ThiophenesFurans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Echinops Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain a pseudoguaiane sesquiterpene. San-fang-feng is the root of E. grijisii used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Sublimation: A defense mechanism through which unacceptable impulses and instinctive urges are diverted into personally and socially acceptable channels; e.g., aggression may be diverted through sports activities.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Laser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.

Microbial desulfurization of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (1/1894)

Sulfur removal from petroleum is important from the standpoint of the global environment because the combustion of sulfur compounds leads to the production of sulfur oxides, which are the source of acid rain. As the regulations for sulfur in fuels become more stringent, the existing chemical desulfurizations are coming inadequate for the "deeper desulfurization" to produce lower-sulfur fuels without new and innovative processes. Biodesulfurization is rising as one of the candidates. Several microorganisms were found to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT), a representative of the organic sulfur compounds in petroleum, forming a sulfur-free compound, 2-hydroxybiphenyl. They are promising as biocatalysts in the microbial desulfurization of petroleum because without assimilation of the carbon content, they remove only sulfur from the heterocyclic compounds which is refractory to conventional chemical desulfurization. Both enzymological and molecular genetic studies are now in progress for the purpose of obtaining improved desulfurization activity of organisms. The genes involved in the sulfur-specific DBT desulfurization were identified and the corresponding enzymes have been investigated. From the practical point of view, it has been proved that the microbial desulfurization proceeds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons, and more complicated DBT analogs are also desulfurized by the microorganisms. This review outlines the progress in the studies of the microbial desulfurization from the basic and practical point of view.  (+info)

5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 is antihypertensive in DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats. (2/1894)

We previously demonstrated a change in the receptors mediating 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contraction in arteries of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-hypertensive rats. Specifically, contraction to 5-HT is mediated primarily by 5-HT2A receptors in arteries from normotensive sham rats and by both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in arteries from hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that the 5-HT2B receptor may play a role in maintaining the high blood pressure of DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats, and herein we provide data connecting in vitro and in vivo findings. The endothelium-denuded isolated superior mesenteric artery of DOCA-salt rats displayed a marked increase in maximum contraction to the newly available 5-HT2B-receptor agonist BW-723C86 compared with that of arteries from sham rats, confirming that the 5-HT2B receptor plays a greater role in 5-HT-induced contraction in arteries from DOCA-salt rats. In chronically instrumented rats, the 5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg iv at 30-min intervals) was given cumulatively 1 time/wk during 4 wk of continued DOCA-salt treatment. LY-272015 did not reduce blood pressure of the sham-treated rats at any time or dose. However, LY-272015 (1.0 and 3. 0 mg/kg) significantly reduced mean blood pressure in a subgroup of week 3 (-20 mmHg) and week 4 DOCA-salt (-40 mmHg) rats that had extremely high blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure approximately 200 mmHg). Blockade of 5-HT2B receptors by in vivo administration of LY-272015 (3.0 mg/kg) was verified by observing reduced 5-HT-induced contraction in rat stomach fundus, the tissue from which the 5-HT2B receptor was originally cloned. These data support the novel hypothesis that 5-HT2B-receptor expression is induced during the development of DOCA-salt hypertension and contributes to the maintenance of severe blood pressure elevations.  (+info)

Cleavage of the HER2 ectodomain is a pervanadate-activable process that is inhibited by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 in breast cancer cells. (3/1894)

HER2/neu, a Mr 185,000 tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in breast cancer, undergoes proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular domain (ECD). In contrast with other membrane-bound proteins, including growth factor receptors, that are cleaved by a common machinery system, we show that HER2 cleavage is a slow process and is not activated by protein kinase C. Pervanadate, a general inhibitor of protein-tyrosine phosphatases, induces a rapid and potent shedding of HER2 ECD. The shedding of HER2 ECD is inhibited by the broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitors EDTA, TAPI-2, and batimastat. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1; an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases that does not inhibit cleavage by the general protein kinase C-dependent shedding machinery, also inhibited HER2 ECD shedding, whereas tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-2 did not. These data suggest that HER2 cleavage is a process regulated by an as-yet-unidentified distinct protease.  (+info)

Phase I study of intrapleural batimastat (BB-94), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions. (4/1894)

Tumor cells and associated stromal cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), contributing to invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Batimastat (BB-94) is a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor that causes resolution of ascites and/or tumor growth delay in animal models of breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer. We recruited 18 patients with cytologically positive malignant pleural effusions into a Phase I study of intrapleural BB-94. Three patients received single doses of BB-94 at each dose level: 15, 30, 60, 105, 135, and 300 mg/m2. Two patients were retreated with a second course at 60 and 105 mg/m2. BB-94 was detectable in plasma 1 h after intrapleural administration, and peak levels of 20-200 ng/ml occurred after 4 h to 1 week. BB-94 persisted in the plasma for up to 12 weeks, at levels exceeding the IC50s for target MMPs. Peak values were higher, and persistence in the plasma was longer after higher doses of BB-94. The treatment was well tolerated. Toxic effects included low-grade fever for 24-48 h (6 of 18 patients, 33%) and reversible asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes (8 patients, 44%). Toxicity seemed unrelated to BB-94 dose or plasma levels. Sixteen patients evaluable for response required significantly fewer pleural aspirations in the 3 months after BB-94 compared with the 3 months before. Seven patients (44%) required no further pleural aspiration until death/last follow-up. After 1 month, patients treated with 60-300 mg/m2 BB-94 had significantly better dyspnea scores, indicating improved exercise tolerance, compared with baseline scores the day after BB-94. The maximum tolerated intrapleural dose remains to be defined, but it is clear that intrapleural BB-94 is well tolerated, with evidence of local activity.  (+info)

Limited anti-inflammatory efficacy of cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition in carrageenan-airpouch inflammation. (5/1894)

1. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed at sites of inflammation and is believed to be the major source of inflammation-associated prostaglandin synthesis. Selective inhibition of COX-2 has been suggested to produce anti-inflammatory effects with reduced toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined the extent to which suppression of COX-2 led to inhibition of various components of inflammation in the carrageenan-airpouch model in the rat. 2. Indomethacin (> or =0.3 mg kg(-1)), nimesulide (> or =3 mg kg(-1)) and the selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-58125 (> or =0.3 mg kg(-1)), significantly suppressed the production of prostaglandin E2 at the site of inflammation. At higher doses, indomethacin (> or =1 mg kg(-1)) and nimesulide (30 mg kg(-1)), but not SC-58125 (up to 10 mg kg(-1)), significantly inhibited COX-1 activity (as measured by whole blood thromboxane synthesis). 3. All three test drugs significantly reduced the volume of exudate in the airpouch, but only at doses greater than those required for substantial (>90%) suppression of COX-2 activity. Similarly, reduction of leukocyte infiltration was only observed with the doses of indomethacin and nimesulide that caused significant suppression of COX-1 activity. 4. SC-58125 did not significantly affect leukocyte infiltration into the airpouch at any dose tested (up to 10 mg kg(-1)). A second selective COX-2 inhibitor, Dup-697, was also found to suppress exudate PGE2 levels without significant effects on leukocyte infiltration. 5. These results indicate that selective inhibition of COX-2 results in profound suppression of PGE2 synthesis in the carrageenan-airpouch, but does not affect leukocyte infiltration. Exudate volume was only reduced with the highly selective COX-2 inhibitor when a dose far above that necessary for suppression of COX-2 activity was used. Inhibition of leukocyte infiltration was observed with indomethacin and nimesulide, but only at doses that inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2.  (+info)

Effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on multistage carcinogenesis in mice. (6/1894)

Solid tumors depend on angiogenesis for their growth. In a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic islet cell carcinogenesis (RIP1-Tag2), an angiogenic switch occurs in premalignant lesions, and angiogenesis persists during progression to expansive solid tumors and invasive carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice were treated so as to compare the effects of four angiogenesis inhibitors at three distinct stages of disease progression. AGM-1470, angiostatin, BB-94, and endostatin each produced distinct efficacy profiles in trials aimed at preventing the angiogenic switch in premalignant lesions, intervening in the rapid expansion of small tumors, or inducing the regression of large end-stage cancers. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs may prove most efficacious when they are targeted to specific stages of cancer.  (+info)

Marked suppression of T cells by a benzothiophene derivative in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. (7/1894)

In a search for new anti-autoimmune agents that selectively suppress activation of autoreactive T cells, one such agent, 5-methyl-3-(1-methylethoxy)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (CI-959-A), was found to be effective. This compound, which is known to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced CD54 expression, inhibited the primary proliferative response of the T cell to antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) including allogenic dendritic cells (DCs), autologous Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells, and human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T cells. Autoreactive T cells from patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) spontaneously proliferate in vitro, and their activation is reported to be associated with CD54 expression. The spontaneous proliferation of T cells from patients with HAM/TSP was entirely blocked by CI-959-A. However, in this study, the T-cell proliferation in 15 patients with HAM/TSP was found to depend more extensively on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD86 than on CD54 Ags. Since most important APCs for the development of HAM/TSP are DCs and HTLV-I-infected T cells, the effect of CI-959-A on DC generation and on the expression of surface molecules on activated T cells is examined. CI-959-A suppressed recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)- and recombinant interleukin-4-dependent differentiation of DCs from monocytes and inhibited the expression of CD54 and, more extensively, MHC class II and CD86 Ags. CI-959-A showed little toxicity toward lymphoma or HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines or toward monocytes and cultured DCs. These results suggest that CI-959-A might be a potent anti-HAM/TSP agent.  (+info)

Dorzolamide effect on ocular blood flow. (8/1894)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of dorzolamide on ocular blood flow in normal and glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: Twenty-six eyes with documented open-angle glaucoma of 26 patients and 13 normal control eyes of 8 age-matched subjects were included in this study. All eyes underwent color Doppler imaging for measuring peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and resistance index in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries and the maximal and minimal velocities in the central retinal vein. Eyes were grouped in control and initial and advanced glaucoma categories. Measurements were made in all groups before and after application of topical dorzolamide. Intragroup comparisons between baseline and dorzolamide conditions were made using paired Student's t-test. Intergroup comparisons under baseline conditions between normal and glaucomatous eyes were made by using the one-way ANOVA test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The peak-systolic velocity of the central retinal artery in glaucomatous eyes and the end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in all groups were significantly higher after application of dorzolamide. The minimal velocity of the central retinal vein showed significantly higher values after dorzolamide, whereas the maximal velocity remained unchanged. The peak-systolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery in all groups and the peak-systolic velocity of the central retinal artery in normal eyes also remained unchanged. The resistance index was significantly lower in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in all groups after dorzolamide. The intraocular pressure was significantly reduced in all groups after dorzolamide. Under baseline conditions normal control eyes and glaucomatous eyes showed differences in various measurements. Peak-systolic velocity was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal control eyes with the exception of the ophthalmic artery in the initial glaucoma group. End-diastolic velocity was lower in glaucomatous eyes than in control eyes in both arteries. Maximal and minimal velocities of the central retinal vein were lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal control eyes. Resistance index was higher in glaucomatous eyes than in normal control eyes in the ophthalmic artery but not in the central retinal artery. CONCLUSIONS: Most hemodynamic parameters of intraocular and periocular vessels improve after application of topical dorzolamide in both normal control and glaucomatous eyes. Dorzolamide should be regarded as a useful drug for treatment of glaucoma not only because it reduces intraocular pressure but also because it improves the ocular blood supply.  (+info)

  • 4.2 This test method was found applicable for determining thiophene in refined benzene conforming to the specifications described in Specification D2359 and may be applicable toward other grades of benzene if the user has taken the necessary precautions as described in the text. (
  • 1.1 This test method covers the determination of thiophene in refined benzene in the range from 0.80 to 1.80 mg/kg for the Flame Photometric Detector (FPD), and from 0.14 to 2.61 mg/kg for the Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector (PFPD). (
  • 1.2 This test method has been found applicable to benzene characteristic of the type described in Specifications D2359 and D4734 and may be applicable to other types or grades of benzene only after the user has demonstrated that the procedure can completely resolve thiophene from the other organic contaminants contained in the sample. (
  • Thiophene is a maillard product At room temperature, thiophene is a colorless liquid with a mildly pleasant odor reminiscent of benzene, with which thiophene shares some similarities. (
  • The high reactivity of thiophene toward sulfonation is the basis for the separation of thiophene from benzene, which are difficult to separate by distillation due to their similar boiling points (4 C difference at ambient pressure). (
  • Like benzene, thiophene forms an azeotrope with water. (
  • Spacial constraints are achieved by the incorporation of rigid groups such as pyridine, thiophene and benzene rings. (
  • Nitrogen in pyridine always participate in coordination, sulfur in thiophene only occasionally and we have never found benzene participating. (
  • We have compared CNDO/2 and ab initio STO-3G calculations for furan and thiophene with and without the inclusion of 3d-orbitals on oxygen and on sulphur. (
  • Enhanced aromaticity of thiophene compared to furan is primarily due to the delocalization of C2C3 π-bonds to the vacant d-orbitals of sulphur. (
  • examples of insertion of CO into thiophene-palladium (II) complexes leading to acylpalladium (II) complexes have been reported.12 In this paper, we wish to present the reactivity of novel thiophene-palladium complexes, in particular their reactions with different molarities of CO and isocyanides. (
  • Náray-Szabó, G & Peterson, MR 1981, ' d-orbital participation in bonding in thiophene: Comparison of CNDO/2 and ab initio results ', Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM , vol. 85, no. 3-4, pp. 249-255. (
  • Thiophene 3-substituted with an imidazolyl group was synthesized and electropolymerized. (
  • Kobayashi, T , Oyaizu, K & Yuasa, M 2005, ' Properties of electropolymerized thiophene film 3-substituted with imidazolyl group ', Paper presented at 54th SPSJ Symposium on Macromolecules, Yamagata, Japan, 05/9/20 - 05/9/22 pp. 3353-3354. (
  • In the drawing a macrocycle with a thiophene rigid group and three thioeters in the molecule is schown to coordinate exo-dentately to Cu(I) producing a dinuclear copper complex. (
  • The polymers based on di-thiophene and benzothiadiazole were applied in photovoltaic devices and the coupling of the alkylthiophene showed no effect on the maximum photovoltaic performance. (
  • Band-gaps were estimated to be 2 eV for polymers based on di-thiophene and benzothiadiazole and 1.8 eV for polymers based on quarterthiophene and benzothiadiazole. (
  • Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene−poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT−PSS) was used as the conductive component in a matrix of chemically different insulating polymers to form an array of vapor detectors. (
  • A copolymer comprising 1,4-diketopyrrolo[3,4- c ]pyrrole (DPP) and thieno[3,2- b ]thiophene moieties, PDBT-co-TT, shows high hole mobility of up to 0.94 cm 2 V −1 s −1 in organic thin-film transistors. (
  • In this study, we report the development of an enzyme immobilization matrix that displays enhanced electrochemical performance thanks to a novel conductive thin film prepared via in situ electrocopolymerization of pyrrole (Py) and thiophene-grafted chitosan (Th-Ch). This is a simple thin film preparation method that can help overcome aforementioned challenges by providing a uniformly distributed conductive layer on the electrode. (
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of Ethyl 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate. (
  • 6. The field effect transistor device of claim 1 wherein said n-type organic semiconducting material is a polythiophene polymer with more than seven conjugated thiophene moieties. (
  • 8. The field effect transistor of claim 7 , where said polythiophene polymer is regioregular, head-to-tail poly-3-C n F 2n+1 -thiophene. (
  • The solubility of the polymer based on quarterthiophene and benzothiadiazole was tested with hexyl, 2-ethyl-hexyl and dodecyl as side chains on the thiophene. (
  • The use of thiophene polymer film as an electrochromic material for display devices is proposed. (
  • In this work we present the effect of HiPCO single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) introduction into the conjugated polymer matrix poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) on the structural and thermal stability of these nanocomposites. (
  • 3-Thiophenecarboxylic acid has been used in the preparation of novel acetylene monomer, required for the synthesis of poly(2-methylbut-2-enyl thiophene-3-carboxylate) and oxazolines and oxazoles. (
  • Seven new thiophene-derived N -substituted dimethyl aminomethylphosphonic acid esters 2a - h were synthesized by the addition of an appropriate phosphite to azomethine bond of starting Schiff bases 1a - h , and NMR spectroscopic properties of aminophosphonates were investigated. (
  • Thermogravimetry with evolved gas analysis by infrared spectrometry was used to study the thermal degradation of thiophene fulgamic acid in an inert atmosphere. (
  • Comparison of the results obtained from different experiments showed that the decomposition of thiophene fulgamic acid was more complex than simple ammonia loss followed by sublimation of the anticipated thiophene fulgide residue. (
  • Such thiophene derivative that is often used in medicinal chemistry is the α -chlorothiophene, and there are several examples of marketed drugs containing this moiety such as tioconazole, lornoxicam, and rivaroxaban [ 4 ]. (
  • Reflecting their high stabilities, thiophenes arise from many reactions involving sulfur sources and hydrocarbons, especially unsaturated ones. (
  • Specialized thiophenes can be synthesized similarly using Lawesson's reagent as the sulfidizing agent, or via the Gewald reaction, which involves the condensation of two esters in the presence of elemental sulfur. (
  • Direct current and alternating current electrical transport properties of regioregular poly[3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-thiophenes]. (
  • transport properties of doped and undoped regioregular poly[3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-thiophenes], where the alkoxy groups are O-(CH2)n-1CH3 with n = 1,4,6, and 8, have been investigated. (
  • The global market size of 2-Thiophene Acetyl Chloride is $XX million in 2017 with XX CAGR from 2013 to 2017, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2023 with a CAGR of XX% from 2018 to 2023. (
  • A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. (
  • The ' Global and Chinese 2-Thiophene Methanol Industry, 2011-2021 Market Research Report ' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global 2-Thiophene Methanol industry with a focus on the Chinese market. (
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the 2-Thiophene Methanol manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.Firstly, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. (
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of 2-Thiophene Methanol industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (
  • The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of 2-Thiophene Methanol industry. (
  • In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of 2-Thiophene Methanol Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (
  • Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2011-2021 global and Chinese 2-Thiophene Methanol industry covering all important parameters. (
  • 5.2 Market Competition of 2-Thiophene Methanol Industry by Country (USA, EU, Japan, Chinese etc. (
  • Enclosed functional groups of MP are structural alerts for metabolic activation to reactive intermediates: thiophene ring ( S -oxide and epoxide), pyridine ring (epoxide and p -quinone iminium ion), and alkyl nitrogens (iminium ions). (
  • Introduction of perfluorocarbon chains on the thiophene core affords enhanced thermal stability and volatility, and increased electron affinity versus the fluorine-free analog 2. (
  • language = {cze}, issn = {0009-2770}, journal = {Chemické listy}, title = {Esters and Nitriles of 2-(3-Acylselenoureido)benzoic and -thiophene-3-carboxylic Acids Thermal Transformations. (
  • Thermal behaviour of esters and nitriles of 2-(3-acylselenoureido)benzoic and -thiophene-3-carboxylic acids in solid phase and melt were studied. (
  • Control experiments on the thermal degradation of thiophene fulgide indicated an initial loss of a nitrile containing species. (
  • thermal racemization (Delta G(double dagger) = 25.1 kcal mol(-1)) of the enantiopure metabolite (1R)-2-methylbenzo[b]thiophene 1-oxide has been observed. (
  • This contribution sets out to compute thermochemical and geometrical parameters of the complete series of chlorinated isomers of thiophene based on the accurate chemistry model of CBS-QB3. (
  • Medicinal chemistry approaches to minimize the bioactivation potential of thiophenes often include substitution at the α -carbon position to provide a potential site for metabolism. (
  • Jonathan Swanston "Thiophene" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006. (
  • Thiophenes undergo hydrogenolysis to form hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide. (
  • Mass spectrometric and hydrogen/deuterium exchange analysis of the glutathione adduct produced by rat liver microsomes indicated that the metabolite was most probably a thioether of MP S -oxide substituted in the thiophene ring. (
  • 29 , 30 Motivated by all the above, we selected two isomeric monomers in which a thiophene ring is attached at either the 2‐ or 3‐ position to pyrene at its 1‐, 3‐, 6‐, and 8‐ positions. (
  • The results highlight the importance of the modifications ported to the well-known one-phase synthetic reactions to obtain a clear lack, even after a storage of six months, of any irreversible aggregation that has always characterized chain thiophene-protected metallic nanoparticles. (
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