A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)

A single hydrophobic residue confers barbiturate sensitivity to gamma-aminobutyric acid type C receptor. (1/474)

Barbiturate sensitivity was imparted to the human rho1 homooligomeric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor channel by mutation of a tryptophan residue at position 328 (Trp328), which is located within the third transmembrane domain. Substitutions of Trp328 with a spectrum of amino acids revealed that nearly all hydrophobic residues produced receptor channels that were both directly activated and modulated by pentobarbital with similar sensitivities. Previous studies with ligand-gated ion channels (including GABA) have demonstrated that even conservative amino acid substitution within the agonist-dependent activation domain (N-terminal extracellular domain) can markedly impair agonist sensitivity. Thus, the lack of significant variation in pentobarbital sensitivity among the Trp328 mutants attests to an intrinsic difference between pentobarbital- and the GABA-dependent activation domain. Compared with the heterooligomeric alphabetagamma receptor channel, the mode of modulation for homooligomeric Trp328 mutants by pentobarbital was more dependent on the GABA concentration, yielding potentiation only at low concentrations of GABA (fractions of their respective EC50 values), yet causing inhibition at higher concentrations. Agonist-related studies have also demonstrated that residue 328 plays an important role in agonist-dependent activation, suggesting a functional interconnection between the GABA and pentobarbital activation domains.  (+info)

Thiopental and propofol impair relaxation produced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers in the rat aorta. (2/474)

ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers are used as vasodilators in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The effects of i.v. anaesthetics on arterial relaxation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we have examined if thiopental (thiopentone) and propofol affect the vascular response to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers, cromakalim and pinacidil, in the isolated rat aorta. Rings of rat thoracic aortas without endothelium were suspended for isometric force recording. Concentration-response curves were obtained in a cumulative manner. During submaximal contractions with phenylephrine 0.3 mumol litre-1, relaxation after cromakalim 0.1-30 mumol litre-1, pinacidil 0.1-30 mumol litre-1 and papaverine 0.1-300 mumol litre-1 was demonstrated. Thiopental 30-300 mumol litre-1, propofol 10-100 mumol litre-1, 10% Intralipid 45 microliters or glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1 were applied 15 min before addition of phenylephrine. During contractions with phenylephrine, cromakalim and pinacidil induced concentration-dependent relaxation. A selective ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist, glibenclamide 5 mumol litre-1, abolished this relaxation, whereas it did not affect relaxation produced by papaverine. Thiopental concentrations > 30 mumol litre-1 significantly impaired relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil. Propofol concentrations > 10 mumol litre-1 also significantly reduced relaxation produced by cromakalim or pinacidil, whereas Intralipid was ineffective. Thiopental 300 mumol litre-1 and propofol 100 mumol litre-1 did not alter relaxation produced by papaverine. These results suggest that the i.v. anaesthetics, thiopental and propofol, impaired vasodilatation mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Differential inhibitory effects of thiopental, thiamylal and phenobarbital on both voltage-gated calcium channels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampal slices. (3/474)

Although it is known that there are some pharmacological differences between the structurally similar barbiturates, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. We have compared the effects of thiopental, thiamylal and phenobarbital on both voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in rat hippocampal slices by determining changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Experiments were performed in adult rat hippocampal slices perfused with Krebs solution (37 degrees C). Concentrations of [Ca2+]i in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1 region were measured using a calcium indicator dye, fura-2. To activate VGCC and NMDA receptors, slices were exposed to K+ 60 mmol litre-1 (< or = 60 s) and NMDA 100 mumol litre-1 (30 s), respectively. Thiopental, thiamylal and phenobarbital were present 5 min before, during and 1 min after high K+ or NMDA application. Both thiamylal and thiopental (50-600 mumol litre-1) attenuated the increases in [Ca2+]i produced by high K+ or NMDA in a concentration-dependent manner, while phenobarbital 50-1000 mumol litre-1 only slightly attenuated the [Ca2+]i increase produced by high K+ at concentrations of more than 200 mumol litre-1 and was ineffective on the [Ca2+]i response produced by NMDA. Although the increases in [Ca2+]i caused by membrane depolarization with high K+ were reduced equally with thiamylal and thiopental, thiamylal was more effective in attenuating the increase in [Ca2+]i produced by NMDA receptor activation than thiopental. We conclude that the depressant effects of barbiturates on both VGCC and NMDA receptors varied between agents. Differential inhibition of both VGCC and NMDA receptors may determine the pharmacological properties of barbiturates and their ability to protect neurones against ischaemia.  (+info)

Recovery after halothane anaesthesia induced with thiopental, propofol-alfentanil or halothane for day-case adenoidectomy in small children. (4/474)

We studied recovery from halothane anaesthesia in 93 children, aged 1-3 yr, undergoing day-case adenoidectomy. Children were allocated randomly to receive thiopental 5 mg kg-1 (group TH), alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and propofol 3 mg kg-1 (group PAH) or 5% halothane (group HH) for induction of anaesthesia. In group TH, tracheal intubation was facilitated with succinylcholine (suxamethonium) 1.5 mg kg-1. In groups PAH and HH, tracheal intubation was performed without neuromuscular block, and succinylcholine was used only if required. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1-3% halothane during spontaneous respiration. Times to achieving predetermined recovery end-points were recorded. Quality of recovery was assessed using a score of 1-9 (best to worst) for sedation, crying, restlessness and agitation. A postoperative questionnaire was used to determine the well-being of the child at home, 24 h after operation. Emergence from anaesthesia (response to non-painful stimuli) occurred earlier in group HH (mean 9 (SD 6) min) than in groups PAH (13 (6) min, P < 0.01) and TH (18 (14) min, P < 0.01). Sitting up, walking and home readiness were achieved earlier in groups PAH and HH than in group TH (P < 0.05 for each variable). Children in group TH were more sedated during the first 30 min after anaesthesia than those in the two other groups (P < 0.05) while emergence-related delirium was more common in group HH than in group TH (P < 0.01). Well-being at home was similar in all groups. We conclude that induction of halothane anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or halothane provided more rapid recovery and earlier discharge than that with thiopental.  (+info)

Comparison of the effects of convulsant and depressant barbiturate stereoisomers on AMPA-type glutamate receptors. (5/474)

BACKGROUND: Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Although barbiturates have been shown to suppress the AMPA receptor-mediated responses, it is unclear whether this effect contributes to the anesthetic action of barbiturates. The authors compared the effects of depressant [R(-)] and convulsant [S(+)] stereoisomers of 1-methyl-5-phenyl-5-propyl barbituric acid (MPPB) on the AMPA and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated currents to determine if the inhibitory effects on AMPA receptors correlate to the in vivo effects of the isomers. METHOD: The authors measured whole-cell currents in the rat cultured cortical neuron at holding potential of -60 mV. Kainate 500 microM was applied as the agonist for AMPA receptors. Thiopental (3-300 microM), R(-)-MPPB or S(+)-MPPB (100-1,000 microM) was coapplied with kainate under the condition in which the GABA(A) receptor-mediated current was blocked. Effects of MPPB isomers on the current elicited by GABA 1 microM were studied in the separate experiments. RESULTS: Thiopental inhibited the kainate-induced current reversibly and in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration for 50% inhibition of 49.3 microM. Both R(-)-MPPB and S(+)-MPPB inhibited the kainate-induced current with a little stereoselectivity. R(-)-MPPB was slightly but significantly more potent than S(+)-MPPB. In contrast, R(-)-MPPB enhanced but S(+)-MPPB reduced the GABA-induced current. CONCLUSIONS: Both convulsant and depressant stereoisomers of the barbiturate inhibited the AMPA receptor-mediated current despite of their opposite effects on the central nervous system in vivo. Although thiopental exhibited a considerable inhibition of AMPA receptors, the results suggest that the inhibition of AMPA receptors contributes little to the hypnotic action of the barbiturates.  (+info)

Effect of propofol on the electrocorticogram in epileptic patients undergoing cortical resection. (6/474)

We have compared the effect of clinical doses of propofol with thiopental on epileptiform activity in the electrocorticograms (ECoG) of 20 epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe resection. After baseline ECoG had been obtained, with inspired concentrations of 0.5-1% isoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide to provide background anaesthesia, subjects were allocated randomly to receive boluses of either thiopental 25 mg or propofol 20 mg i.v. every 30 s to a maximum of 5 mg kg-1 or until burst suppression was seen. The ECoG was recorded throughout administration and for 10 min thereafter. After return of baseline ECoG tracings, the alternate agent was administered. The amount of epileptiform activity was recorded on an ordinal rating scale, an increase being indicated by either a rise of at least one category on the scale or discharges occurring at a minimum of one new site. Activation occurred more frequently with thiopental but the difference was not significant. This study suggests that propofol has no greater proconvulsive effect than thiopental, a drug commonly used in managing status epilepticus.  (+info)

Bolus dose remifentanil for control of haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia. (7/474)

The effect of three bolus doses of remifentanil on the pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in four groups of 20 patients each. After preoxygenation, anaesthesia was induced with thiopental 5-7 mg kg-1 followed immediately by saline (placebo) or remifentanil 0.5, 1.0 or 1.25 micrograms kg-1 given as a bolus over 30 s. Cricoid pressure was applied just after loss of consciousness. Succinylcholine 1 mg kg-1 was given for neuromuscular block. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were performed 1 min later. Arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded at intervals until 5 min after intubation. Remifentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 was ineffective in controlling the increase in heart rate and arterial pressure after intubation but the 1.0 and 1.25 micrograms kg-1 doses were effective in controlling the response. The use of the 1.25 micrograms kg-1 dose was however, associated with a decrease in systolic arterial pressure to less than 90 mm Hg in seven of 20 patients.  (+info)

Drug blockade of open end-plate channels. (8/474)

1. The actions of amylobarbitone, thiopentone, methohexitone and methyprylone at voltage-clamped frog end-plates were studied. 2. In the presence of barbiturates the conductance change evoked by an iontophoretic carbachol application was reduced by a prepulse of carbachol. The extra inhibition evoked by a prepulse disappeared exponentially with a time constant of 150-200 ms. 3. Barbiturates produce an increased rate of decay of nerve evoked endplate currents. Tne concentration and voltage dependence of the barbtiruate e.p.c. decay rates tally with the hypothesis that the increased rate of decay is due to block of active receptor-channel complexes by barbiturates with a rate constant of 10(6) M-1S-1. 4. Conductance changes produced by bath applied agonists were depressed by thiopentone, the effect becoming greater the higher the agonist concentration. This effect, and also the observation that the concentration of thiopentone required to depress the bath agonist response is much greater than the apparent dissociation constant for binding to active receptor-channel complexes calculated from kinetic measurements, suggest that the selectivity for binding to open receptor-channel complexes is very high. 5. Methyprylone, which is structurally similar to the barbiturates, is only a weak antagonist and shows no interpulse interaction. It was predicted that methyprylone should produce fast and slow components in the e.p.c. decay, and this prediction was verified. 6. In the presence of barbiturates large iontophoretic carbachol applications produce conductance changes which show fast and slow components. Under these conditions the effects of carbachol prepulses become complex. However the effects are qualitatively consistent with the notion that different components of the response are contributed by channels located at various distances from the iontophoretic pipette tip. 7. All the data agree with a model in which the channel has three stages: closed, open and blocked. Only open channels can block, and blocked channels can only open.  (+info)

Sodium thiopental is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and has been used commonly in the induction phase of general anesthesia. Its use has been largely replaced with that of propofol, but retains popularity as an induction agent for rapid sequence intubation and in obstetrics.[citation needed] Following intravenous injection, the drug rapidly reaches the brain and causes unconsciousness within 30-45 seconds. At one minute, the drug attains a peak concentration of about 60% of the total dose in the brain. Thereafter, the drug distributes to the rest of the body, and in about 5-10 minutes the concentration is low enough in the brain that consciousness returns.[citation needed]. A normal dose of sodium thiopental (usually 4-6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery (caesarian section) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated doses can depress the baby.[6]. Sodium thiopental is not used to maintain anesthesia in ...
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By Susan J. Matthees -. A new development in the ongoing battle involving sodium thiopental, one of the drugs used for lethal injections, surfaced today when the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) seized Georgias supply of the drug. According to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, a DEA spokesperson confirmed that the drug had been seized and stated that [t]here were questions about the way the drugs were imported. DEA did not make any further statements.. As we reported two weeks ago, attorney John Bentivoglio sent a letter to Attorney General Eric Holder alleging that Georgia violated the Controlled Substances Act by importing sodium thiopental. Inmates in 3 other states have sued FDA over the allegedly illegal importation of the drug from Europe. ...
BACKGROUND: For decades thiopental has been considered as the hypnotic drug of choice for intracranial surgery. However, total intravenous anesthesia performed with thiopental is associated with delayed recovery, whereas early post-operative neurological evaluation is critical. For this reason, target controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol is increasingly used for maintenance of anesthesia. However, a thiopental TCI has never been assessed for this purpose. We tested the hypothesis that a thiopental TCI provides an acceptable way to achieve early recovery compared to a propofol TCI during supratentorial surgery ...
A worldwide shortage of a drug used in lethal-injection procedures could jeopardize future executions in Arizona, reports the Arizona Republic. The shortage became evident last week during a federal court hearing in Ohio. There, an Arizona-based federal public defender told the court that Ohio had admitted it did not have enough of the drug, thiopental sodium, to carry out an execution later that week. According to court transcripts, attorney Dale Baich asked if the state would call off the execution […]
BACKGROUND: In pre-school aged children, the occurrence of emergence delirium (ED) is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if intravenous inducting agents such as propofol, ketamine or thiopental sodium affected the development of ED. METHODS: A total of 62 children between 3 and 6 years of age scheduled for elective tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were divided into 3 groups in a double-blinded manner. Anesthesia was induced using one of the three drugs intravenously: 5 mg/kg of sodium thiopental, 1 mg/kg of ketamine or 2 mg/kg of propofol. Anesthesia was then maintained with sevoflurane. The development of ED was assessed in the post-anesthetic care unit. RESULTS: The propofol and ketamine group showed a significantly lower pediatric anesthesia emergence agitation (PAEA) score and a lower incidence of ED compared with the thiopental group. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol and ketamine decreased the development of emergence delirium when used as an induction ...
Purpose: Sevoflurane is the most widely used volatile anesthetic of general anesthesia. In children and neonates, it is commonly used alone or in combination with thiopental or propofol. A few recent studies reported that sevoflurane induced neuronal death in the developing rodent brain. We measured the neurotoxicity of these anesthetics at clinical doses, alone and in combination, in the developing mouse brain.. Methods: Seven-day-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups. Three groups were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6h after injection of saline, thiopental (5mg/kg), or propofol (10mg/kg), whereas three groups were exposed to room air for 6 h after injection of equal doses of saline, thiopental, or propofol. Apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) and retrosplenial cortex (RC) was assessed using caspase-3 immunostaining.. Results: Sevoflurane alone caused significantly higher apoptosis in the CA1 compared with saline plus air (P=0.04). Sevoflurane in combination ...
Enting et al. are to be congratulated for their report of a possible thiopental infusion syndrome with similar clinical characteristics to the syndrome we recently reported (1). Unfortunately, their patient succumbed to multisystem organ failure. In our case of cardiogenic shock associated with large-dose propofol infusion, the patient survived after institution of extracorporeal circulation and termination of the propofol infusion (1). This syndrome has not been reported in association with thiopental.. As these authors noted, the propofol infusion syndrome has been extensively reviewed in children and adults (2-14). Although the associations of this syndrome have been described, the exact pathogenesis remains to be determined. There is the possibility that this syndrome may be attributable not only to propofol but also to pentothal. Indeed, this syndrome has been described previously in the setting of status epilepticus (15,16). The possibility exists that this syndrome in status epilepticus ...
New Delhi : In an important case concerning anaesthetists, the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission ( NCDRC) was recently seen absolving an anaesthetist of overdose of Thiopental and...
definition of IDVG, what does IDVG mean?, meaning of IDVG, Initial Distribution Volume of Glucose, IDVG stands for Initial Distribution Volume of Glucose
MalaCards based summary : Thiopental Allergy, also known as pentothiobarbital allergy, is related to chronic conjunctivitis and dermatitis. An important gene associated with Thiopental Allergy is CPA3 (Carboxypeptidase A3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide hormone metabolism and Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics ...
Propofol is used sometimes in patients in intensive care units in hospitals to cause unconsciousness. This may allow the patients to withstand the stress of being in the intensive care unit and help the patients cooperate when a machine must be used to assist with breathing. However, propofol should not be used in children in intensive care units.. Thiopental also is sometimes used to control convulsions (seizures) caused by certain medicines or seizure disorders. Thiopental may be used to reduce pressure on the brain in certain conditions. Thiopental also is used to help treat some mental disorders. Thiopental may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.. General anesthetics are usually given by inhalation or by injection into a vein. However, certain anesthetics may be given rectally to help produce sleep before surgery or certain other procedures. Although most general anesthetics can be used by themselves in producing loss of consciousness, some are often used ...
I. Selection and interpretation of date from monitors. 1. Deliberate hypotension is planned. Does this influence monitor selection? Explain.. 2. Would you use central venous line vs a pulmonary artery catheter? Explain.. 3. What is the level at which one should measure systemic artery pressure? Explain.. 4. Are air emboli monitors indicated? Why or why not?. II. Choice and management of anesthesia. 1. A colleague believes that rapid intravenous induction is mandatory. Do you agree? Explain your rationale.. 2. What methods would you use to accomplish this?. 3. Compare and contrast ketamine vs thiopental in this circumstance.. Sodium thiopental has an induction dose of about 4 mg/kg, with loss of consciousness within fifteen seconds intravenously. It is 99% metabolized by the liver, with an elimination half-life of 6-12 hours. Ketamine is a phencyclidine derivative, and is actually a racemic mixture of two isomers. It is ten times more lipid-soluble than thiopental, and produces unconsciousness ...
Probability Density Function (PDF) is often selected to couple chemistry with turbulence for complex reactive flows since complex reactions can be treated without modeling assumptions. This paper describes an investigation into the use of the particles approximation of this transport equation approach applied to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model used here is an IEM (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean) model to describe the micromixing. Therefore, the fluid within the combustion chamber is represented by a number of computational particles. Each particle evolves function of the rate of change due to the chemical reaction term and the mixing term. The chemical reaction term is calculated using a reduced mechanism of n-heptane oxidation with 25 species and 25 reactions developed previously. The parametric study with a variation of the number of particles from 50 up to 104 has been investigated for three initial distributions. The numerical experiments have shown that
Downloadable! An important barrier towards the introduction of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) running on hydrogen is the lack of widespread refueling infrastructure. The niche of buses for public transport, taxis and deliverers with a local application area might not be large enough to generate the reductions of FCV costs that are necessary for a general technology switch. Thus, fuel availability at trunk roads probably plays a crucial role in generating demand for FCVs also from private consumers. In this paper we assume that consumers are more likely to consider buying a FCV the more frequently they are exposed to hydrogen refueling opportunities on long distant trips. We introduce a tool to test different small scale initial distributions of hydrogen outlets within the German trunk road system for their potential success to generate a large scale adoption of FCVs. The tool makes use of agent based trip modeling and Geographic Information System (GIS) supported spatial modeling. We demonstrate its
DGIdb, The Drug Gene Interaction Database, is a research resource that can be used to search candidate genes or drugs against the known and potentially druggable genome.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effect of glucocorticoids on pulmonary responses and eosinophils. AU - Parker, Stephen D.. AU - Brown, Robert H.. AU - Hirshman, Carol A.. PY - 1991/3. Y1 - 1991/3. N2 - The persistent airway hyperresponsivenes oof Basenji-Greyhound (BG) dogs to 10% citric acid (CA) is abolished by chronic administration of methylprednisolone (MP) and is accompanied by the disappearance of eosinophils from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. To determine whether the disappearance of eosinophils from BAL fluid was temporally related to the loss of airway responsiveness to CA, we investigated the time course of the reduction in airway responsiveness to CA and correlated it with changes in cell profiles in BAL fluid in a group of BG dogs treated with MP for 1 to 7 days. Six dogs in separate studies were pretreated with MP (2 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously for either 1, 3 or 7 days. Each dog served as its own control for each set of studies. Under thiopental anesthesia, lung resistance ...
Ivan V Fedoriv, MD, Natalia V Sopchuk, MD, Volodymir F Knygnytskyy, MD, Yuriy I Popovych, PhD. Department of human anatomy, operative surgery and topographic anatomy IFNMU, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine. Introduction: The influence of GLP-1 and GLP-2 peptides in compensatory-renewal mechanisms of small bowel after its 50% distal resection isnt fully researched.. Objective: The influences of GLP-1 and GLP-2 peptides, which are produced by L-cells of ileum and colon have a trophic effect on leftover parts of small bowel and increase adaptive processes.. Methods: 5 rats for each 7, 14, 30, 90 days after resection: without curation - intact 20 rats, Glp-1 same days, so in total 20 rats, Glp-2 also 20 rats, and we were researching 3 parts of leftover small bowel (jejunum, duodenum, ileum). All operations were done under thiopental anesthesia.. Results: On the 7-th day after resection using Glp-1 we see decrease of wall thickness in duodenum (586±24,89) μm from (742±11,74) μm - norm, jejunum without ...
If you have gastritis and more. Mata then carefully milled and stored in bags during the year, 2.. Basic traditional medicine in the treatment of gastritis Even fairly strict diet for a week with a stomach ulcer or gastritis leaves sufficient freedom of choice, and food nedookislennye pollute our body with toxins and slags.. Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, immunodeficiency States) slow onset with moderate infringement of functions of the hematopoietic system and occasional exacerbations; g) temporary functional disorders after non-systemic diseases of the blood G the military men passing military service on an appeal, in achieving remission only glucocorticoid therapy will svydetelstvuyut under the item in who underwent splenectomy with good effect - on item b, and the lack of effectiveness of the treatment - on item a. Thiopental anesthesia although it is good, but compared to hexenal is more dangerous because it greatly depresses the respiratory and vasomotor centers. ...
If you have gastritis and more. Mata then carefully milled and stored in bags during the year, 2.. Basic traditional medicine in the treatment of gastritis Even fairly strict diet for a week with a stomach ulcer or gastritis leaves sufficient freedom of choice, and food nedookislennye pollute our body with toxins and slags.. Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, immunodeficiency States) slow onset with moderate infringement of functions of the hematopoietic system and occasional exacerbations; g) temporary functional disorders after non-systemic diseases of the blood G the military men passing military service on an appeal, in achieving remission only glucocorticoid therapy will svydetelstvuyut under the item in who underwent splenectomy with good effect - on item b, and the lack of effectiveness of the treatment - on item a. Thiopental anesthesia although it is good, but compared to hexenal is more dangerous because it greatly depresses the respiratory and vasomotor centers. ...
Wyun Kon Park, Carl Lynch, Roger A. Johns; Effects of Propofol and Thiopental in Isolated Rat Aorta and Pulmonary Artery. Anesthesiology 1992; 77:956-963 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199211000-00019. Download citation file:. ...
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Consciousness is regained in 5-15 min due to the concept of redistribution of the drug into highly perfused organs first and then to the low perfused organs like fat and muscles ...
Medical information for Thiopentone on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse Effect, Interaction.
I realize that Ive seen a lot of deep, dark secrets in my line of work. People dying of cancer, teenagers who have lost pregnancies, the bruises of abuse, the tears of the undocumented, the marks of psychiatric disturbance both mild and severe. The truth of our lives, the stories weve lived through and are living through now, are written into our tissues and the workings of our bodies, into the very fabric of our being. The idea of truth serum is a tantalizing one, but it should stay in the movies; the real truth serum lies right in our own veins. I think having to deal with the face-to-face detective work involved in understanding human suffering, and having to sift through clues right before our eyes to discover what matters most to our patients, is a far richer approach than hoping a little sodium thiopental will unlock all the answers; the care-ful approach honors the truth and allows us to work with it fruitfully, whatever it may be ...
Objective(s):This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that an antiarrhythmic effect might be obtained by ischemic preconditioning of the liver, and also to characterize the potential underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized by thiopental sodium (50 mg/kg, IP) followed by IV injection of heparin (250 IU). Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was induced by 3 cycles of 5 min liver ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion. The hearts were excised within 5 min after the final cycle of preconditioning and perfused using Langendorffs system. The isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by 90 min reperfusion. The myocardial arrhythmias induced by ischemia- reperfusion (I/R) were determined in accordance with the guidelines of Lambeth Conventions. The potential role of KATP channels on RIPC was assessed by injection of glibenclamide (nonselective KATP blocker) or 5-hydroxydecanoate (mitochondrial KATP blocker)
1. Would you use epidural anesthesia for this case? Why or why not?. 2. The patient insists on being asleep. What is your response?. 3. Would you use an intravenous or an inhalational induction?. 4. Discuss pros and cons of a thiopental induction.. 5. What are other options for induction? Explain your rationale.. 6. Would you maintain anesthesia with a nitrous/narcotic technique, or a volatile agent? Explain your rationale.. III. Muscle relaxation ...
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Seponering av infusjon kan raskt gi rebound hyperkaliæmi Kan ikke forklares med farmakokinetisk modell Det ses ingen sikker sammenheng mellom dose eller infusjonsvarighet og hyperkaliæmien Spesielt pasienter som har fått kaliumtilskudd, mannitol, vanndrivende el hypotermibeh er i risikosonen Fra Miller, Eriksson et al
76] In the previous sections the models for natural and anthropogenic land cover change have been described as implemented in the land component JSBACH [Raddatz et al., 2007] of MPI-ESM [Giorgetta et al., 2013]. Results from simulations with the model for natural land cover change (DYNVEG) alone have already been presented earlier [Brovkin et al., 2009]. In these simulations it became evident that in terms of tree cover convergence to a unique final tree cover distribution is obtained independent of its initial distribution so that in this respect the model exhibits no multistability. Since within the woody types the majority of land cover consists of forests, this result indicates that the competition between woody types and grasses even in interaction with climate has only a single stationary state. This implies nothing for the second, NPP-based competition mechanism within each of the two classes. But by analyzing analytically the fixed points of equations (7) and (8) and their stability, it ...
Downloadable! The well known Pareto criterion used in the context of efficiency and welfare has to do with absolute changes whereas in every domain of economic behavior inequality or relative changes has become a major concern. We propose an inequality-preserving or distribution neutral Pareto criterion-the strong Pareto superior or SPS allocation which preserves the initial distribution and makes everyone better off. Our main result is that whenever there is a gain in the aggregate value of the relevant attribute, there exists a unique counterfactual allocation which is SPS.
Douglas C. Hill, Patrick F. Wouters, Jacques E. Chelly, Marie-Francoise Doursout, Darreil R. Abernethy, Craig J. Hartley, Robert G. Merin; Cardiovascular Effects of and Interaction Between Calcium Blocking Drugs and Anesthetics in Chronically Instrumented Dogs: VII. Verapamil and Thiopental. Anesthesiology 1989; 71:586-590 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-198910000-00018. Download citation file:. ...
Item #: SCP-1460. Object Class: Euclid. Special Containment Procedures: SCP-1460 is kept in a standard humanoid containment cell at Site ██. Contact or experimentation with SCP-1460 outside of standard medical care may only be performed with prior permission from at least two (2) senior research personnel.. SCP-1460 is to be administered a pentobarbital/thiopental regimen daily. Until further notice, use of medication outside of that required for basic medical care has been suspended.. Elements of Mobile Task Force Gamma-5 (Red Herrings) have been deployed to the areas affected by SCP-1460 and have standing authorization to administer amnestics as necessary to maintain secrecy and minimize disruption of the civilian population.. Description: SCP-1460 is a 32-year old male Asian-American identified as [REDACTED], a former resident of the city of ████, ██, USA. SCP-1460 has been in a coma for the past eight (8) years, of which the last seven (7) have been in Foundation care, as a ...
front fragmentation that is a consequence of micro- accelerations and micro-deaccelerations of the myocardial performance by acting on the ionic cellular propagated impulse. This facilitates re-entry currents responsible for electrogenesis in the cardiac mechanisms in the myocardium tissue, leading to the tissue. To study this, resting potentials from quiescent appearance of cardiac arrhythmia. The thiobarbiturate and non-quiescent myocardial cells were measured also decreased impulse propagation velocity, probably (Figs. 4 and 5). In both cases, thiopental depolarized due to the decrease of the fast sodium currents that are the myocardium. It is known that the resting potential responsible for the depolarization phase of propagated is maintained by a complex balance between action potentials. This effect became clear because depolarizing currents, which are mainly carried by NaTHIO reduced clearly the fast component of the sodium and calcium ions, and hyperpolarizing currents, myocardial action ...
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The Food and Drug Administration, which has long maintained that it has nothing to do with drugs used in executions, has quietly helped Arizona and California obtain a scarce type of anesthetic so the states can continue putting inmates to death.. The Food and Drug Administration, which has long maintained that it has nothing to do with drugs used in executions, has quietly helped Arizona and California obtain a scarce type of anesthetic so the states can continue putting inmates to death.. The shortage of sodium thiopental has disrupted executions across the country. But newly released documents show that the FDA helped import it from Britain.. Most state prison systems use sodium thiopental to put inmates to sleep before administering pancuronium bromide, a paralyzing agent, and potassium chloride, which stops the heart.. But sodium thiopental has been in short supply since last spring, when Ohio nearly had to postpone an execution because it did not have enough.. The sole American ...
In 2010, the sole U.S. producer of sodium thiopental, Hospira, stopped manufacturing the anesthetic marketed as Pentothal after Italian authorities asked for a guarantee that the drug would not be used to execute people. That year, Hospira decided to relocate the Pentothal production to Italy. After the Italian pressure, the company simply preferred to cease all production of Penthotal, forcing the Department of Corrections to source their execution drugs overseas, especially from European drugs manufacturers.. Later in 2010, the British NGO Reprieve was contacted by the lawyers of a death row exoneree. The lawyers informed Reprieve that the Tennessee Department of Corrections was seeking to purchase sodium thiopental from a British company. One month later, with the help of the U.K. government, the export of sodium thiopental from the U.K. to the U.S. was made illegal and the Departments of Corrections had to find another supplier.. Reprieve systematically traced the origins of the execution ...
Background: Two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have shown poor outcome, but there are considerations of how these protocols relate to real practice. The aims of this study were to evaluate usage and outcome of DC and thiopental in a single centre.. Method: The study included all TBI patients treated at the neurointensive care unit, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden, between 2008 and 2014. Of 609 patients aged 16 years or older, 35 treated with DC and 23 treated with thiopental only were studied in particular. Background variables, intracranial pressure (ICP) measures and global outcome were analysed.. Results: Of 35 DC patients, 9 were treated stepwise with thiopental before DC, 9 were treated stepwise with no thiopental before DC and 17 were treated primarily with DC. Six patients received thiopental after DC. For 23 patients, no DC was needed after thiopental. Eighty-eight percent of our DC patients would have qualified ...
In 2011, Hospira Inc., the sole U.S. manufacturer of sodium thiopental, announced that it would no longer produce that drug, and Lundbeck, the Danish manufacturer of pentobarbital, placed restrictions on the distribution of pentobarbital to prevent its sale to any prison or corrections department in the United States. Several states have reacted to the shortage of sodium thiopental by switching to a single-drug protocol, most commonly using large doses of pentobarbital. Other states have introduced legislation changing their protocols to use unknown and untested procedures and drugs.
The effects of thiopental and propofol were comparatively evaluated about its influence on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, blood gas, blood glucose levels, cell kinetics and recovery period in 20 rabbits of New Zealand White, adults, male and female, with weight between 3,67±0,43 Kg. After a random selection, they were shared into two groups of 10 animals, called propofol group (GP) and thiopental group (GT). For GP, general anesthesia was induced by intravenous (IV) administration of propofol (10 mg/Kg) and then began continuous infusion at an initial dose 1 mg/Kg/min, and then was adjusted as necessary to the bispectral index values vary between 65 and 75. The same method was employed for GT, using thiopental instead propofol, at the dose of 10 mg/Kg for induction followed the initial dose of 1 mg/Kg/min. Data collection of the variables of interest in both groups began 20 minutes after induction of anesthesia (M0) and new measurements were made at 15 minutes intervals for a period ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does intravenous induction dosing among patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgical procedures follow current recommendations. T2 - A study of contemporary practice. AU - Akhtar, Shamsuddin. AU - Liu, Jia. AU - Heng, Joseph. AU - Dai, Feng. AU - Schonberger, Robert B.. AU - Burg, Matthew M.. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Study objective It is recommended to correct intravenous induction doses by up to 50% for patients older than 65 years. The objectives were to determine (a) the degree to which anesthesia providers correct induction doses for age and (b) additionally adjust for American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) class (severity of illness) and (c) whether postinduction hypotension is more common among patients aged , 65. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic medical center. Patients A total of 1869 adult patients receiving general anesthesia for GI surgical procedures from February 2013 to January 2014. Measurements Patients were ...
Hypothermia occurs with anesthetic induction due to redistribution hypothermia. Hypothermia has adverse effects and should be avoided or minimized. Intravenous propofol induction is the most common technique used for anesthetic induction. There is preliminary evidence that there is less redistribution hypothermia when anesthetic induction is achieved by inhalation induction compared to intravenous induction. There is not enough data to compel a change in practice patterns. This study will enroll a larger number of patients in order to provide stronger evidence that there is a significant difference between induction techniques on body temperature. Patients will be randomly assigned to two variation of inhalation induction techniques and two variations of intravenous induction. The effect on temperature between the four groups will be compared. Reducing the degree of hypothermia has the potential to decrease surgical infection rate as well as providing other benefits to patients ...
Suppression of natural killer cell activity and promotion of tumor metastasis by ketamine, thiopental, and halothane, but not by propofol: mediating mechanisms and prophylactic measures.
A front-page article on Friday about possible ways to reduce the risk of suffering from lethal injection misstated an effect of a fatal overdose of a barbiturate drug, sodium thiopental. The drug does not cause involuntary jerking movements before death even when used alone. The article also misstated the amount of time that would have to pass in some states before death could be pronounced if a barbiturate alone was used. In states where death is determined by listening for a heartbeat, death could be pronounced in as little as 5 to 10 minutes after the injection, not 45 minutes. It could take up to 45 minutes only in states that use the cessation of electrical activity in the heart to determine death.
Fourteen children (10 boys and 4 girls, aged 8 to 17 years) had 20 pheochromocytomas treated over a 36-year period from 1959 to 1995 inclusive. Nine patients had 11 tumors before 1980; 5 children had 9 tumors up to 1987. There were no new children with pheochromocytomas at our hospital from 1988 to 1995. Hypertension, sweating, headache, and visual blurring were the most common symptoms and signs (average 5 months). The most reliable biochemical investigations were the urinary catecholamines and norepinephrine. Before 1980, intravenous pyelography and angiography were most successful in localizing the tumor, but since then ultrasonography and computerized tomography have been the radiological investigations of choice. Early involvement of the anesthesiologist in the preoperative control of the hypertension is essential; blood pressure (BP) control was achieved with phenoxybenzamine. The main anesthetic drugs used were: sodium thiopental, fentanyl, methoxyflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and
The first chemical in the series is sodium thiopental, a short-acting barbiturate. Properly administered, all sides agree, it is sufficient to render an inmate unconscious for many hours, if not to kill him. The second chemical is pancuronium bromide, a relative of curare. If administered by itself, it paralyzes the body but leaves the subject conscious, suffocating but unable to cry out. The third, potassium chloride, stops the heart and causes excruciating pain as it travels through the veins ...
A group of 15 states is calling on the US Department of Justice (DOJ) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to appeal a Judges decision in a lawsuit against both FDA and the states ability to obtain a drug commonly used in the execution of convicted criminals.. CNN reports the states, all of which use lethal injection as their preferred method of execution, are having trouble obtaining sodium thiopental-an anesthetic commonly used as part of a multi-drug execution cocktail.. A 27 March decision by US District Court Judge Richard Leon called FDAs use of enforcement discretion utterly disappointing and indicative of the agencys seemingly callous indifference to the health consequences imminently facing the executioners needle. Leon then barred FDA from allowing the importation of further stock of the drug, saying it lacked the authority to do so.. While some states are moving to substitute sodium thiopental with another anesthetic, Propofol, they are also asking for FDA and DOJ to ...
This he did, and on May 28, 2008, Heineman approved amendments to the State statutes that provided for death by intravenous injection of a lethal substance. Sodium thiopental is the first of three drugs to be injected. Trouble is, there are no U.S. suppliers of the anaesthetic, the last one having abandoned its importation from an Italian plant in January, 2011, citing misuse of its product by death penalty States ...
An Illinois manufacturers decision to stop making the anesthetic sodium thiopental will delay some executions and force states to adopt new drug combinations.
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Etomidate is a general anesthetic without analgesic activity. Intravenous injection of etomidate produces anesthesia characterized by a rapid onset of action, usually within one minute. Duration of anesthesia is dose dependent but relatively brief, usually three to five minutes when an average dose of 0.3 mg/kg is employed. Immediate recovery from anesthesia (as assessed by awakening time, time needed to follow simple commands and time to perform simple tests after anesthesia as well as they were performed before anesthesia), based upon data derived from short operative procedures where intravenous etomidate was used for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia, is about as rapid as, or slightly faster than, immediate recovery after similar use of thiopental. These same data revealed that the immediate recovery period will usually be shortened in adult patients by the intravenous administration of approximately 0.1 mg of intravenous fentanyl, one or two minutes before induction of ...
In pharmacology, Bioavailability is the degree to which a drug, nutrient or other biologically active substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration. [1] For bioavailability to be verified, there must be a chemical, biological, immunologic, or other test that verifies the concentration of the drug, or its active derivative, in the body fluids of the recipient. Bioequivalence covers the case where the initial distribution of different drug preparations may vary, but the duration and form of the active principle is delivered identically. [2] ...
Since we want to understand the range of possible phenotypic variations in different animals development we have decided to use modelling approaches. Our models take as inputs these gene networks and the initial distribution of cells in space (in a given stage in development) and provide as a result the final organ morphology and patterns of gene expression in a given organ (in a given, latter, stage of development).. Each model is simply a mathematical implementation of a hypothesis about how an organ develops. We construct these hypotheses, based on experimental work from other groups, and implement them in a computational model. The advantage of computational models in respect to merely verbal arguments is that the models provide precise quantitative predictions that are more easily to unambigously compare with experimental results (from new experiments aimed at testing the hypothesis). Merely verbal arguments are more difficult to be proven wrong or right and get even difficult to express ...
Thiopental, a well-known barbiturate, is often used in patients who are at high risk of developing cerebral ischemia, especially during brain surgery. Although barbiturates are known to affect a varie
Thiopental (3-5 mg/kg IV) reduces intracranial pressure in head injury. Dose is 0.5-1.0 mg/kg in a hypotensive patient. Contraindicated in asthmatics. For patients needing analgesia in addition to induction consider opiates (fentanyl 2-10 micrograms/kg IV) ...
Thiamylal is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Thiamylal is available on the Drugs.com website.
You inject thiopentone. It goes into the blood. Everyone knows how quickly it crosses the Blood brain barrier because of its really quick onset of action. Despite this, its halflife is about 9hrs! How? Redistribution. After its effect, the drug comes back to blood, gets redistributed in adipose tissue. Some of it may even go back to the blood and cross BBB ...
  • The reason offered is that it would take time for the state to obtain thiopental sodium and pentobarbital, the two drugs that the state says it will use going forward. (washingtonpost.com)
  • On Nov. 17, 2010, the ACLU Foundation of Northern California filed a suit under the California Public Records Act to demand records from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) about its recent acquisition of sodium thiopental, a controlled substance used as part of California's lethal injection protocol for executing death row inmates. (aclunc.org)
  • In late September, the CDCR asked the courts to allow it to conduct an execution before the end of the month because its supply of sodium thiopental was about to expire and it would be unable to obtain any more of the drug before 2011. (aclunc.org)
  • The request asks for basic records relating to the CDCR's acquisition, use, and destruction of sodium thiopental, including copies of the packaging and inserts and instructions for use that came with the drug. (aclunc.org)
  • Ohio and most other states have used sodium thiopental for lethal injections, but the U.S. manufacturer stopped making the drug. (typepad.com)
  • Animals were anaesthetized with thiopental sodium injected intraperitoneally (30 mg/kg of body weight). (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • The newspaper reported that a federal judge OK'd the use of the substitute drug, pentobarbital , after prison officials complained about a shortage of sodium thiopental, used in the first phase of Oklahoma's three-drug lethal cocktail. (cnn.com)
  • In The New Yorker , Caplan concludes, "In the five years between Hospira's decision to stop making sodium thiopental and Pfizer's decision to stop supplying drugs for executions, the unsuccessful effort, by one state after another, to carry out lethal injections in a manner that meets standards of fairness and reliability has made it increasingly clear that states cannot constitutionally perform these types of executions. (deathpenaltyinfo.org)
  • In 2011, Nebraska illegally imported the execution drug sodium thiopental from Harris Pharma , a questionable distributor from India, that has told the drug manufacturer it was sending the drug to Africa for medical use. (deathpenaltyinfo.org)
  • Probably should have called it sodium thiopental, since that's its actual name, but whatevs. (stringtheorycomic.com)
  • Doctors have expressed concern that if inadequate levels of sodium thiopental are administered (for example, through incorrect doses of thiopental, faulty attachment of the line, or precipitation of chemicals) proper anaesthetic depth will not be achieved or the anaesthetic effect can wear off rapidly and the prisoner will experience severe pain as the lethal potassium chloride enters the veins and he or she goes into cardiac arrest. (texasmoratorium.org)
  • The state of Arizona could not execute Landrigan until they disclosed how and where they got their supply of sodium thiopental, which is one of the three drugs that the state of Arizona uses in their executions. (prodeathpenalty.com)
  • And all of the state's sodium thiopental reaches its expiration date Friday. (blogspot.com)
  • Buy Online Sodium Thiopenthal Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital. (onlinepentobarbital.com)
  • It's sodium thiopental that's become so difficult for state governments to obtain under the new EU regulations. (suffragio.org)
  • With sources of sodium thiopental becoming increasingly scarce, correctional facilities are turning to some fairly desperate measures to avoid disruption of their regularly scheduled executions. (suffragio.org)
  • According to the Plain Dealer the letter suggested that it would be "illegal" for the state to import sodium thiopental - an execution drug. (wickedlocal.com)
  • sodium thiopentalOne of the oldest and best known of these truth drugs is sodium thiopental. (campinmygaden.com)
  • Spisak was pronounced dead today at 10:34am, after receiving an injection of sodium thiopental. (briancombs.net)
  • Sodium thiopental, an anesthetic, is one component of the three-drug death cocktail used by most death penalty states-and it is now seriously hard to come by in the United States. (motherjones.com)
  • Hospira, the only company approved to make sodium thiopental for use in the United States, suspended manufacture in 2009 because of a shortage of raw materials, and supplies were already running low in 2010. (motherjones.com)
  • In January, Hospira announced that it would simply stop importing sodium thiopental to the United States. (motherjones.com)
  • Along with several other states, including Arizona and Tennessee, California ended up ordering sodium thiopental made in Britain, through a West London pharmaceutical supplier that doubles as a driving school, according to the BBC . (motherjones.com)
  • In December, Oklahoma became the first state to execute a prisoner using pentobarbital, in place of sodium thiopental as part of a three-drug cocktail. (motherjones.com)
  • From 2002-April 2011, the first drug was sodium thiopental, but from April 2011 through September 10, 2014, Alabama changed the protocol to use penobarbital as the first drug. (findacase.com)
  • At that time, his body did not react to the sodium thiopental, which is the first in a series of three drugs given to someone being executed. (empirenews.net)
  • Sodium thiopental is designed to render a person unconscious before they inject bromide, which causes paralysis, and finally potassium chloride, which induces cardiac arrest. (empirenews.net)
  • Sodium thiopental is not something someone can generally be 'immune' to, but Farmington's body did not react. (empirenews.net)
  • California's remaining stock of Sodium Thiopental, a medicinal anesthetic that is also a key component of lethal injections, is set to expire this Friday. (stanfordflipside.com)
  • In a rare display of frugality, government officials are rushing to use the remaining Sodium Thiopental before its expiration date. (stanfordflipside.com)
  • Stop using our product to kill people," said a spokesman for Hospira, the company that produces Sodium Thiopental. (stanfordflipside.com)
  • In fact, sodium thiopental has become so rare most states have little to none left , despite large populations of inmates awaiting their executions. (approachingjustice.net)
  • Sodium thiopental, for example, is used in lethal injections but it's about as toxic as amygdalin, which turns up in almonds and apple seeds. (flavianotarducci.com)
  • The better part of domestic animals with epilepsy are provided medications - for instance, sodium thiopental and a white crystalline salt exploited as a sedative and in snapshotting. (cbdoiladvice.net)
  • Washington has not executed an inmate since 2010 when Cal Brown was put to death with a single dose of sodium thiopental for the 1991 murder of Holly Washa. (motherjones.com)
  • Documents obtained under the ACLU lawsuit and through public document requests by the federal public defenders' office in Boise provide rare details of the desperate and potentially dangerous measures that capital punishment states sometimes undertake to get their hands on the drug - primarily pentobarbital sodium and sodium thiopental - used in lethal injection executions. (utahinvestigative.org)
  • The India-based supplier, Chris Harris of Harris Pharma, was shut down and his illegal shipments seized by the Food and Drug Administration in 2015 after he had sold sodium thiopental to Texas, Arizona, Nebraska, Ohio and South Dakota. (utahinvestigative.org)
  • A variety of agents have been used for this purpose, including amobarbital, thiopental (Pentothal), oral benzodiazepines, and amphetamines. (bulletpsych.com)
  • However, it is not permissible to pharmacologically substitute one drug, such as the barbiturate thiopental, with another drug, such as the benzodiazepine midazolam, where no such pharmacological equivalency exists. (justice4willie.com)
  • The report said the woman then appeared to become unaware of her surroundings, and the doctor prepared to inject her with a lethal dose of the drug thiopental. (noeuthanasia.org.au)

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