning. 10 nmHas either ... Technique in obstetric anal-Abbreviated injury scale (AIS). Trauma scale first gesia whereby negative pressure is applied to the ...
  • All patients with obstructive sleep apnoea used interfaces with manufactured leaks, whereas all patients with neuromuscular disease or thoracic scoliosis used interfaces without manufactured leaks. (springer.com)
  • A second or third mask change was necessary in nine and four patients, respectively, suggesting that the choice of the interface for NPPV in children is determined by the patient's age and the underlying disease. (springer.com)
  • A consistent outline format provides easy access to information on etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment for each disease or disorder, as well as anatomy, preoperative conditions, techniques, and postoperative care for surgical procedures. (elsevier.com)
  • If this childs appearance becomes abnormal i.E., listless, lethargic, then the still technique has been the hospital does not depend upon the understanding of body segments proceeding from the data regarding cardiovascular disease. (jfshea.com)
  • This is not a disease process, simply alterations in breathing patterns that interfere with normal respiratory processes. (physio-pedia.com)
  • 3 ] Patients with advanced cancer experience this symptom more frequently and more intensely than do patients with limited disease. (cancer.gov)
  • 2017). The Long-Term Consumption of Oats in Celiac Disease Patients Is Safe: A Large Cross-Sectional Study. (uta.fi)
  • As the age of onset was higher and disease duration was shorter in patients with low-dose group, randomized allocation should be strictly conducted in further study. (bmj.com)
  • The 18 chapters of the ERS Handbook of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine cover the whole spectrum of paediatric respiratory medicine, from anatomy and development to disease, rehabilitation and treatment. (ersjournals.com)
  • Exposure to ETS, ambient air pollutants and biomass smoke increases the risk of respiratory disease ( e.g. asthma and pneumonia) in children. (ersjournals.com)
  • Objective To assess clinical, electrophysiological and whole-body muscle MRI measurements of progression in patients with motor neuron disease (MND), as tools for future clinical trials, and to probe pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • When whole patient assessment does not have genitourinary anomalies, but may occur with long-standing dental malocclusion, jaw clenching, excessive gum chewing, and trauma, lyme disease, herpes zoster infection, cellulitis, abscess hair tourniquet of the two most common and increase morbidity and mortality. (dvas.org)
  • Oxygen therapy is often necessary in severe respiratory disease (emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to bulbar, respiratory, and limb weakness. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • North America accounted the largest share of the market followed by Europe due to highly developed health care infrastructure, large pool of respiratory disease patients due to lifestyle such as smoking and tobacco habits, and availability of trained personnel to operate the advanced respiratory devices. (medgadget.com)
  • Other manifestations include impaired vision and hearing, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiovascular disease, spinal cord compression, and ear-nose-throat (ENT) and respiratory problems. (springer.com)
  • This issue reviews viral and bacterial etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia in pediatric patients, offers guidance for obtaining historical information and interpreting physical examination findings, discusses the utility of various diagnostic techniques, and provides recommendations for the treatment of previously healthy and medically fragile children. (ebmedicine.net)
  • Intubation of the Pediatric Patient / Josef Holzki -- 7. (stanford.edu)
  • Am j hematol , imbach p, kuhne t, zimmerman s a rural community hospitals that lack any in-patient pediatric services. (jfshea.com)
  • He was educated at glasgow university, scotland, in divinity, law, oriental languages, and political factors in identifying fractures in nonambulatory infants and children undergoing procedural sedation and neuromuscular blockade t hr sedatives and hypnotics topical agents in pediatric heart transplant recipients are at risk for vaginal bleeding, syncope, altered mental status and future health of global sympathetic arousal. (jfshea.com)
  • A prospective evaluation of pulse oximetry and capnography in the care of anesthetized pediatric patients was undertaken in 1989 by the Pediatric Anesthesia Group at the Massachusetts General Hospital. (apsf.org)
  • In a previous study at this institution, we found a significant reduction in the incidence of hypoxic events in children whose anesthesiologists had pulse oximetry data available to them and, compared to the entire pediatric population, and increased incidence of events in high risk patients (physical status III and IV) and in children less than two years of age. (apsf.org)
  • The Current study was designed to determine if capnography contributed to improved care of pediatric patients. (apsf.org)
  • During the course of this study, 402 pediatric cases were examined and 232 problems were observed in 142 patients. (apsf.org)
  • These subspecialty areas are brain injury medicine, hospice and palliative care medicine, neuromuscular medicine, pain medicine, pediatric rehabilitation medicine, spinal cord injury medicine, and sports medicine. (aapmr.org)
  • Physiatrists provide treatment and interventions for a diverse group of adult and pediatric patients. (aapmr.org)
  • A pediatric physiatrist prescribes respiratory therapy and a seating system for a child with muscular dystrophy. (aapmr.org)
  • The comprehensive, multi-disciplinary clinic provides management and treatment to meet the complex needs of pediatric cystic fibrosis patients. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Primary Children's Hospital is a leader in pediatric organ transplantation, offering comprehensive evaluation and care to patients who may need a heart, kidney, liver or bone marrow transplant. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved nusinersen (Spinraza) for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in pediatric and adult patients (Biogen, 2016). (aetna.com)
  • This guideline is appropriate for pediatric, adult, and geriatric patients who are capable of following test instructions and techniques. (phenxtoolkit.org)
  • For an open-heart surgery, patients receive treatment locally and travel by special pediatric transport to Cohen Children's Medical Center, where surgeons who are experts in the field of pediatric open-heart surgery perform the operation. (northwell.edu)
  • summarize the development and transition of the respiratory system and assessment of the newborn and pediatric care patient. (nationalccrs.org)
  • and principles of neonatal and pediatric respiratory care. (nationalccrs.org)
  • The progressive weakness of the respiratory muscle pump results in restrictive respiratory failure and represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these pathologies ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This chapter presents literature evidence describing CDP physiologic perturbations, patients at-risk for perioperative morbidity and mortality, recommended monitoring, and management of intraoperative physiologic instabilities. (blogs.com)
  • This creates a vicious cycle of a communication pathway or pumping mechanism in low back pain the essence of circulatory integrity include mental status, a normal conduction pathway, creating a cyclic fashion and advertising industries create completely unrealistic standards of medical history signicant for cardiac surgery in patients with prolonged aptt. (jfshea.com)
  • Peak V'O 2 in relation to non-invasively measured peak tension-time index of the respiratory muscles (BIT) increases significantly after one year of medical management, indicating increased efficient oxygen utilization as cardiac function improves. (omicsonline.org)
  • Safe, non-invasive methods of testing have been almost completely replaced by diagnostic cardiac catheterizations in children of all ages. (northwell.edu)
  • Pulmonary complications occur much more often than cardiac complications in patients undergoing elective surgery to the thorax and upper abdomen. (laparoscopyhospital.com)
  • 1 ] prospectively evaluated the characteristics and outcomes of 184 patients with severe ARF due to community-acquired pneumonia treated with NIV, and determined the factors predicting NIV failure and mortality. (springer.com)
  • This issue offers guidance for obtaining historical information and interpreting physical examination findings, discusses the utility of various diagnostic studies, and provides recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and associated complications. (ebmedicine.net)
  • These include complex conditions ranging from sepsis to pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ failure . (asterbangalore.com)
  • Meticulously organized by body system for optimal readability and ease of reference, the 3rd edition of this best-selling manual provides quick, comprehensive, and practical guidance on evaluating and managing a full range of common medical and surgical conditions encountered in small animal practice. (elsevier.com)
  • We prospectively included ventilated patients admitted to medical and surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital in northern Mexico. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • However, the effect of early surgical decompression in patients with acute SCI remains uncertain. (jove.com)
  • Conversion Energy Enterprises (CEE) is developing laser-assisted tissue welding systems which consist of miniature lasers, surgical handpieces and light activated bioadhesives for repairing wounds, closing surgical incisions, fixing implants and grafts. (medgadget.com)
  • These systems will replace sutures and staples for many surgical applications especially where the surgery is complex or when minimally invasive techniques are required. (medgadget.com)
  • It is also important to know the goals of the planned surgical procedure, may they be diagnostic, curative or palliative. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In addition to caring for U.S. troops and coalition forces during conflicts in the Middle East, U.S. military surgeons also provided humanitarian surgical care to nearly 6,000 local national Afghan adult patients over the course of a decade, accordin. (newswise.com)
  • The decision for surgery is dependent on patient characteristics (e.g., sex, age, height, body surface area) that have been used to develop indexed aneurysm size for prediction of surgical risk. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Following approval of the Subcommittee on Human Studies as well as Written informed consent, patients of physical status I through IV scheduled for surgical procedures under general anesthesia were studied in a randomized single-blinded prospective fashion. (apsf.org)
  • Aster CMI offers specialised ICUs including Cardiovascular Thoracic ICUs, Surgical ICUs, Medical ICUs, Neuro ICUs, Transplant ICUs, Paediatric ICUs and Neonatal ICUs. (asterbangalore.com)
  • We are a high-volume center, specializing in outpatient services such as same day surgery, in addition to providing a full spectrum of surgical services to our patients. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as having a marked effect on the biochemistry of the body BPD can influence emotions , circulation, digestive function as well as musculoskeletal structures involved in the respiratory process. (physio-pedia.com)
  • Developed for spaceflight, it has a dual use, as it is now also used to improve the treatment of asthma by allowing monitoring of patients at home. (esa.int)
  • The educational program for physicians improved asthma outcomes for their low-income patients. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • The thoracic wall consists of skeletal and muscular components, extending between 1st rib superiorly and rib 12th, the costal margin and the xiphoid process inferiorly . (physio-pedia.com)
  • T1-weighted images are obtained primarily for the visualization of fat and hemorrhage, plus special applications like spectral water suppression to evaluate the skeletal system. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Most patients share a typical appearance characterized by coarsened facial features, reduced height, and skeletal abnormalities. (springer.com)
  • 2 ] compared short-term patient-ventilator interaction during NIV with pressure support (PS) and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). (springer.com)
  • The interface had to be changed in 20 patients because of discomfort ( n = 16), leaks ( n = 4), facial growth ( n = 3), skin injury ( n = 2), or change of the ventilatory mode ( n = 2). (springer.com)
  • While the majority of human spinal cord injuries occur in the cervical spinal cord, the vast majority of laboratory research employs animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI) in which the thoracic spinal cord is injured. (jove.com)
  • To accomplish this we developed a peripheral nerve (PN) grafting technique where segments of sciatic nerve are either placed directly between the damaged ends of the spinal cord or are used to form a bridge across the lesion. (jove.com)
  • Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome - (also known as Anterior Cord Syndrome) Anterior spinal artery syndrome refers to the anterior spinal artery that originates from the vertebral arteries and basal artery at the base of the brain and supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord to the upper thoracic (chest) region. (sci-info-pages.com)
  • Spinal nerve injury does not cause neck, mid back pain or low back pain, and for this reason, evidence has not shown EMG or NCS to be helpful in diagnosing causes of axial lumbar pain, thoracic pain, or cervical spine pain. (chandanhospital.in)
  • J bone joint surg am, jung st, rowe sm, moon es, et al ct angiography for the patients contralateral anterior superior iliac spines asis and psis exists only in the nasal mucosa from the confluence of all muscle fibers is close and continuous oxygen saturation spo, end-tidal capnography conrming gas exchange are the largest cam profession. (jfshea.com)
  • The rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), which is the ratio between respiratory rate (RR) and tidal volume (VT), is one of the most widely used indices to predict weaning outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A noninvasive technique can be used in which the ratio of tidal volume to vital capacity (Vt/VC) is substituted for Pdi/Pdi max , with the resulting relationship [(T i /T tot ) × (Vt/FVC)] called the breathing intolerance index (BIT). (omicsonline.org)
  • Patient characteristics were compared with in-hospital mortality, decannulation, and hospital resource use by using generalized estimating equations. (aappublications.org)
  • 7 , 8 , 10 - 15 Identification of the diagnoses and other patient characteristics associated with mortality in children with tracheotomy has not been performed. (aappublications.org)
  • Osteopathic physicians have an appreciation for the systemic effect of severe somatic dysfunction in patients. (jaoa.org)
  • Some patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have signs of SAH-associated myocardial injury and dysfunction, such as positive myocardial enzymes, regional wall motion abnormalities, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. (asahq.org)
  • This patient was treated solely with flexion distraction and decompression manipulation performed to the cervical spine. (acatoday.org)
  • The Current Therapy format focuses on emerging trends, treatment protocols, and diagnostic updates new to the field, providing timely information on the latest advances in equine medicine. (elsevier.com)
  • Today, at the 2017 American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) Annual Meeting, Adeniyi Borire, MBBS, was honored with the 2017 Golseth Young Investigator Award for his abstract, Effects of Haemodialysis on Intraneural B. (newswise.com)
  • The American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) honored 10 neuromuscular (NM) and electrodiagnostic (EDX) abstracts with its President's Research Initiative Award at the 2017 AANEM Annual Meeting in Phoenix. (newswise.com)
  • As medicine evolved toward subspecialization in the late 20th century, physiatric practice opportunities for adults and children expanded across many diagnostic groups and practice settings. (aapmr.org)
  • A pain medicine physiatrist treats a patient with a painful condition of the spine using facet joint injections and a pain management program. (aapmr.org)
  • Pulmonology is known as chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introductory sections focus on the patient experience, medical ethics and clinical decision making, outlining a philosophy which has always characterized the Oxford Textbook of Medicine . (oup.com)
  • Paediatric respiratory medicine (PRM) is established as a board-certified paediatric subspeciality in several parts of the world. (ersjournals.com)
  • 2017). Predictors of quality-of-life after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. (uta.fi)
  • 2017). Patients with resected, histologically re-confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can achieve long-term survival despite T3 tumour or nodal involvement : The Finnish Register Study 2000-2013. (uta.fi)
  • Six devices (five were commercially available and one was custom made) were tested with mechanical test loads combining resistors ( R ), gas compliances ( C ) and a tube inertance ( L ), to mimic respiratory resistance ( R rs ) and reactance ( X rs ) spectra encountered in clinical practice. (ersjournals.com)
  • It is caused by loss of CNS drive, impaired neuromuscular competence, excessive dead space or increased mechanical load. (physio-pedia.com)