Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Intercostal Nerves: The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Cyst Fluid: Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.Epidermal Cyst: Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Morning Sickness: Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.Physician Assistants: Health professionals who practice medicine as members of a team with their supervising physicians. They deliver a broad range of medical and surgical services to diverse populations in rural and urban settings. Duties may include physical exams, diagnosis and treatment of disease, interpretation of tests, assist in surgery, and prescribe medications. (from http://www.aapa.orglabout-pas accessed 2114/2011)Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.

Dynein-dynactin function and sensory axon growth during Drosophila metamorphosis: A role for retrograde motors. (1/94)

Mutations in the genes for components of the dynein-dynactin complex disrupt axon path finding and synaptogenesis during metamorphosis in the Drosophila central nervous system. In order to better understand the functions of this retrograde motor in nervous system assembly, we analyzed the path finding and arborization of sensory axons during metamorphosis in wild-type and mutant backgrounds. In wild-type specimens the sensory axons first reach the CNS 6-12 h after puparium formation and elaborate their terminal arborizations over the next 48 h. In Glued1 and Cytoplasmic dynein light chain mutants, proprioceptive and tactile axons arrive at the CNS on time but exhibit defects in terminal arborizations that increase in severity up to 48 h after puparium formation. The results show that axon growth occurs on schedule in these mutants but the final process of terminal branching, synaptogenesis, and stabilization of these sensory axons requires the dynein-dynactin complex. Since this complex functions as a retrograde motor, we suggest that a retrograde signal needs to be transported to the nucleus for the proper termination of some sensory neurons.  (+info)

An unusual case of thoracic outlet syndrome associated with long distance running. (2/94)

An amateur marathon runner presented with symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome after long distance running. He complained of numbness on the C8 and T1 dermatome bilaterally. There were also symptoms of heaviness and discomfort of both upper limbs and shoulder girdles. These symptoms could be relieved temporarily by supporting both upper limbs on a rail or shrugging his shoulders. The symptoms and signs would subside spontaneously on resting. An exercise provocative test and instant relief manoeuvre, which are the main diagnostic tests for this unusual case of "dynamic" thoracic outlet syndrome, were introduced.  (+info)

Sacral neural crest cell migration to the gut is dependent upon the migratory environment and not cell-autonomous migratory properties. (3/94)

Avian neural crest cells from the vagal (somite level 1-7) and the sacral (somite level 28 and posterior) axial levels migrate into the gut and differentiate into the neurons and glial cells of the enteric nervous system. Neural crest cells that emigrate from the cervical and thoracic levels stop short of the dorsal mesentery and do not enter the gut. In this study we tested the hypothesis that neural crest cells derived from the sacral level have cell-autonomous migratory properties that allow them to reach and invade the gut mesenchyme. We heterotopically grafted neural crest cells from the sacral axial level to the thoracic level and vice versa and observed that the neural crest cells behaved according to their new position, rather than their site of origin. Our results show that the environment at the sacral level is sufficient to allow neural crest cells from other axial levels to enter the mesentery and gut mesenchyme. Our study further suggests that at least two environmental conditions at the sacral level enhance ventral migration. First, sacral neural crest cells take a ventral rather than a medial-to-lateral path through the somites and consequently arrive near the gut mesenchyme many hours earlier than their counterparts at the thoracic level. Our experimental evidence reveals only a narrow window of opportunity to invade the mesenchyme of the mesentery and the gut, so that earlier arrival assures the sacral neural crest of gaining access to the gut. Second, the gut endoderm is more dorsally situated at the sacral level than at the thoracic level. Thus, sacral neural crest cells take a more direct path to the gut than the thoracic neural crest, and also their target is closer to the site from which they initiate migration. In addition, there appears to be a barrier to migration at the thoracic level that prevents neural crest cells at that axial level from migrating ventral to the dorsal aorta and into the mesentery, which is the portal to the gut.  (+info)

Heterogenous patterns of sensory dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia suggest multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms. (4/94)

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is considered by some investigators to be predominantly a deafferentation-type central pain syndrome; others suggest that activity of remaining peripheral nociceptors plays a critical role. The authors investigated the sensory dysfunction in subjects with PHN of varying duration and at different sites to gain further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the clinical features of neuropathic pain. In addition, the relationships between ongoing pain and pain evoked by mechanical and thermal stimuli were compared in patients with trigeminal and truncal PHN, to determine if the pathophysiologic mechanisms differed among subjects. METHODS: In 63 subjects with PHN, quantitative sensory testing was performed in the region of maximum allodynia or ongoing pain and the corresponding contralateral site. The intensity of ongoing pain was recorded. Sensory thresholds for warmth, coolness, heat pain, and cold pain were determined. Pain induced by various mechanical stimuli (dynamic, static, punctate) was rated using a numerical rating scale of 0-10. RESULTS: The mean rating of ongoing PHN pain was 7.3 +/- 2.0 (mean +/- SD). Allodynia induced by one or more mechanical stimuli was observed in 78% of subjects. A smaller subset (40%) had hyperalgesia to heat or cold stimuli. In subjects with duration of PHN of < or = 1 yr duration, but not in those with duration of > 1 yr, the intensity of ongoing pain correlated with intensity of allodynia induced by dynamic stimuli. Deficits in thresholds for heat and cold pain were observed in the affected region of subjects with PHN in the thoracic dermatomes (P < 0.005), but not in the trigeminal distribution. No relationship was observed between the thermal deficits and ongoing pain or mechanical allodynia in the groups of subjects with either trigeminal or thoracic PHN. CONCLUSION: Despite a common cause, the patterns of sensory abnormalities differ between subjects. Particular differences were noted between groups with facial or truncal PHN and between groups with recent or more chronic PHN. The observations suggest that the relative contributions of peripheral and central mechanisms to the pathophysiology of pain differ among subjects and may vary over the course of PHN.  (+info)

The effects of prolonged repetitive stimulation in hemicholinium on the frog neuromuscular junction. (5/94)

1. Cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations from the frog were stimulated for prolonged periods in solutions with curare alone, curare and hemicholinium no. 3 (HC-3), or curare and glucose plus choline. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) and miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) were recorded intracellularly. Black widow spider venom (BWSV) was applied to determine the degree of depletion of the transmitter stores. 2. The ultrastructure of the neuromuscular junctions was studied in the electron microscope. Some of the preparations were fixed immediately at the end of the period of stimulation and others were fixed about an hour after BWSV had been applied. In some experiments horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was present during the period of stimulation and the fixed tissue was treated to reveal the distribution of the tracer. 3. The amplitude of the e.p.p. fell rapidly to almost zero during 2 hr of stimulation at 2/sec in 100 muM HC-3 and little recovery occurred during a subsequent hour of rest. About 2-7 times 10-5 quanta were secreted. The e.p.p.s usually persisted throughout the period of stimulation in the other solutions and 2-2-6 times as much transmitter was secreted. 4. When BWSV was applied immediately at the end of the period of stimulation in HC-3, almost no m.e.p.p.s were discharged and only small m.e.p.p.s were discharged when the venom was applied after an hour of rest. 5. When BWSV was applied to unstimulated terminals that had been bathed in HC-3, or to terminals that had been stimulated and rested for an hour in glucose plus choline, m.e.p.p.s of nearly normal amplitude were discharged. 6. Terminals stimulated for 2 hr at 2/sec in 100 muM HC-3 contained a normal complement of synaptic vesicles and a large proportion of vesicles were labelled with HRP when the tracer was present during the period of stimulation. 7. BWSV induced the almost complete depletion of vesicles from terminals that had been stimulated in HC-3. 8. Depletion of vesicles also occurred when terminals were stimulated for 20 min at 10/sec after they had been previously stimulated for 2 hr at 2/sec in HC-3. These terminals showed extensive infolding of the axolemma and they contained swollen mitochondria. 9. These results indicate that stimulation in HC-3 depletes terminals of their store of transmitter but not of their population of vesicles and that vesicles empty of transmitter can fuse with and reform from the axolemma of the nerve terminal.  (+info)

Retroambiguus projections to the cutaneus trunci motoneurons may form a pathway in the central control of mating. (6/94)

Our laboratory has proposed that the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) generates the specific motor performance displayed by female cats during mating and that it uses direct pathways to the motoneurons of the lower limb muscles involved in this activity. In the hamster a similar NRA-projection system could generate the typical female mating posture, which is characterized by lordosis of the back as well as elevation of the tail. The present study attempted to determine whether this elevation of the tail is also part of the NRA-mating control system. The basic assumption was that elevation of the tail is a function of the cutaneous trunci muscle (CTM), which was verified by bilateral tetanic stimulation of the lateral thoracic nerves innervating the CTM. It resulted in upward movement of the tail to a position similar to the tail-up position during the lordosis posture. Retrograde tracing results showed that CTM motoneurons are located in the ventral and ventrolateral part of the C(7)-C(8) ventral horn, those innervating the tail region ventrolateral to those innervating the axillary region. Anterograde tracing studies showed that NRA fibers terminate bilaterally in both parts of the CTM motoneuronal cell groups. Electron microscopical studies revealed that labeled NRA terminals make monosynaptic contacts with retrogradely labeled dendrites of CTM motoneurons. Almost all of these terminal profiles had asymmetric synapses and contained spherical vesicles, which suggests an excitatory function. The observation that 15% of the labeled NRA terminals make more than one synaptic contact with a retrogradely labeled CTM motoneuronal dendrite within the same section indicates how powerful the NRA-CTM projection is. The results indicate that during mating the NRA not only could generate the lordosis posture but also the elevation of the tail.  (+info)

Mechanism of glia-neuron cell-fate switch in the Drosophila thoracic neuroblast 6-4 lineage. (7/94)

During development of the Drosophila central nervous system, neuroblast 6-4 in the thoracic segment (NB6-4T) divides asymmetrically into a medially located glial precursor cell and a laterally located neuronal precursor cell. In this study, to understand the molecular basis for this glia-neuron cell-fate decision, we examined the effects of some known mutations on the NB6-4T lineage. First, we found that prospero (pros) mutations led to a loss of expression of Glial cells missing, which is essential to trigger glial differentiation, in the NB6-4T lineage. In wild-type embryos, Pros protein was localized at the medial cell cortex of dividing NB6-4T and segregated to the nucleus of the glial precursor cell. miranda and inscuteable mutations altered the behavior of Pros, resulting in failure to correctly switch the glial and neuronal fates. Our results suggested that NB6-4T used the same molecular machinery in the asymmetric cell division as other neuroblasts in cell divisions producing ganglion mother cells. Furthermore, we showed that outside the NB6-4T lineage most glial cells appeared independently of Pros.  (+info)

Scapulothoracic stabilisation for winging of the scapula using strips of autogenous fascia lata. (8/94)

We have used a modified technique in five patients to correct winging of the scapula caused by injury to the brachial plexus or the long thoracic nerve during transaxillary resection of the first rib. The procedure stabilises the scapulothoracic articulation by using strips of autogenous fascia lata wrapped around the 4th, 6th and 7th ribs at least two, and preferably three, times. The mean age of the patients at the time of operation was 38 years (26 to 47) and the mean follow-up six years and four months (three years and three months to 11 years). Satisfactory stability was achieved in all patients with considerable improvement in shoulder function. There were no complications.  (+info)

  • Pain relief from the procedure of a nerve root block varies from minimal to long-term, depending on the specific symptoms. (
  • Thoracic paravertebral blocks can also be used to quell the pain due to acute and chronic herpes zoster and other neuropathic pain syndromes, postthoracotomy, skeletal muscle spasm, and fractures or other structural complications associated with osteoporosis, surgery, and traumatic injuries to the chest wall or upper abdomen. (
  • My doctor has suggested a nerve ablation for the apex of the TL curve but his office manager thinks that Medicare will only cover this for 'failed back syndrome, ' ie failed fusion surgery. (
  • To analyze the results from early intervention surgery in patients with the syndrome of fascial incarceration of the long thoracic nerve and consequent winged scapula. (
  • Combined thoracic paravertebral plus pectoral nerve block with intra-operative sedation is a feasible technique for breast surgery. (
  • At1year after surgery, the nerves were connected in C-tube, and in some dogs the symptoms due to each damaged nerve were recovered. (
  • Illustration from Surgery of the Peripheral Nerve by Mackinnon and Dellon, reprinted with permission of Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. (
  • I believe I had some injury to this LTN nerve from 2 prior major whiplashes back in the early 1990's but my scapular winging was not fully apparent till after waking up from a left shoulder surgery in July 2011. (
  • By confirming or denying the exact source of pain, it provides information facilitating proper treatment that may further include additional nerve blocks or surgery at a specific level. (
  • Diaphragm Paralysis due to phrenic nerve cold injury resulting from the use of ice/slush topical hypothermia has been reported raidologically with a ranging from 30% to 70% of patients after cardiac surgery. (
  • Turkish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery published orginal papers on topics in cardiovascular surgery, cardiovascular anesthesia,cardiology and thoracic surgery. (
  • All copyrights of the articles that published or will be published belongs to Turkish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and without permission of editorial board whole articles or any part of articles table pictures and graphics could not be published. (
  • Finally, in the last electrodiagnostic study that was carried out 5 years after the surgery, partial and incomplete regeneration of the long thoracic nerve was reported. (
  • Patients from all over the United States and around the world have had nerve surgery by Dr. Nath in Houston, Texas. (
  • 3 These blocks were originally developed for breast surgery in an attempt to avoid some of the rare but serious complications of thoracic paravertebral and neuraxial blocks. (
  • If the nerves are completely normal and the goal is bodybuilding, then exercises that work the long thoracic nerves and serratus anterior muscles include pushups, pullups, bench press and rowing. (
  • Conclusions: Findings of variation of the phrenic and long thoracic nerves in this study may provide additional information for clinicians to understand potential injury related to these two nerves. (
  • Anatomically, the sciatic nerve travels down the leg, and could cause leg pain. (
  • Pressure on sciatic nerve causing pain in the legs. (
  • The sciatic nerve travels down the whole thigh and branches off smaller nerves to the legs, feet and toes. (
  • Can a compressed sciatic nerve cause leg weakness? (
  • Would a pinched sciatic nerve cause pain in wrists and numbness/tingling in hands or feet? (
  • The sciatic nerve runs from the gluteal region (your rear end) down the back of your leg, then branches to innervate the back of the thigh and leg as well as the outer part of the lower leg and then parts of the feet. (
  • B ) Scf gfp identified Scf expression in sciatic nerve. (
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves , which carry messages to and from the brain. (
  • The greater splanchnic nerves have more cranial assistance than the lower ones, usually T11/T12. (
  • Symptoms of nerve injury include paresthesias, loss of sensation and position sense, impaired motor function, cranial nerve malfunction, changes in reflexes, and impairments in glandular secretion. (
  • cranial nerve for illus. (
  • The components of the eighth cranial nerve (CN VIII) carrying axons that convey information regarding sound and balance between the spiral ganglion in the inner ear and the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. (
  • Implementing nerve slides as self-treatment for newer cases should help lessen symptoms and prevent further damage by lessening the areas and level of scar tissues formation. (
  • If pain or symptoms are elicited or increased, decrease the number or repetitions or switch to another nerve glide exercise. (
  • Use these two nerve slides if you experience nerve entrapment symptoms in the upper extremity. (
  • Our intention was to analyze early surgical intervention, which consists of full release of the fascia that compresses the entire path of the long thoracic nerve, performed within six months of the appearance of the initial symptoms, even though some authors have recommended conservative treatment for this condition. (
  • Pain relief from the procedure of a nerve root block varies from minimal to long-term, depending on the specific symptoms. (
  • Only when material from the gel-like nucleus leaks through the annular tear and makes contact with the spinal cord or an adjacent nerve root will symptoms arise. (
  • A selective nerve root block is primarily used to diagnose the specific source of nerve root pain and secondarily, for therapeutic relief of low back pain and/or leg pain. (
  • If the needle is positioned next to an individual nerve root, it's considered a selective nerve root block and medication is placed directly along an inflamed nerve root. (
  • A selective nerve root block provides important information to your physician and is not a primary treatment. (
  • What is a nerve root and why is a selective nerve root block helpful? (
  • This is fairly common and happens following a selective nerve root block. (