Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Capital Punishment: The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.GeorgiaGeorgia (Republic)Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.

A single hydrophobic residue confers barbiturate sensitivity to gamma-aminobutyric acid type C receptor. (1/474)

Barbiturate sensitivity was imparted to the human rho1 homooligomeric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor channel by mutation of a tryptophan residue at position 328 (Trp328), which is located within the third transmembrane domain. Substitutions of Trp328 with a spectrum of amino acids revealed that nearly all hydrophobic residues produced receptor channels that were both directly activated and modulated by pentobarbital with similar sensitivities. Previous studies with ligand-gated ion channels (including GABA) have demonstrated that even conservative amino acid substitution within the agonist-dependent activation domain (N-terminal extracellular domain) can markedly impair agonist sensitivity. Thus, the lack of significant variation in pentobarbital sensitivity among the Trp328 mutants attests to an intrinsic difference between pentobarbital- and the GABA-dependent activation domain. Compared with the heterooligomeric alphabetagamma receptor channel, the mode of modulation for homooligomeric Trp328 mutants by pentobarbital was more dependent on the GABA concentration, yielding potentiation only at low concentrations of GABA (fractions of their respective EC50 values), yet causing inhibition at higher concentrations. Agonist-related studies have also demonstrated that residue 328 plays an important role in agonist-dependent activation, suggesting a functional interconnection between the GABA and pentobarbital activation domains.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (2/474)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Differential inhibitory effects of thiopental, thiamylal and phenobarbital on both voltage-gated calcium channels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampal slices. (3/474)

Although it is known that there are some pharmacological differences between the structurally similar barbiturates, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. We have compared the effects of thiopental, thiamylal and phenobarbital on both voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in rat hippocampal slices by determining changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Experiments were performed in adult rat hippocampal slices perfused with Krebs solution (37 degrees C). Concentrations of [Ca2+]i in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1 region were measured using a calcium indicator dye, fura-2. To activate VGCC and NMDA receptors, slices were exposed to K+ 60 mmol litre-1 (< or = 60 s) and NMDA 100 mumol litre-1 (30 s), respectively. Thiopental, thiamylal and phenobarbital were present 5 min before, during and 1 min after high K+ or NMDA application. Both thiamylal and thiopental (50-600 mumol litre-1) attenuated the increases in [Ca2+]i produced by high K+ or NMDA in a concentration-dependent manner, while phenobarbital 50-1000 mumol litre-1 only slightly attenuated the [Ca2+]i increase produced by high K+ at concentrations of more than 200 mumol litre-1 and was ineffective on the [Ca2+]i response produced by NMDA. Although the increases in [Ca2+]i caused by membrane depolarization with high K+ were reduced equally with thiamylal and thiopental, thiamylal was more effective in attenuating the increase in [Ca2+]i produced by NMDA receptor activation than thiopental. We conclude that the depressant effects of barbiturates on both VGCC and NMDA receptors varied between agents. Differential inhibition of both VGCC and NMDA receptors may determine the pharmacological properties of barbiturates and their ability to protect neurones against ischaemia.  (+info)

Recovery after halothane anaesthesia induced with thiopental, propofol-alfentanil or halothane for day-case adenoidectomy in small children. (4/474)

We studied recovery from halothane anaesthesia in 93 children, aged 1-3 yr, undergoing day-case adenoidectomy. Children were allocated randomly to receive thiopental 5 mg kg-1 (group TH), alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and propofol 3 mg kg-1 (group PAH) or 5% halothane (group HH) for induction of anaesthesia. In group TH, tracheal intubation was facilitated with succinylcholine (suxamethonium) 1.5 mg kg-1. In groups PAH and HH, tracheal intubation was performed without neuromuscular block, and succinylcholine was used only if required. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1-3% halothane during spontaneous respiration. Times to achieving predetermined recovery end-points were recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a score of 1-9 (best to worst) for sedation, crying, restlessness and agitation. A postoperative questionnaire was used to determine the well-being of the child at home, 24 h after operation. Emergence from anaesthesia (response to non-painful stimuli) occurred earlier in group HH (mean 9 (SD 6) min) than in groups PAH (13 (6) min, P < 0.01) and TH (18 (14) min, P < 0.01). Sitting up, walking and home readiness were achieved earlier in groups PAH and HH than in group TH (P < 0.05 for each variable). Children in group TH were more sedated during the first 30 min after anaesthesia than those in the two other groups (P < 0.05) while emergence-related delirium was more common in group HH than in group TH (P < 0.01). Well-being at home was similar in all groups. We conclude that induction of halothane anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or halothane provided more rapid recovery and earlier discharge than that with thiopental.  (+info)

Comparison of the effects of convulsant and depressant barbiturate stereoisomers on AMPA-type glutamate receptors. (5/474)

BACKGROUND: Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Although barbiturates have been shown to suppress the AMPA receptor-mediated responses, it is unclear whether this effect contributes to the anesthetic action of barbiturates. The authors compared the effects of depressant [R(-)] and convulsant [S(+)] stereoisomers of 1-methyl-5-phenyl-5-propyl barbituric acid (MPPB) on the AMPA and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated currents to determine if the inhibitory effects on AMPA receptors correlate to the in vivo effects of the isomers. METHOD: The authors measured whole-cell currents in the rat cultured cortical neuron at holding potential of -60 mV. Kainate 500 microM was applied as the agonist for AMPA receptors. Thiopental (3-300 microM), R(-)-MPPB or S(+)-MPPB (100-1,000 microM) was coapplied with kainate under the condition in which the GABA(A) receptor-mediated current was blocked. Effects of MPPB isomers on the current elicited by GABA 1 microM were studied in the separate experiments. RESULTS: Thiopental inhibited the kainate-induced current reversibly and in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration for 50% inhibition of 49.3 microM. Both R(-)-MPPB and S(+)-MPPB inhibited the kainate-induced current with a little stereoselectivity. R(-)-MPPB was slightly but significantly more potent than S(+)-MPPB. In contrast, R(-)-MPPB enhanced but S(+)-MPPB reduced the GABA-induced current. CONCLUSIONS: Both convulsant and depressant stereoisomers of the barbiturate inhibited the AMPA receptor-mediated current despite of their opposite effects on the central nervous system in vivo. Although thiopental exhibited a considerable inhibition of AMPA receptors, the results suggest that the inhibition of AMPA receptors contributes little to the hypnotic action of the barbiturates.  (+info)

Effect of propofol on the electrocorticogram in epileptic patients undergoing cortical resection. (6/474)

We have compared the effect of clinical doses of propofol with thiopental on epileptiform activity in the electrocorticograms (ECoG) of 20 epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe resection. After baseline ECoG had been obtained, with inspired concentrations of 0.5-1% isoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide to provide background anaesthesia, subjects were allocated randomly to receive boluses of either thiopental 25 mg or propofol 20 mg i.v. every 30 s to a maximum of 5 mg kg-1 or until burst suppression was seen. The ECoG was recorded throughout administration and for 10 min thereafter. After return of baseline ECoG tracings, the alternate agent was administered. The amount of epileptiform activity was recorded on an ordinal rating scale, an increase being indicated by either a rise of at least one category on the scale or discharges occurring at a minimum of one new site. Activation occurred more frequently with thiopental but the difference was not significant. This study suggests that propofol has no greater proconvulsive effect than thiopental, a drug commonly used in managing status epilepticus.  (+info)

Bolus dose remifentanil for control of haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia. (7/474)

The effect of three bolus doses of remifentanil on the pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in four groups of 20 patients each. After preoxygenation, anaesthesia was induced with thiopental 5-7 mg kg-1 followed immediately by saline (placebo) or remifentanil 0.5, 1.0 or 1.25 micrograms kg-1 given as a bolus over 30 s. Cricoid pressure was applied just after loss of consciousness. Succinylcholine 1 mg kg-1 was given for neuromuscular block. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were performed 1 min later. Arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded at intervals until 5 min after intubation. Remifentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 was ineffective in controlling the increase in heart rate and arterial pressure after intubation but the 1.0 and 1.25 micrograms kg-1 doses were effective in controlling the response. The use of the 1.25 micrograms kg-1 dose was however, associated with a decrease in systolic arterial pressure to less than 90 mm Hg in seven of 20 patients.  (+info)

Drug blockade of open end-plate channels. (8/474)

1. The actions of amylobarbitone, thiopentone, methohexitone and methyprylone at voltage-clamped frog end-plates were studied. 2. In the presence of barbiturates the conductance change evoked by an iontophoretic carbachol application was reduced by a prepulse of carbachol. The extra inhibition evoked by a prepulse disappeared exponentially with a time constant of 150-200 ms. 3. Barbiturates produce an increased rate of decay of nerve evoked endplate currents. Tne concentration and voltage dependence of the barbtiruate e.p.c. decay rates tally with the hypothesis that the increased rate of decay is due to block of active receptor-channel complexes by barbiturates with a rate constant of 10(6) M-1S-1. 4. Conductance changes produced by bath applied agonists were depressed by thiopentone, the effect becoming greater the higher the agonist concentration. This effect, and also the observation that the concentration of thiopentone required to depress the bath agonist response is much greater than the apparent dissociation constant for binding to active receptor-channel complexes calculated from kinetic measurements, suggest that the selectivity for binding to open receptor-channel complexes is very high. 5. Methyprylone, which is structurally similar to the barbiturates, is only a weak antagonist and shows no interpulse interaction. It was predicted that methyprylone should produce fast and slow components in the e.p.c. decay, and this prediction was verified. 6. In the presence of barbiturates large iontophoretic carbachol applications produce conductance changes which show fast and slow components. Under these conditions the effects of carbachol prepulses become complex. However the effects are qualitatively consistent with the notion that different components of the response are contributed by channels located at various distances from the iontophoretic pipette tip. 7. All the data agree with a model in which the channel has three stages: closed, open and blocked. Only open channels can block, and blocked channels can only open.  (+info)

  • Sodium thiopental was a core medicine in the World Health Organization 's List of Essential Medicines , which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic healthcare system, but was supplanted by propofol . (
  • Despite this thiopental is still listed as an acceptable alternative to propofol, depending on local availability and cost of these agents. (
  • It has now been superseded by drugs such as propofol because their effects wear off more quickly than thiopental. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that a thiopental TCI provides an acceptable way to achieve early recovery compared to a propofol TCI during supratentorial surgery. (
  • METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing elective craniotomy for a supratentorial tumor were randomized to receive either a propofol TCI (group P) or a thiopental TCI (group T). Both groups received a sufentanil TCI and the bispectral index was monitored. (
  • CONCLUSION: Even with TCI and bispectral index monitoring, thiopental is associated with an inappropriate delayed recovery from supratentorial surgery compared to propofol TCI. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate if intravenous inducting agents such as propofol, ketamine or thiopental sodium affected the development of ED. METHODS: A total of 62 children between 3 and 6 years of age scheduled for elective tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were divided into 3 groups in a double-blinded manner. (
  • After the first unsuccessful attempt of intubation, again at 2.00 p.m. the petitioner adjusted the head of the patient and second attempt for intubation was made with the injection of Scoline 75 mg, Thiopental 100 mg. and Atropine 0.6 mg. (
  • The post post mortem report of Forensic Medicine stated that the cause of death of the patient was due to Injection of Thiopental. (
  • A normal dose of sodium thiopental (usually 4-6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery ( caesarian section ) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. (
  • New Delhi : In an important case concerning anaesthetists, the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission ( NCDRC) was recently seen absolving an anaesthetist of overdose of Thiopental and setting aside the order of the state commission that asked the anaesthetist to pay a fine of Rs 15 lakh for allegedly injecting a patient with excess dose of medicine and causing his death 15 years ago. (
  • Dr. M. Ravishankar, Professor and Head of the Department of Anesthesiology and CCU, JIPMER, Puducherry was examined as an expert witness, who deposed that the Thiopental dose was within normal limit and it was administered correctly and there was no negligence. (
  • Sodium thiopental would have to be given in large amounts to maintain an anesthetic plane, and because of its 11.5- to 26-hour half-life , consciousness would take a long time to return. (
  • BACKGROUND: For decades thiopental has been considered as the hypnotic drug of choice for intracranial surgery. (
  • Since it is redistributed to fat, certain lean breeds of dogs such as sight hounds will have prolonged recoveries from sodium thiopental due to their lack of body fat and their lean body mass. (
  • Thiopental can produce effective sedation within 1 min, and has a rapid clinical recovery (about 15 min) when administered intravenously.6 With its adequate sedation, faster recovery, and lower rate of bradycardia and desaturation, IV thiopental is suggested to be reconsidered for sedation in radio-diagnostic procedures.7 Although using rectal thiopental for sedation of children in MRI is common, in literature there is very little knowledge about its IV use. (
  • Rectal thiopental sodium for sedation of pediatric patients undergoing MR and other imaging studies. (
  • PURPOSE To determine the efficacy and safety of rectal thiopental sodium as a sedation agent for pediatric imaging. (
  • METHODS Four hundred sixty-two infants and children were sedated with rectal thiopental sodium for MR, CT, or nuclear imaging in 1992 and 1993. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Rectal thiopental sodium is a safe and effective drug for pediatric sedation. (
  • The refused thiopental sodium may be lawfully admitted into domestic commerce without prior FDA approval," says TDJC, because such drugs are not "new drugs" within the meaning of FDC Act § 201(p) in that the labeling that does not prescribe, recommend, or suggest any conditions of use for the drugs. (
  • Contraindications/Precautions - The following are considered to be absolute contraindi-cations to the use of thiopental: absence of suitable veins for IV administration, history of hypersensitivity reactions to the barbiturates, and status asthmaticus. (
  • In this study we examined and compared the actions of two barbiturates with distinct amnesic actions, the general anesthetic thiopental and the anticonvulsant phenobarbital, on in vitro SPW-R activity. (
  • Contraindications include absence of suitable veins for IV, porphyria, and allergyto barbiturates, Side effects of Thiopental Sodium include headaches, prolonged sleepiness, nausea and agitated emergence. (
  • Other examples of barbiturates are secobarbital and thiopental, each of which is most commonly administered as its sodium salt. (
  • On Thursday, the Sandoz generic drugs unit of Novartis -- a major thiopental supplier globally -- said it had told its distributors to stop selling the drug to other customers who have been importing it into the U.S., whether for use in lethal injections or in surgical patients. (
  • A new development in the ongoing battle involving sodium thiopental, one of the drugs used for lethal injections, surfaced today when the Drug Enforcement Administration ("DEA") seized Georgia's supply of the drug. (
  • Dr. M. Ravishankar, Professor and Head of the Department of Anesthesiology and CCU, JIPMER, Puducherry was examined as an expert witness, who deposed that the Thiopental dose was within normal limit and it was administered correctly and there was no negligence. (
  • The antinociceptive activity was assessed with the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced flicking test while sedative effects with open field and hole cross tests and anxiolytic effects with elevated plus maze (EPM) and thiopental-induced sleeping time tests were assayed. (
  • After continuous administration of thiopental the effect duration is prolonged, personnel qualified in the use of anesthetics should be constantly available during the administration of the medicinal product. (
  • Seizure duration was statistically significant longer in the thiopental group than in the propofol group (35 sec vs 11 sec, p=0.046). (
  • Abstract This study was designed to investigate whether dexmedetomidine and thiopental have cerebral protective effects after focal cerebral ischemia in rats . (
  • Suppression of natural killer cell activity and promotion of tumor metastasis by ketamine, thiopental, and halothane, but not by propofol: mediating mechanisms and prophylactic measures. (
  • Fischer 344 rats served as controls or were anesthetized for 1 h with ketamine, thiopental, halothane, or propofol. (
  • concentration both declined during oxytetracycline treatment and were aggravated in thiopental/methoxyflurane and thiopental/halothane anesthetized animals. (
  • A significant increase was observed in the clotting time of thiopental/ halothane anesthetized animals, which corresponded to a decrease in prothrombin time. (
  • Plasma P[v] CO increased significantly in both thiopental/methoxyflurane and thiopental/halothane anesthetized animals. (
  • Conclusion: Thiopental had a comparable effectiveness with shorter anaesthesia inductions and recovery times than ketofol. (
  • CONCLUSION: Even with TCI and bispectral index monitoring, thiopental is associated with an inappropriate delayed recovery from supratentorial surgery compared to propofol TCI. (
  • Conclusion: The combination of fentanyl-thiopental with low dose atracurium (0.05 or 0.1 mg · kg-1) provided conditions comparable with those of propofol for LMA insertion. (
  • In conclusion, we demonstrated that dexmedetomidine and thiopental have experimental histopathologic cerebral protective effects on experimental focal cerebral ischemia in rats . (
  • METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing elective craniotomy for a supratentorial tumor were randomized to receive either a propofol TCI (group P) or a thiopental TCI (group T). Both groups received a sufentanil TCI and the bispectral index was monitored. (
  • Resting end-expiratory position (REEP) of the respiratory system was monitored continuously using spirometric recording in eleven patients during transition from consciousness to thiopental hypnosis and following subsequent administration of succinylcholine. (
  • Methanol extract potentiated the effect of thiopental-induced hypnosis in lesser extent comparing with Diazepam. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that a thiopental TCI provides an acceptable way to achieve early recovery compared to a propofol TCI during supratentorial surgery. (
  • Chemistry - A thiobarbiturate, thiopental occurs as a bitter-tasting, white to off-white, crystalline powder or a yellow-white hygroscopic powder. (
  • As can be seen, both ramelteon and thiopental continued strenuously to be effective as bronchodilators after eight weeks of continuous usage. (